19-2824; Rev 1; 12/03 3.3V, 12-Bit, 200Msps High Dynamic Performance DAC with CMOS Inputs ♦ Single 3.3V Supply Operation ♦ Excellent SFDR and IMD Performance SFDR = 77dBc at fOUT = 10MHz (to Nyquist) IMD = -86dBc at fOUT = 10MHz ACLR = 71dB at fOUT = 30.72MHz ♦ 2mA to 20mA Full-Scale Output Current ♦ CMOS-Compatible Digital and Clock Inputs ♦ On-Chip 1.2V Bandgap Reference ♦ Low Power Dissipation ♦ 48-Pin QFN-EP Package Ordering Information PART MAX5883EGM B5 B6 B7 37 38 39 40 DGND B3 B4 41 42 43 B1 B2 DVDD 44 45 46 N.C. N.C. B0 36 2 35 3 34 4 33 5 32 CLKN CLKGND VCLK PD 7 9 28 10 27 AVDD 11 26 AGND 12 25 31 6 30 B11 DGND DVDD SEL0 N.C. N.C. N.C. N.C. N.C. 24 23 22 21 B8 B9 B10 AGND AVDD AGND 20 29 AGND AVDD 19 18 16 8 17 MAX5883 15 Instrumentation 1 DACREF N.C. AGND IOUTN IOUTP Automated Test Equipment (ATE) N.C. N.C. XOR VCLK CLKGND CLKP 14 Digital Signal Synthesis 47 TOP VIEW 48 Pin Configuration 13 Communications: LMDS, MMDS, Point-to-Point Microwave PIN-PACKAGE 48 QFN-EP* *EP = Exposed paddle. Applications Base Stations: Single/Multicarrier UMTS, CDMA TEMP RANGE -40°C to +85°C REFIO The digital and clock inputs of the MAX5883 are designed for CMOS-compatible voltage levels. The MAX5883 is available in a 48-pin QFN package with an exposed paddle (EP) and is specified for the extended industrial temperature range (-40°C to +85°C). Refer to the MAX5884 and MAX5885 data sheets for pin-compatible 14- and 16-bit versions of the MAX5883. For LVDS high-speed versions, refer to the MAX5886, MAX5887, and MAX5888 data sheets. ♦ 200Msps Output Update Rate FSADJ The MAX5883 utilizes a current-steering architecture, which supports a full-scale output current range of 2mA to 20mA, and allows a differential output voltage swing between 0.1VP-P and 1VP-P. The MAX5883 features an integrated 1.2V bandgap reference and control amplifier to ensure high accuracy and low noise performance. Additionally, a separate reference input pin enables the user to apply an external reference source for optimum flexibility and to improve gain accuracy. Features QFN ________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim/Dallas Direct! at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim’s website at www.maxim-ic.com. 1 MAX5883 General Description The MAX5883 is an advanced, 12-bit, 200Msps digitalto-analog converter (DAC) designed to meet the demanding performance requirements of signal synthesis applications found in wireless base stations and other communications applications. Operating from a single 3.3V supply, this DAC offers exceptional dynamic performance such as 77dBc spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) at f OUT = 10MHz. The DAC supports update rates of 200Msps at a power dissipation of less than 200mW. MAX5883 3.3V, 12-Bit, 200Msps High Dynamic Performance DAC with CMOS Inputs ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C) 48-Pin QFN (derate 27mW/°C above +70°C)............2162.2mW Thermal Resistance (θJA) ..............................................+37°C/W Operating Temperature Range ..........................-40°C to +85°C Junction Temperature .....................................................+150°C Storage Temperature Range ............................-60°C to +150°C Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) ................................+300°C AVDD, DVDD, VCLK to AGND................................-0.3V to +3.9V AVDD, DVDD, VCLK to DGND ...............................-0.3V to +3.9V AVDD, DVDD, VCLK to CLKGND ...........................-0.3V to +3.9V AGND, CLKGND to DGND....................................-0.3V to +0.3V DACREF, REFIO, FSADJ to AGND.............-0.3V to AVDD + 0.3V IOUTP, IOUTN to AGND................................-1V to AVDD + 0.3V CLKP, CLKN to CLKGND...........................-0.3V to VCLK + 0.3V B0–B11, SEL0, PD, XOR to DGND.............-0.3V to DVDD + 0.3V Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (AVDD = DVDD = VCLK = 3.3V, AGND = DGND = CLKGND = 0V, external reference, VREFIO = 1.25V, RL = 50Ω, IOUT = 20mA, fCLK = 200Msps, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. ≥+25°C guaranteed by production test, <+25°C guaranteed by design and characterization. