W166 Spread Spectrum Frequency Timing Generator Features • Maximized EMI suppression using Cypress’s Spread Spectrum technology • Generates a spread spectrum copy of the provided input • Selectable spreading characteristics • Integrated loop filter components • Operates with a 3.3V or 5V supply • SSON# pin enables frequency spreading • Low power CMOS design • Available in 8-pin SOIC (Small Outline Integrated Circuit) Overview The W166 incorporates the latest advances in PLL spread spectrum frequency synthesizer techniques. By frequency modulating the output with a low-frequency carrier, peak EMI is greatly reduced. Use of this technology allows systems to pass increasingly difficult EMI testing without resorting to costly shielding or redesign. In a system, not only is EMI reduced in the various clock lines, but also in all signals which are synchronized to the clock. Therefore, the benefits of using this technology increase with the number of address and data lines in the system. The Simplified Block Diagram shows a simple implementation. Table 1. Frequency Spread Selection W166 FS1 FS0 Input Frequency (MHz) 0 0 50 to 65 fIN ±0.625% 0 1 50 to 65 fIN ±1.25% 1 0 50 to 65 fIN ±2.5% 1 1 50 to 65 fIN –3.75% Simplified Block Diagram Output Frequency (MHz) Pin Configuration 3.3V or 5V 8 7 6 5 SSON# CLKOUT FS0 VDD Spread Spectrum Output (EMI suppressed) W166 Cypress Semiconductor Corporation 1 2 3 4 W166 Oscillator or Reference Input CLKIN NC GND FS1 • 3901 North First Street • San Jose • CA 95134 • 408-943-2600 December 20, 1999, rev. ** W166 Pin Definitions Pin No. Pin Type CLKOUT 7 O Output Modulated Frequency: Frequency modulated copy of the reference input (SSON# asserted). CLKIN 1 I External Reference Frequency Input: Clock input. NC 2 NC SSON# 8 I Spread Spectrum Control (Active LOW): Asserting this signal (active LOW) turns the internal modulation waveform on. This pin has an internal pull-down resistor. FS0:1 6, 4 I Frequency Selection Bits 0,1: These pins select the frequency spreading characteristics. Refer to Table 1. These pins have internal pull-up resistors. VDD 5 P Power Connection: Connected to 3.3V or 5V power supply. GND 3 G Ground Connection: This should be connected to the common ground plane. Pin Name Pin Description No Connect: This pin must be left unconnected. Because the modulating frequency is typically 1000 times slower than the fundamental clock, the spread spectrum process has little impact on system performance. Functional Description The W166 uses a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) to frequency modulate an input clock. The result is an output clock whose frequency is slowly swept over a narrow band near the input signal. The basic circuit topology is shown in Figure 1. The input reference signal is divided by Q and fed to the phase detector. A signal from the VCO is divided by P and fed back to the phase detector also. The PLL will force the frequency of the VCO output signal to change until the divided output signal and the divided reference signal match at the phase detector input. The output frequency is then equal to the ratio of P/Q times the reference frequency. (Note: For the W166 the output frequency is equal to the input frequency.) The unique feature of the Spread Spectrum Frequency Timing Generator is that a modulating waveform is superimposed at the input to the VCO. This causes the VCO output to be slowly swept across a predetermined frequency band. Frequency Selection With SSFTG In Spread Spectrum Frequency Timing Generation, EMI reduction depends on the shape, modulation percentage, and frequency of the modulating waveform. While the shape and frequency of the modulating waveform are fixed, the modulation percentage may be varied. A larger spreading percentage improves EMI reduction. However, large spread percentages may either exceed system maximum frequency ratings or lower the average frequency to a point where performance is affected. For these reasons, narrow and wide modulation selections are provided. VDD Clock Input Reference Input Freq. Divider Q Phase Detector Σ Charge Pump VCO Modulating Waveform Feedback Divider P PLL GND Figure 1. System Block Diagram 2 Post Dividers CLKOUT (EMI suppressed) W166 Spread Spectrum Frequency Timing Generator Where P is the percentage of deviation and F is the frequency in MHz where the reduction is measured. The device generates a clock that is frequency modulated in order to increase the bandwidth that it occupies. By increasing the bandwidth of the fundamental and its harmonics, the amplitudes of the radiated electromagnetic emissions are reduced. This effect is depicted in Figure 2. The output clock is modulated with a waveform depicted in Figure 3. This waveform, as discussed in “Spread Spectrum Clock Generation for the Reduction of Radiated Emissions” by Bush, Fessler, and Hardin produces the maximum reduction in the amplitude of radiated electromagnetic emissions. The deviation selected for this chip is ±0.45% or 0.6% of the selected frequency. Figure 3 details the Cypress spreading pattern. Cypress does offer options with more spread and greater EMI reduction. Contact your local Sales representative for details on these devices. As shown in Figure 2, a harmonic of a modulated clock