CYPRESS STAR1000_11

STAR1000
1M Pixel Radiation Hard CMOS
Image Sensor
Features
operation modes such as (multiple) windowing, subsampling,
and so on.
The STAR1000 sensor has the following characteristics:
The CYIS1SM1000AA-HHC has a BK7G18 glass lid, and the
cavity is filled with N2 which increases the temperature operating
range. The CYIS1SM1000AA-HHCS is similar to the
CYIS1SM1000AA-HHC; it has a BK7G18 glass lid and a N2 filled
cavity, but is also screened and tested to space qualified device
standards.
■
Integrating 3-transistor Active Pixel Sensor
■
1024 by 1024 pixels on 15 mm pitch
■
Radiation tolerant design
■
On-chip double sampling circuit to cancel Fixed Pattern Noise
■
Electronic shutter
■
Read out rate: up to 11 full frames per second
■
Region of Interest (ROI) windowing
■
On-chip 10-bit ADC
■
Programmable gain amplifier
■
Ceramic JLCC-84 package
■
Available with BK7G18 glass and with N2 filled cavity
Sensor Description
The STAR1000 is a CMOS image sensor with 1024 by 1024
pixels on a 15 mm pitch. It features on-chip Fixed Pattern Noise
(FPN) correction, a programmable gain amplifier, and a 10-bit
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC).
All circuits are designed using the radiation tolerant design rules
for CMOS image sensors, to allow high tolerance against total
dose effects.
Registers that are directly accessed by the external controller
contain the X- and Y- addresses of the pixels to be read. This
architecture provides flexible operation and allows different
Ordering Information
Marketing Part Number
Description
Package
CYIS1SM1000AA-HHC
Mono with BK7G18 Glass
CYIS1SM1000AA-HHCS
Mono with BK7G18 Glass, Space Qualified
Cypress Semiconductor Corporation
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
•
198 Champion Court
•
84 pin JLCC
San Jose, CA 95134-1709
•
408-943-2600
Revised January 25, 2011
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STAR1000
Contents
Features ............................................................................... 1
Sensor Description ............................................................. 1
Ordering Information .......................................................... 1
Contents .............................................................................. 2
Sensor Specifications ........................................................ 3
General Specifications .................................................. 3
Electro-optical Specifications ........................................ 3
Spectral Response ........................................................ 5
Photo Voltaic Response ................................................ 5
Absolute Maximum Ratings ........................................... 6
Architecture ........................................................................ 8
Floor Plan ...................................................................... 8
Pixel Array ..................................................................... 8
Addressing Logic ........................................................... 9
Column Amplifiers ......................................................... 9
Output Amplifier and Analog Multiplexer ....................... 9
ADC ............................................................................... 9
Timing and Control Signals ............................................... 9
Row Selection and Reset Timing .................................. 9
Pixel Read Out Timing ................................................ 11
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Pin List ................................................................................13
Packaging and Geometrical Constraints ........................17
Package Drawing .........................................................17
Die Alignment ...............................................................19
Glass Lids .....................................................................19
Handling Precautions ........................................................20
Limited Warranty ...............................................................20
Return Material Authorization (RMA) ...........................20
Ordering Code Definition ..................................................20
RoHS (Pb-free) Compliance .........................................20
Information on Pb-Free Soldering ................................20
Acronyms ...........................................................................21
Glossary .............................................................................22
STAR1000 Evaluation System ..........................................23
Document History Page ....................................................24
Sales, Solutions, and Legal Information .........................24
Worldwide Sales and Design Support ..........................24
Page 2 of 24
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STAR1000
Sensor Specifications
General Specifications
Table 1. General Specifications of STAR1000 Sensor
Parameter
Specification
Comment
Detector technology
CMOS active pixel sensor
Pixel structure
3-transistor active pixel
Radiation-tolerant pixel design.
Photodiode
High fill factor photodiode
Using N-well technique.
Sensitive area format
1024 x 1024 pixels
Pixel size
15 x15 μm2
Pixel output rate
12 MHz
Windowing
X- and Y- addressing random programmable
Electronic shutter
Electronic rolling shutter.
Range - 1:1024
Integration time is variable in time steps equal to the
row readout time.
Total dose radiation
tolerance
> 250 Krad (Si)
Pixel test structures with a similar design have
shown total dose tolerance up to several Mrad.
Note: Dark current and DSNU are dependent of
radiation dose.
Speed can be altered for power consumption.
Proton radiation tolerance 2,4.1011 proton/cm2
At 60 MeV
SEU tolerance
> 127,8 MeV cm3 mg-1
Electro-optical Specifications
Table 2. Electro-optical Specifications of STAR1000 Sensor
Value
Parameter
Spectral range
Comment
Typical Value
Unit
400-1000
nm
Quantum efficiency x fill
factor
20%
Average over the visual range. See spectral
response curve.
