ATMEL XMEGAD

This document contains complete and detailed description of all modules included in
the AVR® XMEGATM D Microcontroller family. The XMEGA D is a family of low power,
high performance and peripheral rich CMOS 8/16-bit microcontrollers based on the
AVR enhanced RISC architecture. The available XMEGA D modules described in this
manual are:
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AVR CPU
Memories
Event System
System Clock and Clock options
Power Management and Sleep Modes
System Control and Reset
WDT - Watchdog Timer
Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller
PORT - I/O Ports
TC - 16-bit Timer/Counter
AWeX - Advanced Waveform Extension
Hi-Res - High Resolution Extension
RTC - Real Time Counter
TWI - Two Wire Serial Interface
SPI - Serial Peripheral Interface
USART - Universal Synchronous and Asynchronous Serial Receiver and Transmitter
IRCOM - IR Communication Module
ADC - Analog to Digital Converter
AC - Analog Comparator
PDI - Program and Debug Interface
Memory Programming
Peripheral Address Map Register Summary
Interrupt Vector Summary
Instruction Set Summary
8-bit
XMEGA D
Microcontroller
XMEGA D
MANUAL
Preliminary
8210B- AVR-04/10
XMEGA D
1. About the Manual
This document contains in-depth documentation of all peripherals and modules available for the
AVR XMEGA D Microcontroller family. All features are documented on a functional level and
described in a general sense. All peripherals and modules described in this manual may not be
present in all XMEGA D devices.
For all device specific information such as characterization data, memory sizes, modules and
peripherals available and their absolute memory addresses refer to the device datasheets.
When several instances of one peripheral such as a PORT exist in one device, each instance of
a module will have a unique name, such as PORTA, PORTB etc. Register, bit names are unique
within one module.
For more details on applied use and code examples for all peripherals and modules, refer to the
XMEGA specific application notes available from: http://www.atmel.com/avr.
1.1
Reading the Manual
The main sections describe the various modules and peripherals. Each section contains a short
feature list of the most important features and a short overview describing the module. The
remaining section describes the features and functions in more details.
The register description sections list all registers, and describe each bit/flag and its function. This
includes details on how to set up and enable various features in the module. When multiple bits
are needed for a configuration setting, these are grouped together in a bit group. The possible
bit group configurations are listed for all bit groups together with their associated Group Configuration and a short description. The Group Configuration refer to the defined configuration name
used in the XMEGA and assembler header files and application note source code.
The register summary sections list the internal register map for each module type.
The interrupt vector summary sections list the interrupt vectors and offset address for each module type.
1.2
Resources
A comprehensive set of development tools, application notes and datasheets are available for
download on http://www.atmel.com/avr.
1.3
Recommended Reading
• XMEGA D Device Datasheets
• XMEGA Application Notes
This manual only contains general modules and peripheral descriptions. The XMEGA D device
datasheet contains device specific information. The XMEGA application notes contain example
code and show applied use of the modules and peripherals.
For new users it is recommended to read the AVR1000 - Getting Started Writing C-code for
XMEGA, and AVR1900 - Getting started with ATxmega128A1 application notes.
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XMEGA D
2. Overview
The XMEGA D is a family of low power, high performance and peripheral rich CMOS 8/16-bit
microcontrollers based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the XMEGA D achieves throughputs approaching 1 Million
Instructions Per Second (MIPS) per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.
The AVR CPU combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the
32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent
registers to be accessed in one single instruction, executed in one clock cycle. The resulting
architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs many times faster than conventional single-accumulator or CISC based microcontrollers.
The XMEGA D devices provide the following features: In-System Programmable Flash with
Read-While-Write capabilities, Internal EEPROM and SRAM, four-channel Event System and
Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller, up to 78 general purpose I/O lines, 16-bit Real
Time Counter (RTC), up to five flexible 16-bit Timer/Counters with compare modes and PWM,
up to four USARTs, one I2C and SMBUS compatible Two Wire Serial Interface (TWI), up to two
Serial Peripheral Interfaces (SPIs), 16-channel, 12-bit ADC, with optional differential input and
programmable gain, two analog comparators with window mode, programmable Watchdog
Timer with separate Internal Oscillator, accurate internal oscillators with PLL and prescaler, and
programmable Brown-Out Detection.
The Program and Debug Interface (PDI), a fast 2-pin interface for programming and debugging,
is available.
The XMEGA D devices have five software selectable power saving modes. The Idle mode stops
the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Event System, Interrupt Controller and all peripherals to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the SRAM and register contents but stops the
oscillators, disabling all other functions until the next TWI- or pin-change interrupt, or Reset. In
Power-save mode, the asynchronous Real Time Counter continues to run, allowing the application to maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping. In Standby mode, the
Crystal/Resonator Oscillator is kept running while the rest of the device is sleeping. This allows
very fast start-up from external crystal combined with low power consumption. In Extended
Standby mode, both the main Oscillator and the Asynchronous Timer continue to run. To further
reduce power consumption, the peripheral clock to each individual peripheral can optionally be
stopped in Active mode and Idle sleep mode.
The devices are manufactured using Atmel's high-density nonvolatile memory technology. The
program Flash memory can be reprogrammed in-system through the PDI. A Bootloader running
in the device can use any interface to download the application program to the Flash memory.
The Bootloader software in the Boot Flash section will continue to run while the Application
Flash section is updated, providing true Read-While-Write operation. By combining an 8/16-bit
RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash, the Atmel XMEGA D is a powerful microcontroller family that provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution for many embedded
applications.
The XMEGA D devices are supported with a full suite of program and system development tools
including: C compilers, macro assemblers, program debugger/simulators, programmers, and
evaluation kits.
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XMEGA D
2.1
Block Diagram
Figure 2-1.
XMEGA D Block Diagram
PR[0..1]
XTAL1
PQ[0..3]
TOSC1
TOSC2
PORT Q (4)
PORT R (2)
XTAL2
Oscillator
Circuits/
Clock
Generation
Watchdog
Oscillator
Real Time
Counter
Watchdog
Timer
EVENT ROUTING NETWORK
DATA BUS
PA[0..7]
PORT A (8)
Event System
Controller
Power
Supervision
POR/BOD &
RESET
Oscillator
Control
VCC
GND
SRAM
Sleep
Controller
ACA
ADCA
BUS
Controller
AREFA
RESET/
PDI_CLK
Prog/Debug
Controller
PDI
PDI_DATA
VCC/10
Int. Refs.
Tempref
OCD
AREFB
CPU
Interrupt
Controller
PB[0..7]
PORT K (8)
PK[0..7]
PORT J (8)
PJ[0..7]
PORT H (8)
PH[0..7]
PORT B (8)
NVM Controller
Flash
EEPROM
IRCOM
DATA BUS
PC[0..7]
TCF0
USARTF0
TCE0
USARTE0
SPID
USARTD0
TCD0
SPIC
PORT C (8)
TWIC
TCC0:1
USARTC0
EVENT ROUTING NETWORK
PORT D (8)
PORT E (8)
PORT F (8)
PD[0..7]
PE[0..7]
PF[0..7]
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XMEGA D
3.
