19-1029; Rev 0; 10/07 Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner Features The MAX3541 complete single-conversion television tuner is designed for use in analog/digital terrestrial applications and digital set-top boxes. This television tuner draws only 760mW of power from a +3.3V supply voltage. The MAX3541 is designed to convert PAL or DVB-C signals in the 47MHz to 68MHz, 174MHz to 230MHz, and 470MHz to 862MHz bands to an intermediate frequency (IF) of 36MHz. The MAX3541 includes a variable-gain low-noise amplifier (LNA), multiband tracking filters, a harmonic-rejection mixer, a low-noise IF amplifier, an IF power detector, and a variable-gain IF amplifier. The MAX3541 also includes fully monolithic VCOs and tank circuits, as well as a complete frequency synthesizer. This highly integrated design allows for low-power tuner-on-board applications without the cost and power dissipation issues of dualconversion tuner solutions. The MAX3541 is specified for operation in the -40°C to +85°C temperature range and is available in a leadless 48-pin flip-chip (fcLGA) package. ♦ Low Power Consumption: 760mW (typ) from a +3.3V Supply Voltage ♦ Integrated Tracking Filters ♦ Low Noise Figure: 4.9dB (typ) ♦ Small 7mm x 7mm fcLGA Leadless Package ♦ IF Overload Detector Controls RF Variable-Gain Amplifier ♦ 2-Wire, I2C-Compatible Serial Control Interface Ordering Information TEMP RANGE PART PINPACKAGE MAX3541ELM#G42 -40°C to +85°C 48 fcLGA-EP* PKG CODE L4877F-A *EP = Exposed paddle. #Indicates RoHS-compliant and exempt from lead-free requirements. Applications Televisions Analog/Digital Terrestrial Receivers Digital Set-Top Boxes ADDR2 ADDR1 XTALP XTALN VCC CP MUX VCC VTUNE GND_TUNE LDO VCC Pin Configuration/Functional Diagram 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 SCL 1 36 IFOUT1÷R PD CP 35 IFOUT1+ SDA 2 ÷N SERIAL INTERFACE VCC 3 34 IFOVLD VCO DIVIDER UHF_IN 4 33 VCC VHF_IN 5 VREF + - RFGND2 6 32 VCC 31 GND LEXT 7 30 IFIN+ RFGND3 8 29 IFIN- RFAGC 9 28 VCC MAX3541 VCC 10 27 GND EP GND 11 26 IFAGC GND 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 GND GND GND GND GND GND GND GND GND GND VCC IFOUT2- 25 IFOUT2+ ________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim’s website at www.maxim-ic.com. 1 MAX3541 General Description MAX3541 Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS VCC to GND ..............................................................-0.3V, +3.6V RFIN, IFIN_ IFOUT1_, IFOUT2_, IFAGC, RFAGC, VTUNE, LDO, MUX, CP, XTAL to GND ....................................-0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V) SDA, SCL, ADDR2, ADDR1 to GND......................-0.3V to +3.6V IFOUT__ Short-Circuit Duration .....................................Indefinite RF Input Power ...............................................................+10dBm Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C) 48-Pin fcLGA (derate 25mW/°C above +70°C) ..............1.4W Operating Temperature Range ...........................-40°C to +85°C Junction Temperature ......................................................+150°C Storage Temperature Range .............................-65°C to +165°C Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. CAUTION! ESD SENSITIVE DEVICE DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (MAX3541 EV kit, VCC = +3.1V to +3.5V, TA = -40°C to +85°C, no RF signals at RF inputs, default register settings, VRFAGC = VIFAGC = +3V (minimum attenuation), unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at VCC = +3.3V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS +3.5 V SUPPLY VOLTAGE AND CURRENT Supply Voltage Supply Current RF and IF AGC Input Bias Current RF and IF AGC Control Voltage (Note 1) +3.1 Receive mode (SHDN = 3V) 230 Shutdown mode (SHDN = 0V) 275 5 At +0.5V and +3V -50 Minimum attenuation +3 +50 Maximum attenuation +0.5 Digital Input Logic-Level Low 0.3 x VCC Digital Input Logic-Level High 0.7 x VCC mA μA V V V SERIAL INTERFACE Input Logic-Level Low 0.3 x VCC Input Logic-Level High 0.7 x VCC Input Hysteresis Output Logic-Level Low Output Logic-Level High 2 V 0.05 x VCC SDA, SCL Input Current -10 3mA sink current V +10 0.4 VCC - 0.5 _______________________________________________________________________________________ V μA V V Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner (MAX3541 EV kit, VCC = +3.1V to +3.5V, TA = -40°C to +85°C, 75Ω system impedance, default register settings, VRFAGC = VIFAGC = +3V (minimum attenuation), unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at VCC = +3.3V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS RF INPUT TO IFOUT1 OUTPUT Operating Frequency Range (see Table 7) Gain specification met across these frequency bands 47 68 174 230 