Full well capacity
135.000
e-
Saturation capacity to
meet non-linearity within
+ 5%
99.000
e-
Output signal swing
1.1
V
Conversion gain
11.4
μV/e-
kTC noise
47
e-
Dynamic range
69
dB
Fixed pattern noise
Local: 1σ < 0.30%
Global: 1σ <0.56%
of full well
Photo response
non-uniformity at Sat/
2 (RMS)
Local: 1σ < 0.67%
Global: σ <3.93%
of full well
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Page 3 of 24
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STAR1000
Table 2. Electro-optical Specifications of STAR1000 Sensor (continued)
Value
Parameter
Comment
Typical Value
Unit
Average dark current at
293K
223
ρA/cm2
Dark current signal
3135
e-/s
DSNU signal
Optical cross-talk
at 600 nm
1.055% of Vsat
DSNU rises 14 e-/s per Krad.
Vertical: 16%
Horizontal: 17.5%
Anti-blooming capacity
Output amplifier gain
x 1000
x1, x2.47, x4.59 and x8.64
Analogue input
bandwidth
Controlled by 2 bits.
9.5
MHz
0.1 to 4.9
V
10
bit
ADC Differential
Non-Linearity (DNL)
<= ±3.5
LSB
ADC Integral
Non-Linearity (INL)
<= ±5.8
LSB
5
V
<350
<100
mW
Analogue input signal
range
Dark current rises 425 e-/s per Krad.
Analog-to-Digital
converter
Supply voltage
Power dissipation
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Radiation-tolerant version of the ADC on Ibis4 and
other image sensors.
Integral non-linearity of ADC is better than linearity
of image sensor.
Digital input signals are 3.3V compatible.
With internal ADC powered.
Without internal ADC powered.
Both values measured at nominal speed (12 MHz).
Page 4 of 24
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STAR1000
Spectral Response
Figure 1. Spectral Response Curve
0.16
QE 0.3
0.14
QE 0.2
Spectral response [A/W]
0.12
0.1
0.08
QE 0.1
0.06
QE 0.05
0.04
0.02
QE 0.01
0
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
Wavelenght [nm]
Photo Voltaic Response
Figure 2. Photo Voltaic Response Curve
Voltage swing at output [V]
1,2
1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000 120000 140000 160000 180000
Number of electrons
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Page 5 of 24
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STAR1000
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Table 3. Absolute Maximum Ratings STAR1000
Limits
Characteristics
Units
Remarks
Min
Max
Any supply voltage
-0.5
+7
V
Voltage on any input terminal
-0.5
Vdd + 0.5
V
0
+60
°C
Temperature range confirmed by
evaluation testing.
Storage temperature
-10
+60
°C
Not longer than 1 hour. Temperature range
confirmed by evaluation testing.
Sensor soldering temperature
NA
125
°C
Hand soldering only. The sensor’s
temperature may not rise above this limit.
Read the Handling Precautions on page 20
for more information.
Operating temperature
R
Table 4. Absolute Maximum Ratings STAR1000BK7 and STAR1000SP
Limits
Characteristics
Units
Remarks
Min
Max
Any supply voltage
-0.5
+7
V
Voltage on any input terminal
-0.5
Vdd + 0.5
V
Operating temperature
-40
+85
°C
Temperature range confirmed by
evaluation testing.
Storage temperature
-40
+85
°C
Temperature range confirmed by
evaluation testing.
-40
+120
NA
125
Sensor soldering
temperature
Maximum 1 hour.
°C
Hand soldering only. The sensor’s
temperature may not rise above this limit.
Read the Handling Precautions on page 20
for more information.
Table 5. DC Operating Conditions
Limits
Symbol
Parameter
Units
Min
Typ
Max
VDDA
Analog supply of the image core.
5
V
VDDD
Digital supply of the image core.
5
V
VDD_ADC_ANA
Analog supply of the ADC circuitry.
5
V
VDD_ADC_DIG
Digital supply of the ADC circuitry.
5
V
VDD_DIG_OUT
Power supply of ADC digital output stage.
5
V
VRES
Reset level for RESET signal.
5
V
VREF
Reset level for RESET_DS signal.
GNDA
Analog ground of the image core.
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
4
5
0
V
V
Page 6 of 24
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STAR1000
Table 5. DC Operating Conditions (continued)
Limits
Symbol
Parameter
Units
Min
Typ
Max
GNDD
Digital ground of the image core.
0
V
GND_ADC_ANA
Analog ground of the ADC circuitry.
0
V
GND_ADC_DIG
Digital ground of the ADC circuitry.
0
V
VIH
Logical '1' input voltage.
1.8
VDDD
V
VIL
Logical '0' input voltage.
0
1
V
VOH
Logical '1' output voltage.
4.25
VDDD
V
VOL
Logical '0' output voltage.
