Rev 1; 10/08 Dual-Channel, I2C Adjustable Sink/Source Current DAC The DS4412 contains two I2C adjustable-current DACs that are each capable of sinking or sourcing current. Each output has 15 sink and 15 source settings that are programmed by I2C interface. The full-scale range and step size of each output is determined by an external resistor that can adjust the output current over a 4:1 range. The output pins, OUT0 and OUT1, power-up in a highimpedance state. Applications Power-Supply Adjustment Features ♦ Two Current DACs ♦ Full-Scale Current 500µA to 2mA ♦ Full-Scale Range for Each DAC Determined by External Resistors ♦ 15 Settings Each for Sink and Source Modes ♦ I2C-Compatible Serial Interface ♦ Low Cost ♦ Small Package (8-Pin µSOP) ♦ -40°C to +85°C Temperature Range ♦ 2.7V to 5.5V Operation Power-Supply Margining Adjustable Current Sink or Source Ordering Information Pin Configuration TOP VIEW + SDA 1 SCL 2 FS1 3 GND 4 DS4412 8 VCC 7 OUT1 6 OUT0 5 FS0 PART TEMP RANGE PIN-PACKAGE DS4412U+ -40°C to +85°C 8 μSOP DS4412U+T&R -40°C to +85°C 8 μSOP +Denotes a lead-free/RoHS-compliant package. T&R = Tape and reel. μSOP Typical Operating Circuit VCC VOUT0 VOUT1 4.7kΩ 4.7kΩ OUT VCC SDA SCL DC-DC CONVERTER OUT0 DS4412 R0A FB R1A FB R0B FS0 DC-DC CONVERTER OUT1 GND RFS0 OUT R1B FS1 RFS1 ________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim’s website at www.maxim-ic.com. 1 DS4412 General Description DS4412 Dual-Channel, I2C Adjustable Sink/Source Current DAC ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS Operating Temperature Range ...........................-40°C to +85°C Storage Temperature Range .............................-55°C to +125°C Soldering Temperature .....................................Refer to IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020 Specification Voltage Range on VCC, SDA, and SCL Relative to Ground.............................................-0.5V to +6.0V Voltage Range on OUT0, OUT1 Relative to Ground ................-0.5V to (VCC + 0.5V) (Not to exceed 6.0V.) Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS (TA = -40°C to +85°C) PARAMETER Supply Voltage SYMBOL CONDITIONS VCC (Note 1) MIN TYP MAX UNITS 2.7 5.5 V VCC + 0.3 V 0.3 x VCC V MAX UNITS 500 μA 1 μA 1 μA Input Logic 1 (SDA, SCL) VIH 0.7 x VCC Input Logic 0 (SDA, SCL) VIL -0.3 DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VCC = +2.7V to +5.5V, TA = -40°C to +85°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS Supply Current ICC VCC = 5.5V (Note 2) Input Leakage (SDA, SCL) I IL VCC = 5.5V Output Leakage (SDA) IL Output Current Low (SDA) I OL RFS Voltage VRFS I/O Capacitance CI/O MIN VOL = 0.4V 3 VOL = 0.6V 6 TYP mA 0.607 V 10 pF MAX UNITS 0.5 3.5 V V OUTPUT CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS (VCC = +2.7V to +5.5V, TA = -40°C to +85°C.) PARAMETER Output Voltage for Sinking Output Voltage for Sourcing Current Full-Scale Sink Output Current Full-Scale Source Output Current SYMBOL VOUT:SINK CONDITIONS VCC > V OUT:SINK (Note 3) TYP VOUT:SOURCE (Note 3) 0 VCC 0.75 IOUT:SINK (Note 3) 0.5 2.0 mA IOUT:SOURCE (Note 3) -2.0 -0.5 mA ±6 % Output-Current Full-Scale Accuracy I OUT:FS +25°C, VCC = 4.0V; using 0.1% RFS resistor (Note 4) VOUT0 = VOUT1 = 1.2V Output-Current Temperature Coefficient I OUT:TC (Note 5) 2 MIN ±75 _______________________________________________________________________________________ ppm/°C Dual-Channel, I2C Adjustable Sink/Source Current DAC DS4412 OUTPUT CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS (continued) (VCC = +2.7V to +5.5V, TA = -40°C to +85°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP Output-Current Variation due to Power-Supply Change DC source +0.36 DC sink +0.12 Output-Current Variation due to Output Voltage Change DC source, V OUT measured at 1.2V DC sink, VOUT measured at 1.2V -0.02 Output Leakage Current at Zero Current Setting UNITS %/V %/V +0.12 -1 I ZERO MAX +1 μA Output-Current Differential Linearity DNL (Note 6) 0.5 LSB Output-Current Integral Linearity INL (Note 7) 1 LSB MAX UNITS 400 kHz I2C AC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VCC = +2.7V to +5.5V, TA = -40°C to +85°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS (Note 8) MIN 0 TYP SCL Clock Frequency fSCL Bus Free Time Between STOP and START Conditions tBUF 1.3 µs Hold Time (Repeated) START Condition tHD:STA 0.6 µs Low Period of SCL tLOW 1.3 µs High Period of SCL tHIGH 0.6 µs Data Hold Time tDH:DAT 0 Data Setup Time tSU:DAT 100 0.9 µs ns START Setup Time tSU:STA 0.6 µs SDA and SCL Rise Time tR (Note 9) 20 + 0.1CB 300 ns SDA and SCL Fall Time tF (Note 9) 20 + 0.1CB 300 ns STOP Setup Time tSU:STO SDA and SCL Capacitive Loading CB 0.6 (Note 9) µs 400 pF Note 1: All voltages with respect to ground, currents entering the IC are specified positive and currents exiting the IC are negative. Note 2: Supply current specified with all outputs set to zero current setting with all inputs driven to well-defined logic levels. SDA and SCL are connected to VCC. Excludes current through RFS resistors (IRFS). Total current includes ICC + 2.5 x (IRFS0 + IRFS0). Note 3: The output voltage range must be satisfied to ensure the device meets its accuracy and linearity specifications. Note 4: Input resistors RFS must be between 2.25kΩ and 9.0kΩ to ensure the device meets its accuracy and linearity specifications. Note 5: Temperature drift excludes drift caused by external resistor. Note 6: Differential linearity is defined as the difference between the expected incremental current increase with respect to position and the actual increase. The expected incremental increase is the full-scale range divided by 15. Note 7: Integral linearity is defined as the difference between the expected value as a function of the setting and the actual value. The expected value is a straight line between the zero and the full-scale values proportional to the setting. Note 8: Timing shown is for fast-mode (400kHz) operation. This device is also backward compatible with I2C standard-mode timing. Note 9: CB—total capacitance of one bus line in pF. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 Dual-Channel, I2C Adjustable Sink/Source Current DAC DS4412 Pin Description NAME PIN FUNCTION SDA 1 I2C Serial Data. Input/output for I2C data. SCL 2 I2C Serial Clock. Input for I2C clock. FS1 3 FS0 5 Full-Scale Calibration Inputs. A resistor to ground on these pins determines the full-scale current for each output. FS0 controls OUT0, FS1 controls OUT1. GND 4 Ground OUT0 6 OUT1 7 Current Outputs. Sinks or sources the current determined by the register settings and the resistance connected to FS0 and FS1. VCC 8 Power Supply Typical Operating Characteristics (Applies to OUT0 and OUT1. VCC = 2.7V to 5.0V, SDA = SCL = VCC, TA = +25°C, and no loads on OUT0, OUT1, FS0, or FS1, unless otherwise noted.) SUPPLY CURRENT vs. TEMPERATURE 0.3 0.2 0.20 VCC = 3.3V 0.15 VCC = 2.7V 3.7 4.2 4.7 20 40 60 0 80 1 2 3 4 VOLTCO (SINK) TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT vs. SETTING (SOURCE) TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT vs. SETTING (SINK) -2.3 -2.4 -2.5 2 VOUT (V) 3 4 70 60 +25°C TO +85°C 50 40 30 RANGE FOR THE 0.5mA TO 2.0mA CURRENT-SOURCE RANGE. 20 10 80 5 DS4412 toc06 +25°C TO -40°C TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (°C/ppm) DS4412 toc04 -2.2 80 DS4412 toc05 VOUT (V) -2.1 1 0 TEMPERATURE (°C) 2.2kΩ LOAD ON FS0 AND FS1 0 -20 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) -2.0 IOUT (mA) 2.0 -40 5.2 TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (°C/ppm) 3.2 2.2 2.1 DOES NOT INCLUDE CURRENT DRAWN BY RESISTORS CONNECTED TO FS0 AND FS1. 0 2.7 2.3 0.10 0.05 4 2.4 0.25 0.1 0 2.2kΩ LOAD ON FS0 AND FS1 IOUT (mA) DOES NOT INCLUDE CURRENT DRAWN BY RESISTORS CONNECTED TO FS0 AND FS1. 2.5 DS4412 toc02 VCC = 5.0V 0.30 SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) 0.4 VOLTCO (SOURCE) 0.35 DS4412 toc01 0.5 DS4412 toc03 SUPPLY CURRENT vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE 70 60 +25°C TO -40°C 50 40 +25°C TO +85°C 30 RANGE FOR THE 0.5mA TO 2.0mA CURRENT-SOURCE RANGE. 