AVR CPU
3.1
Features
• 8/16-bit high performance AVR RISC CPU
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3.2
– 138 instructions
– Hardware multiplier
32x8-bit registers directly connected to the ALU
Stack in RAM
Stack Pointer accessible in I/O memory space
Direct addressing of up to 16M bytes of program memory and 16M bytes of data memory
True 16/24-bit access to 16/24-bit I/O registers
Efficient support for both 8-, 16- and 32-bit Arithmetic
Configuration Change Protection of system critical features
Overview
XMEGA uses the 8/16-bit AVR CPU. The main function of the CPU is to ensure correct program
execution. The CPU is able to access memories, perform calculations and control peripherals.
Interrupt handling is described in a separate section, refer to ”Interrupts and Programmable
Multi-level Interrupt Controller” on page 95 for more details on this.
3.3
Architectural Overview
In order to maximize performance and parallelism, the AVR uses a Harvard architecture with
separate memories and buses for program and data. Instructions in the program memory are
executed with a single level pipelining. While one instruction is being executed, the next instruction is pre-fetched from the Program Memory. This concept enables instructions to be executed
in every clock cycle. For the summary of all AVR instructions refer to ”Instruction Set Summary”
on page 296. For details of all AVR instructions refer to http://www.atmel.com/avr.
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XMEGA D
Figure 3-1.
Block Diagram of the AVR Architecture
DATA BUS
Flash
Program
M em ory
Program
Counter
OCD
Instruction
Register
STATUS/
CONTROL
Instruction
Decode
32 x 8 General
Purpose
Registers
ALU
M ultiplier
DATA BUS
Peripheral
M odule 1
Peripheral
M odule n
SRAM
EEPROM
PM IC
The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) supports arithmetic and logic operations between registers or
between a constant and a register. Single register operations can also be executed in the ALU.
After an arithmetic operation, the Status Register is updated to reflect information about the
result of the operation.
The ALU is directly connected to the fast-access Register File. The 32 x 8-bit general purpose
working registers all have single clock cycle access time allowing single-cycle Arithmetic Logic
Unit (ALU) operation between registers or between a register and an immediate. Six of the 32
registers can be used as three 16-bit address pointers for program and data space addressing enabling efficient address calculations.
The memory spaces are all linear and regular memory maps. The Data Memory space and the
Program Memory space are two different memory spaces.
The Data Memory space is divided into I/O registers and SRAM. In addition the EEPROM can
be memory mapped in the Data Memory.
All I/O status and control registers reside in the lowest 4K bytes addresses of the Data Memory.
This is referred to as the I/O Memory space. The lowest 64 addresses can be accessed directly,
or as the data space locations from 0x00 - 0x3F. The rest is the Extended I/O Memory space,
ranging from 0x40 to 0x1FFF. I/O registers here must be access as data space locations using
load (LD/LDS/LDD) and store (ST/STS/STD) instructions.
The SRAM holds data, and code cannot be executed from here. It can easily be accessed
through the five different addressing modes supported in the AVR architecture. The first SRAM
address is 0x2000.
Data address 0x1000 to 0x1FFF is reserved for memory mapping of EEPROM.
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XMEGA D
The Program Memory is divided in two sections, the Application Program section and the Boot
Program section. Both sections have dedicated Lock bits for write and read/write protection. The
SPM instruction that is used for self-programming of the Application Flash memory must reside
in the Boot Program section. A third section exists inside the Application section. This section,
the Application Table section, has separate Lock bits for write and read/write protection. The
Application Table section can be used for storing non-volatile data or application software.
3.4
ALU - Arithmetic Logic Unit
The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) supports arithmetic and logic operations between registers or
between a constant and a register. Single register operations can also be executed. The ALU
operates in direct connection with all the 32 general purpose registers. In a typical single cycle
ALU operation, two operands are output from the Register File, the operation is executed, and
the result is stored back in the Register File.
In order to operate on data in the Data Memory, these must first be loaded into the Register File.
After the operation, the data can be stored from the Register File and back to the Data Memory.
The ALU operations are divided into three main categories - arithmetic, logical, and bit-functions.
After an arithmetic or logic operation, the Status Register is updated to reflect information about
the result of the operation.
3.4.1
Hardware Multiplier
The multiplier is capable of multiplying two 8-bit numbers into a 16-bit result. The hardware multiplier supports different variations of signed and unsigned integer and fractional numbers:
• Multiplication of unsigned integers.
• Multiplication of signed integers.
• Multiplication of a signed integer with an unsigned integer.
• Multiplication of unsigned fractional numbers.
• Multiplication of signed fractional numbers.
• Multiplication of a signed fractional number and with an unsigned.
A multiplication takes two CPU clock cycles.
3.5
Program Flow
After reset, the program will start to execute from program address 0. Program flow is provided
by conditional and unconditional jump and call instructions, able to directly address the whole
address space. Most instructions have a single 16-bit word format. Every program memory
address contains a 16- or 32-bit instruction. The Program Counter (PC) addresses the location
from where instructions are fetched. During interrupts and subroutine calls, the return address
PC is stored on the Stack.
When an enabled interrupt occurs, the Program Counter is vectored to the actual interrupt vector
in order to execute the interrupt handling routine. Hardware clears the corresponding interrupt
flag automatically.
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A flexible interrupt controller has dedicated control registers with an additional Global Interrupt
Enable bit in the Status Register. All interrupts have a separate interrupt vector, starting from the
Reset Vector at address 0 in the Program Memory. All interrupts have a programmable interrupt
level. Within each level they have priority in accordance with their interrupt vector position where
the lower interrupt vector address has the higher priority.
3.6
Instruction Execution Timing
The AVR CPU is driven by the CPU clock clkCPU. No internal clock division is used. Figure 3-2
on page 8 shows the parallel instruction fetches and instruction executions enabled by the Harvard architecture and the fast-access Register File concept. This is the basic pipelining concept
to obtain up to 1 MIPS per MHz with the corresponding unique results for functions per cost,
functions per clocks, and functions per power-unit.
Figure 3-2.
The Parallel Instruction Fetches and Instruction Executions
T1
T2
T3
T4
clkCPU
1st Instruction Fetch
1st Instruction Execute
2nd Instruction Fetch
2nd Instruction Execute
3rd Instruction Fetch
3rd Instruction Execute
4th Instruction Fetch
Figure 3-3 on page 8 shows the internal timing concept for the Register File. In a single clock
cycle an ALU operation using two register operands is executed, and the result is stored back to
the destination register.
Figure 3-3.
Single Cycle ALU Operation
T1
T2
T3
T4
clkCPU
Total Execution Time
Register Operands Fetch
ALU Operation Execute
Result Write Back
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3.7
Status Register
The Status Register (SREG) contains information about the result of the most recently executed
arithmetic or logic instruction. This information can be used for altering program flow in order to
perform conditional operations. Note that the Status Register is updated after all ALU operations, as specified in the instruction set reference. This will in many cases remove the need for
using the dedicated compare instructions, resulting in faster and more compact code.
The Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine nor restored
when returning from an interrupt. This must be handled by software.
The Status Register is accessible in the I/O Memory space.
3.8
Stack and Stack Pointer
The Stack is used for storing return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls. It can also
be used for storing temporary data. The Stack Pointer (SP) register always points to the top of
the Stack. It is implemented as two 8-bit registers that is accessible in the I/O Memory space.