1
V
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Page 7 of 24
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STAR1000
Architecture
Floor Plan
Figure 3. STAR1000 Floor Plan
1024
Reset
10
Pixel Array
1024 x 1024 pixels
Reset_DS
D0...D9
Rst
Vref
Ld_Y
10
Y Address
Decoder
and Logic
Col
10-bit ADC
Rst
1024
Clk_ADC
Rd
Latch
A0....A9
Rd
Ain
1024
10
S
R
Column Amplifiers
1024
Rst
1024
Sig
Progr. Gain
Amplifier
Multiplexer
1024
X Register
Clk_X
Buffer
Aout
1024
10
Ld_X
The image sensor contains five sections: the pixel array, the Xand Y- addressing logic, the column amplifiers, the output
amplifier and the ADC. Figure 3 shows an outline diagram of the
sensor, including an indication of the main control signals. The
following paragraphs explain the function and operation of the
different imager parts in detail.
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Sel1
Sel0
Figure 4. Architecture of the 3T Pixel
T1
Read
Reset
T2
Column Bus
The photo diode is always in reverse bias. At the beginning of
the integration cycle, a pulse is applied to the reset line (gate of
T1) bringing the cathode of D1 to the reset voltage level. During
the integration period, photon-generated electrons accumulate
on the diode capacitance reducing the voltage on the gate of T2.
The real illumination dependent signal is the difference between
the reset level and the output level after integration. This
difference is created in the column amplifiers. T2 acts as a
source follower and T3 allows connection of the pixel signal
(reset level and output level) to the vertical output bus.
Ain1
Ain2
Ain3
The reset lines and the read lines of the pixels in a row are
connected together to the Y- decoder logic; the outputs of the
pixels in a column are connected together to a column amplifier.
Pixel Array
The pixel array contains 1024 by 1024 active pixels at 15 μm
pitch. Each pixel contains one photo diode and three transistors
(Figure 4).
G0f
G1
Blackref
Cal
Latch
X Address Decoder
T3
Page 8 of 24
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STAR1000
Addressing Logic
Output Amplifier and Analog Multiplexer
The addressing logic allows direct addressing of rows and
columns. Instead of the one-hot shift registers that are often
used, address decoders are implemented. One can select a line
by presenting the required address to the address input of the
device and latching it to the Y- decoder logic. Presenting the
X- address to the device address input and latching it to the
X- address decoder can select a column.
The output amplifier combines subtraction of pixel signal level
from reset level with a programmable gain amplifier. Because the
amplifier is AC coupled, it also contains a provision to maintain
and restore the proper DC level.
A typical line read out sequence first selects a line by applying
the Y-address to the Y-decoder. Activation of the LD_Y input on
the Y-logic connects the pixel outputs of the selected line to the
column amplifiers. The individual column amplifier outputs are
connected to the output amplifier by applying the respective
X- addresses to the X- address decoder. Applying the appropriate Y- address to the Y- decoder and activating the “Reset”
input reset a line. The integration time of a row is the time
between the last reset of this row and the time when it is selected
for read out.
The Y- decoder logic has two different reset inputs: RESET and
RESET_DS. Activation of RESET resets the pixel to the Vdd
level; activation of RESET_DS resets the pixel to the voltage
level on the VREF input. This feature allows the application of
the so called dual slope integration. If dual slope integration is
not needed, VREF is tied to Vdd and RESET_DS must never be
activated.
Column Amplifiers
All outputs from the pixels in a column are connected in parallel
to a column amplifier. This amplifier samples the output voltage
and the reset level of the pixel whose row is selected at that
moment and presents these voltage levels to the output
amplifier. As a result, the pixels are always reset immediately
after read out as part of the sample procedure. Note that the
maximum integration time of a pixel is the time between two read
cycles.
An analog signal multiplexing feeds the pixel signal to the final
unity gain buffer, providing the required drive capability. Apart
from the pixel signal, three other external analog signals can be
fed to the output buffer. All these signals can be digitalised by the
on-chip ADC if the output of this buffer is externally connected to
the input of the ADC.
The purpose of the additional analog inputs (A_IN1, A_IN2, and
A_IN3) is to allow the possibility of processing other analog
signals through the image sensors signal path. These signals
can then be converted by the ADC and processed by the image
controller FPGA. The additional analog inputs are intended for
low frequency or DC signals and have a reduced bandwidth
compared with the image signal path.
ADC
The image sensor has a 10-bit ADC that is electrically separated
from the rest of the image sensor circuits and can be powered
down if an external ADC is used. The conversion takes place at
the falling edge of the clock and the output pins can be disabled
to allow operation of the device in a bus structure.
Timing and Control Signals
The pixels addressing is done by direct addressing of rows and
columns. This approach has the advantage of full flexibility when
accessing the pixel array: multiple windowing and subsampled
read out are possible by proper programming.
The following paragraphs clarify the timing for row and column
readout.
Row Selection and Reset Timing
Figure 5 on page 10 shows the timing of the line sequence
control signals. The timing constraints are presented in Table 6
on page 10
The address, presented at the address IO pins (A0…A9) is
latched in with the LD-Y pulse (active low). After latching, the
external controller already produces a new address.