20 10 0 0 0 5 10 SETTING (DEC) 15 0 5 10 SETTING (DEC) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 15 Dual-Channel, I2C Adjustable Sink/Source Current DAC DIFFERENTIAL LINEARITY DS4412 toc07 RANGE FOR THE 0.5mA TO 2.0mA CURRENT SOURCE AND SINK RANGE 0.7500 1.0 0.6 0.5000 0.4 0.2500 0.2 DNL (LSB) INL (LSB) RANGE FOR THE 0.5mA TO 2.0mA CURRENT SOURCE AND SINK RANGE 0.8 DS4412 toc08 INTEGRAL LINEARITY 1.0000 0.0000 0 -0.2 -0.2500 -0.4 -0.5000 -0.6 -0.7500 -0.8 -1.0000 -1.0 0 5 15 10 0 5 SETTING (DEC) 10 15 SETTING (DEC) Block Diagram SDA SCL VCC I2C-COMPATIBLE SERIAL INTERFACE DS4412 VCC F8h F9h SOURCE OR SINK MODE CURRENT DAC0 GND OUT0 FS0 RFS0 15 POSITIONS EACH FOR SINK AND SOURCE MODE CURRENT DAC1 FS1 OUT1 RFS1 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5 DS4412 Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (Applies to OUT0 and OUT1. VCC = 2.7V to 5.0V, SDA = SCL = VCC, TA = +25°C, and no loads on OUT0, OUT1, FS0, or FS1, unless otherwise noted.) DS4412 Dual-Channel, I2C Adjustable Sink/Source Current DAC Detailed Description The DS4412 contains two I 2 C adjustable-current sources that are each capable of sinking and sourcing current. Each output, OUT0 and OUT1, has 15 sink and 15 source settings that are programmed through the I2C interface. The full-scale ranges and corresponding step sizes of the outputs are determined by external resistors, connected to pins FS0 and FS1, which can adjust the output currents over a 4:1 range. The formula to determine the positive and negative full-scale current ranges for each of the four outputs is given by: RFS = (VRFS / IFS) x (15 / 1.974) where V RFS is the R FS voltage (see DC Electrical Characteristics), and RFS is the external resistor value. On power-up, the DS4412 outputs zero current. This is done to prevent it from sinking or sourcing an incorrect current before the system host controller has had a chance to modify the device’s setting. As a source for biasing instrumentation or other circuits, the DS4412 provides a simple and inexpensive current source with an I2C interface for control. The adjustable full-scale range allows the application to get the most out of its 4-bit sink or source resolution. When used in adjustable power-supply applications (see Typical Operating Circuit), the DS4412 does not affect the initial power-up supply voltage because it defaults to providing zero output current on power-up. As it sources or sinks current into the feedback voltage node, it changes the amount of output voltage required by the regulator to reach its steady state operating point. Using the external resistor, RFS, to set the output current range, the DS4412 provides some flexibility for adjusting the range over which the power supply can be controlled or margined. Memory Organization The DS4412’s current sources are controlled by writing to the memory addresses in Table 1. Table 1. Memory Addresses MEMORY ADDRESS (HEXADECIMAL) CURRENT SOURCE 0xF8 OUT0 0xF9 OUT1 The format of each output control register is given by: MSB LSB S X X X D3 D2 D1 D0 Where: BIT NAME S Sign Bit X DX FUNCTION POWER-ON DEFAULT Determines if DAC sources or sinks current. For sink S = 0, for source S = 1. Reserved Reserved. 4-Bit Data Word Controlling DAC Output. Setting 0000b Data outputs zero current regardless of the state of the sign bit. 0b XXX 0000b Example: RFS0 = 4.8kΩ and register 0xF8h is written to a value of 0x8Ah. Calculate the output current. IFS = (0.607V / 4.8kΩ) x (15 / 1.974) = 949.85µA The MSB of the output register is 1, so the output is sourcing the value corresponding to position Ah (10 decimal). The magnitude of the output current is equal to: 949.85µA x (10 / 15) = 633.23µA 6 _______________________________________________________________________________________ Dual-Channel, I2C Adjustable Sink/Source Current DAC I2C Slave Address The DS4412’s slave address is 90h. I2C Definitions The following terminology is commonly used to describe I2C data transfers: Master Device: The master device controls the slave devices on the bus. The master device generates SCL clock pulses and START and STOP conditions. Slave Devices: Slave devices send and receive data at the master’s request. Bus Idle or Not Busy: Time between STOP and START conditions when both SDA and SCL are inactive and in their logic-high states. When the bus is