19-1729; Rev 4; 11/08 KIT ATION EVALU E L B A AVAIL 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference The MAX1446 10-bit, 3V analog-to-digital converter (ADC) features a fully differential input, a pipelined 10stage ADC architecture with digital error correction and wideband track and hold (T/H) incorporating a fully differential signal path. This ADC is optimized for lowpower, high dynamic performance applications in imaging and digital communications. The MAX1446 operates from a single 2.7V to 3.6V supply, consuming only 90mW while delivering a 59.5dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at a 20MHz input frequency. The fully differential input stage has a 400MHz, -3dB bandwidth and may be operated with single-ended inputs. In addition to low operating power, the MAX1446 features a 5µA power-down mode for idle periods. An internal 2.048V precision bandgap reference is used to set the ADC full-scale range. A flexible reference structure allows the user to supply a buffered, direct or externally derived reference for applications requiring increased accuracy or a different input voltage range. Lower and higher speed, pin-compatible versions of the MAX1446 are also available. Refer to the MAX1444 data sheet for a 40Msps version, the MAX1448 data sheet for an 80Msps version, and the MAX1449 data sheet for a 105Msps version. The MAX1446 has parallel, offset binary, three-state outputs that can be operated from 1.7V to 3.3V to allow flexible interfacing. The device is available in a 5mm x 5mm, 32-pin TQFP package and is specified over the extended industrial (-40°C to +85°C) and automotive (-40°C to +105°C) temperature ranges. Features o Single 3.0V Operation o Excellent Dynamic Performance 59.5dB SNR at fIN = 20MHz 73dB SFDR at fIN = 20MHz o Low Power: 30mA (Normal Operation) 5µA (Shutdown Mode) o Fully Differential Analog Input o Wide 2VP-P Differential Input Voltage Range o 400MHz -3dB Input Bandwidth o On-Chip 2.048V Precision Bandgap Reference o CMOS-Compatible Three-State Outputs o 32-Pin TQFP Package o Evaluation Kit Available (MAX1448 EV Kit) Ordering Information PART TEMP RANGE PINPACKAGE MAX1446EHJ+ -40°C to +85°C 32 TQFP MAX1446GHJ+ -40°C to +105°C 32 TQFP +Denotes a lead(Pb)-free/RoHS-compliant package. ________________________Applications Functional Diagram Ultrasound Imaging CCD Imaging Baseband and IF Digitization CLK VDD MAX1446 Digital Set-Top Boxes GND CONTROL Video Digitizing Applications IN+ T/H PIPELINE ADC IN- Pin-Compatible, Lower/Higher Speed Versions PART SAMPLING SPEED (Msps) MAX1444 40 MAX1448 80 MAX1449 105 PD REF D E C 10 OUTPUT DRIVERS OVDD REF SYSTEM + BIAS REFOUT REFIN REFP COM REFN D9–D0 OGND OE ________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim’s website at www.maxim-ic.com. 1 MAX1446 General Description MAX1446 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS VDD, OVDD to GND ...............................................-0.3V to +3.6V OGND to GND.......................................................-0.3V to +0.3V IN+, IN- to GND........................................................-0.3V to VDD REFIN, REFOUT, REFP, REFN, and COM to GND.........................-0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) OE, PD, CLK to GND..................................-0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) D9–D0 to GND.........................................-0.3V to (OVDD + 0.3V) Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C) 32-Pin TQFP (derate 18.7mW/°C above +70°C)......1495.3mW Operating Temperature Ranges: MAX1446EHJ+ .................................................-40°C to +85°C MAX1446GHJ+...............................................-40°C to +105°C Storage Temperature Range ............................-60°C to +150°C Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) .................................+300°C Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VDD = 3.0V, OVDD = 2.7V; 0.1µF and 1.0µF capacitors from REFP, REFN, and COM to GND; VREFIN = 2.048V, REFOUT connected to REFIN through a 10kΩ resistor, VIN = 2VP-P (differential with respect to COM), CL ≈ 10pF at digital outputs, fCLK = 62.5MHz (50% duty cycle), TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. ≥+25°C guaranteed by production test, < +25°C guaranteed by design and characterization. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS DC ACCURACY Resolution 10 Bits Integral Nonlinearity INL fIN = 7.492MHz, TA ≥ +25°C ±0.6 ±1.9 LSB Differential Nonlinearity DNL No missing codes, fIN = 7.492MHz ±0.4 ±1.0 LSB < ±0.1 ±1.9 % FS 0 ±2.0 % FS Offset Error -1.6 TA ≥ +25°C Gain Error ANALOG INPUT Input Differential Range Common-Mode Voltage Range VDIFF Differential or single-ended inputs VCOM Input Resistance RIN Input Capacitance CIN Switched capacitor load ±1.0 V VDD/2 ± 0.5 V 33 kΩ 5 pF 5.5 Cycles CONVERSION RATE Maximum Clock Frequency fCLK 60 Data Latency MHz DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS Signal-to-Noise Ratio SNR fIN = 7.492MHz 57 59.5 fIN = 19.943MHz 56.5 59.5 fIN = 39.9MHz (Note 1) Signal-to-Noise + Distortion (Up to 5th Harmonic) SINAD fIN = 7.492MHz 56.6 fIN = 19.943MHz 56.2 fIN = 39.9MHz (Note 1) Spurious-Free Dynamic Range SFDR 2 59.4 59 dB 58.5 fIN = 7.492MHz 65 74 fIN = 19.943MHz 63 73 fIN = 39.9MHz (Note 1) dB 59 71 _______________________________________________________________________________________ dBc 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference (VDD = 3.0V, OVDD = 2.7V; 0.1µF and 1.0µF capacitors from REFP, REFN, and COM to GND; VREFIN = 2.048V, REFOUT connected to REFIN through a 10kΩ resistor, VIN = 2VP-P (differential with respect to COM), CL ≈ 10pF at digital outputs, fCLK = 62.5MHz (50% duty cycle), TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. ≥+25°C guaranteed by production test, < +25°C guaranteed by design and characterization. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS fIN = 7.492MHz -74 fIN = 19.943MHz -73 fIN = 39.9MHz (Note 1) -71 IMDTT f1 = 19MHz at -6.5dBFS, f2 = 21MHz at -6.5dBFS (Note 2) -75 dBc Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion IM3 f1 = 19MHz at -6.5dBFS f2 = 21MHz at -6.5dBFS (Note 2) -75 dBc Total Harmonic Distortion (First 5 Harmonics) THD Third-Harmonic Distortion Two-Tone Intermodulation Distortion HD3 Small-Signal Bandwidth Full-Power Bandwidth FPBW dBc fIN = 7.492MHz -70 -64 fIN = 19.943MHz -70 -63 dBc fIN = 39.9MHz (Note 1) -69 Input at -20dBFS, differential inputs 500 MHz Input at -0.5dBFS, differential inputs 400 MHz Aperture Delay tAD 1 ns Aperture Jitter tAJ 2 psrms For 1.5 × full-scale input Overdrive Recovery Time 2 ns ±1 % ±0.25 ° 0.2 LSBrms REFOUT 2.048 ±1% V TCREF 60 ppm/°C 1.25 mV/mA Differential Gain Differential Phase Output Noise IN+ = IN- = COM INTERNAL REFERENCE Reference Output Voltage Reference Temperature Coefficient Load Regulation BUFFERED EXTERNAL REFERENCE (VREFIN = 2.048V) REFIN Input Voltage VREFIN 2.048 Positive Reference Output Voltage VREFP 2.012 V Negative Reference Output Voltage VREFN 0.988 V Common-Mode Level VCOM VDD/2 V Differential Reference Output Voltage Range ΔVREF REFIN Resistance RREFIN > 50 MΩ ISOURCE 5 mA -250 µA Maximum REFP, COM Source Current Maximum REFP, COM Sink Current ISINK ΔVREF = VREFP - VREFN, TA ≥ +25°C 0.98 1.024 1.07 V _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 MAX1446 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) MAX1446 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) (VDD = 3.0V, OVDD = 2.7V; 0.1µF and 1.0µF capacitors from REFP, REFN, and COM to GND; VREFIN = 2.048V, REFOUT connected to REFIN through a 10kΩ resistor, VIN = 2VP-P (differential with respect to COM), CL ≈ 10pF at digital outputs, fCLK = 62.5MHz (50% duty cycle), TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. ≥+25°C guaranteed by production test, < +25°C guaranteed by design and characterization. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER Maximum REFN Source Current Maximum REFN Sink Current SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN ISOURCE ISINK TYP MAX UNITS 250 µA -5 mA UNBUFFERED EXTERNAL REFERENCE (VREFIN = AGND, reference voltage applied to REFP, REFN, and COM) REFP, REFN Input Resistance REFP, REFN, COM Input Capacitance RREFP, RREFN Measured between REFP and COM and REFN and COM CIN 4 KΩ 15 pF 1.024 ±10% V Differential Reference Input Voltage Range ΔVREF COM Input Voltage Range VCOM VDD/2 ±10% V REFP Input Voltage VREFP VCOM+ ΔVREF/2 V REFN Input Voltage VREFN VCOM ΔVREF/2 V ΔVREF = VREFP - VREFN DIGITAL OUTPUTS (CLK, PD, OE) Input High Threshold Input Low Threshold Input Hysteresis Input Leakage Input Capacitance CLK 0.8 x VDD PD, OE 0.8 x OVDD VIH V CLK 0.2 x VDD PD, OE 0.2 x OVDD VIL VHYST 0.1 V IIH VIH = VDD = OVDD ±5 IIL VIL = 0 ±5 CIN V 5 µA pF DIGITAL OUTPUTS (D9–D0) Output Voltage Low VOL ISINK = 200µA Output Voltage High VOH ISOURCE = 200µA Three-State Leakage Current ILEAK OE = OVDD Three-State Output Capacitance COUT OE = OVDD 4 0.2 OVDD 0.2 V V ±10 5 _______________________________________________________________________________________ µA pF 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference (VDD = 3.0V, OVDD = 2.7V; 0.1µF and 1.0µF capacitors from REFP, REFN, and COM to GND; VREFIN = 2.048V, REFOUT connected to REFIN through a 10kΩ resistor, VIN = 2VP-P (differential with respect to COM), CL ≈ 10pF at digital outputs, fCLK = 62.5MHz (50% duty cycle), TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. ≥+25°C guaranteed by production test, < +25°C guaranteed by design and characterization. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS 2.7 3.0 3.6 V 1.7 POWER REQUIREMENTS Analog Supply Voltage VDD Output Supply Voltage OVDD Analog Supply Current IVDD Output Supply Current IOVDD Power-Supply Rejection PSRR CL = 10pF 3.0 3.6 V Operating, fIN = 19.943MHz at -0.5dBFS 30 37 mA Shutdown, clock idle, PD = OE = OVDD 4 15 µA Operating, CL = 15pF, fIN = 19.943MHz at -0.5dBFS 7 Shutdown, clock idle, PD = OE = OVDD 1 mA 20 µA Offset ± 0.1 mV/V Gain ± 0.1 %/V TIMING CHARACTERISTICS CLK Rise to Output Data Valid tDO Figure 5 (Notes 3, 6) 2 5 8 ns OE Fall to Output Enable tENABLE Figure 5 10 ns OE Rise to Output Disable tDISABLE Figure 5 1.5 ns Clock Duty Cycle Wake-Up Time Figure 6, clock period 16ns (Notes 5, 6) tWAKE (Notes 4, 6) 45 366 55 % 520 µs Note 1: SNR, SINAD, THD, SFDR, and HD3 are based on an analog input voltage of -0.5dBFS referenced to a 1.024V full-scale input voltage range. Note 2: Intermodulation distortion is the total power of the intermodulation products relative to the individual carrier. This number is 6dB better, if referenced to the two-tone envelope. Note 3: Digital outputs settle to VIH, VIL. Note 4: Wake-up time is defined as the time from complete reference power-down until the ADC performs within 0.3 ENOB of the final performance for fIN = 10MHz at -0.5dBFS input amplitude. VREFIN = 2.048V, REFP, REFN, and CML decoupled with 2.3µF. Note 5: Dynamic characteristics guaranteed at fIN = 19.943MHz for the specified duty-cycle range. Note 6: Guaranteed by design and engineering characterization. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5 MAX1446 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) Typical Operating Characteristics (VDD = 3.0V, OVDD = 2.7V, internal reference, differential input at -0.5dBFS, fCLK = 62.35MHz, CL ≈ 10pF, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) HD2 -70 -50 HD3 HD2 -40 -50 -60 -80 -80 -80 -90 -90 -90 -100 -100 -100 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 35 20 25 30 FFT PLOT (fIN = 50MHz, 8192-POINT FFT, DIFFERENTIAL INPUT) FFT PLOT (fIN = 7.5MHz, 8192-POINT FFT, SINGLE-ENDED INPUT) HD3 -60 SFDR = 70dBc SNR = 59.1dB THD = -67.1dBc SINAD = 58.5dB -20 -30 -40 -50 HD3 -60 0 MAX1446 toc05 0 -10 HD2 -20 -40 -50 -70 -70 -80 -80 -90 -90 -90 -100 -100 -100 15 20 25 30 35 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 HD3 -60 -80 10 HD2 0 35 5 10 15 20 25 30 ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (MHz) ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (MHz) ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (MHz) FFT PLOT (fIN = 20MHz, 8192-POINT FFT, SINGLE-ENDED INPUT) TWO-TONE INTERMODULATION (8192-POINT IMD, DIFFERENTIAL INPUT) SPURIOUS-FREE DYNAMIC RANGE vs. ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (AIN = -0.5dBFS) -20 AMPLITUDE (dB) -30 -40 HD3 -60 HD2 -70 f1 = 19MHz AT -6.5dBFS f2 = 21MHz AT -6.5dBFS 3RD IMD = -76dBc -10 -50 -60 -80 -90 -90 15 20 25 30 ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (MHz) 35 65 SINGLE-ENDED 60 55 50 -100 10 35 70 -40 -80 5 DIFFERENTIAL 75 -30 -70 -100 80 SFDR (dBc) -20 0 MAX1446 toc08 SINAD = 59.2dB SNR = 59.5dB THD = -70.7dBc SFDR = 71.1dBc MAX1446 toc07 0 -10 35 -30 -70 5 SINAD = 59.5dB SNR = 59.7dB THD = -73.0dBc SFDR = 73.6dBc -10 AMPLITUDE (dB) HD2 -50 0 15 FFT PLOT (fIN = 26.8MHz, 8192-POINT FFT, DIFFERENTIAL INPUT) -40 -50 10 ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (MHz) -30 0 5 HD2 ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (MHz) SINAD = 59.0dB SNR = 59.4dB THD = -70.5dBc SFDR = 72.9dBc -20 0 HD3 ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (MHz) MAX1446 toc04 0 5 MAX1446 toc03 -30 -70 -10 6 -40 -60 -20 -70 0 AMPLITUDE (dB) HD3 -30 SINAD = 59.3dB SNR = 59.6dB THD = -70.7dBc SFDR = 72.2dBc MAX1446 toc06 -50 0 -10 AMPLITUDE (dB) -40 -60 -20 AMPLITUDE (dB) -30 SINAD = 59.3dB SNR = 59.5dB THD = -72.9dBc SFDR = 74.3dBc -10 AMPLITUDE (dB) AMPLITUDE (dB) -20 0 MAX1446 toc02 SFDR = 72.2dBc SNR = 60.1dB THD = -71.5dBc SINAD = 59.8dB MAX1446 toc01 0 -10 FFT PLOT (fIN = 20MHz, 8192-POINT FFT, DIFFERENTIAL INPUT) FFT PLOT (fIN = 13.3MHz, 8192-POINT FFT, DIFFERENTIAL INPUT) MAX1446 toc09 FFT PLOT (fIN = 7.5MHz, 8192-POINT FFT, DIFFERENTIAL INPUT) AMPLITUDE (dB) MAX1446 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (MHz) 35 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (MHz) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 90 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference SIGNAL-TO-NOISE AND DISTORTION vs. ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (AIN = -0.5dBFS) TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION vs. ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (AIN = -0.5dBFS) DIFFERENTIAL 59 -55 60 MAX1446 toc11 -50 MAX1446 toc10 60 SINGLE-ENDED DIFFERENTIAL 59 58 57 SINGLE-ENDED -65 -70 57 56 55 SINGLE-ENDED 54 -75 DIFFERENTIAL 53 52 -80 55 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (MHz) 0 90 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (MHz) 0 90 66 MAX1446 toc13 80 75 60 -55 -60 THD (dBc) SNR (dB) 65 48 -65 60 42 -70 55 36 -75 -80 30 50 -20 0 SIGNAL-TO-NOISE AND DISTORTION vs. ANALOG INPUT POWER (fIN = 19.943MHz) -16 -12 -8 -4 ANALOG INPUT POWER (dBFS) -20 0 SPURIOUS-FREE DYNAMIC RANGE vs. TEMPERATURE 80 MAX1446 toc16 65 60 fIN = 19.943MHz, AIN = -0.5dBFS 76 -16 -12 -8 -4 ANALOG INPUT POWER (dBFS) 0 SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO vs. TEMPERATURE 70 MAX1446 toc17 -16 -12 -8 -4 ANALOG INPUT POWER (dBFS) 90 -50 54 70 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (MHz) TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION vs. ANALOG INPUT POWER (fIN = 19.943MHz) SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO vs. ANALOG INPUT POWER (fIN = 19.943MHz) SPURIOUS-FREE DYNAMIC RANGE vs. ANALOG INPUT POWER (fIN = 19.943MHz) -20 10 MAX1446 toc15 10 MAX1446 toc14 0 MAX1446 toc18 56 SFDR (dBc) SINAD (dB) THD (dBc) SNR (dB) -60 58 MAX1446 toc12 SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO vs. ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (AIN = -0.5dBFS) fIN = 19.943MHz, AIN = -0.5dBFS 66 50 45 72 SNR (dB) SFDR (dBc) SINAD (dB) 55 68 62 58 40 64 35 30 54 60 -20 -16 -12 -8 -4 ANALOG INPUT POWER (dBFS) 0 50 -40 -15 10 35 TEMPERATURE (°C) 60 85 -40 -15 10 35 TEMPERATURE (°C) 60 85 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7 MAX1446 Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (VDD = 3.0V, OVDD = 2.7V, internal reference, differential input at -0.5dBFS, fCLK = 62.35MHz, CL ≈ 10pF, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (VDD = 3.0V, OVDD = 2.7V, internal reference, differential input at -0.5dBFS, fCLK = 62.35MHz, CL ≈ 10pF, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) SIGNAL-TO-NOISE AND DISTORTION vs. TEMPERATURE 66 SINAD (dB) -68 fIN = 19.943MHz, AIN = -0.5dBFS -72 TA = +105°C -76 fIN = 7.5MHz 0.4 0.3 62 0.2 INL (LSB) -64 0.5 MAX1446 toc20 fIN = 19.943MHz, AIN = -0.5dBFS THD (dBc) 70 MAX1446 toc19 -60 INTEGRAL NONLINEARITY vs. DIGITAL OUTPUT CODE (BEST STRAIGHT LINE) MAX1446 toc21 TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION vs. TEMPERATURE 0.1 58 0 -0.1 TA = +105°C 54 -0.2 110 -40 10 35 60 TEMPERATURE (°C) 85 0 110 10 MAX1446 toc22 fIN = 7.5MHz 8 6 GAIN ERROR (%FS) 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 4 -0.5 200 400 600 800 1000 TA = +105°C 2 0 -2 -4 6 4 0 -4 -8 ANALOG SUPPLY CURRENT vs. TEMPERATURE -40 -15 85 MAX1446 toc25 50 46 42 -15 10 35 60 TEMPERATURE (°C) 85 110 DIGITAL SUPPLY CURRENT vs. DIGITAL SUPPLY VOLTAGE 8 fIN = 7.5MHz 7 6 34 30 26 5 4 22 27 -40 IOVDD (mA) IVDD (mA) 110 TA = +105°C 38 29 TA = +105°C -2 -10 ANALOG SUPPLY CURRENT vs. ANALOG SUPPLY VOLTAGE 31 1200 2 -10 10 35 60 TEMPERATURE (°C) 33 1000 -6 DIGITAL OUTPUT CODE 35 800 8 -8 1200 600 10 MAX1446 toc26 0 400 OFFSET ERROR vs. TEMPERATURE, EXTERNAL REFERENCE (VREFIN = 2.048V) -6 -0.4 200 DIGITAL OUTPUT CODE GAIN ERROR vs. TEMPERATURE, EXTERNAL REFERENCE (VREFIN = 2.048V) 0.3 0.2 -15 MAX1446 toc24 85 OFFSET ERROR (%FS) 10 35 60 TEMPERATURE (°C) MAX1446 toc23 -15 DIFFERENTIAL NONLINEARITY vs. DIGITAL OUTPUT CODE DNL (LSB) -0.3 50 -40 MAX1446 toc27 -80 IVDD (mA) MAX1446 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference 18 3 14 25 2.70 3.00 3.15 VDD (V) 8 2 10 2.85 3.30 3.45 3.60 -40 -15 10 35 60 TEMPERATURE (°C) 85 110 1.2 1.8 2.4 OVDD (V) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3.0 3.6 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference (VDD = 3.0V, OVDD = 2.7V, internal reference, differential input at -0.5dBFS, fCLK = 62.35MHz, CL ≈ 10pF, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) 4.5 4.0 IVDD (μA) IOVDD (mA) TA = +105°C 12 8 10 3.5 MAX1446 toc30 16 OE = OVDD, PD = VDD PD = VDD, OE = OVDD 8 IOVDD (μA) fIN = 7.5MHz MAX1446 toc29 5.0 MAX1446 toc28 20 DIGITAL POWER-DOWN CURRENT vs. DIGITAL POWER SUPPLY ANALOG POWER-DOWN CURRENT vs. ANALOG POWER SUPPLY DIGITAL SUPPLY CURRENT vs. TEMPERATURE 6 4 3.0 2 4 2.5 0 0 -15 10 35 60 TEMPERATURE (°C) 85 2.0 2.70 110 3.15 3.30 3.45 2.08 3.6 SNR 62 56 2.06 2.08 VREFOUT (V) -THD 2.04 2.02 2.06 2.04 2.02 TA = +105°C SINAD 50 58 62 66 CLOCK FREQUENCY (MHz) 2.00 2.70 70 2.00 2.85 3.00 3.15 3.30 VDD (V) 3.45 3.60 -40 -15 10 35 60 TEMPERATURE (°C) 85 110 OUTPUT NOISE HISTOGRAM (DC INPUT) 140000 MAX1446 toc34 160000 129421 120000 100000 COUNT 54 3.0 2.10 MAX1446 toc32 74 50 2.4 OVDD (V) INTERNAL REFERENCE VOLTAGE vs. TEMPERATURE 2.10 VREFOUT (V) SFDR fIN = 20MHz, AIN = -0.5dBFS 1.8 3.60 INTERNAL REFERENCE VOLTAGE vs. ANALOG SUPPLY VOLTAGE MAX1446 toc31 80 SNR/SINAD, -THD/SFDR (dB, dBc) 3.00 VDD (V) SNR/SINAD, -THD/SFDR vs. CLOCK FREQUENCY 68 1.2 2.85 MAX1446 toc33 -40 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 926 725 0 N+1 N+2 0 N-2 N-1 N DIGITAL OUTPUT CODE _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9 MAX1446 Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference MAX1446 Pin Description 10 PIN NAME FUNCTION 1 REFN Lower Reference. Conversion range is ±(VREFP - VREFN). Bypass to GND with a > 0.1µF capacitor. 2 COM Common-Mode Voltage Output. Bypass to GND with a > 0.1µF capacitor. 3, 9, 10 VDD Analog Supply Voltage. Bypass to GND with a capacitor combination of 2.2µF in parallel with 0.1µF. 4, 5, 8, 11, 14, 30 GND Analog Ground 6 IN+ Positive Analog Input. For single-ended operation, connect signal source to IN+. 7 IN- Negative Analog Input. For single-ended operation, connect IN- to COM. 12 CLK Conversion Clock Input 13 PD Power-Down Input High: power-down mode Low: normal operation 15 OE Output Enable Input High: digital outputs disabled Low: digital outputs enabled 16–20 D9–D5 Three-State Digital Outputs D9–D5. D9 is the MSB. 21 OVDD Output Driver Supply Voltage. Bypass to GND with a capacitor combination of 2.2µF in parallel with 0.1µF. 22 T.P. 23 OGND Output Driver Ground 24–28 D4–D0 Three-State Digital Outputs D4–D0. D0 is the LSB. 29 REFOUT 31 REFIN Reference Input. VREFIN = 2 × (VREFP - VREFN). Bypass to GND with a > 0.01µF capacitor. 32 REFP Upper Reference. Conversion range is ±(VREFP - VREFN). Bypass to GND with a > 0.1µF capacitor. Test Point. Do not connect. Internal Reference Voltage Output. May be connected to REFIN through a resistor or a resistor-divider. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference The MAX1446 uses a 10-stage, fully differential, pipelined architecture (Figure 1) that allows for highspeed conversion while minimizing power consumption. Each sample moves through a pipeline stage every half-clock cycle. Counting the delay through the output latch, the clock-cycle latency is 5.5. A 1.5-bit (2-comparator) flash ADC converts the held input voltage into a digital code. The following digitalto-analog converter (DAC) converts the digitized result back into an analog voltage, which is then subtracted from the original held input signal. The resulting error signal is then multiplied by two, and the product is passed along to the next pipeline stage where the process is repeated until the signal has been processed by all 10 stages. Each stage provides a 1-bit resolution. Digital error correction compensates for ADC comparator offsets in each pipeline stage and ensures no missing codes. Input Track-and-Hold Circuit Figure 2 displays a simplified functional diagram of the input T/H circuit in both track and hold mode. In track mode, switches S1, S2a, S2b, S4a, S4b, S5a, and S5b are closed. The fully differential circuit samples the input signal onto the two capacitors (C2a and C2b). S2a and S2b set the common mode for the amplifier input. The resulting differential voltage is held on C2a and C2b. S4a, S4b, S5a, S5b, S1, S2a, and S2b are then opened before S3a, S3b and S4c are closed, connecting capacitors C1a and C1b to the amplifier output, and S4c is closed. This charges C1a and C1b to the same values originally held on C2a and C2b. This value is then presented to the first stage quantizer and isolates the pipeline from the fast-changing input. The wide-input-bandwidth T/H amplifier allows the MAX1446 to track and sample/hold analog inputs of high frequencies beyond Nyquist. The analog inputs (IN+ and IN-) can be driven either differentially or single ended. It is recommended to match the impedance of IN+ and IN- and set the common-mode voltage to midsupply (VDD/2) for optimum performance. Analog Input and Reference Configuration The MAX1446 full-scale range is determined by the internally generated voltage difference between REFP (VDD/2 + VREFIN/4) and REFN (VDD/2 - VREFIN/4). The ADC’s full-scale range is user adjustable through the REFIN pin, which provides a high input impedance for this purpose. REFOUT, REFP, COM (VDD/2), and REFN are internally buffered, low-impedance outputs. INTERNAL BIAS COM S5a S2a C1a S3a MDAC VIN Σ T/H x2 VOUT S4a IN+ FLASH ADC OUT C2a DAC S4c 1.5 bits S1 OUT INS4b C2b C1b VIN STAGE 1 STAGE 2 S3b STAGE 10 S2b INTERNAL BIAS S5b COM DIGITAL CORRECTION LOGIC 10 D9–D0 VIN = INPUT VOLTAGE BETWEEN IN+ AND IN- (DIFFERENTIAL OR SINGLE ENDED) Figure 1. Pipelined Architecture—Stage Blocks TRACK HOLD TRACK CLK INTERNAL HOLD NONOVERLAPPING CLOCK SIGNALS Figure 2. Internal T/H Circuit ______________________________________________________________________________________ 11 MAX1446 Detailed Description MAX1446 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference The MAX1446 provides three modes of reference operation: • Internal reference mode • Buffered external reference mode • Unbuffered external reference mode In internal reference mode, the internal reference output (REFOUT) can be tied to the REFIN pin through a resistor (e.g., 10kΩ) or resistor-divider if an application requires a reduced full-scale range. For stability purposes, it is recommended to bypass REFIN with a > 10nF capacitor to GND. In buffered external reference mode, the reference voltage levels can be adjusted externally by applying a stable and accurate voltage at REFIN. In this mode, REFOUT may be left open or connected to REFIN through a > 10kΩ resistor. In unbuffered external reference mode, REFIN is connected to GND, thereby deactivating the on-chip buffers of REFP, COM, and REFN. With their buffers shut down, these pins become high impedance and can be driven by external reference sources. Clock Input (CLK) The MAX1446 CLK input accepts CMOS-compatible clock signals. Since the interstage conversion of the device depends on the repeatability of the rising and falling edges of the external clock, use a clock with low jitter and fast rise and fall times (< 2ns). In particular, sampling occurs on the falling edge of the clock signal, mandating this edge to provide lowest possible jitter. Any significant aperture jitter would limit the SNR performance of the ADC as follows: ⎛ ⎞ 1 SNR = 20 × log⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 × π × fIN × t AJ ⎠ Clock jitter is especially critical for undersampling applications. The clock input should always be considered as an analog input and routed away from any analog input or other digital signal lines. The MAX1446 clock input operates with a voltage threshold set to VDD/2. Clock inputs with a duty cycle other than 50% must meet the specifications for high and low periods as stated in the Electrical Characteristics. See Figures 3a, 3b, 4a, and 4b for the