Data is pushed and popped from the Stack using the PUSH and POP instructions. The Stack is
implemented as growing from higher memory locations to lower memory locations. This implies
that a pushing data on the Stack decreases the SP, and popping data off the Stack increases
the SP.The SP is automatically loaded after reset, and the initial value is the highest address of
the internal SRAM. If the SP is changed, it must be set to point above address 0x2000 and it
must be defined before any subroutine calls are executed or before interrupts are enabled.
During interrupts or subroutine calls the return address is automatically pushed on the Stack.
The return address can be two or three bytes, depending of the memory size of the device. For
devices with 128K bytes or less of program memory the return address is two bytes, hence the
Stack Pointer is decremented/incremented by two. For devices with more than 128K bytes of
program memory, the return address is three bytes, hence the SP is decremented/incremented
by three. The return address is popped of the Stack when returning from interrupts using the
RETI instruction, and subroutine calls using the RET instruction.
The SP is decremented by one when data is pushed onto the Stack with the PUSH instruction,
and incremented by one when data is popped off the Stack using the POP instruction.
To prevent corruption when updating the Stack Pointer from software, a write to SPL will automatically disable interrupts for up to 4 instructions or until the next I/O memory write.
3.9
Register File
The Register File consists of 32 x 8-bit general purpose registers. In order to achieve the
required performance and flexibility, the Register File supports the following input/output
schemes:
• One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input
• Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input
• Two 8-bit output operands and one 16-bit result input
• One 16-bit output operand and one 16-bit result input
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XMEGA D
Figure 3-4.
AVR CPU General Purpose Working Registers
7
0
Addr.
R0
0x00
R1
0x01
R2
0x02
…
R13
0x0D
General
R14
0x0E
Purpose
R15
0x0F
Working
R16
0x10
Registers
R17
0x11
…
R26
0x1A
X-register Low Byte
R27
0x1B
X-register High Byte
R28
0x1C
Y-register Low Byte
R29
0x1D
Y-register High Byte
R30
0x1E
Z-register Low Byte
R31
0x1F
Z-register High Byte
Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all registers, and
most of them are single cycle instructions.
The Register File is located in a separate address space, so the registers are not accessible as
data memory.
3.9.1
The X-, Y- and Z- Registers
The registers R26..R31 have added functions besides their general-purpose usage.
These registers can form 16-bit address pointers for addressing of the Data Memory. The three
address registers is called the X-, Y-, and Z-register. The Z-register can also be used as an
address pointer to read from and/or write to the Flash Program Memory, Signature Rows, Fuses
and Lock Bits.
Figure 3-5.
Bit (individually)
The X-, Y- and Z-registers
7
X-register
0
7
XH
Bit (X-register)
15
Bit (individually)
7
Y-register
R29
15
Bit (individually)
7
Z-register
R31
8
7
0
7
0
0
R28
0
YL
8
7
0
7
ZH
15
R26
XL
YH
Bit (Y-register)
Bit (Z-register)
R27
0
R30
0
ZL
8
7
0
The lowest register address holds the least significant byte (LSB). In the different addressing
modes these address registers have functions as fixed displacement, automatic increment, and
automatic decrement (see the instruction set reference for details).
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XMEGA D
3.10
RAMP and Extended Indirect Registers
In order to access program memory or data memory above 64K bytes, the address or address
pointer must be more than 16-bits. This is done by concatenating one register to one of the X-,
Y- or Z-registers, and this register then holds the most significant byte (MSB) in a 24-bit address
or address pointer.
These registers are only available on devices with external bus interface and/or more than 64K
bytes of program or data memory space. For these devices, only the number of bits required to
address the whole program and data memory space in the device is implemented in the
registers.
3.10.1
RAMPX, RAMPY and RAMPZ Registers
The RAMPX, RAMPY and RAMPZ registers are concatenated with the X-, Y-, and Z-registers
respectively to enable indirect addressing of the whole data memory space above 64K bytes
and up to 16M bytes.
Figure 3-6.
Bit (Individually)
The combined RAMPX + X, RAMPY + Y and RAMPZ + Z registers
7
0
7
RAMPX
Bit (X-pointer)
Bit (Individually)
23
16
15
0
7
7
RAMPY
Bit (Y-pointer)
23
Bit (Individually)
7
7
16
15
0
7
8
7
0
7
16
0
0
YL
8
7
0
7
ZH
23
0
XL
YH
RAMPZ
Bit (Z-pointer)
0
XH
0
0
ZL
15
8
7
0
When reading (ELPM) and writing (SPM) program memory locations above the first 128K bytes
of the program memory, RAMPZ is concatenated with the Z-register to form the 24-bit address.
LPM is not affected by the RAMPZ setting.
3.10.2
RAMPD Register
This register is concatenated with the operand to enable direct addressing of the whole data
memory space above 64K bytes. Together RAMPD and the operand will form a 24-bit address.
Figure 3-7.
Bit (Individually)
The combined RAMPD + K register
7
0
15
0
RAMPD
Bit (D-pointer)
3.10.3
23
K
16
15
0
EIND - Extended Indirect Register
EIND is concatenated with the Z-register to enable indirect jump and call to locations above the
first 128K bytes (64K words) of the program memory.
Figure 3-8.
Bit (Individually)
The combined EIND + Z register
7
0
7
EIND
Bit (D-pointer)
23
0
7
ZH
16
15
0
ZL
8
7
0
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3.11
Accessing 16-bits Registers
The AVR data bus is 8-bit so accessing 16-bit registers requires atomic operations. These registers must be byte-accessed using two read or write operations. Due to this each 16-bit register
uses an 8-bit register for temporary storing the high byte during each write or read. A 16-bit register is connected to the 8-bit bus and a temporary register using a 16-bit bus. This ensures that
the low- and high-byte of 16-bit registers is always accessed simultaneously when reading or
writing the register.
For a write operation, the low-byte of the 16-bit register must be written before the high-byte.
The low-byte is then written into the temporary register. When the high-byte of the 16-bit register
is written, the temporary register is copied into the low-byte of the 16-bit register in the same
clock cycle.
For a read operation, the low-byte of the 16-bit register must be read before the high-byte. When
the low byte register is read by the CPU, the high byte of the 16-bit register is copied into the
temporary register in the same clock cycle as the low byte is read. When the high-byte is read, it
is then read from the temporary register.
Interrupts can corrupt the timed sequence if the interrupt is triggered and try to access the same
16-bit register during an atomic 16-bit read/write operations. To prevent this, interrupts can be
disabled when writing or reading 16-bit registers.
The temporary registers can also be read and written directly from user software.
3.11.1
3.12
Accessing 24- and 32-bit Registers
For 24- and 32-bit registers the read and write access is done in the same way as described for
16-bit registers, except there are two temporary registers for 24-bit register and three for 32-bit
registers. The least significant byte must be written first when doing a write, and read first when
doing a read.
Configuration Change Protection
System critical I/O register settings are protected from accidental modification. The SPM instruction is protected from accidental execution, and the LPM instruction is protected when reading
the fuses and signature row. This is handled globally by the Configuration Change Protection
(CCP) register. Changes to the protected I/O registers or bit, or execution of the protected
instructions are only possible after the CPU writes a signature to the CCP register. The different
signatures is described the register description.