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS STATIC PERFORMANCE Resolution 12 Bits Integral Nonlinearity INL Measured differentially ±0.3 LSB Differential Nonlinearity DNL Measured differentially ±0.2 LSB Offset Error OS -0.025 Full-Scale Gain Error GEFS Gain Drift Full-Scale Output Current ±0.003 +0.025 ±50 Offset Drift IOUT External reference, TA ≥ +25°C -3.5 +1.3 Internal reference ±100 External reference ±50 (Note 1) 2 %FS ppm/°C %FS ppm/°C 20 mA Min Output Voltage Single ended -0.5 Max Output Voltage Single ended 1.1 V V Output Resistance ROUT 1 MΩ Output Capacitance COUT 5 pF DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE Output Update Rate fCLK Noise Spectral Density Spurious-Free Dynamic Range to Nyquist 2 SFDR 1 200 fCLK = 100MHz fOUT = 16MHz, -12dB FS -150 fCLK = 200MHz fOUT = 80MHz, -12dB FS -148 fCLK = 100MHz fOUT = 1MHz, 0dB FS 87 fOUT = 1MHz, -6dB FS 81 fOUT = 1MHz, -12dB FS 80 _______________________________________________________________________________________ Msps dB FS/ Hz dBc 3.3V, 12-Bit, 200Msps High Dynamic Performance DAC with CMOS Inputs (AVDD = DVDD = VCLK = 3.3V, AGND = DGND = CLKGND = 0V, external reference, VREFIO = 1.25V, RL = 50Ω, IOUT = 20mA, fCLK = 200Msps, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. ≥+25°C guaranteed by production test, <+25°C guaranteed by design and characterization. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS fCLK = 100MHz Spurious-Free Dynamic Range to Nyquist SFDR fCLK = 200MHz fCLK = 100MHz Two-Tone IMD TTIMD fCLK = 200MHz MIN TYP fOUT = 10MHz, -12dB 77 fOUT = 30MHz, -12dB 73 fOUT = 10MHz, -12dB 70 fOUT > 16MHz, -12dB FS, TA = +25°C 68 fOUT = 30MHz, -12dB 66 68 UNITS dBc 74 fOUT = 50MHz, -12dB fOUT1 = 9MHz, -6dB MAX -86 fOUT2 = 10MHz, -6dB dBc fOUT1 = 29MHz, -6dB -74 fOUT2 = 30MHz, -6dB Four-Tone IMD, 1MHz Frequency Spacing FTIMD fCLK = 150MHz fOUT = 32MHz, -12dB FS -82 dBc Adjacent Channel Leakage Power Ratio, 4.1MHz Bandwidth, W-CDMA Model ACLR fCLK = 184.32MHz fOUT = 30.72MHz 71 dB 450 MHz Output Bandwidth BW-1dB (Note 2) REFERENCE Internal Reference Voltage Range Reference Input Compliance Range VREFIO 1.1 VREFIOCR 0.125 1.22 1.34 V 1.25 V Reference Input Resistance RREFIO 10 kΩ Reference Voltage Drift TCOREF ±50 ppm/°C ANALOG OUTPUT TIMING Output Fall Time tFALL 90% to 10% (Note 3) 375 ps Output Rise Time tRISE 10% to 90% (Note 3) 375 ps Output settles to 0.025% FS (Note 3) 11 ns (Note 3) 1.8 ns 1 pV-s Output Voltage Settling Time Output Propagation Delay tSETTLE tPD Glitch Energy Output Noise NOUT IOUT = 2mA 30 IOUT = 20mA 30 pA/√Hz TIMING CHARACTERISTICS Data to Clock Setup Time tSETUP Referenced to rising edge of clock (Note 4) 0.4 ns Data to Clock Hold Time tHOLD Referenced to rising edge of clock (Note 4) 1.25 ns _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 MAX5883 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) MAX5883 3.3V, 12-Bit, 200Msps High Dynamic Performance DAC with CMOS Inputs ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) (AVDD = DVDD = VCLK = 3.3V, AGND = DGND = CLKGND = 0V, external reference, VREFIO = 1.25V, RL = 50Ω, IOUT = 20mA, fCLK = 200Msps, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. ≥+25°C guaranteed by production test, <+25°C guaranteed by design and characterization. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS Data Latency 3.5 Clock cycles Minimum Clock Pulse Width High tCH CLKP, CLKN Minimum Clock Pulse Width Low tCL CLKP, CLKN CMOS LOGIC INPUTS (B0–B11, PD, SEL0, XOR) 1.5 1.5 ns ns Input Logic High VIH Input Logic Low VIL Input Leakage Current IIN Input Capacitance CIN 0.7 x DVDD V 0.3 x DVDD -15 +15 5 V µA pF CLOCK INPUTS (CLKP, CLKN) Sine wave ≥1.5 Square wave ≥0.5 (Note 5) >100 V/µs VCOM 1.5 ±20% V Input Resistance RCLK 5 kΩ Input Capacitance CCLK 5 pF Differential Input Voltage Swing Differential Input Slew Rate Common-Mode Voltage Range VCLK SRCLK VP-P POWER SUPPLIES Analog Supply Voltage Range AVDD 3.135 3.3 3.465 V Digital Supply Voltage Range DVDD 3.135 3.3 3.465 V Clock Supply Voltage Range VCLK 3.135 3.3 3.465 V Analog Supply Current IAVDD Digital Supply Current IDVDD Clock Supply Current IVCLK Power Dissipation PDISS Power-Supply Rejection Ratio PSRR Note 1: Note 2: Note 3: Note 4: Note 5: 4 fCLK = 100Msps, fOUT = 1MHz 27 Power-down 0.3 fCLK = 100Msps, fOUT = 1MHz 7.5 mA Power-down 10 µA fCLK = 100Msps, fOUT = 1MHz 5.5 mA Power-down 10 µA fCLK = 100Msps, fOUT = 1MHz 132 Power-down AVDD = VCLK = DVDD = 3.3V ±5% (Note 5) mA mW 1 -0.1 +0.1 Nominal full-scale current IOUT = 32 ✕ IREF. This parameter does not include update-rate depending effects of sin(x)/x filtering inherent in the MAX5883. Parameter measured single ended into a 50Ω termination resistor. Parameter guaranteed by design. Parameter defined as the change in midscale output caused by a ±5% variation in the nominal supply voltage. _______________________________________________________________________________________ %FS/V 3.3V, 12-Bit, 200Msps High Dynamic Performance DAC with CMOS Inputs -12dB FS 80 100 -12dB FS 80 90 70 -6dB FS 50 40 SFDR (dBc) 60 -6dB FS 60 0dB FS 50 40 30 20 20 10 10 10 0 0 15 25 20 0dB FS 40 20 10 -12dB FS 50 30 0 0 10 20 30 40 0 50 15 30 45 60 75 fOUT (MHz) fOUT (MHz) SPURIOUS-FREE