470 Analog channel PIX carrier Output Frequency Source impedance = 75Ω, load impedance = 200Ω Voltage Gain Maximum gain (VRAVGC = 3V) 862 38.9 Digital channel center frequency MHz 36 33 MHz 41 49 dB Minimum gain (VRAVGC = 0.5V) -10 Input Return Loss Selected channel 10 dB Noise Figure Maximum gain (VRFAGC = 3V) 4.9 dB Maximum gain (VRFAGC = 3V) 20 At 12.5dB of gain 30 Input IP2 (In-Band and Out-of-Band Tones) Input IP3 (In-Band and Out-of-Band Tones) Input P1dB Beats Within Output Beats, Converted to Output Maximum gain (VRFAGC = 3V) At 12.5dB of gain dBm -10 dBm 10 Maximum gain (VRFAGC = 3V) -38 At 12.5dB of gain -5 0dBmV PIX carrier level -40 VHF input, 140MHz to 500MHz -60 VHF input, 500MHz to 1400MHz -50 UHF input, 950MHz to 1400MHz -60 dBm dBc dBc Gain Flatness 47MHz to 54MHz Isolation 5MHz to 50MHz, RF input to IF output, relative to desired channel 60 dBc Port-to-Port Isolation Isolation between RF input ports at 215MHz 27 dB Image Rejection Measured at 77.8MHz above desired channel’s center frequency 70 dBc Spurious Leakage at RF Input Phase Noise (Single-Sideband) Output Return Loss 2.5 57 5Hz to 65MHz -40 65MHz to 878MHz -40 1kHz -80 10kHz offset -85 100kHz offset (1.5kHz loop bandwidth) -105 1MHz offset (1.5kHz loop bandwidth) -125 Balanced 50Ω load dBP-P dBmV dBc/Hz 20 dB 2000 Ω IF VARIABLE-GAIN AMPLIFIER Input Impedance Balanced Output Impedance Balanced (Note 1) 300 Ω _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 MAX3541 AC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS MAX3541 Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner AC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) (MAX3541 EV kit, VCC = +3.1V to +3.5V, TA = -40°C to +85°C, 75Ω system impedance, default register settings, VRFAGC = VIFAGC = +3V (minimum attenuation), unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at VCC = +3.3V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) PARAMETER Passband Voltage Gain CONDITIONS Source load = 1.1kΩ, output load = 1kΩ Maximum gain setting (VIFAGC = 3V) MIN TYP MAX 54 59 63 UNITS dB Minimum gain setting (VIFAGC = 0.5V) 21 Passband Gain Flatness 32MHz to 40MHz (Note 1) 1.2 dB Output Voltage VIFAGC = 3V (Note 1) 2.5 VP-P AGC Gain Slope VIFAGC = 3V to 0.5V (Note 1) 27 dB/V Equivalent Input Voltage Noise Density At 36MHz, maximum gain (VIFAGC = 3V) (Note 1) 7.3 nV/√Hz Noise Figure Change vs. Attenuation IM3 < 0.35 VOUT = 1VP-P, 40dB < gain < 60dB (Note 1) dB/dB -56 dBc IF OVERLOAD DETECTOR (See the IF Overload Detector Section) Output Overload Attack Point Attack Point Accuracy OD REG = 3 Detector Output Voltage Range Negative polarity, overload reduces VDET (open collector, 0.3mA sink) 0.7 VP-P ±1 dB 0.5 Detector Gain 3.0 V 70 V/V 8 MHz FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER REFERENCE OSCILLATOR Frequency DIVIDERS RF N-Divider Ratio 256 32,767 RF R-Divider Ratio 16 127 LO PHASE DETECTOR AND CHARGE PUMP Comparison Frequency 63 CP = 00 Charge-Pump Current 250 CP = 01 1 CP = 10 1.5 CP = 11 2 Charge-Pump Three-State Current mA ±5 Charge-Pump Compliance Range kHz 0.5 VCC 0.4 0.4 Charge-Pump Current Matching nA 5 V % LOCAL OSCILLATOR VCO Tuning Range Tank frequency VCO Tuning Gain Tank oscillator gain 2200 4400 MHz 500 MHz/V 400 kHz 2-WIRE SERIAL INTERFACE Clock Frequency Note 1: Guaranteed by design and characterization. 4 _______________________________________________________________________________________ Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner 200 196 40 +25°C 20 0 fRF = 801MHz +85°C +25°C 0 -20 -20 0.5 VHF VOLTAGE GAIN vs. FREQUENCY 2.5 0.5 3.0 VHF VOLTAGE GAIN (dB) 44 42 +25°C 50 1.0 1.5 2.0 RFAGC VOLTAGE (V) 2.5 3.0 UHF VOLTAGE GAIN vs. FREQUENCY VHF VOLTAGE GAIN vs. FREQUENCY 60 MAX3541 toc05 -40°C 1.5 2.0 RFAGC VOLTAGE (V) 55 MAX3541 toc04 46 1.0 -40°C 45 40 MAX3541 toc06 3.5 -40°C UHF VOLTAGE GAIN (dB) 3.2 3.3 3.4 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 40 20 +85°C 192 3.1 -40°C 40 -40°C +25°C 50 40 +25°C 30 +25°C +85°C +85°C +85°C 20 35 50 55 60 FREQUENCY (MHz) 65 70 170 180 190 200 210 FREQUENCY (MHz) 220 +55°C +85°C +25°C 470 230 NOISE FIGURE (dB) 5 0°C 670 770 FREQUENCY (MHz) 7 +55°C +25°C 3 570 870 VHF NOISE FIGURE vs. FREQUENCY VHF NOISE FIGURE vs. FREQUENCY 7 MAX3541 toc07 45 -40°C +85°C MAX3541 toc08 38 NOISE FIGURE (dB) VHF VOLTAGE GAIN (dB) -40°C UHF VOLTAGE GAIN (dB) +85°C 60 MAX3541 toc02 MAX3541 toc01 fRF = 64.5MHz VHF VOLTAGE GAIN (dB) SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) 204 UHF VOLTAGE GAIN vs. RFAGC VOLTAGE VHF VOLTAGE GAIN vs. RFAGC VOLTAGE 60 MAX3541 toc03 SUPPLY CURRENT vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE 208 5 3 0°C -40°C 1 1 48 51 54 57 FREQUENCY (MHz) 60 63 175 185 195 205 FREQUENCY (MHz) 215 225 