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Page 9 of 24
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STAR1000
Figure 5. Line Selection and Reset Sequence
A0......A9
Read Address
Reset Address
k
k
l
m
m
l
LD_Y
INTERNAL
Row Selected for Reset
Row Selected for Readout
a
b
S
c
d
f
g
d
RESET
e
b
R
h
i
CAL
(Once each
frame)
ROW
READOUT
Idle
Time Available for Readout of Row Y-1
Latching in a Y- address selects the addressed row and connects
the pixel outputs of that row to the column amplifiers. Through
the sequence of the S and R pulse and the reset pulse in
between the pixel output signal and reset level are sampled and
produced at the output of the column amplifier (to do the FPN
double sampling correction).
Time Available for X-readout of Row Y
At this time horizontal read out of the selected row is started and
another row is reset to effectuate reduced integration time
(electronic rolling shutter).
Table 6. Timing Constraints of Line Sequence
Symbol
Min
Typ
a
3.6 μs
Delay between selection of a new row and falling edge on S.
Minimal value: For maximum, speed a new row can already be selected
during X- read out of the previous row.
b
0.4 μs
Duration of S and R pulse.
c
0
d
200 ns
100 ns
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Description
Delay between falling edge of S and rising edge of reset.
Minimum duration of reset pulse.
Page 10 of 24
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STAR1000
Table 6. Timing Constraints of Line Sequence (continued)
Symbol
Min
e
1.6 μs
f
0
Typ
Description
Delay between falling edge of reset and falling edge of R.
100 ns
g
g
Minimum delay between falling edge on LD_Y and rising edge of reset.
Minimum required extension of Y- address after falling edge of reset pulse.
h
100 ns
200 ns
Position of cal pulse after rising edge of S.
The cal pulse must only be given once per frame.
i
100 ns
1 μs
k
10 ns
Address set up time.
l
20 ns
Load register value.
m
10 ns
Address stable after load.
Duration of cal pulse.
Pixel Read Out Timing
Figure 6 on page 12 shows the timing of the pixel readout
sequence. The external digital controller presents a column
address that is latched by the rising edge of the LD_X pulse. After
decoding the X- address the column selection is clocked in the
X- register by CLK-X. The output amplifier uses the same pulse
to subtract the pixel output level from the pixel reset level and the
signal level. This causes a pipeline effect such that the analog
output of the first pixel is effectively present at the device output
terminal at the third rising edge of the X-CLK signal.
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
The ADC conversion starts at the falling edge of the CLK-ADC
signal and produces a valid digital output 20 ns after this edge.
The timing constraints are given in Table 7 on page 12.
Important note: The values of the X shift-register tend to leak
away after a while. Therefore, it is very important to keep the
CLK_X signal asserted for as long as the sensor is powered up.
If the sensor sits idle and CLK_X is not asserted, the leakage of
the X shift-register causes multiple columns to be selected at
once. This forces high current through the sensor and may cause
damage.
Page 11 of 24
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STAR1000
Figure 6. Column Selection and Read Out Sequence
Row Idle Time
A0......A9
X1
X2
X3
X5
X4
X6
X8
X7
LD_X
a
b
CLK_X
X1
X2
X3
Undefined Output Level
ANALOG
OUTPUT
X4
X5
X6
CLK_ADC
c
X1
D9......D0
X2
X3
X4
Table 7. Timing Constraints of Column Read Out
Symbol
Min
a
20 ns
Address setup time.
b
40 ns
Address valid time.
c
0
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Typ
20 ns
Description
ADC output valid after falling edge of CLK_ADC.
Page 12 of 24
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STAR1000
Pin List
Figure 7 displays the pin connections of the STAR1000. The tables that follow group the connections by their functionality.
Figure 7. STAR1000 Pin Connections
Table 8. Pin List of the STAR1000 Sensor
Pin
Pin Name
Pin Type
1
A3
Input
2
A4
Input
3
A5
Input
4
A6
Input
5
A7
Input
6
A8
Input
7
A9
Input
8
LD_Y
Input
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Pin Description
Digital Input. Latch address (A0…A9) to Y-register (0 = track, 1 = hold).
Page 13 of 24
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STAR1000
Table 8. Pin List of the STAR1000 Sensor (continued)
Pin
Pin Name
Pin Type
9
LD_X
Input
10
VDDA
Supply
Analog power supply of the imager (typical 5V).
11
GNDD
Ground
Digital ground of the imager.
12
GNDA
Ground
Analog ground of the imager.
13
CLK_X
Input
Digital input. Clock X-register (output valid & stable when CLK_X is high).
14
RESET_DS
Input
Digital input (active high). Resets row indicated by Y-address (see sensor
timing diagram).
RESET_DS is used for dual-slope integration (see FAQ).
GND is used for normal operation.
15
VDDD
Supply
16
RESET
Input
Digital input (active high). Resets row indicated by Y-address (see sensor
timing diagram).
17
S
Input
Digital input (active high). Control signal for column amplifier (see sensor
timing diagram).
18
R
Input
Digital input (active high). Control signal for column amplifier (see sensor
timing diagram).
19
NBIAS_DEC
Input
Analog input. Biasing of address decoder.
Connect with 100 kΩ to VDDA and decouple with 100 nF to GND.