DYNAMIC RANGE vs. OUTPUT FREQUENCY (fCLK = 200MHz) 2-TONE IMD vs. OUTPUT FREQUENCY (1MHz CARRIER SPACING, fCLK = 100MHz) 2-TONE INTERMODULATION DISTORTION (fCLK = 100MHz) -12dB FS -90 2-TONE IMD (dBc) 60 50 -6dB FS 0dB FS 40 30 20 -80 -70 -6dB FS -60 fT1 = 28.9429MHz fT2 = 29.8706MHz AOUT = -6dB FS BW = 12MHz -10 -20 OUTPUT POWER (dBm) -12dB FS 70 0 MAX5883 toc05 MAX5883 toc04 90 80 -100 fT1 -30 MAX5883 toc06 fOUT (MHz) 100 fT2 -40 -50 -60 -70 2 x fT1 - fT2 2 x fT2 - fT1 -80 -50 -90 10 -100 -40 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 50 fOUT (MHz) fOUT(MHz) fOUT (MHz) 2-TONE IMD vs. OUTPUT FREQUENCY (1MHz CARRIER SPACING, fCLK = 200MHz) 4-TONE POWER RATIO PLOT (fCLK = 150MHz, fCENTER = 31.9885MHz) SFDR vs. OUTPUT FREQUENCY (fCLK = 200MHz, AOUT = -6dB FS) -12dB FS -70 -6dB FS -60 -20 fT1 fT2 fT3 IOUT = 20mA 80 fT4 -30 -40 -50 -60 60 IOUT = 5mA IOUT = 10mA 40 -70 20 -80 -50 100 SFDR (dBc) -80 -10 OUTPUT POWER (dBm) -90 AOUT = -12dB FS fT1 = 29.9744MHz fT3 = 32.9773MHz BW = 12MHz fT2 = 30.9998MHz fT4 = 33.8196MHz MAX5883 toc08 0 MAX5883 toc07 -100 MAX5883 toc09 0 2-TONE IMD (dBc) 60 30 5 -6dB FS 80 70 0dB FS 0 SFDR (dBc) 90 SFDR (dBc) SFDR (dBc) 70 100 MAX5883 toc02 90 MAX5883 toc01 100 SPURIOUS-FREE DYNAMIC RANGE vs. OUTPUT FREQUENCY (fCLK = 150MHz) SPURIOUS-FREE DYNAMIC RANGE vs. OUTPUT FREQUENCY (fCLK = 100MHz) MAX5883 toc03 SPURIOUS-FREE DYNAMIC RANGE vs. OUTPUT FREQUENCY (fCLK = 50MHz) -90 0 -100 -40 0 10 20 30 40 50 fOUT (MHz) 60 70 80 26 28 30 32 fOUT (MHz) 34 36 38 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 fOUT (MHz) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5 MAX5883 Typical Operating Characteristics (AVDD = DVDD = VCLK = 3.3V, external reference, VREFIO = 1.25V, RL = 50Ω, IOUT = 20mA, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (AVDD = DVDD = VCLK = 3.3V, external reference, VREFIO = 1.25V, RL = 50Ω, IOUT = 20mA, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) INTEGRAL NONLINEARITY vs. DIGITAL INPUT CODE TA = +25°C 80 0.3 0.2 70 0.15 MAX5883 toc11 90 MAX5883 toc10 100 DIFFERENTIAL NONLINEARITY vs. DIGITAL INPUT CODE 0.10 TA = -40°C 0.05 DNL (LSB) TA = +85°C 50 INL (LSB) 0.1 60 0 40 30 20 MAX5883 toc12 SFDR vs. fOUT AND TEMPERATURE (fCLK = 200MHz, AOUT = -6dB FS, IFS = 20mA) SFDR (dBc) 0 -0.1 -0.05 -0.2 -0.10 10 -0.3 0 -0.15 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 DIGITAL INPUT CODE fOUT (MHz) DIGITAL INPUT CODE POWER DISSIPATION vs. CLOCK FREQUENCY (fOUT = 10MHz, AOUT = 0dB FS, IOUT = 20mA) 160 MAX5883 toc13 180 POWER DISSIPATION vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE (fCLK = 100MHz, fOUT = 10MHz, IFS = 20mA) POWER DISSIPATION (mW) 170 160 150 140 130 120 MAX5883 toc14 0 POWER DISSIPATION (mW) MAX5883 3.3V, 12-Bit, 200Msps High Dynamic Performance DAC with CMOS Inputs 152 EXTERNAL REFERENCE 144 136 INTERNAL REFERENCE 128 110 100 25 50 75 100 125 fCLK (MHz) 6 150 175 200 120 3.135 3.190 3.245 3.300 3.355 3.410 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3.465 3.3V, 12-Bit, 200Msps High Dynamic Performance DAC with CMOS Inputs PIN NAME 1, 2, 16, 25–29, 47, 48 FUNCTION N.C. No connection. Do not connect to these pins. Do not tie these pins together. 3 XOR XOR Input Pin. XOR = 1 inverts the digital input data. XOR = 0 leaves the digital input data unchanged. XOR has an internal pulldown resistor and may be left unconnected if not used. 4, 9 VCLK Clock Supply Voltage. Accepts a supply voltage range of 3.135V to 3.465V. Bypass each pin with a 0.1µF capacitor to the nearest CLKGND. 5, 8 CLKGND Clock Ground 6 CLKP Converter Clock Input. Positive input terminal for the converter clock. 7 CLKN Complementary Converter Clock Input. Negative input terminal for the converter clock. 10 PD 11, 21, 23 AVDD Analog Supply Voltage. Accepts a supply voltage range of 3.135V to 3.465V. Bypass each pin with a 0.1µF capacitor to the nearest AGND. 12, 17, 20, 22, 24, EP AGND Analog Ground. Exposed paddle (EP) must be connected to AGND. 13 REFIO Reference I/O. Output of the internal 1.2V precision bandgap reference. Bypass with a 0.1µF capacitor to AGND. Can be driven with an external reference source. 14 FSADJ Full-Scale Adjust Input. This input sets the full-scale output current of the DAC. For 20mA full-scale output current, connect a 2kΩ resistor between FSADJ and DACREF. 15 DACREF Return Path for the Current Set Resistor. For 20mA full-scale output current, connect a 2kΩ resistor between FSADJ and DACREF. 18 IOUTN Complementary DAC Output. Negative terminal for differential current output. The full-scale output current range can be set from 2mA to 20mA. 19 IOUTP DAC Output. Positive terminal for differential current output. The full-scale output current range can be set from 2mA to 20mA. 30 SEL0 Mode Select Input SEL0. This pin has an internal pulldown resistor; it can be left open to disable the segment-shuffling function (see the Segment Shuffling section). 