There are 2 mode of operation, one for protected I/O registers and one for protected SPM/LPM.
3.12.1
Sequence for write operation to protected I/O registers
1. The application code writes the signature for change enable of protected I/O registers
to the CCP register.
2. Within 4 instruction cycles, the application code must write the appropriate data to the
protected register. Most protected registers also contain a write enable/change enable
bit. This bit must be written to one in the same operation as the data is written. The protected change is immediately disabled if the CPU performs write operations to the I/O
register or data memory, or if the instruction SPM, LPM or SLEEP is executed.
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3.12.2
Sequence for execution of protected SPM/LPM
1. The application code writes the signature for execution of protected SPM/LPM to the
CCP register.
2. Within 4 instruction cycles, the application code must execute the appropriate instruction. The protected change is immediately disabled if the CPU performs write
operations to the data memory, or if SLEEP is executed.
Once the correct signature is written by the CPU, interrupts will be ignored for the configuration
change enable period. Any interrupt request (including Non-Maskable Interrupts) during the
CPP period will set the corresponding interrupt flag as normal and the request is kept pending.
After the CPP period any pending interrupts are executed according to their level and priority.
3.13
Fuse Lock
For some system critical features it is possible to program a fuse to disable all changes in the
associated I/O control registers. If this is done, it will not be possible to change the registers from
the user software, and the fuse can only be reprogrammed using an external programmer.
Details on this are described in the datasheet module where this feature is available.
3.14
3.14.1
Register Description
CCP - Configuration Change Protection Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x04
3
2
1
0
CCP[7:0]
CCP
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - CCP[7:0] - Configuration Change Protection
The CCP register must be written with the correct signature to enable change of the protected
I/O register or execution of the protected instruction for a maximum of 4 CPU instruction cycles.
All interrupts are ignored during these cycles. After these cycles interrupts automatically handled
again by the CPU, and any pending interrupts will be executed according to their level and priority. When the Protected I/O register signature is written, CCP[0] will read as one as long as the
protected feature is enabled. Similarly when the Protected SPM/LPM signature is written CCP[1]
will read as one as long as the protected feature is enabled. CCP[7:2] will always be read as
zero. Table 3-1 on page 13 shows the signature for the various modes.
Table 3-1.
Modes of CPU Change Protection
Signature
Group Configuration
Description
0x9D
SPM
Protected SPM/LPM
0xD8
IOREG
Protected IO register
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3.14.2
RAMPD - Extended Direct Addressing Register
This register is concatenated with the operand for direct addressing (LDS/STS) of the whole
data memory space on devices with more than 64K bytes of data memory. When accessing
data addresses below 64K bytes, this register is not in use. This register is not available if the
data memory including external memory is less than 64K bytes.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x08
RAMPD[7:0]
RAMPD
• Bit 7:0 – RAMPD[7:0]: Extended Direct Addressing bits
These bits holds the 8 MSB of the 24-bit address created by RAMPD and the 16-bit operand.
Only the number of bits required to address the available data memory is implemented for each
device. Unused bits will always read as zero.
3.14.3
RAMPX - Extended X-Pointer Register
This register is concatenated with the X-register for indirect addressing (LD/LDD/ST/STD) of the
whole data memory space on devices with more than 64K bytes of data memory. When accessing data addresses below 64K bytes, this register is not in use. This register is not available if the
data memory including external memory is less than 64K bytes.
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x09
3
2
1
0
RAMPX[7:0]
RAMPX
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 – RAMPX[7:0]: Extended X-pointer Address bits
These bits holds the 8 MSB of the 24-bit address created by RAMPX and the 16-bit X-register.
Only the number of bits required to address the available data memory is implemented for each
device. Unused bits will always read as zero.
3.14.4
RAMPY - Extended Y-Pointer Register
This register is concatenated with the Y-register for indirect addressing (LD/LDD/ST/STD) of the
whole data memory space on devices with more than 64K bytes of data memory. When accessing data addresses below 64K bytes, this register is not in use. This register is not available if the
data memory including external memory is less than 64K bytes.
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x0A
3
2
1
0
RAMPY[7:0]
RAMPY
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 – RAMPY[7:0]: Extended Y-pointer Address bits
These bits hold the 8 MSB of the 24-bit address created by RAMPY and the 16-bit Y-register.
Only the number of bits required to address the available data memory is implemented for each
device. Unused bits will always read as zero.
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3.14.5
RAMPZ - Extended Z-Pointer Register
This register is concatenated with the Z-register for indirect addressing (LD/LDD/ST/STD) of the
whole data memory space on devices with more than 64K bytes of data memory. RAMPZ is
concatenated with the Z-register when reading (ELPM) program memory locations above the
first 64K bytes, and writing (SPM) program memory locations above the first 128K bytes of the
program memory.
When accessing data addressees below 64K bytes, reading program memory locations below
64K bytes and writing program memory locations below 128K bytes, this register is not in use.
This register is not available if the data memory including external memory and program memory in the device is less than 64K bytes.
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x0B
3
2
1
0
RAMPZ[7:0]
RAMPZ
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 – RAMPZ[7:0]: Extended Z-pointer Address bits
These bits holds the 8 MSB of the 24-bit address created by RAMPZ and the 16-bit Z-register.
Only the number of bits required to address the available data and program memory is implemented for each device. Unused bits will always read as zero.
3.14.6
EIND - Extended Indirect Register
This register is concatenated with the Z-register for enabling extended indirect jump (EIJMP)
and call (ECALL) to the whole program memory space devices with more than 128K bytes of
program memory. For jump or call to addressees below 128K bytes, this register is not in use.
This register is not available if the program memory in the device is less than 128K bytes.
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x0C
3
2
1
0
EIND[7:0]
EIND
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - EIND[7:0]: Extended Indirect Address bits
These bits holds the 8 MSB of the 24-bit address created by EIND and the 16-bit Z-register.
Only the number of bits required to access the available program memory is implemented for
each device. Unused bits will always read as zero.
3.14.7
SPL - Stack Pointer Register Low
The SPH and SPL register pair represent the 16-bit value SP. The SP holds the Stack Pointer
that point to the top of the Stack. After reset, the Stack Pointer points to the highest internal
SRAM address. When SPL is written all interrupts are disabled for up to four instructions or until
SPH is also written. Any pending interrupts will be executed according to their priority once interrupts are enabled again.
Only the number of bits required to address the available data memory including external memory, up to 64K bytes is implemented for each device. Unused bits will always read as zero.
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Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x0D
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
SP[7:0]
(1)
Note:
SPL
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0/1
0/1
0/1
0/1
0/1
0/1
0/1
0/1
1
0
1. Refer to specific device datasheets for exact initial values.
• Bit 7:0 - SP[7:0]: Stack Pointer Register Low byte
These bits hold the 8 LSB of the 16-bits Stack Pointer (SP).
3.14.8
SPH - Stack Pointer Register High
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x0E
3
2
SP[15:8]
SPH
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value(1)
0/1
0/1
0/1
0/1
0/1
0/1
0/1
0/1
Note:
1. Refer to specific device datasheets for exact initial values.
• Bits 7:0 - SP[15:8]: Stack Pointer Register High byte
These bits hold the 8 MSB of the 16-bits Stack Pointer (SP).