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5 MAX3541 Typical Operating Characteristics (MAX3541EV kit, VCC = +3.3V, VIFAGC = 3.0V, VRFAGC = 3.0V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (MAX3541EV kit, VCC = +3.3V, VIFAGC = 3.0V, VRFAGC = 3.0V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) VHF NOISE FIGURE vs. RFAGC VOLTAGE UHF NOISE FIGURE vs. FREQUENCY fRF = 224.25MHz +85°C 16 NOISE FIGURE (dB) 5 3 +25°C 0°C MAX3541 toc10 +85°C +55°C NOISE FIGURE (dB) 20 MAX3541 toc09 7 +55°C 12 +25°C 8 4 -40°C 0°C -40°C 0 1 560 650 740 FREQUENCY (MHz) 1.8 830 UHF NOISE FIGURE vs. RFAGC VOLTAGE fRF = 631.25MHz +25°C 12 +55°C 2.8 3.0 VHF IMAGE REJECTION vs. FREQUENCY -40°C VHF IMAGE REJECTION (dB) NOISE FIGURE (dB) 16 2.2 2.4 2.6 RFAGC VOLTAGE (V) 80 MAX3541 toc11 20 2.0 +85°C 8 -40°C 0°C 4 MAX3541 toc12 470 0°C 78 76 +25°C 74 +55°C 72 +85°C 0 70 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 RFAGC VOLTAGE (V) 2.8 3.0 47 VHF IMAGE REJECTION vs. FREQUENCY -40°C 0°C 63 UHF IMAGE REJECTION vs. FREQUENCY 74 UHF IMAGE REJECTION (dB) 76 55 59 FREQUENCY (MHz) 76 MAX3541 toc13 77 51 75 +25°C 74 73 MAX3541 to14 1.8 VHF IMAGE REJECTION (dB) MAX3541 Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner 0°C 72 70 +25°C -40°C +55°C 68 66 +85°C 72 175 6 +55°C +85°C 185 195 205 FREQUENCY (MHz) 64 215 225 470 570 670 770 FREQUENCY (MHz) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 870 Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner VHF-L PHASE NOISE AT 10kHz OFFSET vs. CHANNEL FREQUENCY VHF-L PHASE NOISE AT 10kHz OFFSET vs. CHANNEL FREQUENCY -99 -101 -103 -105 -92 -94 -96 -98 -100 50 55 60 65 CHANNEL FREQUENCY (MHz) 70 170 UHF PHASE NOISE AT 10kHz OFFSET vs. CHANNEL FREQUENCY 240 VHF PHASE NOISE vs. OFFSET FREQUENCY MAX3541 toc17 -83 190 200 210 220 230 CHANNEL FREQUENCY (MHz) -60 fRF = 64.5MHz VHF PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz) -86 -89 -92 -95 -80 -100 -120 -140 400 500 600 700 800 CHANNEL FREQUENCY (MHz) 900 0.1 -70 5 MAX3541 toc19 fRF = 801MHz 0 IFOUT1 POWER (dBm) -80 -90 -100 -110 1000 IFOUT1 NORMALIZED FREQUENCY RESPONSE (5MHz to 200MHz) UHF PHASE NOISE vs. OFFSET FREQUENCY -60 1 10 100 OFFSET FREQUENCY (kHz) MAX3541 toc20 UHF PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz) -80 180 MAX3541 toc18 45 UHF PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz) MAX3541 toc16 -97 -90 VHF-L PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz) MAX3541 toc15 VHF-L PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz) -95 -5 -10 -15 -120 -130 -20 0.1 1 10 100 OFFSET FREQUENCY (kHz) 1000 1 10 100 FREQUENCY (MHz) 1000 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7 MAX3541 Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (MAX3541EV kit, VCC = +3.3V, VIFAGC = 3.0V, VRFAGC = 3.0V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (MAX3541EV kit, VCC = +3.3V, VIFAGC = 3.0V, VRFAGC = 3.0V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) IFVGA VOLTAGE GAIN vs. IFAGC VOLTAGE IFVGA IM3 vs. IFAGC VOLTAGE 50 -20 VOUT = 1.5 VP-P PIN -30 IFVGA IM3 (dBc) +25°C 40 +85°C 30 -40 -40 -60 INPUT POWER (dBm) -40°C MAX3541 toc22 -20 MAX3541 toc21 60 IFVGA VOLTAGE GAIN (dB) MAX3541 Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner -50 20 IM3 10 -60 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 IFAGC VOLTAGE (V) 2.5 3.0 -80 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 IFAGC VOLTAGE (V) 2.5 3.0 Pin Description PIN NAME 1 SCL 2-Wire Serial-Clock Interface. Requires a pullup resistor to VCC. 2 SDA 2-Wire Serial-Data Interface. Requires a pullup resistor to VCC. 3, 10, 23, 28, 32, 33, 37, 41, 44 VCC Power Supply Connections. Bypass each supply pin to ground with a 1000pF capacitor. 4 UHF_IN 5 VHF_IN 6 RFGND2 7 LEXT 8 RFGND3 9 RFAGC DESCRIPTION UHF RF Input. Requires a DC-blocking capacitor. VHF RF Input. Requires a DC-blocking capacitor. RF Ground. Bypass to the PCB’s ground plane with a 1000pF capacitor. Do not connect RFGND2 and RFGND3 together. RF VGA Supply Voltage. Connect through a 270nH pullup inductor to VCC. RF Ground. Bypass to the PCB’s ground plane with a 1000pF capacitor. Do not connect RFGND2 and RFGND3 together. RF VGA Gain Control Voltage. Accepts a DC voltage from 0.5V (minimum gain) to 3V (maximum gain). 11–22, 27, 31 GND 24 IFOUT2- Inverting IF VGA Output. Connect to the input of an anti-aliasing filter. Requires a DC-blocking capacitor. 25 IFOUT2+ Noninverting IF VGA Output. Connect to the input of an anti-aliasing filter. Requires a DC-blocking capacitor. 26 IFAGC 29 IFIN- Inverting IF VGA Input. Connect to the output of an IF-SAW filter. 30 IFIN+ Noninverting IF VGA Input. Connect to the output of an IF-SAW filter. 