31, 43 DVDD Digital Supply Voltage. Accepts a supply voltage range of 3.135V to 3.465V. Bypass each pin with a 0.1µF capacitor to the nearest DGND. 32, 42 DGND 33 B11 Data Bit 11 (MSB) 34 B10 Data Bit 10 35 B9 Data Bit 9 36 B8 Data Bit 8 37 B7 Data Bit 7 Power-Down Input. PD pulled high enables the DAC’s power-down mode. PD pulled low allows for normal operation of the DAC. Digital Ground _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7 MAX5883 Pin Description 3.3V, 12-Bit, 200Msps High Dynamic Performance DAC with CMOS Inputs MAX5883 Pin Description (continued) PIN NAME FUNCTION 38 B6 Data Bit 6 39 B5 Data Bit 5 40 B4 Data Bit 4 41 B3 Data Bit 3 44 B2 Data Bit 2 45 B1 Data Bit 1 46 B0 Data Bit 0 (LSB) DVDD DGND SEL0 PD FUNCTION SELECTION BLOCK 1.2V REFERENCE AGND AVDD MAX5883 REFIO FSADJ CLKN CLKP CURRENT-STEERING DAC SEGMENT SHUFFLING/LATCH DECODER CMOS RECEIVER/INPUT LATCH 12 DIGITAL INPUTS B0 THROUGH B11 Figure 1. Simplified MAX5883 Block Diagram 8 _______________________________________________________________________________________ IOUTP IOUTN 3.3V, 12-Bit, 200Msps High Dynamic Performance DAC with CMOS Inputs Architecture The MAX5883 is a high-performance, 12-bit, currentsteering DAC (Figure 1) capable of operating with clock speeds up to 200MHz. The converter consists of separate input and DAC registers, followed by a current-steering circuit. This circuit is capable of generating differential full-scale currents in the range of 2mA to 20mA. An internal current-switching network in combination with external 50Ω termination resistors convert the differential output currents into a differential output voltage with a peak-to-peak output voltage range of 0.1V to 1V. An integrated 1.2V bandgap reference, control amplifier, and user-selectable external resistor determine the data converter’s full-scale output range. RSET is the reference resistor, which determines the amplifier’s output current for the DAC. See Table 1 for a matrix of different IOUT and RSET selections. Analog Outputs (IOUTP, IOUTN) The MAX5883 outputs two complementary currents (IOUTP, IOUTN) that can be operated in a singleended or differential configuration. A load resistor can convert these two output currents into complementary single-ended output voltages. The differential voltage existing between IOUTP and IOUTN can also be converted to a single-ended voltage using a transformer or a differential amplifier configuration. If no transformer is used, the output should have a 50Ω termination to the analog ground and a 50Ω resistor between the outputs. Reference Architecture and Operation The MAX5883 supports operation with the on-chip 1.2V bandgap reference or an external reference voltage source. REFIO serves as the input for an external, lowimpedance reference source, and as the output if the DAC is operating with the internal reference. For stable operation with the internal reference, REFIO should be decoupled to AGND with a 0.1µF capacitor. Due to its limited output drive capability, REFIO must be buffered with an external amplifier, if heavier loading is required. The MAX5883’s reference circuit (Figure 2) employs a control amplifier, designed to regulate the full-scale current IOUT for the differential current outputs of the DAC. Configured as a voltage-to-current amplifier, the output current can be calculated as follows: AVDD 1.2V REFERENCE 10kΩ REFIO 0.1µF IOUTP FSADJ CURRENT-STEERING DAC IREF RSET IOUT = 32 ✕ IREFIO - 1 LSB IOUT = 32 ✕ IREFIO - (IOUT / 212) where IREFIO is the reference output current (IREFIO = VREFIO/RSET) and IOUT is the full-scale output current of the DAC. Located between FSADJ and DACREF, IOUTN DACREF IREF = VREFIO/RSET Figure 2. Reference Architecture, Internal Reference Configuration Table 1. IOUT and RSET Selection Matrix Based on a Typical 1.200V Reference Voltage FULL-SCALE CURRENT IOUT (mA) REFERENCE CURRENT IREF (µA) RSET (kΩ) CALCULATED 1% EIA STD OUTPUT VOLTAGE VIOUTP/N* (mVP-P) 2 62.5 19.2 19.1 100 5 156.26 7.68 7.5 250 10 312.5 3.84 3.83 500 15 468.75 2.56 2.55 750 20 625 1.92 1.91 1000 *Terminated into a 50Ω load. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9 MAX5883 Detailed Description MAX5883 3.3V, 12-Bit, 200Msps High Dynamic Performance DAC with CMOS Inputs Although not recommended because of additional noise pickup from the ground plane, for single-ended operation IOUTP should be selected as the output, with IOUTN connected to AGND. Note that a single-ended output configuration has a higher 2nd-order harmonic distortion at high output frequencies than a differential output configuration. Figure 3 displays a simplified diagram of the MAX5883’s internal output structure. Clock Inputs (CLKP, CLKN) The MAX5883 features a flexible differential clock input (CLKP, CLKN) operating from separate supplies (VCLK, CLKGND) to achieve the best possible jitter performance. The two clock inputs can be driven from a single-ended or a differential clock source. For singleended operation, CLKP should be driven by a logic source, while CLKN should be bypassed to AGND with a 0.1µF capacitor. The CLKP and CLKN pins are internally biased to VCLK/2. This allows the user to AC-couple clock sources directly to the device without external resistors to define the DC level. The input resistance of CLKP and CLKN is >5kΩ. See Figure 4 for a convenient and quick way to apply a differential signal created from a single-ended source (e.g., HP 8662A signal generator) and a wideband transformer. These inputs can also be driven from a CMOS-compatible clock source; however, it is recommended to use sinewave or AC-coupled ECL drive for best performance. Data Timing Relationship Figure 5 shows the timing relationship between differential, digital CMOS data, clock, and output signals. The MAX5883 features a 1.25ns hold, a 0.4ns setup, AVDD and a 1.8ns propagation delay time. There is a 3.5 clock-cycle latency between CLKP/CLKN transitioning high/low and IOUTP/IOUTN. CMOS-Compatible Digital Inputs (B0–B11) The MAX5883 features single-ended, CMOS-compatible receivers on the bus input interface. These CMOS inputs (B0–B11) allow for a voltage swing of 3.3V. Segment Shuffling (SEL0) Segment shuffling can improve the SFDR of the MAX5883 at higher output frequencies and amplitudes. Note that an improvement in SFDR can only be achieved at the cost of a slight increase in the DAC’s noise floor. Pin SEL0 controls the segment-shuffling function. If SEL0 is pulled low, the segment-shuffling function of the DAC is disabled. SEL0 can also be left open, because an internal pulldown resistor helps to deactivate the segment-shuffling feature. To activate the MAX5883 segment-shuffling function, SEL0 must be pulled high. XOR Function (XOR) The MAX5883 is equipped with a single-ended, CMOScompatible XOR input, which may be left open (XOR provides an internal pulldown resistor) or pulled down to DGND, if not used. Input data is XORed with the bit applied to the XOR pin. Pulling XOR high inverts the input data. Pulling XOR low leaves the input data noninverted. By applying a pseudorandom bit stream to XOR and applying inverted data when XOR is high, the bit transitions of the digital input data can be decorrelated from the DAC output. This allows the user to troubleshoot possible spurious or harmonic distortion degradation due to digital feedthrough on the PC board. 0.1µF WIDEBAND RF TRANSFORMER PERFORMS SINGLE-ENDED TO DIFFERENTIAL CONVERSION. CURRENT SOURCES CLKP 25Ω CURRENT SWITCHES TO DAC 1:1 SINGLE-ENDED CLOCK SOURCE (e.g., HP 8662A) 25Ω 0.1µF IOUT IOUT IOUTN Figure 3. Simplified Analog Output Structure 10 IOUTP CLKGND Figure 4. Differential Clock Signal Generation ______________________________________________________________________________________ CLKN 3.3V, 12-Bit, 200Msps High Dynamic Performance DAC with CMOS Inputs B0 TO B15 OUTPUT DATA IS UPDATED ON THE FALLING EDGE OF CLKP N+1 N N-1 tSETUP MAX5883 DIGITAL DATA IS LATCHED ON THE RISING EDGE OF CLKP tHOLD N+2 tCH tCL CLKP CLKN tPD IOUT N-5 N-4 N-3 N-2 N-1 Figure 5. Detailed Timing Relationship Power-Down Operation (PD) The MAX5883 also features an active-high power-down mode, which allows the user to cut the DAC’s current consumption. A single pin (PD) is used to control the power-down mode (PD = 1) or reactivate the DAC (PD = 0) after power-down. Enabling the power-down mode of this 12-bit CMOS DAC allows the overall power consumption to be reduced to less than 1mW. The MAX5883 requires 10ms to wake up from power-down and enter a fully operational state. Applications Information Differential Coupling Using a Wideband RF Transformer The differential voltage existing between IOUTP and IOUTN can also be converted to a single-ended voltage using a transformer (Figure 6) or a differential amplifier configuration. Using a differential transformercoupled output, in which the output power is limited to 0dBm, can optimize the dynamic performance. However, make sure to pay close attention to the transformer core saturation characteristics when selecting a transformer for the MAX5883. Transformer core saturation can introduce strong 2nd-harmonic distortion, especially at low output frequencies and high signal amplitudes. It is also recommended to center tap the transformer to