relationship between spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), total harmonic distortion (THD), or signal-to-noise plus distortion (SINAD) vs. duty cycle. Output Enable (OE), Power-Down (PD), and Output Data (D0–D9) All data outputs, D0 (LSB) through D9 (MSB), are TTL/CMOS-logic compatible. There is a 5.5 clock-cycle latency between any particular sample and its valid output data. The output coding is straight offset binary (Table 1). With OE and PD (power-down) high, the digital output enters a high-impedance state. If OE is held low with PD high, the outputs are latched at the last value prior to the power-down. The capacitive load on the digital outputs D0–D9 should be kept as low as possible (< 15pF) to avoid large digital currents that could feed back into the analog portion of the MAX1446, degrading its dynamic performance. The use of buffers on the ADC’s digital outputs can further isolate the digital outputs from heavy capacitive loads. To further improve the dynamic performance of the MAX1446 small series resistors (e.g., 100Ω) may be added to the digital output paths, close to the ADC. Figure 5 displays the timing relationship between output enable and data output valid, as well as powerdown/wake-up and data output valid. where fIN represents the analog input frequency, and tAJ is the time of the aperture jitter. System Timing Requirements Figure 6 shows the relationship between the clock input, analog input, and data output. The MAX1446 Table 1. MAX1446 Output Code for Differential Inputs DIFFERENTIAL INPUT VOLTAGE* DIFFERENTIAL INPUT STRAIGHT OFFSET BINARY VREF × 511/512 VREF × 510/512 VREF × 1/512 0 - VREF × 1/512 - VREF × 511/512 - VREF × 512/512 +Full Scale -1LSB +Full Scale -2LSB +1LSB Bipolar Zero -1LSB Negative Full Scale + 1LSB Negative Full Scale 11 1111 1111 11 1111 1110 10 0000 0001 10 0000 0000 01 1111 1111 00 0000 0001 00 0000 0000 *VREFIN = VREFP = VREFN 12 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference fIN = 12.5MHz AT -0.5dBFS fIN = 12.5MHz AT -0.5dBFS -50 THD (dBc) SFDR (dBc) 70 60 -60 -70 50 -80 40 20 30 40 50 60 20 70 30 40 50 60 70 CLOCK DUTY CYCLE (%) CLOCK DUTY CYCLE (%) Figure 3a. SFDR vs. Clock Duty Cycle (Differential Input) Figure 4a. THD vs. Clock Duty Cycle (Differential Input) 70 70 fIN = 12.5MHz AT -0.5dBFS fIN = 12.5MHz AT -0.5dBFS 65 65 60 60 SINAD (dB) SNR (dB) MAX1446 -40 80 55 55 50 50 45 45 40 40 20 30 40 50 60 20 70 30 40 50 60 70 CLOCK DUTY CYCLE (%) CLOCK DUTY CYCLE (%) Figure 3b. SNR vs. Clock Duty Cycle (Differential Input) Figure 4b. SINAD vs. Clock Duty Cycle (Differential Input) OE tDISABLE tENABLE OUTPUT DATA D9–D0 HIGH-Z VALID DATA HIGH-Z Figure 5. Output Enable Timing ______________________________________________________________________________________ 13 MAX1446 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference samples at the falling edge of the input clock. Output data is valid on the rising edge of the input clock. The output data has an internal latency of 5.5 clock cycles. Figure 6 also shows the relationship between the input clock parameters and the valid output data. Applications Information Figure 7 shows a typical application circuit containing a single-ended to differential converter. The internal reference provides a VDD/2 output voltage for level shifting purposes. The input is buffered and then split to a voltage follower and inverter. A lowpass filter follows the op amps to suppress some of the wideband noise associated with high-speed op amps. The user may select the RISO and CIN values to optimize the filter performance to suit a particular application. For the application in Figure 7, an RISO of 50Ω is placed before the capacitive load to prevent ringing and oscillation. The 22pF CIN capacitor acts as a small bypassing capacitor. Using Transformer Coupling An RF transformer (Figure 8) provides an excellent solution for converting a single-ended source signal to a fully differential signal, required by the MAX1446 for optimum performance. Connecting the transformer’s center tap to COM provides a VDD/2 DC level shift to the input. Although a 1:1 transformer is shown, a stepup transformer may be selected to reduce the drive requirements. A reduced signal swing from the input driver, such as an op amp, may also improve the overall distortion. In general, the MAX1446 provides better SFDR and THD with fully differential input signals than singleended drive, especially for very high input frequencies. In differential input mode, even-order harmonics are lower since both inputs (IN+, IN-) are balanced, and each of the inputs only requires half the signal swing compared to single-ended mode. Single-Ended AC-Coupled Input Signal Figure 9 shows an AC-coupled, single-ended application. The MAX4108 op amp provides high speed, high bandwidth, low noise, and low distortion to maintain the integrity of the input signal. Buffered External Reference Drives Multiple ADCs Multiple-converter systems based on the MAX1446 are well suited for use with a common reference voltage. The REFIN pin of those converters can be connected directly to an external reference source. A precision bandgap