8 Ground. Connect to the PCB’s ground plane. IF VGA Gain Control Voltage. Accepts a DC voltage from 0.5V (minimum gain) to 3V (maximum gain). 34 IFOVLD 35 IFOUT1+ IF Overload Detector Open-Collector Output. Requires a 10kΩ pullup resistor to VCC. Noninverting IF LNA Output. Requires a DC-blocking capacitor. 36 IFOUT1- Inverting IF LNA Output. Requires a DC-blocking capacitor. 38 LDO VCO LDO Bypass. Bypass to ground with a 0.47μF capacitor. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner PIN NAME 39 GND_TUNE 40 VTUNE 42 MUX DESCRIPTION VTUNE Ground Connection. Connect to the PCB ground plane. All loop filter component GNDs must be connected to this pin (see the Typical Application Circuit). VCO Tuning Input. Connect to the PLL loop filter output. Test Output. Leave this pin unconnected during normal operation. 43 CP 45 XTALN Charge-Pump Output. Connect to PLL loop filter input. Crystal Oscillator Feedback. See the Typical Application Circuit. 46 XTALP Crystal Oscillator Feedback. See the Typical Application Circuit. 47 ADDR1 2-Wire Serial-Interface Address Line 1. This pin along with ADDR2 sets the device address for the I2C-compatible serial interface. 48 ADDR2 2-Wire Serial-Interface Address Line 2. This pin along with ADDR1 sets the device address for the I2C-compatible serial interface. EP GND Exposed Paddle. Solder evenly to the PCB ground plane for proper operation. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9 MAX3541 Pin Description (continued) MAX3541 Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner Detailed Description Register Descriptions The MAX3541 includes 11 programmable registers and 2 read-only registers. The 11 programmable registers include two N-divider registers, an R-divider register, a VCO register, an IFOVLD/Charge Pump/Filter Select register, a Control register, a Shutdown register, and Tracking Filter Control registers. These 11 programmable registers are also readable. The read-only registers include a status register and a ROM table data register. Recommended default bit settings are provided for user convenience only and are not guaranteed. The user must write all registers after power-up and no earlier than 100μs after power-up. Table 1. Register Configuration MSB REGISTER NAME LSB READ/ REGISTER WRITE ADDRESS DATA BYTE D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 N-DIV High Both 0x00 0 N14 N13 N12 N11 N10 N9 N8 N-DIV Low Both 0x01 N7 N6 N5 N4 N3 N2 N1 N0 R-DIV Both 0x02 0 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1 R0 VCO Both 0x03 VCO4 VCO3 VCO2 VCO1 VCO0 LD VDIV1 VDIV0 IFOVLD, Charge Pump, and Filter Select Both 0x04 0 IFOVLD2 IFOVLD1 IFOVLD0 CP1 CP0 TF 0 Control Both 0x05 0 0 0 0 SHDN _RF SHDN _IFVGA INPT1 INPT0 Shutdown Both 0x06 SHDN _MIX1 SHDN _MIX0 SHDN _IF SHDN _OD SHDN _SYN 0 0 0 Tracking Filter Series Capacitor Both 0x07 TFS7 TFS6 TFS5 TFS4 TFS3 TFS2 TFS1 TFS0 Tracking Filter Parallel Capacitor Both 0x08 FLD 0 TFP5 TFP4 TFP3 TFP2 TFP1 TFP0 Tracking Filter ROM Address Both 0x09 0 0 0 0 TFA3 TFA2 TFA1 TFA0 Reserved Both 0x0A X X X X X X X X ROM Table Data Readback Read 0x0B TFR7 TFR6 TFR5 TFR4 TFR3 TFR2 TFR1 TFR0 Status Read 0x0C POR LD2 LD1 LD0 X X X X Table 2. N-DIV High Register (Address: 0000b) BIT NAME BIT LOCATION (0 = LSB) RECOMMENDED DEFAULT RESERVED 7 0 N[14:8] 6-0 0000001 10 FUNCTION Must be set to 0. Sets the most significant bits of the PLL integer divider (N). Default integer divider value is N = 4688. N can range from 256 to 32,767. ______________________________________________________________________________________ Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner MAX3541 Table 3. N-DIV Low Register (Address: 0001b) BIT NAME BIT LOCATION (0 = LSB) RECOMMENDED DEFAULT N[7:0] 7-0 10101011 FUNCTION Sets the least significant bits of the PLL integer divider (N). Default integer divider value is N = 4688. N can range from 256 to 32,767. Table 4. R-DIV Register (Address: 0010b) BIT NAME BIT LOCATION (0 = LSB) RECOMMENDED DEFAULT RESERVED 7 0 R[6:0] 6-0 0010000 FUNCTION Must be set to 0. Sets the PLL reference divider (R). Default reference divider value is R = 64. R can range from 16 to 127. Table 5. VCO Register (Address: 0011b) BIT NAME VCO[4:3] BIT LOCATION (0 = LSB) 7-6 RECOMMENDED DEFAULT FUNCTION 10 VCO select. Selects one of three possible VCOs. 00 = VCOs shut down 01 = Selects VCO1 10 = Selects VCO2 11 = Selects VCO3 VCO sub-band select. Selects one of eight possible VCO sub-bands. 000 = Selects SB0 001 = Selects SB1 010 = Selects SB2 011 = Selects SB3 100 = Selects SB4 101 = Selects SB5 110 = Selects SB6 111 = Selects SB7 VCO[2:0] 5-3 111 LD 2 1 Lock detect enable. 0 = Disabled 1 = Enabled 10 VCO divider ratio select. 