ground. If no transformer is used, each DAC output should be terminated to ground with a 50Ω resistor. Additionally, a 100Ω resistor should be placed between the outputs. If a single-ended unipolar output is desirable, IOUTP should be selected as the output, with IOUTN grounded. However, driving the MAX5883 single ended is not recommended since additional noise is added (from the ground plane) in such configurations. The distortion performance of the DAC depends on the load impedance. The MAX5883 is optimized for a 50Ω double termination. It can be used with a transformer output as shown in Figure 7 or just one 50Ω resistor from each output to ground and one 50Ω resistor between the outputs. This produces a full-scale output power of up to 0dBm, depending on the output current setting. Higher termination impedance can be used at the cost of degraded distortion performance and increased output noise voltage. Adjacent Channel Leakage Power Ratio (ACLR) Testing for CDMA- and W-CDMA-Based Base Station Transceiver Systems (BTS) The transmitter sections of BTS applications serving CDMA and W-CDMA architectures must generate carriers with minimal coupling of carrier energy into the adjacent channels. A transmit mask (Tx mask) exists for this application. The spread-spectrum modulation function applied to the carrier frequency generates a spectral response, which is uniform over a given bandwidth (up to 4MHz) for a W-CDMA-modulated carrier. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 11 MAX5883 3.3V, 12-Bit, 200Msps High Dynamic Performance DAC with CMOS Inputs AVDD DVDD VCLK 50Ω T2, 1:1 VOUT, SINGLE ENDED IOUTP B0–B11 100Ω MAX5883 IOUTN 12 T1, 1:1 AGND DGND WIDEBAND RF TRANSFORMER T2 PERFORMS THE DIFFERENTIAL TO SINGLE-ENDED CONVERSION. 50Ω CLKGND Figure 6. Differential to Single-Ended Conversion Using a Wideband RF Transformer AVDD DVDD VCLK 50Ω OUTP IOUTP B0–B11 100Ω MAX5883 IOUTN 12 AGND DGND CLKGND OUTN 50Ω Figure 7. MAX5883 Differential Output Configuration A dominant specification is ACLR, a parameter which reflects the ratio of the power in the desired carrier band to the power in an adjacent carrier band. The specification covers the first two adjacent bands, and is measured on both sides of the desired carrier. According to the transmit mask for CDMA and WCDMA architectures, the power ratio of the integrated carrier channel energy to the integrated adjacent channel energy must be >45dB for the first adjacent carrier slot (ACLR 1) and >50dB for the second adjacent carrier slot (ACLR 2). This specification applies to the output of the entire transmitter signal chain. The requirement for only the DAC block of the transmitter must be tighter, with a typical margin of >15dB, requiring the DAC’s ACLR 1 to be better than 60dB. Adjacent channel leakage is caused by a single spreadspectrum carrier, which generates intermodulation (IM) products between the frequency components located within the carrier band. The energy at one end of the carrier band generates IM products with the energy from the opposite end of the carrier band. For singlecarrier W-CDMA modulation, these IMD products are spread 3.84MHz over the adjacent sideband. Four contiguous W-CDMA carriers spread their IM products over a bandwidth of 20MHz on either side of the 20MHz total carrier bandwidth. In this four-carrier scenario, only the energy in the first adjacent 3.84MHz sideband is considered for ACLR 1. To measure ACLR, drive the converter with a W-CDMA pattern. Make sure that the signal is backed off by the peak-to-average ratio, such that the DAC is not clipping the signal. ACLR can then be measured with the ACLR measurement function built into your spectrum analyzer. Figure 8 shows the ACLR performance for a single W-CDMA carrier (fCLK = 184.32MHz, fOUT = 30.72MHz) applied to the MAX5883 (including measurement system limitations*). Figure 9 illustrates the ACLR test results for the MAX5883 with a four-carrier W-CDMA signal at an output frequency of 30.72MHz and a sampling frequency of 184.32MHz. Considerable care must be taken to ensure accurate measurement of this parameter. Grounding, Bypassing, and Power-Supply Considerations Grounding and power-supply decoupling can strongly influence the performance of the MAX5883. Unwanted digital crosstalk may couple through the input, reference, power supply, and ground connections, affecting dynamic performance. Proper grounding and power- *Note that due to their own IM effects and noise limitations, spectrum analyzers introduce ACLR errors, which can falsify the measurement. For a single-carrier ACLR measurement greater than 70dB, these measurement limitations are significant, becoming even more restricting for multicarrier measurement. Before attempting an ACLR measurement, it is recommended consulting application notes provided by major spectrum analyzer manufacturers that provide useful tips on how to use their instruments for such tests. 