LM2421 Monolithic Triple Channel HDTV Driver General Description Features The LM2421 is an integrated high voltage CRT driver circuit designed for use in HDTV applications. The IC contains three high input impedance, wide band amplifiers which directly drive the RGB cathodes of a CRT. Each channel has its gain internally set to −42 and can drive CRT capacitive loads as well as resistive loads present in other applications, limited only by the package’s power dissipation. The IC is packaged in an industry standard 11-lead TO-220 molded plastic power package. See Thermal Considerations section. n 0V to 5V input range n Stable with 0–20 pF capacitive loads and inductive peaking networks n Convenient TO-220 staggered lead package style n Maintains standard LM240X Family pinout which is designed for easy PCB layout Applications n AC coupled HDTV applications using the 1080i and 720p formats as well as standard NTSC and PAL formats. Schematic and Connection Diagrams DS200233-2 Note: Tab is at GND Top View Order Number LM2421TA DS200233-1 FIGURE 1. Simplified Schematic Diagram (One Channel) © 2001 National Semiconductor Corporation DS200233 www.national.com LM2421 Monolithic Triple Channel HDTV Driver November 2001 LM2421 Absolute Maximum Ratings (Notes 1, 3) Lead Temperature (Soldering, < 10 sec.) ESD Tolerance, Human Body Model Machine Model Junction Temperature θJC (typ) If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. Supply Voltage (VCC) Bias Voltage (VBB) Input Voltage (VIN) Storage Temperature Range (TSTG) +155V +15V -0.5V to VBB +0.5V −65˚C to +150˚C 300˚C 2kV 200V 150˚C 2.8˚C/W Operating Ranges (Note 2) VCC +130V to +150V +7V to +13V VBB +1V to +5V VIN +16V to +135V VOUT Do not operate the part without a heat sink. Electrical Characteristics (See Figure 2 for Test Circuit) Unless otherwise noted: VCC = +145V, VBB = +8V, CL = 8 pF, TC = 50˚C DC Tests: VIN = 2.8VDC AC Tests: Output = 100VPP(32V - 132V) at 1MHz Symbol Parameter Conditions LM2421 Min Typical Max Units ICC Supply Current All Three Channels, No Input Signal, No Output Load 43 55 mA IBB Bias Current All Three Channels 29 40 mA VDC VOUT DC Output Voltage No AC Input Signal 78 82 86 AV DC Voltage Gain No AC Input Signal −38 −42 −46 ∆AV Gain Matching (Note 4), No AC Input Signal LE Linearity Error (Notes 4, 5), No AC Input Signal 8 % tR Rise Time (Note 6), 10% to 90% 11 ns tF Fall Time (Note 6), 90% to 10% 13 ns Overshoot (Note 6) 2 % OS 1.0 dB Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Note 2: Operating ratings indicate conditions for which the device is functional, but do not guarantee specific performance limits. For guaranteed specifications and test conditions, see the Electrical Characteristics. Datasheet min/max specification limits are guaranteed by design, test, or statistical analysis. The guaranteed specifications apply only for the test conditions listed. Some performance characteristics may change when the device is not operated under the listed test conditions. Note 3: All voltages are measured with respect to GND, unless otherwise specified. Note 4: Calculated value from Voltage Gain test on each channel. Note 5: Linearity Error is the variation in dc gain from VIN = 1.8V to VIN = 3.8V. Note 6: Input from signal generator: tr, tf www.national.com < 1 ns. 2 LM2421 AC Test Circuit DS200233-3 Note: 8 pF load includes parasitic capacitance. FIGURE 2. Test Circuit (One Channel) Figure 2 shows a typical test circuit for evaluation of the LM2421. This circuit is designed to allow testing of the LM2421 in a 50Ω environment without the use of an expensive FET probe. The two 4990Ω resistors form a 400:1 divider with the 50Ω resistor and the oscilloscope. A test point is included for easy use of an oscilloscope probe.The compensation capacitor is used to compensate the stray capacitance of the two 4990Ω resistors to achieve flat frequency response. 3 www.national.com LM2421 Typical Performance Characteristics (VCC = +145VDC, VBB = +8VDC, CL = 8pF, VOUT = 100VPP(32V−132V), Test Circuit - Figure 2 unless otherwise specified) DS200233-4 DS200233-7 FIGURE 3. VOUT vs VIN FIGURE 6. Power Dissipation vs Frequency DS200233-5 DS200233-8 FIGURE 4. Speed vs Temp. FIGURE 7. Speed vs Offset DS200233-6 FIGURE 5. LM2421 Pulse Response DS200233-9 FIGURE 8. Speed vs Load Capacitance www.national.com 4 LM2421 Typical Performance Characteristics (VCC = +145VDC, VBB = +8VDC, CL = 8pF, VOUT = 100VPP(32V−132V), Test Circuit - Figure 2 unless otherwise specified) (Continued) DS200233-16 FIGURE 9. Power Derating Curve 5 www.national.com LM2421 voltage, but to a value that is much higher than allowable on the LM2421. This fast, high voltage, high energy pulse can damage the LM2421 output stage. The application circuit shown in Figure 10 is designed to help clamp the voltage at the output of the LM2421 to a safe level. The clamp diodes, D1 and D2, should have a fast transient response, high peak current rating, low series impedance and low shunt capacitance. FDH400 or equivalent diodes are recommended. D1 and D2 should have short, low impedance connections to VCC and ground respectively. The cathode of D1 should be located very close to a separately decoupled bypass capacitor (C3 in Figure 10). The ground connection of D2 and the decoupling capacitor should be very close to the LM2421 ground. This will significantly reduce the high frequency voltage transients that the LM2421 would be subjected to during an arcover condition. Resistor R2 limits the