20
A_IN2
Input
21
A_IN3
Input
Additional analog inputs. For proper conversion with on-chip ADC, the
input signal must lie within the output signal range of the image sensor
(approximately +2V to +4V).
22
A_IN1
Input
23
A_SEL1
Input
24
A_SEL0
Input
25
NBIAS_OAMP
Input
Analog input. Bias of output amplifier (speed/power control).
Connect with 100 kΩ to VDDA and decouple with 100 nF to GND for 12.5
MHz output rate (lower resistor values yield higher maximal pixel rates at
the cost of extra power dissipation).
26
PBIAS
Input
Analog input. Biasing of the multiplexer circuitry.
Connect with 20 kΩ to GND and decouple with 100 nF to VDD.
27
G1
Input
28
G0
Input
Digital input. Select output amplifier gain value: G0 = LSB, G1 = MSB ('00'
= unity gain, '01' = x2, '10' = x4, '11' = x8).
29
CAL
Input
Digital input (active high). Initialization of output amplifier. Output amplifier
outputs BLACKREF in unity gain mode when CAL is high (1).
Apply pulse pattern (see sensor timing diagram).
30
OUT
Output
Analog Output Video Signal. Connected to the analog input of the internal
(pin 52) 10-bit ADC or an external ADC.
31
BLACKREF
Input
Analog input. Control voltage for output signal offset level. Buffered
on-chip, the reference level can be generated by a 100 kΩ resistive divider.
Connect to 2V DC for use with on-chip ADC.
32
VDDA
Supply
Analog power supply of image core (typical 5V).
33
VDDD
Supply
Digital power supply of image core (typical 5V).
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Pin Description
Digital input. Latch address (A0…A9) to X-register (0 = track, 1 = hold).
Digital supply of the image sensor.
Selection of analog channel: '00' selects image sensor ('01' selects A_IN1,
'10' A_IN2, and '11' A_IN3).
Page 14 of 24
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STAR1000
Table 8. Pin List of the STAR1000 Sensor (continued)
Pin
Pin Name
Pin Type
Pin Description
34
GNDA
Ground
Analog ground of image core.
35
GNDD
Ground
Digital ground of image core.
36
NBIAS_ARRAY
Input
Analog input. Biasing of the pixel array. Connect with 1MΩ to VDDA and
decouple with 100 nF capacitor to GND.
37
n.c.
38
n.c.
39
n.c.
40
n.c.
41
n.c.
42
n.c.
43
n.c.
44
n.c.
45
n.c.
46
n.c.
47
n.c.
48
TESTPIXARRAY
Output
Analog output of an array of 20 x 35 test pixels where all photodiodes are
connected in parallel. Is used for electro-optical evaluation.
49
PHOTODIODE
Output
Plain Photo Diode (without circuitry). Area of the photodiode = 20 x 35
pixels. Is used for electro-optical evaluation.
50
NBIAS_ANA
Input
51
NBIAS_ANA2
Input
52
IN_ADC
Input
53
VDD_ADC_ANA
Supply
Analog power supply of the ADC (typical 5V).
54
GND_ADC_ANA
Ground
Analog ground of the ADC.
55
VLOW_ADC
Input
Low reference voltage of internal ADC. Nominal input range of the ADC
is between 2V and 4V. The resistance between VLOW_ADC and
VHIGH_ADC is approximately 1.5 kΩ. Connect with 1.5 kΩ to GND and
decouple with 100 nF to GND.
56
n.c.
57
PBIASDIG2
Input
Connect with 20 kΩ to GND and decouple with 100nF to VDDA.
Analog input. Analog biasing of the ADC circuitry. Connect with 100 kΩ to
VDDA and decouple with 100 nF to GND.
Analog input of the internal ADC. Connect to analog output of image
sensor (pin 30).
Input range (typically 2V and 4V) of the internal ADC is set between by
VLOW_ADC (pin 55) and VHIGH_ADC (pin 62).
58
BITINVERT
Input
Digital input. Inversion of the ADC output bits. 0 = invert output bits (0 =>
black, 1023; white, 0), 1 = no inversion of output bits (black, 0; white, 1023).
59
TRI_ADC
Input
Digital input. Tri-state control of digital ADC outputs (1 = tri-state, 0 =
normal mode).
60
D0
Input
ADC output bits.#D0 = LSB, D9=MSB.
61
CLK
Input
Digital input. ADC clock. ADC converts on falling edge.
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Page 15 of 24
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STAR1000
Table 8. Pin List of the STAR1000 Sensor (continued)
Pin
Pin Name
Pin Type
Pin Description
62
VHIGH_ADC
Input
High reference voltage of internal ADC. Nominal input range of the ADC
is between 2V and 4V. The resistance between VLOW_ADC and
VHIGH_ADC is about 1.5 kΩ.
Connect with 1.1 kΩ to VDDA and decouple with 100 nF to GND.
63
GND_ADC_ANA
Ground
Analog ground of the ADC circuitry.
64
VDD_ADC_ANA
Supply
Analog supply of the ADC circuitry (typical 5V).
65
VDD_ADC_DIG
Supply
Digital supply of the ADC circuitry (typical 5V).