00 = Sets VCO divider to 4 01 = Sets VCO divider to 8 10 = Sets VCO divider to 16 11 = Sets VCO divider to 32 VDIV[1:0] 1-0 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 11 MAX3541 Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner Table 6. IFOVLD, Charge Pump, and Filter Select Register (Address: 0100b) BIT NAME BIT LOCATION (0 = LSB) RECOMMENDED DEFAULT RESERVED 7 0 IFOVLD[2:0] 6-4 000 CP[1:0] 3-2 00 TF 1 0 RESERVED 0 0 FUNCTION Must be set to 0. Write content of ROM register OD[2:0] to this location. Selects the typical charge-pump current. 00 = 0.5mA 01 = 1mA 10 = 1.5mA 11 = 2mA Selects the tracking filter band of operation. 0 = VHF 1 = UHF Must be set to 0. Table 7. Control Register (Address: 0101b) BIT NAME BIT LOCATION (0 = LSB) RECOMMENDED DEFAULT RESERVED 7-4 0000 SHDN_RF 3 0 SHDN_IFVGA 2 0 INPT[1:0] 1-0 01 FUNCTION Must be set to 0000. RF shutdown. 0 = RF circuitry enabled 1 = RF circuitry disabled IF VGA shutdown. 0 = IF VGA enabled 1 = IF VGA disabled Selects the RF input. 00 = Selects VHF_IN, LPF enabled 01 = Selects VHF_IN, LPF disabled 10 = Selects UHF_IN 11 = Factory use only Table 8. Shutdown Register (Address: 0110b) BIT NAME BIT LOCATION (0 = LSB) RECOMMENDED DEFAULT SHDN_MIX 7-6 00 SHDN_IF 5 0 SHDN_OD 4 0 SHDN_SYN 3 0 RESERVED 2-0 000 12 FUNCTION Mixer shutdown. 00 = Mixer enabled 01,10 = Factory use only 11 = Mixer disabled IF shutdown. 0 = IF section enabled 1 = IF section disabled IFOVLD shutdown. 0 = Power detector enabled 1 = Power detector disabled Frequency synthesizer shutdown. 0 = Synthesizer enabled 1 = Synthesizer disabled Must be set to 000. ______________________________________________________________________________________ Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner MAX3541 Table 9. Tracking Filter Series Capacitor Register (Address: 0111b) BIT NAME BIT LOCATION (0 = LSB) RECOMMENDED DEFAULT TFS[7:0] 7-0 00001111* FUNCTION Programs series capacitor values in the tracking filter. *See the RF Tracking Filter section. Table 10. Tracking Filter Parallel Capacitor Register (Address: 1000b) BIT NAME BIT LOCATION (0 = LSB) RECOMMENDED DEFAULT FLD 7 0 Filter load bit. A 0 to 1 transition of this bit forces the loading of the ROM Table Data Readback register. RESERVED 6 0 Must be set to 0. TFP[5:0] 5-0 001001* FUNCTION Programs parallel capacitor values in the tracking filter. *See the RF Tracking Filter section. Table 11. Tracking Filter ROM Address Register (Address: 1001b) BIT NAME BIT LOCATION (0 = LSB) RECOMMENDED DEFAULT FUNCTION RESERVED 7-4 0000 Must be set to 0000. TFA[3:0] 3-0 0000* Address bits of the ROM register to be read. *See the RF Tracking Filter section. Table 12. Reserved Register (Address: 1010b) BIT NAME BIT LOCATION (0 = LSB) RECOMMENDED DEFAULT RESERVED 7-0 N/A FUNCTION Reserved. Do not program these bits during normal operation. Table 13. ROM Table Data Readback Register (Address: 1011b) BIT NAME BIT LOCATION (0 = LSB) RECOMMENDED DEFAULT TFR[7:0] 7-0 00000000* FUNCTION Tracking filter data bits read from the device’s ROM table. *See the RF Tracking Filter section. Table 14. Status Register (Address: 1100b) BIT NAME BIT LOCATION (0 = LSB) RECOMMENDED DEFAULT POR 7 N/A Power-on reset. 0 = Status register has been read 1 = Power reset since last status register read FUNCTION LD[2:0] 6-4 N/A VCO tuning voltage indicators. 000 = PLL not in lock, tune to the next lowest sub-band 001–110 = PLL in lock 111 = PLL not in lock, tune to the next higher sub-band RESERVED 3-0 N/A Reserved. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 13 MAX3541 Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner 2-Wire Serial Interface The MAX3541 use a 2-wire I2C-compatible serial interface consisting of a serial-data line (SDA) and a serialclock line (SCL). SDA and SCL facilitate bidirectional communication between the MAX3541 and the master at clock frequencies up to 400kHz. The master initiates a data transfer on the bus and generates the SCL signal to permit data transfer. The MAX3541 behaves as a slave device that transfers and receives data to and from the master. Pull SDA and SCL high with external pullup resistors (1kΩ or greater) for proper bus operation. One bit is transferred during each SCL clock cycle. A minimum of nine clock cycles is required to transfer a byte in or out of the MAX3541 (8 data bits and an ACK/NACK). The data on SDA must remain stable during the high period of the SCL clock pulse. Changes in SDA while SCL is high and stable are considered control signals (see the START and STOP Conditions section). Both SDA and SCL remain high when the bus is not busy. START and STOP Conditions The master initiates a transmission with a START condition (S), which is a high-to-low transition on SDA while SCL is high. The master terminates a transmission with a STOP condition (P), which is a