has a much lower amplitude than that of an unmodulated signal. The reduction in amplitude is dependent on the harmonic number and the frequency deviation or spread. The equation for the reduction is dB = 6.5 + 9*log10(P) + 9*log10(F) E M I R e d u ctio n Typical Clock A m plitu de (dB ) Amplitude (dB) S SFTG S p re a d S p e ctru m E n a b le d NonS p re a d Spectrum Frequency Span (MHz) Down Spread Frequency Span (MHz) Center Spread Figure 2. Clock Harmonic with and without SSCG Modulation Frequency Domain Representation MIN. Figure 3. Typical Modulation Profile 3 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% FREQUENCY MAX. W166 Absolute Maximum Ratings above those specified in the operating sections of this specification is not implied. Maximum conditions for extended periods may affect reliability Stresses greater than those listed in this table may cause permanent damage to the device. These represent a stress rating only. Operation of the device at these or any other conditions . Parameter Description Rating Unit V VDD, VIN Voltage on any Pin with Respect to GND –0.5 to +7.0 –65 to +150 °C 0 to +70 °C –55 to +125 °C 0.5 W TSTG Storage Temperature TA Operating Temperature TB Ambient Temperature under Bias PD Power Dissipation DC Electrical Characteristics: 0°C < TA < 70°C, VDD = 3.3V ±5% Parameter Description IDD Supply Current tON Power Up Time VIL Input Low Voltage VIH Input High Voltage VOL Output Low Voltage VOH Output High Voltage IIL Input Low Current IIH Test Condition Min Typ Max Unit 18 32 mA 5 ms 0.8 V First locked clock cycle after Power Good 2.4 V 0.4 V Note 1 –20 µA Input High Current Note 1 20 µA IOL Output Low Current @ 0.4V, VDD = 3.3V 15 IOH Output High Current @ 2.4V, VDD = 3.3V 15 CI Input Capacitance All pins except CLKIN CI Input Capacitance CLKIN pin only RP Input Pull-Up Resistor 500 kΩ ZOUT Clock Output Impedance 25 Ω 2.4 V 6 Note: 1. Inputs FS1:0 have a pull-up resistor, Input SSON# has a pull-down resistor. 4 mA mA 7 pF 5 pF W166 DC Electrical Characteristics: 0°C < TA < 70°C, VDD = 5V ±10% Parameter Description IDD Supply Current tON Power Up Time Test Condition Min Typ Max Unit 21 40 mA 5 ms First locked clock cycle after Power Good VIL Input Low Voltage VIH Input High Voltage VOL Output Low Voltage VOH Output High Voltage IIL Input Low Current Note 1 –20 µA IIH Input High Current Note 1 20 µA IOL Output Low Current IOH Output High Current @ 0.4V, VDD = 5V @ 2.4V, VDD = 5V 0.8 3.5 V V 0.4 2.4 V V 24 mA 24 mA CI Input Capacitance All pins except CLKIN 7 pF CI Input Capacitance CLKIN pin only 5 pF RP Input Pull-Up Resistor 500 kΩ ZOUT Clock Output Impedance 25 Ω AC Electrical Characteristics: TA = 0°C to +70°C, VDD = 3.3V ±5% or 5V±10% Symbol Parameter Test Condition Min Typ Max Unit fIN Input Frequency Input Clock 50 65 MHz fOUT Output Frequency Spread Off 50 65 MHz tR Output Rise Time 15-pF load, 0.8V–2.4V 2 5 ns tF Output Fall Time 15-pF load, 2.4V–0.8V 2 5 ns tOD Output Duty Cycle 15-pF load, test at VDD/2 40 60 % tID Input Duty Cycle 40 60 % tJCYC Jitter, Cycle-to-Cycle 300 ps Harmonic Reduction 250 fout = 50 MHz, third harmonic measured, reference board, 15-pF load 5 8 dB W166 creased trace inductance will negate its decoupling capability. The 10-µF decoupling capacitor shown should be a tantalum type. For further EMI protection, the VDD connection can be made via a ferrite bead, as shown. Application Information Recommended Circuit Configuration For optimum performance in system applications the power supply decoupling scheme shown in Figure 4 should be used. Recommended Board Layout VDD decoupling is important to both reduce phase jitter and EMI radiation. The 0.1-µF decoupling capacitor should be placed as close to the VDD pin as possible, otherwise the in- 1 NC 2 GND 3 4 R1 8 W166 Reference Input Figure 5 shows a recommended a 2-layer board layout. Clock Output 7 6 VDD 5 C1 0.1 µF 3.3 or 5V System Supply FB C2 10 µF Tantalum Figure 4. Recommended Circuit Configuration C1 = High frequency supply decoupling capacitor (0.1 µF recommended). C2 = Common supply low frequency decoupling capacitor (10-µF tantalum recommended). R1 = Match value to line impedance FB = Ferrite Bead G = Via To GND Plane Reference Input R1 NC Clock Output G C1 G C2 G Power Supply Input (3.3V or 5V) FB Figure 5. Recommended Board Layout (2-Layer Board) Ordering Information Ordering Code W166 Package Name Package Type G 8-pin Plastic SOIC (150-mil) Document: #38-00878 6 W166 Package Diagram 8-Pin Small Outlined Integrated Circuit (SOIC, 150-mil) © Cypress Semiconductor Corporation, 1999. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Cypress Semiconductor Corporation assumes no responsibility for the use of any circuitry other than circuitry embodied in a Cypress Semiconductor product. Nor does it convey or imply any license under patent or other rights. Cypress Semiconductor does not authorize its products for use as critical components in life-support systems where a malfunction or failure may reasonably be expected to result in significant injury to the user. The inclusion of Cypress Semiconductor products in life-support systems application implies that the manufacturer assumes all risk of such use and in doing so indemnifies Cypress Semiconductor against all charges.