66
GND_ADC_DIG
Output
Digital ground of the ADC circuitry.
67
VDD_DIG_OUT
Supply
Power supply of ADC digital output. Connect to 5V for normal operation.
Can be brought to lower voltage when image sensor must be interfaced
to low voltage periphery.
68
D1
Output
ADC output bits. #D0 = LSB, D9 = MSB.
69
D2
Output
70
D3
Output
71
D4
Output
72
D5
Output
73
VDDA
Supply
Analog supply of the image core (typical 5V).
74
GNDA
Ground
Analog ground of the image core (typical 5V).
75
GND_AB
Supply
Anti-blooming drain control voltage. Default: connect to ground where the
anti-blooming is operational but not maximal. Apply 1V DC for improved
anti-blooming.
76
VREF
Supply
Analog supply. Reset level for RESET_DS. Is used for extended optical
dynamic range. See FAQ for more details.
77
VRES
Supply
Analog supply. Reset level for RESET (typical 5V).
78
D6
Output
ADC output bits. #D0 = LSB, D9 = MSB.
79
D7
Output
80
D8
Output
81
D9
Output
82
A0
Input
83
A1
Input
84
A2
Input
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Digital input. Address inputs for row and column addressing. A9 = LSB,
A0 = MSB.
Page 16 of 24
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STAR1000
Packaging and Geometrical Constraints
Package Drawing
The detector is packaged in an 84-pin J-leaded package. The detector is mounted into position with thermally and electrically
conductive adhesive. The bottom plate of the cavity is electrically connected to a ground pin.
The detector is positioned into the cavity such that the optical center of the detector coincides with the geometrical center of the cavity
within a tolerance of ± 50 μm in X- and Y direction. The tolerance on the parallelism of the detector is ± 50 μm in X- and Y- direction.
Note: The dimensions in Figure 8 are in inches.
Figure 8. Package Drawing
001-07592 *C
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Page 17 of 24
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STAR1000
Table 9. Mechanical Specifications
Characteristics
Symbol
Limits
Typ
Max
0.15
mm
-0.05
0
0.05
mm
Package tolerance
Die position, X offset
Units
Min
Die position, Y offset
0.15
0.30
mm
Die position, planarity
-0.05
0
0.05
mm
Die position, Y tilt
-0.05
0
0.05
mm
Note: Min and Max limits are not measured on every unit, but guaranteed by assembly process.
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Page 18 of 24
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STAR1000
Die Alignment
Figure 9. Die Alignment
Parallelism in
X and Y within
+ 50 mm
200 P
Y
Pin 1
Centre of Cavity
and of FPA
Centre of
Silicium
A
52 P
Bonding Cavity:
0.508+0.051
X
Offset Between Centre of
Silicium and Centre of
Cavity:
X: 52 Pm
Y: 200 Pm
Die:
0.508+0.01
A
Glass Window:
1.0+/-0.05
Window Adhesive:
0.08+0.02
Die Cavity:
0.508+0.051
A-
Die Adhesive:
0.08+0.02
Section A
Drawing Not to Scale
Glass Lids
The STAR1000 is available with BK7G18 glass with N2 inside the cavity.
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Page 19 of 24
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STAR1000
Handling Precautions
Return Material Authorization (RMA)
For proper handling and storage conditions, refer to the Cypress
application note AN52561, Image Sensor Handling and Best
Practices at www.cypress.com.
Limited Warranty
Cypress’s Image Sensor Business Unit warrants that the image
sensor products to be delivered hereunder, if properly used and
serviced, will conform to Seller's published specifications and will
be free from defects in material and workmanship for one (1)
year following the date of shipment. If a defect were to manifest
itself within 1 (one) year period from the sale date, Cypress will
either replace the product or give credit for the product.
Cypress packages all of its image sensor products in a clean
room environment under strict handling procedures and ships all
image sensor products in ESD-safe, clean-room-approved
shipping containers. Products returned to Cypress for failure
analysis should be handled under these same conditions and
packed in its original packing materials, or the customer may be
liable for the product.
Ordering Code Definition
CY I S1 S M 1000 AA - H H C S
Cypress Prefix
I=Im age Sensors
S=Space Qualified, ES: Engg
Com m ercial Tem perature range
H=BK7G16 Glass
Package: H= JLCC
Functionality Placeholder
STAR
S=Standard Process
M=Mono
1.0 MegaPixel
RoHS (Pb-free) Compliance
This paragraph reports the use of hazardous chemical substances as required by the RoHS Directive (excluding packing material).
Table 10. Chemical Substances in STAR250 Sensor
Any intentional content
If there is any intentional content, in which portion is
it contained?
Lead
NO
-
Cadmium
NO
-
Mercury
NO
-
Hexavalent chromium
NO
-
PBB (Polybrominated biphenyls)
NO
-
PBDE (Polybrominated diphenyl ethers)
NO
-
Chemical Substance
Information on Pb-Free Soldering
The product cannot withstand a Pb-free soldering process.