low-to-high transition on SDA while SCL is high. Acknowledge and Not-Acknowledge Conditions Data transfers are framed with an acknowledge bit (ACK) or a not-acknowledge bit (NACK). Both the master and the MAX3541 (slave) generate acknowledge bits. To generate an acknowledge, the receiving device must pull SDA low before the rising edge of the acknowledge-related clock pulse (ninth pulse) and keep it low during the high period of the clock pulse. To generate a not-acknowledge condition, the receiver allows SDA to be pulled high before the rising edge of the acknowledge-related clock pulse, and leaves SDA high during the high period of the clock pulse. Monitoring the acknowledge bits allows for detection of unsuccessful data transfers. An unsuccessful data transfer happens if a receiving device is busy or if a system fault has occurred. In the event of an unsuccessful data transfer, the bus master must reattempt communication at a later time. Slave Address The MAX3541 has a 7-bit slave address that must be sent to the device following a START condition to initiate communication. The slave address is determined by the state of the ADDR2 and ADDR1 pins and is equal to 11000[ADDR2][ADDR1]. The eighth bit (R/W) following the 7-bit address determines whether a read or write operation occurs. Table 15 shows the possible address configurations. The MAX3541 continuously awaits a START condition followed by its slave address. When the device recognizes its slave address, it acknowledges by pulling the SDA line low for one clock period; it is ready to accept or send data depending on the R/W bit (Figure 1). Table 15. MAX3541 Address Configurations ADDR2 ADDR1 WRITE ADDRESS READ ADDRESS 0 0 0xC0 0xC1 0 1 0xC2 0xC3 1 0 0xC4 0xC5 1 1 0xC6 0xC7 SLAVE ADDRESS S 1 1 0 0 0 ADDR2 ADDR1 R/W ACK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SDA SCL NOTE: TIMING PARAMETERS CONFORM WITH I2C BUS SPECIFICATIONS. Figure 1. MAX3541 Slave Address Byte 14 ______________________________________________________________________________________ P Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner START Read Cycle A read cycle begins with the bus master issuing a START condition followed by the seven slave address bits and a write bit (R/W = 0). The MAX3541 issues an ACK if the slave address byte is successfully received. The master then sends the 8-bit address of the first register that it wishes to read. The MAX3541 then issues another ACK. Next, the master must issue a START condition followed by the 7 slave address bits and a read bit (R/W = 1). The MAX3541 issues an ACK if it successfully recognizes its address and begins sending data from the specified register address starting with the most significant bit (MSB). Data is clocked out of the MAX3541 on the rising edge of SCL. On the 9th rising edge of SCL, the master can issue an ACK and continue reading successive registers or it can issue a NACK followed by a STOP condition to terminate transmission. The read cycle does not terminate until the master issues a STOP condition. Figure 3 illustrates an example in which registers 0 and 1 are read back. WRITE DEVICE ADDRESS R/W ACK WRITE REGISTER ADDRESS ACK WRITE DATA TO REGISTER 0x00 ACK WRITE DATA TO REGISTER 0x01 ACK WRITE DATA TO REGISTER 0x02 ACK 11000[ADDR2][ADDR1] 0 — 0x00 — 0x0E — 0xD8 — 0xE1 — STOP Figure 2. Example: Write Registers 0 Through 2 with 0x0E, 0xD8, and 0xE1, Respectively START WRITE DEVICE ADDRESS 110000[ADDR2][ADDR1] R/W ACK 0 — WRITE DEVICE WRITE 1ST REGISTER ACK R/W ACK ADDRESS ADDRESS START — 110000[ADDR2][ADDR1] 1 — 0x00 READ DATA ACK REG 0 D7–D0 — READ DATA NACK REG 1 STOP — D7–D0 Figure 3. Example: Read Data from Registers 0 and 1 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 15 MAX3541 Write Cycle When addressed with a write command, the MAX3541 allows the master to write to a single register or to multiple successive registers. A write cycle begins with the bus master issuing a START condition followed by the seven slave address bits and a write bit (R/W = 0). The MAX3541 issues an ACK if the slave address byte is successfully received. The bus master must then send to the slave the address of the first register it wishes to write to. If the slave acknowledges the address, the master can then write one byte to the register at the specified address. Data is written beginning with the most significant bit. The MAX3541 again issues an ACK if the data is successfully written to the register. The master can continue to write data to the successive internal registers with the MAX3541 acknowledging each successful transfer, or it can terminate transmission by issuing a STOP condition. The write cycle does not terminate until the master issues a STOP condition. Figure 