12 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3.3V, 12-Bit, 200Msps High Dynamic Performance DAC with CMOS Inputs -40 -20 fCLK = 184.32MHz fCENTER = 30.72MHz ACLR = 71dB -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 -30 ANALOG OUTPUT POWER (dBm) ANALOG OUTPUT POWER (dBm) -30 ACLR = 67dB -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 -110 -110 -120 -120 3.5MHz/div fCLK = 184.32MHz fCENTER = 30.72MHz MAX5883 -20 4MHz/div Figure 8. ACLR for W-CDMA Modulation, Single Carrier Figure 9. ACLR for W-CDMA Modulation, Four Carriers supply decoupling guidelines for high-speed, high-frequency applications should be closely followed. This reduces EMI and internal crosstalk that can significantly affect the dynamic performance of the MAX5883. point they enter the PC board with tantalum or electrolytic capacitors. Ferrite beads with additional decoupling capacitors forming a pi network could also improve performance. The analog and digital power-supply inputs AV DD , VCLK, and DVDD of the MAX5883 allow a supply voltage range of 3.3V ±5%. Use of a multilayer printed circuit (PC) board with separate ground and power-supply planes is recommended. High-speed signals should run on lines directly above the ground plane. Since the MAX5883 has separate analog and digital ground buses (AGND, CLKGND, and DGND, respectively), the PC board should also have separate analog and digital ground sections with only one point connecting the two planes. Digital signals should be run above the digital ground plane and analog/clock signals above the analog/clock ground plane. Digital signals should be kept as far away from sensitive analog inputs, reference input sense lines, common-mode input, and clock inputs as practical. A symmetric design of clock input and analog output lines is recommended to minimize 2nd-order harmonic distortion components and optimize the DAC’s dynamic performance. Digital signal paths should be kept short and run lengths matched to avoid propagation delay and data skew mismatches. The MAX5883 supports three separate power-supply inputs for analog (AVDD), digital (DVDD), and clock (VCLK) circuitry. Each AVDD, DVDD, and VCLK input should at least be decoupled with a separate 0.1µF capacitor as close to the pin as possible and their opposite ends with the shortest possible connection to the corresponding ground plane (Figure 10). All three power-supply voltages should also be decoupled at the The MAX5883 is packaged in a 48-pin QFN-EP (package code: G4877-1), providing greater design flexibility, increased thermal efficiency**, and optimized AC performance of the DAC. The exposed pad (EP) enables the user to implement grounding techniques, which are necessary to ensure highest performance operation. The EP must be soldered down to AGND. In this package, the data converter die is attached to an EP lead frame with the back of this frame exposed at the package bottom surface, facing the PC board side of the package. This allows a solid attachment of the package to the PC board with standard infrared (IR) flow soldering techniques. A specially created land pattern on the PC board, matching the size of the EP (5mm ✕ 5mm), ensures the proper attachment and grounding of the DAC. Designing vias*** into the land area and implementing large ground planes in the PC board design allow for highest performance operation of the DAC. An array of at least 3 ✕ 3 vias (≤0.3mm diameter per via hole and 1.2mm pitch between via holes) is recommended for this 48-pin QFN-EP package. **Thermal efficiency is not the key factor, since the MAX5883 features low-power operation. The exposed pad is the key element to ensure a solid ground connection between the DAC and the PC board’s analog ground layer. ***Vias connect the land pattern to internal or external copper planes. It is important to connect as many vias as possible to the analog ground plane to minimize inductance. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 13 MAX5883 3.3V, 12-Bit, 200Msps High Dynamic Performance DAC with CMOS Inputs Static Performance Parameter Definitions Integral Nonlinearity (INL) Integral nonlinearity is the deviation of the values on an actual transfer function from either a best straight line fit (closest approximation to the actual transfer curve) or a line drawn between the end points of the transfer function, once offset and gain errors have been nullified. For a DAC, the deviations are measured at every individual step. Differential Nonlinearity (DNL) Differential nonlinearity is the difference between an actual step height and the ideal value of 1 LSB. A DNL error specification of less than 1 LSB guarantees no missing codes and a monotonic transfer function. Offset Error The offset error is the difference between the ideal and the actual offset current. For a DAC, the offset point is the average value at the output for the two midscale digital input codes with respect to the full scale of the DAC. This error affects all codes by the same amount. Gain Error A gain error is the difference between the ideal and the actual full-scale output voltage on the transfer curve, after nullifying the offset error. This error alters the slope of the transfer function and corresponds to the same percentage error in each step. Settling Time The settling time is the amount of time required from the start of a transition until the DAC output settles its new output value to within the converter’s specified accuracy. Glitch Energy A glitch is generated when a DAC switches between two codes. The largest glitch is usually generated around the midscale transition, when the input pattern transitions from 011...111 to 100...000. The glitch energy is found by integrating the voltage of the glitch at the midscale transition over time. The glitch energy is usually specified in pV-s. 14 Dynamic Performance Parameter Definitions Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) For a waveform perfectly reconstructed from digital samples, the theoretical maximum SNR is the ratio of the fullscale analog output (RMS value) to the RMS quantization error (residual error). The ideal, theoretical maximum SNR can be derived from the DAC’s resolution (N bits): SNRdB = 6.02dB ✕ N + 1.76dB However, noise sources such as thermal noise, reference noise, clock jitter, etc., affect the ideal reading; therefore, SNR is computed by taking the ratio of the RMS signal to the RMS noise, which includes all spectral components minus the fundamental, the first four harmonics, and the DC offset. Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) SFDR is the ratio of RMS amplitude of the carrier frequency (maximum signal components) to the RMS value of their next-largest distortion component. SFDR is usually measured in dBc and with respect to the carrier frequency amplitude or in dB FS with respect to the DAC’s full-scale range. Depending on its test condition, SFDR is observed within a predefined window or to Nyquist. Two-/Four-Tone Intermodulation Distortion (IMD) The two-tone IMD is the ratio expressed in dBc (or dB FS) of either input tone to the worst 3rd-order (or higher) IMD products. Note that 2nd-order IMD products usually fall at frequencies that can be easily removed by digital filtering; therefore, they are not as critical as 3rd-order IMDs. The two-tone IMD performance of the MAX5883 was tested with the two individual input tone levels set to at least -6dB FS and the four-tone performance was tested at an output frequency of 32MHz and amplitude of -12dB FS. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3.3V, 12-Bit, 200Msps High Dynamic Performance DAC with CMOS Inputs Commonly used in combination with W-CDMA, ACLR reflects the leakage power ratio in dB between the measured power within a channel relative to its adjacent channel. ACLR provides a quantifiable method of determining out-of-band spectral energy and its influence on an adjacent channel when a bandwidth-limited RF signal passes through a nonlinear device. Chip Information TRANSISTOR COUNT: 10,721 PROCESS: CMOS BYPASSING—DAC LEVEL BYPASSING—BOARD LEVEL AVCC AVDD VCLK FERRITE BEAD 1µF 0.1µF 0.1µF 10µF 47µF ANALOG POWER-SUPPLY SOURCE 47µF DIGITAL POWER-SUPPLY SOURCE 47µF CLOCK POWER-SUPPLY SOURCE CLKGND AGND DVCC OUTP B0–B11 FERRITE BEAD MAX5883 1µF 12 10µF OUTN 0.1µF VCLK FERRITE BEAD DGND 1µF 10µF DVDD Figure 10. Recommended Power-Supply Decoupling and Bypassing Circuitry ______________________________________________________________________________________ 15 MAX5883 Adjacent Channel Leakage Power Ratio (ACLR) Package Information (The package drawing(s) in this data sheet may not reflect the most current specifications. For the latest package outline information, go to www.maxim-ic.com/packages.) 32, 44, 48L QFN.EPS MAX5883 3.3V, 12-Bit, 200Msps High Dynamic Performance DAC with CMOS Inputs PACKAGE OUTLINE 32,44,48L QFN, 7x7x0.90 MM 21-0092 H 1 2 U PACKAGE OUTLINE, 32,44,48L QFN, 7x7x0.90 MM 21-0092 H 2 2 MAX5883 Package Code: G4877-1 Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. 16 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600 © 2003 Maxim Integrated Products Printed USA is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products.