3.14.9
SREG - Status Register
The Status Register (SREG) contains information about the result of the most recently executed
arithmetic or logic instruction.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x0F
I
T
H
S
V
N
Z
C
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SREG
• Bit 7 – I: Global Interrupt Enable
The Global Interrupt Enable bit must be set for interrupts to be enabled. If the Global Interrupt
Enable Register is cleared, none of the interrupts are enabled independent of the individual
interrupt enable settings. The I-bit is not cleared by hardware after an interrupt has occurred.
The I-bit can be set and cleared by the application with the SEI and CLI instructions, as
described in the “Instruction Set Description”.
• Bit 6 – T: Bit Copy Storage
The Bit Copy instructions Bit Load (BLD) and Bit Store (BST) use the T-bit as source or destination for the operated bit. A bit from a register in the Register File can be copied into T by the BST
instruction, and a bit in T can be copied into a bit in a register in the Register File by the BLD
instruction.
• Bit 5 – H: Half Carry Flag
The Half Carry Flag (H) indicates a Half Carry in some arithmetic operations. Half Carry Is useful
in BCD arithmetic. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
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• Bit 4 – S: Sign Bit, S = N ⊕ V
The Sign bit is always an exclusive or between the Negative Flag N and the Two’s Complement
Overflow Flag V. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 3 – V: Two’s Complement Overflow Flag
The Two’s Complement Overflow Flag (V) supports two’s complement arithmetics. See the
“Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 2 – N: Negative Flag
The Negative Flag (N) indicates a negative result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the
“Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 1 – Z: Zero Flag
The Zero Flag (Z) indicates a zero result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction
Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 0 – C: Carry Flag
The Carry Flag (C) indicates a carry in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set
Description” for detailed information.
3.15
Register Summary
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
+0x00
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x01
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x02
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x03
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x04
CCP
+0x05
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x06
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x07
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x08
RAMPD
RAMPD[7:0]
14
+0x09
RAMPX
RAMPX[7:0]
14
+0x0A
RAMPY
RAMPY[7:0]
14
+0x0B
RAMPZ
RAMPZ[7:0]
15
+0x0C
EIND
EIND[7:0]
15
+0x0D
SPL
SPL[7:0]
15
+0x0E
SPH
SPH[7:0]
+0x0F
SREG
CCP[7:0]
I
T
H
S
13
16
V
N
Z
C
16
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4. Memories
4.1
Features
• Flash Program Memory
– One linear address space
– In-System Programmable
– Self-Programming and Bootloader support
– Application Section for application code
– Application Table Section for application code or data storage
– Boot Section for application code or bootloader code
– Separate lock bits and protection for all sections
• Data Memory
– One linear address space
– Single cycle access from CPU
– SRAM
– EEPROM
Byte and page accessible
Optional memory mapping for direct load and store
– I/O Memory
Configuration and Status registers for all peripherals and modules
Four bit-accessible General Purpose Register for global variables or flags
• Production Signature Row Memory for factory programmed data
Device ID for each microcontroller device type
Serial number for each device
Oscillator calibration bytes
ADC and temperature sensor calibration data
• User Signature Row
One flash page in size
Can be read and written from software
Content is kept after chip erase
4.2
Overview
This section describes the different memories in XMEGA D. The AVR architecture has two main
memory spaces, the Program Memory and the Data Memory. Executable code can only reside
in the Program Memory, while data can be stored both in the Program Memory and the Data
Memory. The Data Memory includes both SRAM, and EEPROM Memory for non-volatile data
storage. All memory spaces are linear and require no paging. Non-Volatile Memory (NVM)
spaces can be locked for further write and read/write operations. This prevents unrestricted
access to the application software.
A separate memory section contains the Fuse bytes. These are used for setting important system functions, and write access is only possible from an external programmer.
4.3
Flash Program Memory
The XMEGA contains On-chip In-System Reprogrammable Flash memory for program storage.
The Flash memory can be accessed for read and write both from an external programmer
through the PDI, or from application software running in the CPU.
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All AVR instructions are 16 or 32 bits wide, and each Flash location is 16 bits wide. The Flash
memory in XMEGA is organized in two main sections, the Application Section and the Boot
Loader section, as shown in Figure 4-1 on page 19. The sizes of the different sections are fixed,
but device dependent. These two sections have separate lock bits and can have different level
of protection. The Store Program Memory (SPM) instruction used to write to the Flash from the
application software, will only operate when executed from the Boot Loader Section.
The Application Section contains an Application Table Section with separate lock settings. This
can be used for safe storage of Non-volatile data in the Program Memory.
Figure 4-1.
Flash Memory sections
Read-While-Write Section
0x000000
Application Flash
Section
No Read-WhileWrite Section
Application Table
Flash Section
End RWW, End Application
Start NRWW, Start Boot Loader
Boot Loader Flash
Section
Flashend
4.3.1
Application Section
The Application section is the section of the Flash that is used for storing the executable application code. The protection level for the Application section can be selected by the Boot Lock Bits
for this section. The Application section can not store any Boot Loader code since the SPM
instruction cannot be executed from the Application section.
4.3.2
Application Table section
The Application Table section is a part of the Application Section of the Flash that can be used
for storing data. The size is identical to the Boot Loader Section. The protection level for the
Application Table section can be selected by the Boot Lock Bits for this section. The possibilities
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XMEGA D
for different protection levels on the Application Section and the Application Table Section
enable safe parameter storage in the Program Memory. If this section is not used for data, application code can be reside here.
4.3.3
Boot Loader Section
While the Application Section is used for storing the application code, the Boot Loader software
must be located in the Boot Loader Section since the SPM instruction only can initiate programming when executing from the this section. The SPM instruction can access the entire Flash,
including the Boot Loader Section itself. The protection level for the Boot Loader Section can be
selected by the Boot Loader Lock bits. If this section is not used for Boot Loader software, application code can be stored here.
4.3.4
Production Signature Row
The Production Signature Row is a separate memory section for factory programmed data. It
contains calibration data for functions such as oscillators and analog modules. Some of the calibration values will be automatically loaded to the corresponding module or peripheral unit during
reset. Other values must be loaded from the signature row and written to the corresponding
peripheral registers from software. For details on the calibration conditions such as temperature,
voltage references etc. refer to device datasheet.
The production signature row also contains a device ID that identify each microcontroller device
type, and a serial number that is unique for each manufactured device. The serial number consist of the production LOT number, wafer number, and wafer coordinates for the device.
The production signature row can not be written or erased, but it can be read from both application software and external programming.
4.3.5
4.4
User Signature Row
The User Signature Row is a separate memory section that is fully accessible (read and write)
from application software and external programming. The user signature row is one flash page
in size, and is meant for static user parameter storage, such as calibration data, custom serial
numbers or identification numbers, random number seeds etc. This section is not erased by
Chip Erase commands that erase the Flash, and requires a dedicated erase command. This
ensures parameter storage during multiple program/erase session and on-chip debug sessions.
Fuses and Lockbits
The Fuses are used to set important system function and can only be written from an external
programming interface. The application software can read the fuses. The fuses are used to configure reset sources such as Brown-out Detector and Watchdog and Start-up configuration.