2 illustrates an example in which registers 0 through 2 are written with 0x0E, 0xD8, and 0xE1, respectively. MAX3541 Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner Application Information RF Inputs The MAX3541 features separate UHF and VHF inputs that are matched to 75Ω. Both inputs require a DCblocking capacitor. The active inputs are selected by the input registers. In addition, the input registers enable or disable the lowpass filter, which can be used when the VHF input is selected. For the 47MHz to 68MHz, select the VHF_IN with the LPF filter enabled (INPT = 00). For 174MHz to 230MHz, select VHF_IN with LPF disabled (INPT = 01). For 470MHz to 862MHz, select UHF_IN (INPT = 10). RF Gain Control The gain of the RF low-noise amplifier can be adjusted over a typical range of 45dB with the RFAGC pin. The RFAGC input accepts a DC voltage from 0.5V to 3V, with 3V providing maximum gain. This pin can be controlled with the IF power-detector output to form a closed RF gain-control loop. See the Closed-Loop RF Gain Control section for more information. RF Tracking Filter The MAX3541 includes a programmable tracking filter for each band of operation to optimize rejection of out-of-band interference while minimizing insertion loss for the desired received signal. The center frequency of each tracking filter is selected by a switched-capacitor array that is programmed by the TFS[7:0] bits in the Tracking Filter Series Capacitor register and the TFP[5:0] bits in the Tracking Filter Parallel Cap register. Optimal tracking filter settings for each channel varies from part to part due to process variations. To accommodate part-to-part variations, each part is factory calibrated by Maxim. During calibration, the y-intercept and slope for the series and parallel tracking capacitor arrays is calculated and written into an internal ROM table. The user must read the ROM table upon powerup and store the data in local memory (8 bytes total) to calculate the optimal TFS[7:0] and TFP[5:0] settings for each channel. Table 16 shows the address and bits for each ROM table entry. See the Interpolating Tracking Filter Coefficients section for more information on how to calculate the required values. Reading the ROM Table Each ROM table entry must be read using a two-step process. First, the address of the ROM bits to be read must be programmed into the TFA[3:0] bits in the Tracking Filter ROM Address register (Table 11). Table 16. ROM Table MSB LSB DESCRIPTION ADDRESS DATA BYTE D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 Reserved 0x0 OD2 OD1 OD0 X X X X X VHF Series Y-Intercept 0x1 VS0 VS0 VS0 VS0 VS0 VS0 VS0 VS0 VHF Series Slope 0x2 VS1 VS1 VS1 VS1 VS1 VS1 VS1 VS1 VHF Parallel Y-Intercept 0x3 VP0 VP0 VP0 VP0 VP0 VP0 VP0 VP0 VHF Parallel Slope 0x4 VP1 VP1 VP1 VP1 VP1 VP1 VP1 VP1 UHF Series Y-Intercept 0x5 US0 US0 US0 US0 US0 US0 US0 US0 UHF Series Slope 0x6 US1 US1 US1 US1 US1 US1 US1 US1 UHF Parallel Y-Intercept 0x7 UP0 UP0 UP0 UP0 UP0 UP0 UP0 UP0 UHF Parallel Slope 0x8 UP1 UP1 UP1 UP1 UP1 UP1 UP1 UP1 16 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner Interpolating Tracking Filter Coefficients The TFS[7:0] and TFP[5:0] bits must be reprogrammed for each channel frequency to optimize performance. The optimal settings for each channel can be calculated from the ROM table data using the equations below: VHF filter: VS0 [ TFS = INT[10 256 [ VP0 TFP = INT[10 256 ×5+( VS1 - 1) × 1.5 × 10 -2 × f RF ] 256 ] ×5+( VP1 - 1) ×10 -2 × f RF ] 256 ] UHF filter: : [ US0 TFS = INT[10 256 [ UP0 TFP = INT[10 256 ×5+( US1 - 1) × 5 × 10 -3 × f RF ] 256 ] − 10 ×5+( UP1 - 1) × 5 × 10 -3 × f RF ] 256 ] where: fRF = operating frequency in megahertz. TFS = decimal value of the optimal TFS[7:0] setting (Table 9) for the given operating frequency. TFP = decimal value of the optimal TFP[5:0] setting (Table 10) for the given operating frequency. VS0, VS1, VP0, VP1, US0, US1, UP0, and UP1 = the decimal values of the ROM table coefficients (Table 16). IF Overload Detector The MAX3541 includes a broadband IF overload detector, which provides an indication of the total power present at the RF input. The overload-detector output voltage is compared to a reference voltage, and the difference is amplified. This error signal drives an open-collector transistor whose collector is connected to the IFOVLD pin, causing the IFOVLD pin to sink current. The nominal fullscale current sunk by the IFOVLD pin is 300μA. The IFOVLD pin requires a 10kΩ pullup resistor to VCC. The IF overload detector is calibrated at the factory to attack at 0.7VP-P at the IFOUT1. Upon power-up, the baseband processor must read OD[2:0] from the ROM table and store it in the IFVOLD register. Closed-Loop RF Gain Control