idle it often initiates a low-power mode for slave devices. START Condition: A START condition is generated by the master to initiate a new data transfer with a slave. Transitioning SDA from high to low while SCL remains high generates a START condition. See Figure 1 for applicable timing. STOP Condition: A STOP condition is generated by the master to end a data transfer with a slave. Transitioning SDA from low to high while SCL remains high generates a STOP condition. See Figure 1 for applicable timing. Repeated START Condition: The master can use a repeated START condition at the end of one data transfer to indicate that it will immediately initiate a new data transfer following the current one. Repeated starts are commonly used during read operations to identify a specific memory address to begin a data transfer. A repeated START condition is issued identically to a normal START condition. See Figure 1 for applicable timing. Bit Write: Transitions of SDA must occur during the low state of SCL. The data on SDA must remain valid and unchanged during the entire high pulse of SCL, plus the setup and hold time requirements (Figure 1). Data is shifted into the device during the rising edge of the SCL. Bit Read: At the end of a write operation, the master must release the SDA bus line for the proper amount of setup time (Figure 1) before the next rising edge of SCL during a bit read. The device shifts out each bit of data on SDA at the falling edge of the previous SCL pulse and the data bit is valid at the rising edge of the current SCL pulse. Remember that the master generates all SCL clock pulses, including when it is reading bits from the slave. Acknowledgement (ACK and NACK): An Acknowledgement (ACK) or Not Acknowledge (NACK) is always the ninth bit transmitted during a byte transfer. The device receiving data (the master during a read or the slave during a write operation) performs an ACK by transmitting a zero during the ninth bit. A device performs a NACK by transmitting a one during the ninth bit. Timing for the ACK and NACK is identical to all other bit writes (Figure 2). An ACK is the acknowledgment that the device is properly receiving data. A NACK is used to terminate a SDA tBUF tF tHD:STA tLOW tSP SCL tHIGH tHD:STA tHD:DAT STOP tSU:STA tR START tSU:STO tSU:DAT REPEATED START NOTE: TIMING IS REFERENCED TO VIL(MAX) AND VIH(MIN). Figure 1. I2C Timing Diagram _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7 DS4412 I2C Serial Interface Description DS4412 Dual-Channel, I2C Adjustable Sink/Source Current DAC TYPICAL I2C WRITE TRANSACTION MSB START 1 LSB 0 0 1 0 0 0 R/W MSB SLAVE ACK b7 READ/ WRITE SLAVE ADDRESS LSB b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0 MSB SLAVE ACK b7 LSB b6 REGISTER/MEMORY ADDRESS b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0 SLAVE ACK STOP DATA EXAMPLE I2C TRANSACTIONS 90h A) SINGLE BYTE WRITE -WRITE RESISTOR F9h TO 00h 90h B) SINGLE BYTE READ -READ RESISTOR F8h F9h START 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 SLAVE 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 ACK SLAVE 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ACK F8h START 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 SLAVE 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 SLAVE ACK ACK SLAVE ACK STOP 90h REPEATED START 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 SLAVE ACK DATA MASTER NACK STOP Figure 2. I2C Communication Examples read sequence or as an indication that the device is not receiving data. Byte Write: A byte write consists of 8 bits of information transferred from the master to the slave (most significant bit first) plus a 1-bit acknowledgement from the slave to the master. The 8 bits transmitted by the master are done according to the bit-write definition, and the acknowledgement is read using the bit-read definition. Byte Read: A byte read is an 8-bit information transfer from the slave to the master plus a 1-bit ACK or NACK from the master to the slave. The 8 bits of information that are transferred (most significant bit first) from the slave to the master are read by the master using the bit read definition