Reflow or wave soldering is not recommended. Hand soldering
is needed for this part type. Solder one pin on each side and let
the sensor cool down for minimum 1 minute before continuing.
Note: "Intentional Content" is defined as any material
demanding special attention that is contained into the inquired
product by these cases:
1. A case that the above material is added as a chemical composition into the inquired product intentionally to produce and
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
maintain the required performance and function of the
intended product
2. A case that the above material, which is used intentionally in
the manufacturing process, is contained in or adhered to the
inquired product.
The following case is not treated as "intentional content":
A case that the above material is contained as an impurity into
raw materials or parts of the intended product. The impurity is
defined as a substance that cannot be removed industrially, or it
is produced at a process like chemical composing or reaction
and it cannot be removed technically.
Page 20 of 24
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STAR1000
Acronyms
Acronym
Description
Acronym
Description
analog-to-digital converter
IP
intellectual property
AFE
analog front end
LE
line end
BL
black pixel data
LS
line start
CDM
Charged Device Model
LSB
least significant bit
CDS
correlated double sampling
LVDS
low-voltage differential signaling
CMOS
complementary metal oxide semiconductor
MBS
mixed boundary scan
CRC
cyclic redundancy check
MSB
most significant bit
DAC
digital-to-analog converter
PGA
programmable gain amplifier
DDR
double data rate
PLS
parasitic light sensitivity
DFT
design for test
PRBS
pseudo-random binary sequence
DNL
differential nonlinearity
PRNU
pixel random nonuniformity
DS
Double Sampling
QE
quantum efficiency
DSNU
dark signal nonuniformity
RGB
red green blue
EIA
Electronic Industries Alliance
RMA
Return Material Authorization
ESD
electrostatic discharge
RMS
root mean square
FE
frame end
ROI
region of interest
FF
fill factor
ROT
row overhead time
FOT
frame overhead time
S/H
sample and hold
FPGA
Field Programmable Gate Array
SNR
signal-to-noise ratio
FPN
fixed pattern noise
SPI
serial peripheral interface
FPS
frames per second
TBD
to be determined
FS
frame start
TIA
Telecommunications Industry Association
HBM
Human Body Model
TJ
Junction Temperature
IMG
regular pixel data
TR
training pattern
INL
integral nonlinearity
% RH
Percent Relative Humidity
ADC
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Page 21 of 24
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STAR1000
Glossary
conversion gain
A constant that converts the number of electrons collected by a pixel into the voltage swing of the
pixel. Conversion gain = q/C where q is the charge of an electron (1.602E 19 Coulomb) and C is the
capacitance of the photodiode or sense node.
DNL
Differential nonlinearity (for ADCs)
DSNU
Dark signal nonuniformity. This parameter characterizes the degree of nonuniformity in dark leakage
currents, which can be a major source of fixed pattern noise.
fill-factor
A parameter that characterizes the optically active percentage of a pixel. In theory, it is the ratio of
the actual QE of a pixel divided by the QE of a photodiode of equal area. In practice, it is never
measured.
INL
Integral nonlinearity (for ADCs)
IR
Infrared. IR light has wavelengths in the approximate range 750 nm to 1 mm.
Lux
Photometric unit of luminance (at 550 nm, 1lux = 1 lumen/m2 = 1/683 W/m2)
pixel noise
Variation of pixel signals within a region of interest (ROI). The ROI typically is a rectangular portion
of the pixel array and may be limited to a single color plane.
photometric units
Units for light measurement that take into account human physiology.
PLS
Parasitic light sensitivity. Parasitic discharge of sampled information in pixels that have storage
nodes.
PRNU
Photo-response nonuniformity. This parameter characterizes the spread in response of pixels, which
is a source of FPN under illumination.
QE
Quantum efficiency. This parameter characterizes the effectiveness of a pixel in capturing photons
and converting them into electrons. It is photon wavelength and pixel color dependent.
read noise
Noise associated with all circuitry that measures and converts the voltage on a sense node or
photodiode into an output signal.
reset
The process by which a pixel photodiode or sense node is cleared of electrons. "Soft" reset occurs
when the reset transistor is operated below the threshold. "Hard" reset occurs when the reset
transistor is operated above threshold.
reset noise
Noise due to variation in the reset level of a pixel. In 3T pixel designs, this noise has a component
(in units of volts) proportionality constant depending on how the pixel is reset (such as hard and soft).
In 4T pixel designs, reset noise can be removed with CDS.
responsivity
The standard measure of photodiode performance (regardless of whether it is in an imager or not).
Units are typically A/W and are dependent on the incident light wavelength. Note that responsivity
and sensitivity are used interchangeably in image sensor characterization literature so it is best to
check the units.