Closed-loop RF gain control can be implemented by connecting the IFOVLD output to the RFAGC input. Using a 10kΩ pullup resistor on the IFOVLD pin as shown in the Typical Application Circuit results in a nominal control voltage range of 0.5V to 3V. VCO and VCO Divider Selection The MAX3541 frequency synthesizer includes three VCOs and eight VCO sub-bands to guarantee a 2200MHz to 4400MHz VCO frequency range. The frequency synthesizer also features an additional VCO frequency divider that must be programmed to either 4, 8, 16, or 32 by the VDIV[1:0] bits in the VCO register based on the channel being received. To ensure PLL lock, the proper VCO and VCO sub-band for the channel being received must be chosen by iteratively selecting a VCO and VCO sub-band, then reading the LD[2:0] bits to determine if the PLL is locked. Any reading from 001 to 110 indicates the PLL is locked. If LD[2:0] reads 000, the PLL is unlocked and the selected VCO is at the bottom of its tuning range; a lower VCO sub-band must be selected. If LD[2:0] reads 111, the PLL is unlocked and the selected VCO is at the top of its tuning range; a higher VCO sub-band must be selected. The VCO and VCO sub-band settings should be progressively increased or decreased until the LD[2:0] reading falls in the 001 to 110 range. Due to overlap between VCO sub-band frequencies, it is possible that multiple VCO settings can be used to tune to the same channel frequency. System performance at a given channel should be similar between the various possible VCO settings, so it is sufficient to select the first VCO and VCO sub-band that provides lock. Layout Considerations The MAX3541 EV kit can serve as a guide for PCB layout. Keep RF signal lines as short as possible to minimize losses and radiation. Use controlled impedance on all high-frequency traces. The exposed paddle must be soldered evenly to the board’s ground plane for proper operation. Use abundant vias beneath the exposed paddle for maximum heat dissipation. Use abundant ground vias between RF traces to minimize undesired coupling. To minimize coupling between different sections of the IC, the ideal power-supply layout is a star configuration, which has a large decoupling capacitor at the central VCC node. The VCC traces branch out from this node, with each trace going to separate V CC pins of the MAX3541. Each VCC pin must have a bypass capacitor with a low impedance to ground at the frequency of interest. Do not share ground vias among multiple connections to the PCB ground plane. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 17 MAX3541 Once the address has been programmed, the data stored in that address is transferred to the TFR[7:0] bits in the ROM Table Data Readback register (Table 13). The ROM data at the specified address can then be read from the TFR[7:0] bits and stored in the microprocessor’s local memory. Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner MAX3541 Typical Application Circuit 4.3kΩ 820pF 560pF 2.2kΩ ** ** 0.033μF VCC 22pF ** VCC 1000pF 1000pF 8MHz 220pF ** 48 47 46 45 44 43 ÷R PD CP 42 41 40 47μF 1000pF GND_TUNE 1000pF LDO VTUNE VCC MUX CP VCC XTALN XTALP 2.7kΩ ADDR1 ADDR2 ADDRESS 2 2.7kΩ VCC 220pF 39 VCC ADDRESS 1 VCC 38 680nH 1000pF 37 SCLK 1000pF 2.7kΩ RFGND3 RFAGC IFOVLD 0.1μF 1000pF VCC VCC GND GND VREF + - 6 32 31 7 30 8 29 9 28 MAX3541 27 10 EP 11 26 25 12 GND 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 IFOUT1- VCC IFOUT1+ 0.1μF 10kΩ IFOVLD IFOVLD VCC VCC VCC 1000pF GND 1000pF IFIN+ IFINVCC VCC GND 1000pF 2.7kΩ IFAGC IFOUT2+ VIFAGC 0.1μF ANTI-ALIASING FILTER VCC 1000pF ** CONNECT TO COMMON GROUND POINT AT PIN 39 18 IF-SAW FILTER VCC IFOUT2- 270nH 1000pF 5 VCC LEXT 33 GND VCC VCO DIVIDER 4 GND RFGND2 34 GND VHF_IN 1000pF 3 GND UHF_IN ÷N SERIAL INTERFACE GND 100Ω 35 2 GND VCC 1000pF 36 GND SDA 1 GND VCC GND SCL SDATA ______________________________________________________________________________________ IFOUT+ IFOUT- Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner 48L LGA.EPS ______________________________________________________________________________________ 19 MAX3541 Package Information (The package drawing(s) in this data sheet may not reflect the most current specifications. For the latest package outline information go to www.maxim-ic.com/packages.) MAX3541 Complete Single-Conversion Television Tuner Package Information (continued) (The package drawing(s) in this data sheet may not reflect the most current specifications. For the latest package outline information go to www.maxim-ic.com/packages.) Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. 20 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600 © 2007 Maxim Integrated Products is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.