The Lock bits are used to set protection level on the different flash sections. They are used to
block read and/or write access of the code. Lock bits can be written from en external programmer and from the application software to set a more strict protection level, but not to set a less
strict protection level. Chip erase is the only way to erase the lock bits. The lock bits are erased
after the rest of the flash memory is erased.
An unprogrammed fuse or lock bit will have the value one, while a programmed flash or lock bit
will have the value zero.
Both fuses and lock bits are reprogrammable like the Flash Program memory.
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4.5
Data Memory
The Data memory contains the I/O Memory, internal SRAM, optionally memory mapped
EEPROM and external memory if available. The data memory is organized as one continuous
memory section, as shown in Figure 4-2 on page 22.
Figure 4-2.
Data Memory Map
Start/End
Address
Data Memory
0x0000
I/O Memory
(Up to 4 KB)
0x1000
EEPROM
(Up to 4 KB)
0x2000
Internal SRAM
0xFFFF
I/O Memory, EEPROM and SRAM will always have the same start addresses for all XMEGA
devices. External Memory (if exist) will always start at the end of Internal SRAM and end at
address 0xFFFF.
4.6
Internal SRAM
The internal SRAM is mapped in the Data Memory space, always starting at hexadecimal
address location 0x2000. SRAM is accessed from the CPU by using the load (LD/LDS/LDD) and
store (ST/STS/STD) instructions.
4.7
EEPROM
XMEGA has EEPROM memory for non-volatile data storage. It is addressable either in as a separate data space (default), or it can be memory mapped and accessed in normal data space.
The EEPROM memory supports both byte and page access.
4.7.1
4.8
Data Memory Mapped EEPROM Access
The EEPROM address space can optionally be mapped into the Data Memory space to allow
highly efficient EEPROM reading and EEPROM buffer loading. When doing this EEPROM is
accessible using load and store instructions. Memory mapped EEPROM will always start at
hexadecimal address location 0x1000.
I/O Memory
The status and configuration registers for all peripherals and modules, including the CPU, are
addressable through I/O memory locations in the data memory space. All I/O locations can be
accessed by the load (LD/LDS/LDD) and store (ST/STS/STD) instructions, transferring data
between the 32 general purpose registers in the Register File and the I/O memory. The IN and
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XMEGA D
OUT instructions can address I/O memory locations in the range 0x00 - 0x3F directly. In the
address range 0x00 - 0x1F, specific bit manipulating and checking instructions are available.
The I/O memory definition for an XMEGA device is shown in "Register Summary" in the device
datasheet.
4.8.1
4.9
General Purpose I/O Registers
The lowest 16 I/O Memory addresses is reserved for General Purpose I/O Registers. These registers can be used for storing information, and they are particularly useful for storing global
variables and flags, as they are directly bit-accessible using the SBI, CBI, SBIS, and SBIC
instructions.
Memory Timing
Read and write access to the I/O Memory takes one CPU clock cycle. Write to SRAM takes one
cycle and read from SRAM takes two cycles. EEPROM page load (write) takes one cycle and
three cycles are required for read. For burst read, new data is available every second cycle.
External memory has multi-cycle read and write. The number of cycles depends on type of
memory.
4.10
Device ID
Each device has a three-byte device ID which identifies the device. These registers identify
Atmel as the manufacturer of the device and the device type. A separate register contains the
revision number of the device.
4.11
IO Memory Protection
Some features in the device is regarded to be critical for safety in some applications. Due to this,
it is possible to lock the IO register related to the Event System and the Advanced Waveform
Extensions. As long as the lock is enabled, all related IO registers are locked and they can not
be written from the application software. The lock registers themselves are protected by the
Configuration Change Protection mechanism, for details refer to ”Configuration Change Protection” on page 12.
4.12
4.12.1
Register Description - NVM Controller
ADDR2 - Non-Volatile Memory Address Register 2
The ADDR2, ADDR1 and ADDR0 registers represents the 24-bit value ADDR.
Bit
7
6
5
+0x02
4
3
2
1
0
ADDR[23:16]
ADDR2
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - ADDR[23:16]: NVM Address Register Byte 2
This register gives the data value byte 2 when accessing application and boot section.
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4.12.2
ADDR1 - Non-Volatile Memory Address Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x01
3
2
1
0
ADDR[15:8]
ADDR1
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - ADDR[15:8]: NVM Address Register Byte 1
This register gives the address high byte when accessing either of the memory locations.
4.12.3
ADDR0 - Non-Volatile Memory Address Register 0
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x00
3
2
1
0
ADDR[7:0]
ADDR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - ADDR[7:0]: NVM Address Register Byte 0
This register gives the address low byte when accessing either of the memory locations.
4.12.4
DATA2 - Non-Volatile Memory Data Register Byte 2
The DATA2, DATA1 and ADDR0 registers represents the 24-bit value DATA.
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x06
3
2
1
0
DATA[23:16]
DATA2
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - DATA[23:16]: NVM Data Register 2
This register gives the data value byte 2 when running CRC check on application section, boot
section or combined.
4.12.5
DATA1 - Non-Volatile Memory Data Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x05
3
2
1
0
DATA[15:8]
DATA1
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - DATA[15:8]: NVM Data Register Byte 1
This register gives the data value byte 1 when accessing application and boot section.
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4.12.6
DATA0 - Non-Volatile Memory Data Register 0
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x04
3
2
1
0
DATA[7:0]
DATA0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - DATA[7:0]: NVM Data Register Byte 0
This register gives the data value byte 0 when accessing either of the memory locations.
4.12.7
CMD - Non-Volatile Memory Command Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x0A
–
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CMD[6:0]
CMD
• Bit 7 - Reserved
This bit is unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always write
this bit to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 6:0 -CMD[6:0]: NVM Command
These bits define the programming commands for the flash. Bit six is set for external programming commands. See "Memory Programming datasheet" for programming commands.
4.12.8
CTRLA - Non-Volatile Memory Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x0B
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
CMDEX
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
S
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTRLA
• Bit 7:1 - Reserved Bits
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 0 - CMDEX: Non-Volatile Memory Command Execute
Writing this bit to one will execute the command in the CMD register. This bit is protected by the
Configuration Change Protection (CCP) mechanism, refer to Section 3.12 ”Configuration
Change Protection” on page 12 for details on the CCP.
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4.12.9
CTRLB - Non-Volatile Memory Control Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x0C
–
–
–
–
EEMAPEN
FPRM
EPRM
SPMLOCK
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTRLB
• Bit 7:4 - Reserveds
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 3 - EEMAPEN: EEPROM Data Memory Mapping Enable
Writing this bit to one will enable Data Memory Mapping of the EEPROM section. The EEPROM
can then be accessed using Load and Store instructions.
• Bit 2 - FPRM: Flash Power Reduction Mode
Writing this bit to one will enable power saving for the flash memory. The section not being
accessed will be turned off like in sleep mode. If code is running from Application Section, the
Boot Loader Section will be turned off and vice versa. If access to the section that is turned off is
required, the CPU will be halted equally long to the start-up time from the Idle sleep mode. This
bit is protected by the Configuration Change Protection (CCP) mechanism, refer to ”Configuration Change Protection” on page 12 for details on the CCP.