above, and the master transmits an ACK using the bit write definition to receive additional data bytes. The master must NACK the last byte read to terminated communication so the slave will return control of SDA to the master. Slave Address Byte: Each slave on the I2C bus responds to a slave address byte sent immediately following a START condition. The slave address byte contains the slave address in the most significant 7 bits and the R/W bit in the least significant bit. The DS4412’s slave address is 90h. 8 When the R/W bit is 0 (such as in 90h), the master is indicating it will write data to the slave. If R/W = 1 (91h in this case), the master is indicating it wants to read from the slave. If an incorrect slave address is written, the DS4412 assumes the master is communicating with another I2C device and ignores the communication until the next START condition is sent. Memory Address: During an I2C write operation, the master must transmit a memory address to identify the memory location where the slave is to store the data. The memory address is always the second byte transmitted during a write operation following the slave address byte. I2C Communication Writing to a Slave: The master must generate a START condition, write the slave address byte (R/W = 0), write the memory address, write the byte of data, and generate a STOP condition. Remember that the master must read the slave’s acknowledgement during all byte-write operations. Reading from a Slave: To read from the slave, the master generates a START condition, writes the slave address byte with R/W = 1, reads the data byte with a NACK to indicate the end of the transfer, and generates a STOP condition. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Dual-Channel, I2C Adjustable Sink/Source Current DAC Where: IR0B = Example Calculation for an Adjustable Power Supply In this example, the Typical Operating Circuit is used as a base to create Figure 3, a 2.0V voltage supply with ±20% margin. The adjustable power supply has a DC-DC converter output voltage, VOUT, of 2.0V and a DC-DC converter feedback voltage, VFB, of 0.8V. To determine the relationship of R0A and R0B, we start with the equation: VFB = R 0B × VOUT R 0 A + R 0B Substituting VFB = 0.8V and VOUT = 2.0V, the relationship between R0A and R0B is determined to be: R0A = 1.5 x R0B IOUT0 is chosen to be 1mA (midrange source/sink current for the DS4412). Summing the currents into the feedback node, we have the following I OUT0 = IR0B − IR0 A 4.7kΩ IR0 A = VOUT − VFB R 0A To create a 20% margin in the supply voltage, the value of VOUT is set to 2.4V. With these values in place, R0B is calculated to be 267Ω, and R0A is calculated to be 400Ω. The current DAC in this configuration allows the output voltage to be moved linearly from 1.6V to 2.4V using 15 settings. This corresponds to a resolution of 25.8mV/step. VCC Decoupling To achieve the best results when using the DS4412, decouple the power supply with a 0.01µF or 0.1µF capacitor. Use a high-quality ceramic surface-mount capacitor if possible. Surface-mount components minimize lead inductance, which improves performance, and ceramic capacitors tend to have adequate highfrequency response for decoupling applications. VOUT = 2.0V OUT VCC SDA SCL DC-DC CONVERTER DS4412 VFB R 0B And VCC 4.7kΩ DS4412 Applications Information IR0A R0A = 400Ω FB OUT0 VFB = 0.8V IR0B GND R0B = 267Ω FS0 IOUT0 RFS0 = 4.612kΩ Figure 3. Example Application Circuit Package Information For the latest package outline information and land patterns, go to www.maxim-ic.com/packages. PACKAGE TYPE PACKAGE CODE DOCUMENT NO. 8 µSOP U8+1 21-0036 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9 DS4412 Dual-Channel, I2C Adjustable Sink/Source Current DAC Revision History REVISION NUMBER REVISION DATE 0 9/07 1 10/08 DESCRIPTION PAGES CHANGED Initial release. — Added the I/O capacitance (CI/O) parameter to the DC Electrical Characteristics table. 2 Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. 10 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600 © 2008 Maxim Integrated Products is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.