reference like the MAX6062 generates an external DC level of 2.048V (Figure 10), and exhibits a noise voltage density of 150n√Hz. Its output passes through a 1-pole lowpass filter (with 10Hz cutoff frequency) to the MAX4250, which buffers the reference before its output is applied to a second 10Hz lowpass 5.5 CLOCK-CYCLE LATENCY N N+1 N+2 N+3 N+4 N+5 N+6 ANALOG INPUT CLOCK INPUT tDO DATA OUTPUT N-6 N-5 N-4 N-3 N-2 N-1 N Figure 6. System and Output Timing Diagram 14 ______________________________________________________________________________________ N+1 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference MAX1446 5V 0.1μF LOWPASS FILTER IN+ MAX4108 RISO 50Ω 0.1μF 300Ω CIN 22pF 0.1μF -5V MAX1446 600Ω 600Ω 300Ω COM 0.1μF 5V 5V 0.1μF 600Ω INPUT 0.1μF LOWPASS FILTER MAX4108 300Ω 0.1μF -5V IN- MAX4108 RISO 50Ω CIN 22pF 300Ω -5V 0.1μF 300Ω 300Ω 600Ω Figure 7. Typical Application Circuit for Single-Ended to Differential Conversion 25Ω IN+ REFP 22pF MAX1446 0.1μF VIN 3 T1 1kΩ VIN 0.1μF 4 RISO IN+ MAX4108 N.C. 5 1 100Ω 2 6 CIN 1kΩ MAX1446 COM 2.2μF 0.1μF COM REFN 0.1μF RISO MINI-CIRCUITS ADT1–1WT 100Ω 25Ω IN22pF Figure 8. Using a Transformer for AC-Coupling RISO = 50Ω CIN = 22pF INCIN Figure 9. Single-Ended AC-Coupled Input ______________________________________________________________________________________ 15 MAX1446 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference 3.3V 0.1μF 3.3V N.C. 0.1μF 2.048V 1 MAX6062 31 0.1μF 2 16.2kΩ 3 32 1 5 162Ω 1μF 4 3 MAX4250 2 10Hz LOWPASS FILTER 29 2 1 100μF 0.1μF 0.1μF REFOUT REFIN REFP MAX1446 N=1 REFN COM 0.1μF 10Hz LOWPASS FILTER 0.1μF N.C. 29 31 32 1 0.1μF 2 0.1μF 0.1μF 2.2μF 10V REFOUT REFIN REFP MAX1446 N = 1000 REFN COM 0.1μF NOTE: ONE FRONT-END REFERENCE CIRCUIT DESIGN MAY BE USED WITH UP TO 1000 ADCs. Figure 10. Buffered External Reference Drives Up to 1000 ADCs filter. The MAX4250 provides a low offset voltage (for high-gain accuracy) and a low noise level. The passive 10Hz filter following the buffer attenuates noise produced in the voltage reference and buffer stages. This filtered noise density, which decreases for higher frequencies, meets the noise levels specified for precision ADC operation. Unbuffered External Reference Drives Multiple ADCs Connecting each REFIN to analog ground disables the internal reference of each device, allowing the internal reference ladders to be driven directly by a set of external reference sources. Followed by a 10Hz lowpass filter and precision voltage-divider (Figure 11), the MAX6066 generates a DC level of 2.500V. The buffered outputs of this divider are set to 2.0V, 1.5V, and 1.0V, with an accuracy that depends on the tolerance of the divider resistors. The three voltages are buffered by the 16 MAX4252, which provides low noise and low DC offset. The individual voltage followers are connected to 10Hz lowpass filters, which filter both the reference voltage and amplifier noise to a level of 3n√Hz. The 2.0V and 1.0V reference voltages set the differential full-scale range of the associated ADCs at 2VP-P. The 2.0V and 1.0V buffers drive the ADC’s internal ladder resistances between them. Note that the common power supply for all active components removes any concern regarding power-supply sequencing when powering up or down. With the outputs of the MAX4252 matching better than 0.1%, the buffers and subsequent lowpass filters can be replicated to support as many as 32 ADCs. For applications that require more than 32 matched ADCs, a voltage reference and divider string common to all converters is highly recommended. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference MAX1446 3.3V 0.1μF N.C. 29 31 REFOUT REFIN 1 2.0V 2 32 3.3V 21.5kΩ 3 MAX6066 1 1 47Ω 1/4 MAX4252 2 2 21.5kΩ 3 REFP MAX1446 2.0V AT 8mA 4 11 10μF 6V 330μF 6V 0.1μF 0.1μF N=1 REFN COM 0.1μF 1.47kΩ 1μF 1.5V 3.3V 5 3.3V 1.5V AT 0mA 4 7 47Ω 1/4 MAX4252 0.1μF 6 11 21.5kΩ MAX4254 POWER-SUPPLY BYPASSING. PLACE CAPACITOR AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE OP AMP. 10μF 6V 330μF 6V 1.47kΩ 1.0V 3.3V 10 1.0V AT -8mA 4 8 47Ω 0.1μF 1/4 MAX4252 21.5kΩ 21.5kΩ 9 11 10μF 6V N.C. 330μF 6V 29 31 1.47kΩ 32 1 2 0.1μF 0.1μF 2.2μF 10V REFOUT REFIN REFP MAX1446 N = 32 REFN COM 0.1μF NOTE: ONE FRONT-END REFERENCE CIRCUIT DESIGN MAY BE USED WITH UP TO 32 ADCs. Figure 11. Unbuffered External Reference Drives Up to 32 ADCs Grounding, Bypassing, __________________and Board Layout The MAX1446 requires high-speed board layout design techniques. Locate all bypass capacitors as close to the device as possible, preferably on the same side as the ADC, using surface-mount devices for minimum inductance. Bypass VDD, REFP, REFN, and COM with two parallel 0.1µF ceramic capacitors and a 2.2µF bipolar capacitor to GND. Follow the same rules to bypass the digital supply (OVDD) to OGND. Multilayer boards with separated ground and power planes pro- duce the highest level of signal integrity. Consider using a split ground plane arranged to match the physical location of the analog ground (GND) and the digital output driver ground (OGND) on the ADC's package. The two ground planes should be joined at a single point so that the noisy digital ground currents