• Bit 1 - EPRM: EEPROM Power Reduction Mode
Writing this bit to one will enable power saving for the EEPROM memory. The EEPROM will
then be powered down equal to entering sleep mode. If access is required, the bus master will
be halted equally long as the start-up time from Idle sleep mode. This bit is protected by the
Configuration Change Protection (CCP) mechanism, refer to ”Configuration Change Protection”
on page 12 for details on the CCP.
• Bit 0 - SPMLOCK: SPM Locked
The SPM Locked bit can be written to prevent all further self-programming. The bit is cleared at
reset and cannot be cleared from software. This bit is protected by the Configuration Change
Protection (CCP) mechanism, refer to ”Configuration Change Protection” on page 12 for details
on the CCP.
4.12.10
INTCTRL - Non-Volatile Memory Interrupt Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x0D
–
–
–
–
3
2
1
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SPMLVL[1:0]
0
EELVL[1:0]
INTCTRL
• Bit 7:4 - Reserved Bits
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
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8210B–AVR–04/10
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• Bit 3:2 - SPMLVL[1:0]: SPM Ready Interrupt Level
These bits enable the Interrupt and select the interrupt level as described in ”Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller” on page 95. The interrupt is a level interrupt, which
will be triggered when the BUSY flag in the STATUS is set to logical 0. Since the interrupt is a
level interrupt note the following.
The interrupt should not be enabled before triggering a NVM command, as the BUSY flag wont
be set before the NVM command is triggered. Since the interrupt trigger is a level interrupt, the
interrupt should be disabled in the interrupt handler.
• Bit 1:0 - EELVL[1:0]: EEPROM Ready Interrupt Level
These bits enable the EEPROM Ready Interrupt and select the interrupt level as described in
”Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller” on page 95. The interrupt is a
level interrupt, which will be triggered when the BUSY flag in the STATUS is set to logical 0.
Since the interrupt is a level interrupt note the following.
The interrupt should not be enabled before triggering a NVM command, as the BUSY flag wont
be set before the NVM command is triggered. Since the interrupt trigger is a level interrupt, the
interrupt should be disabled in the interrupt handler.
4.12.11
STATUS - Non-Volatile Memory Status Register
Bit
+0x04
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
BUSY
FBUSY
–
–
–
–
EELOAD
FLOAD
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STATUS
• Bit 7 - NVMBUSY: Non-Volatile Memory Busy
The NVMBSY flag indicates whether the NVM memory (FLASH, EEPROM, Lock-bits) is busy
being programmed. Once a program operation is started, this flag will be set and it remains set
until the program operation is completed. he NVMBSY flag will automatically be cleared when
the operation is finished.
• Bit 6 - FBUSY: Flash Section Busy
The FBUSY flag indicate whether a Flash operation (Page Erase or Page Write) is initiated.
Once a operation is started the FBUSY flag is set, and the Application Section cannot be
accessed. The FBUSY bit will automatically be cleared when the operation is finished.
• Bit 5:2 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 1 - EELOAD: EEPROM Page Buffer Active Loading
The EELOAD status flag indicates that the temporary EEPROM page buffer has been loaded
with one or more data bytes. Immediately after an EEPROM load command is issued and byte is
written to NVMDR, or a memory mapped EEPROM buffer load operation is performed, the
EELOAD flag is set, and it remains set until an EEPROM page write- or a page buffer flush operation is executed.
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• Bit 0 - FLOAD: Flash Page Buffer Active Loading
The FLOAD flag indicates that the temporary Flash page buffer has been loaded with one or
more data bytes. Immediately after a Flash load command has been issues and byte is written to
NVMDR, the FLOAD flag is set, and it remains set until an Application- or Boot page write- or a
page buffer flush operation is executed.
4.12.12
LOCKBITS - Non-Volatile Memory Lock Bit Register
S
Bit
7
+0x07
6
5
BLBB[1:0]
4
3
BLBA[1:0]
2
1
BLBAT[1:0]
0
LB[1:0]
LOCKBITS
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
This register is a direct mapping of the NVM Lockbits into the IO Memory Space, in order to
enable direct read access from the application software. Refer to ”LOCKBITS - Non-Volatile
Memory Lock Bit Register” on page 27 for description of the Lock Bits.
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8210B–AVR–04/10
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4.13
4.13.1
Register Description – Fuses and Lockbit
FUSEBYTE1 - Non-Volatile Memory Fuse Byte1 - Watchdog Configuration
Bit
7
6
+0x01
5
4
3
2
WDWPER[3:0]
1
0
WDPER[3:0]
FUSEBYTE1
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:4 - WDWPER[3:0]: Watchdog Window Timeout Period
The WDWPER fuse bits are used to set initial value of the closed window for the Watchdog
Timer in Window Mode. During reset these fuse bits are automatically written to the WPER bits
Watchdog Window Mode Control Register, refer to Section 11.7.2 ”WINCTRL – Window Mode
Control Register” on page 120 for details.
• BIT 3:0 - WDPER[3:0]: Watchdog Timeout Period
The WDPER fuse bits are used to set initial value of the Watchdog Timeout Period. During reset
these fuse bits are automatically written to the PER bits in the Watchdog Control Register, refer
to Section 11.7.1 ”CTRL – Watchdog Timer Control Register” on page 119 for details.
4.13.2
FUSEBYTE2 - Non-Volatile Memory Fuse Byte2 - Reset Configuration
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
+0x02
–
BOOTRST
–
–
–
–
1
0
Read/Write
R
R/W
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
BODPD[1:0]
FUSEBYTE2
• Bit 7 - Reserved
This fuse bit is reserved. For compatibility with future devices, always write this bit to one when
this register is written.
• Bit 6 - BOOTRST: Boot Loader Section Reset Vector
The BOOTRST fuse can be programmed so the Reset Vector is pointing to the first address in
the Boot Loader Flash Section. In this case, the device will start executing from the from Boot
Loader Flash Section after reset.
Table 4-1.
BOOTRST
Boot Reset Fuse
Reset Address
0
Reset Vector = Boot Loader Reset
1
Reset Vector = Application Reset (address 0x0000)
• Bit 5:2 - Reserved
These fuse bits are reserved. For compatibility with future devices, always write these bits to one
when this register is written.
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• Bit 1:0 - BODPD[1:0]: BOD operation in power-down mode
The BODPD fuse bits set the BOD operation mode in all sleep modes except Idle mode.
For details on the BOD and BOD operation modes refer to ”Brown-Out Detection” on page 106.
Table 4-2.
BOD operation modes in sleep modes
BODPD[1:0]
4.13.3
Description
00
Reserved
01
BOD enabled in sampled mode
10
BOD enabled continuously
11
BOD Disabled
FUSEBYTE4 - Non-Volatile Memory fuse Byte4 - Start-up Configuration
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x04
–
–
–
RSTDISBL
3
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
0
WDLOCK
–
R/W
R/W
R
1
1
1
STARTUPTIME[1:0]
FUSEBYTE4
• Bit 7:5 - Reserved
These fuse bits are reserved. For compatibility with future devices, always write these bits to one
when this register is written.
• Bit: 4 - RSTDISBL - External Reset Disable
This fuse can be programmed to disable the external reset pin functionality. When this is done
pulling this pin low will not cause an external reset.