arcover current that is seen by the diodes while R1 limits the current into the LM2421 as well as the voltage stress at the outputs of the device. R2 should be a 1⁄2W solid carbon type resistor. R1 can be a 1⁄4W metal or carbon film type resistor. Having large value resistors for R1 and R2 would be desirable, but this has the effect of increasing rise and fall times. Inductor L1 is critical to reduce the initial high frequency voltage levels that the LM2421 would be subjected to. The inductor will not only help protect the device but it will also help minimize rise and fall times as well as minimize EMI. For proper arc protection, it is important to not omit any of the arc protection components shown in Figure 10. Theory of Operation The LM2421 is a high voltage monolithic three channel CRT driver suitable for HDTV applications. The LM2421 operates with 145V and 8V power supplies. The part is housed in the industry standard 11-lead TO-220 molded plastic power package. The circuit diagram of the LM2421 is shown in Figure 1. The PNP emitter follower, Q5, provides input buffering. Q1 and Q2 form a fixed gain cascode amplifier with resistors R1 and R2 setting the gain at −42. Emitter followers Q3 and Q4 isolate the high output impedance of the cascode stage from the capacitance of the CRT cathode which decreases the sensitivity of the device to load capacitance. Q6 provides biasing to the output emitter follower stage to reduce crossover distortion at low signal levels. Figure 2 shows a typical test circuit for evaluation of the LM2421. This circuit is designed to allow testing of the LM2421 in a 50Ω environment without the use of an expensive FET probe. In this test circuit, the two 4.99kΩ resistors form a 400:1 wideband, low capacitance probe when connected to a 50Ω coaxial cable and a 50Ω load (such as a 50Ω oscilloscope input). The input signal from the generator is ac coupled to the base of Q5. Application Hints INTRODUCTION National Semiconductor (NSC) is committed to provide application information that assists our customers in obtaining the best performance possible from our products. The following information is provided in order to support this commitment. The reader should be aware that the optimization of performance was done using a specific printed circuit board designed at NSC. Variations in performance can be realized due to physical changes in the printed circuit board and the application. Therefore, the designer should know that component value changes may be required in order to optimize performance in a given application. The values shown in this document can be used as a starting point for evaluation purposes. When working with high bandwidth circuits, good layout practices are also critical to achieving maximum performance. IMPORTANT INFORMATION The LM2421 performance is targeted for the HDTV market. The application circuits shown in this document to optimize performance and to protect against damage from CRT arcover are designed specifically for the LM2421. If another member of the LM242X family is used, please refer to its datasheet. POWER SUPPLY BYPASS Since the LM2421 is a wide bandwidth amplifier, proper power supply bypassing is critical for optimum performance. Improper power supply bypassing can result in large overshoot, ringing or oscillation. 0.1 µF capacitors should be connected from the supply pins, VCC and VBB, to ground, as close to the LM2421 as is practical. Additionally, a 47 µF or larger electrolytic capacitor should be connected from both supply pins to ground reasonably close to the LM2421. ARC PROTECTION During normal CRT operation, internal arcing may occasionally occur. Spark gaps, in the range of 300V, connected from the CRT cathodes to CRT ground will limit the maximum www.national.com 6 LM2421 Application Hints (Continued) DS200233-10 FIGURE 10. One Channel of the LM2421 with the Recommended Arc Protection Circuit OPTIMIZING TRANSIENT RESPONSE Referring to Figure 10, there are three components (R1, R2 and L1) that can be adjusted to optimize the transient response of the application circuit. Increasing the values of R1 and R2 will slow the circuit down while decreasing overshoot. Increasing the value of L1 will speed up the circuit as well as increase overshoot. It is very important to use inductors with very high self-resonant frequencies, preferably above 300 MHz. Ferrite core inductors from J.W. Miller Magnetics (part # 78FR56k) were used for optimizing the performance of the device in the NSC application board. The values shown in Figure 11 and Figure 12 can be used as a good starting point for the evaluation of the LM2421. Using a variable resistor for R1 will simplify finding the value needed for optimum performance in a given application. Once the optimum value is determined, the variable resistor can be replaced with a fixed value. cation. The designer should note that if the load capacitance is increased the AC component of the total power dissipation will also increase. Figures 6 and 9 are used to design the heatsink for the LM2421. For example, if the maximum bandwith needed will be 40MHz (from Figure 6, 40MHz or Frequency = 20MHz), the power dissipated will be 14.5W. Figure 9 shows that the maximum allowed case temperature is 110˚C when 14.5W is dissipated. If the maximum expected ambient temperature is 70˚C, then a maximum heatsink thermal resistance can be calculated: This example assumes a capacitive load of 8 pF and no resistive load. TYPICAL