ROI
Region of interest. The area within a pixel array chosen to characterize noise, signal, crosstalk, and
so on. The ROI can be the entire array or a small subsection; it can be confined to a single color plane.
sense node
In 4T pixel designs, a capacitor used to convert charge into voltage. In 3T pixel designs it is the
photodiode itself.
sensitivity
A measure of pixel performance that characterizes the rise of the photodiode or sense node signal
in Volts upon illumination with light. Units are typically V/(W/m2)/sec and are dependent on the
incident light wavelength. Sensitivity measurements are often taken with 550 nm incident light. At
this wavelength, 1 683 lux is equal to 1 W/m2; the units of sensitivity are quoted in V/lux/sec. Note
that responsivity and sensitivity are used interchangeably in image sensor characterization literature
so it is best to check the units.
spectral response
The photon wavelength dependence of sensitivity or responsivity.
SNR
Signal-to-noise ratio. This number characterizes the ratio of the fundamental signal to the noise
spectrum up to half the Nyquist frequency.
temporal noise
Noise that varies from frame to frame. In a video stream, temporal noise is visible as twinkling pixels.
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Page 22 of 24
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STAR1000
STAR1000 Evaluation System
For evaluating purposes, a STAR1000 evaluation kit is available on loan basis only.
The STAR1000 evaluation kit consists of a multifunctional digital board (memory, sequencer, and IEEE 1394 Fire Wire interface) and
an analog image sensor board.
Visual Basic software (under Windows 2000 or XP) allows the grabbing and display of images from the sensor. All acquired images
can be stored in different file formats (8 or 16-bit). All settings can be adjusted dynamically to evaluate the sensors specs. Default
register values can be loaded to start the software in a desired state.
All products and company names mentioned in this document may be the trademarks of their respective holders.
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Page 23 of 24
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STAR1000
Document History Page
Document Title: STAR1000 - 1M Pixel Radiation Hard CMOS Image Sensor
Document Number: 38-05714
Revision
ECN
Orig. of
Change
Submission
Date
**
310213
SIL
See ECN
*A
603177
QGS
See ECN
Converted to Framemaker Format
*B
649371
FPW
See ECN
Package spec label update + ordering information update
*C
2738591 FOSTMP2
See ECN
Bond diagram update + review
*D
2765859
NVEA
09/18/09
Updated Ordering Information table
*E
2788268
NVEA
*F
3153394
NVEA
Description of Change
Initial Cypress release
10/16/2009 Added Mechanical Specifications table.
Updated Soldering and Handling information.
1/25/2011
Updated Ordering Information on page 1 to reflect pruned MPNs, Package Drawing
on page 17. Updated Limited Warranty on page 20 and added Ordering Code
Definition on page 20, Acronyms on page 21 and Glossary on page 22. Updated
datasheet to reflect that demo kits are on loan basis only. Updated Sales, Solutions,
and Legal Information on page 24.
Sales, Solutions, and Legal Information
Worldwide Sales and Design Support
Cypress maintains a worldwide network of offices, solution centers, manufacturer’s representatives, and distributors. For more information on Image sensor products, please contact [email protected]
Cypress offers standard and customized CMOS image sensors for consumer as well as industrial and professional applications.
Consumer applications include the fast growing high volume cell phone, digital still cameras as well as automotive applications.
Cypress' CMOS image sensors are characterized by very high pixel counts, large area, very high frame rates, large dynamic range,
and high sensitivity.
© Cypress Semiconductor Corporation, 2005-2011. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Cypress Semiconductor Corporation assumes no responsibility for the use of
any circuitry other than circuitry embodied in a Cypress product. Nor does it convey or imply any license under patent or other rights. Cypress products are not warranted nor intended to be used for
medical, life support, life saving, critical control or safety applications, unless pursuant to an express written agreement with Cypress. Furthermore, Cypress does not authorize its products for use as
critical components in life-support systems where a malfunction or failure may reasonably be expected to result in significant injury to the user. The inclusion of Cypress products in life-support systems
application implies that the manufacturer assumes all risk of such use and in doing so indemnifies Cypress against all charges.
Any Source Code (software and/or firmware) is owned by Cypress Semiconductor Corporation (Cypress) and is protected by and subject to worldwide patent protection (United States and foreign),
United States copyright laws and international treaty provisions. Cypress hereby grants to licensee a personal, non-exclusive, non-transferable license to copy, use, modify, create derivative works of,
and compile the Cypress Source Code and derivative works for the sole purpose of creating custom software and or firmware in support of licensee product to be used only in conjunction with a Cypress
integrated circuit as specified in the applicable agreement. Any reproduction, modification, translation, compilation, or representation of this Source Code except as specified above is prohibited without
the express written permission of Cypress.
Disclaimer: CYPRESS MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH REGARD TO THIS MATERIAL, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Cypress reserves the right to make changes without further notice to the materials described herein. Cypress does not
assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit described herein. Cypress does not authorize its products for use as critical components in life-support systems where
a malfunction or failure may reasonably be expected to result in significant injury to the user. The inclusion of Cypress’ product in a life-support systems application implies that the manufacturer
assumes all risk of such use and in doing so indemnifies Cypress against all charges.
Use may be limited by and subject to the applicable Cypress software license agreement.
Document Number: 38-05714 Rev. *F
Revised January 25, 2011
Page 24 of 24
All products and company names mentioned in this document may be the trademarks of their respective holders.
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