do not interfere with the analog ground plane. The ideal location of this connection can be determined experimentally at a point along the gap between the two ground planes that produces optimum results. Make this connection with a low-value, surface-mount resistor (1Ω to 5Ω), a ferrite bead, or a direct short. Alternatively, all ______________________________________________________________________________________ 17 MAX1446 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference ground pins could share the same ground plane if the ground plane is sufficiently isolated from any noisy, digital systems ground plane (e.g., downstream output buffer or DSP ground plane). Route high-speed digital signal traces away from sensitive analog traces. Keep all signal lines short and free of 90° turns. Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) ENOB specifies the dynamic performance of an ADC at a specific input frequency and sampling rate. An ideal ADC’s error consists of quantization noise only. ENOB is computed from: Static Parameter Definitions ENOB = (SINAD − 1.76) 6.02 Integral Nonlinearity Integral nonlinearity (INL) is the deviation of the values on an actual transfer function from a straight line. This straight line can be either a best-straight-line fit or a line drawn between the endpoints of the transfer function once offset and gain errors have been nullified. The MAX1446’s static linearity parameters are measured using the best-straight-line fit method. Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) THD is typically the ratio of the rms sum of the input signal’s first four harmonics to the fundamental itself. This is expressed as: Differential Nonlinearity Differential nonlinearity (DNL) is the difference between an actual step width and the ideal value of 1LSB. A DNL error specification of less than 1LSB guarantees no missing codes and a monotonic transfer function. where V1 is the fundamental amplitude, and V2 through V5 are the amplitudes of the 2nd- through 5th-order harmonics. Dynamic Parameter Definitions Aperture Jitter Figure 12 depicts the aperture jitter (tAJ), which is the sample-to-sample variation in the aperture delay. Aperture Delay Aperture delay (tAD) is the time defined between the falling edge of the sampling clock and the instant when an actual sample is taken (Figure 12). Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) For a waveform perfectly reconstructed from digital samples, the theoretical maximum SNR is the ratio of the full-scale analog input (rms value) to the rms quantization error (residual error). The ideal, theoretical minimum A/D noise is caused by quantization error only and results directly from the ADC’s resolution (N bits): SNR(MAX) = 6.02 x N + 1.76 In reality, there are other noise sources besides quantization noise: thermal noise, reference noise, clock jitter, etc. SNR is computed by taking the ratio of the rms signal to the rms noise, which includes all spectral components minus the fundamental, the first five harmonics, and the DC offset. Signal-to-Noise Plus Distortion (SINAD) SINAD is computed by taking the ratio of the rms signal to all spectral components minus the fundamental and the DC offset. 18 ⎛ V 2 +V 2 +V 2 +V 2 2 3 4 5 THD = 20 × log ⎜ ⎜ V 1 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) SFDR is the ratio expressed in decibels of the rms amplitude of the fundamental (maximum signal component) to the rms value of the next largest spurious component, excluding DC offset. Intermodulation Distortion (IMD) The two-tone IMD is the ratio expressed in decibels of either input tone to the worst 3rd-order (or higher) intermodulation products. The individual input tone levels are at -6.5dB full scale. CLK ANALOG INPUT tAD tAJ SAMPLED DATA (T/H) T/H TRACK HOLD Figure 12. T/H Aperture Timing ______________________________________________________________________________________ TRACK 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference REFP REFIN GND REFOUT D0 D1 D2 D3 TOP VIEW 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 REFN 1 24 D4 COM 2 23 OGND VDD 3 22 T.P. GND 4 GND 5 IN+ 6 19 D6 IN- 7 18 D7 GND 8 17 D8 21 OVDD MAX1446 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 VDD VDD GND CLK PD GND OE D9 20 D5 TQFP Package Information For the latest package outline information and land patterns, go to www.maxim-ic.com/packages. PACKAGE TYPE PACKAGE CODE DOCUMENT NO. 32 TQFP H32-2F 21-0110 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 19 MAX1446 Pin Configurations (continued) MAX1446 10-Bit, 60Msps, 3.0V, Low-Power ADC with Internal Reference Revision History REVISION NUMBER REVISION DATE 3 11/07 Various corrections; updated to extended temperature range for automotive applications; replaced TOCs 9–20, 23, 24, 26, 30, 31, 33; updated package outlines. 4 11/08 Updates to the Electrical Characteristics table and notes section. DESCRIPTION PAGES CHANGED 1–9, 15, 18, 20, 21 5, 14 Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. 20 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600 © 2008 Maxim Integrated Products Maxim is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.