APPLICATION A typical application of the LM2421 is shown in Figure 11 and Figure 12. Used in conjunction with an LM126X, a complete video channel from input to CRT cathode can be achieved. Performance is ideal for HDTV applications. Figure 11 and Figure 12 are the schematic for the NSC demonstration board that can be used to evaluate the LM126X/2421 combination in a monitor. EFFECT OF LOAD CAPACITANCE Figure 8 shows the effect of increased load capacitance on the speed of the device. This demonstrates the importance of knowing the load capacitance in the application. EFFECT OF OFFSET Figure 7 shows the variation in rise and fall times when the output offset of the device is varied from 75 to 85VDC. The rise time shows a maximum variation relative to the center data point (80VDC) of 4% . The fall time shows a variation of less than 5% relative to the center data point. PC BOARD LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS For optimum performance, an adequate ground plane, isolation between channels, good supply bypassing and minimizing unwanted feedback are necessary. Also, the length of the signal traces from the preamplifier to the LM2421 and from the LM2421 to the CRT cathode should be as short as possible. The following references are recommended: Ott, Henry W., “Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems”, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1976. “Video Amplifier Design for Computer Monitors”, National Semiconductor Application Note 1013. Pease, Robert A., “Troubleshooting Analog Circuits”, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1991. Because of its high small signal bandwidth, the part may oscillate in a monitor if feedback occurs around the video channel through the chassis wiring. To prevent this, leads to the video amplifier input circuit should be shielded, and input circuit wiring should be spaced as far as possible from output circuit wiring. THERMAL CONSIDERATIONS Figure 4 shows the performance of the LM2421 in the test circuit shown in Figure 2 as a function of case temperature. The figure shows that the rise and fall times of the LM2421 increase by approximately 5% as the case temperature increases from 50˚C to 70˚C. This corresponds to a speed degradation of 2.5% for every 10˚C rise in case temperature. Figure 6 shows the maximum power dissipation of the LM2421 vs. Frequency when all three channels of the device are driving an 8pF load with a 100Vp-p alternating one pixel on, one pixel off signal. The graph assumes a 72% active time (device operating at the specified frequency) which is typical in a monitor application. The other 28% of the time the device is assumed to be sitting at the black level (130V in this case). This graph gives the designer the information needed to determine the heat sink requirement for his appli- 7 www.national.com LM2421 Application Hints (Continued) NSC DEMONSTRATION BOARD Figure 13 shows the routing and component placement on the NSC LM126X/2421 demonstration board. The schematic of the board is shown in Figure 11 and Figure 12. This board provides a good example of a layout that can be used as a guide for future layouts. Note the location of the following components: • C19 — VCC bypass capacitor, located very close to pin 6 and ground pins • C20 — VBB bypass capacitors, located close to pin 10 and ground • C46, C47, C48 — VCC bypass capacitors, near LM2421 and VCC clamp diodes. Very important for arc protection. The routing of the LM2421 outputs to the CRT is very critical to achieving optimum performance. Figure 14 shows the routing and component placement from pin 1 of the LM2421 to the blue cathode. Note that the components are placed so that they almost line up from the output pin of the LM2421 to the blue cathode pin of the CRT connector. This is done to minimize the length of the video path between these two components. Note also that D8, D9, R24 and D6 are placed to minimize the size of the video nodes that they are attached to. This minimizes parasitic capacitance in the video path and also enhances the effectiveness of the protection diodes. The anode of protection diode D8 is connected directly to a section of the the ground plane that has a short and direct path to the LM2421 ground pins. The cathode of D9 is connected to VCC very close to decoupling capacitor C48 (see Figure 14) which is connected to the same section of the ground plane as D8. The diode placement and routing is very important for minimizing the voltage stress on the LM2421 during an arcover event. Lastly, notice that S3 is placed very close to the blue cathode and is tied directly to CRT ground. www.national.com 8 LM2421 Application Hints (Continued) DS200233-11 FIGURE 11. LM126X/LM2421 Demonstration Board Schematic 9 www.national.com LM2421 Application Hints (Continued) DS200233-15 FIGURE 12. LM126X/LM2421 Demonstration Board Schematic (continued) www.national.com 10 LM2421 Application Hints (Continued) DS200233-13 FIGURE 13. LM126X/LM2421 Demo Board Layout 11 www.national.com LM2421 Application Hints (Continued) DS200233-14 FIGURE 14. Trace Routing and Component Placement for Blue Channel Output www.national.com 12 LM2421 Monolithic Triple Channel HDTV Driver Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted CONTROLLING DIMENSION IS INCH VALUES IN [ ] ARE MILLIMETERS NS Package Number TA11B Order Number LM2421TA LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. 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