• Bit 3:2 - STARTUPTIME[1:0]: Start-up time
The STARTUPTIME fuse bits can be used to set at a programmable timeout period from all
reset sources are released and until the internal reset is released from the delay counter.
The delay is timed from the 1kHz output of the ULP oscillator, refer to Section 9.3 ”Reset
Sequence” on page 104 for details.
Table 4-3.
Start-up Time
STARTUPTIME[1:0]
1kHz ULP oscillator Cycles
00
64
01
4
10
Reserved
11
0
• Bit 1 - WDLOCK: Watchdog Timer lock
The WDLOCK fuse can be programmed to lock the Watchdog Timer configuration. When this
fuse is programmed the Watchdog Timer configuration cannot be changed, and the Watchdog
Timer cannot be disabled from the application software. When the WDLOCK fuse is programmed the the watchdog timer is automatically enabled at reset.
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Table 4-4.
Watchdog Timer locking
WDLOCK
Description
0
Watchdog Timer locked for modifications
1
Watchdog Timer not locked
• Bit 0 - Reserved
This fuse bit is reserved. For compatibility with future devices, always write this bit to one when
this register is written.
4.13.4
FUSEBYTE5 - Non-Volatile Memory Fuse Byte 5
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
+0x05
–
–
BODACT[1:0]
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
EESAVE
1
0
BODLEVEL[2:0]
FUSEBYTE5
• Bit 7:6 - Reserved
These fuse bits are reserved. For compatibility with future devices, always write these bits to one
when this register is written.
• Bit 5:4 - BODACT[1:0]: BOD operation in active mode
The BODACT fuse bits set the BOD operation mode when the device is in active and idle mode
of operation.
For details on the BOD and BOD operation modes refer to ”Brown-Out Detection” on page 84.
Table 4-5.
BODACT[1:0]
BOD operation modes in Active and Idle mode
Description
00
Reserved
01
BOD enabled in sampled mode
10
BOD enabled continuously
11
BOD Disabled
• Bit 3 - EESAVE: EEPROM memory is preserved through the Chip Erase
A chip erase command will normally erase the Flash, EEPROM and internal SRAM. If the
EESAVE fuse is programmed, the EEPROM is not erased during chip erase. In case EEPROM
is used to store data independent of software revision, the EEPROM can be preserved through
chip erase.
Table 4-6.
EESAVE
EEPROM memory through Chip Erase
Description
0
EEPROM is preserved during chip erase
1
EEPROM is not preserved during chip erase
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
Changing of the EESAVE fuse bit takes effect immediately after the write time-out elapses.
Hence, it is possible to update EESAVE and perform a chip erase according to the new setting
of EESAVE without leaving and re-entering programming mode
• Bit 2:0 - BODLEVEL[2:0] - Brown out detection voltage level
The BODLEVEL fuse bits sets the nominal BOD level value. During power-on the device is kept
in reset until the VCC level has reached the programmed BOD level. Due to this always ensure
that the BOD level is set lower than the VCC level, also if the BOD is not enabled and used during
normal operation, refer to Section 9.4 ”Reset Sources” on page 104 for details.
Table 4-7.
BOD level nominal values, for actual values refer to the device datasheet.
BODLEVEL
Normal BOD level value (V)
111
1.6
110
1.8
101
2.0
100
2.2
011
2.4
010
2.6
001
2.8
000
3.0
Changing these fuse bits will have no effect until leaving programming mode.
4.13.5
LOCKBITS - Non-Volatile Memory Lock Bit Register
Bit
7
+0x07
6
5
BLBB[1:0]
4
3
BLBA[1:0]
2
1
BLBAT[1:0]
0
LB[1:0]
LOCKBITS
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
• Bit 7:6 - BLBB[1:0]: Boot Lock Bit Boot Loader Section
These bits indicate the locking mode for the Boot Loader Section. Even though the BLBB bits
are writable, they can only be written to a stricter locking. Resetting the BLBB bits is only possible by executing a Chip Erase Command.
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8210B–AVR–04/10
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Table 4-8.
Boot Lock Bit for The Boot Loader Section
BLBB[1:0]
Group Configuration
11
NOLOCK
No Lock, no restrictions for SPM and (E)LPM accessing
the Boot Loader section.
10
WLOCK
Write Lock, SPM is not allowed to write the Boot Loader
section
RLOCK
Read Lock, (E)LPM executing from the Application
section is not allowed to read from the Boot Loader
section.
If the interrupt vectors are placed in the Application
section, interrupts are disabled while executing from the
Boot Loader section.
RWLOCK
Read and Write Lock, SPM is not allowed to write to the
Boot Loader section and (E)LPM executing from the
Application section is not allowed to read from the Boot
Loader section.
If the interrupt vectors are placed in the Application
section, interrupts are disabled while executing from the
Boot Loader section
01
00
Description
• Bit 5:4 - BLBA[1:0]: Boot Lock Bit Application Section
These bits indicate the locking mode for the Application Section. Even though the BLBA bits are
writable, they can only be written to a stricter locking. Resetting the BLBA bits is only possible by
executing a Chip Erase Command.
Table 4-9.
Boot Lock Bit for the Application Section
BLBA[1:0]
Group Configuration
11
NOLOCK
No Lock, no restrictions for SPM and (E)LPM accessing
the Application Section.
10
WLOCK
Write Lock, SPM is not allowed to write them
Application Section
RLOCK
Read Lock, (E)LPM executing from the Boot Loader
Section is not allowed to read from the Application
Section.
If the interrupt vectors are placed in the Boot Loader
Section, interrupts are disabled while executing from the
Application Section.
RWLOCK
Read and Write Lock, SPM is not allowed to write to the
Application Section and (E)LPM executing from the
Boot Loader Section is not allowed to read from the
Application section.
If the interrupt vectors are placed in the Boot Loader
Section, interrupts are disabled while executing from the
Application Section.
01
00
Description
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8210B–AVR–04/10
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• Bit 3:2 - BLBAT[1:0]: Boot Lock Bit Application Table Section
These bits indicate the locking mode for the Application Table Section. Even though the BLBAT
bits are writable, they can only be written to a stricter locking. Resetting the BLBAT bits is only
possible by executing a Chip Erase Command.
Table 4-10.
Boot Lock Bit for the Application Table Section
BLBAT[1:0]
Group Configuration
11
NOLOCK
No Lock, no restrictions for SPM and (E)LPM accessing
the Application Table Section.
10
WLOCK
Write Lock, SPM is not allowed to write the Application
Table
RLOCK
Read Lock, (E)LPM executing from the Boot Loader
Section is not allowed to read from the Application Table
Section.
If the interrupt vectors are placed in the Boot Loader
Section, interrupts are disabled while executing from the
Application Section.
RWLOCK
Read and Write Lock, SPM is not allowed to write to the
Application Table Section and (E)LPM executing from
the Boot Loader Section is not allowed to read from the
Application Table Section.
If the interrupt vectors are placed in the Boot Loader
Section, interrupts are disabled while executing from the
Application Section.
01
00
Description
• Bit 1:0 - LB[1:0]: Lock Bits
These bits indicate the locking mode for the Flash and EEPROM in Programming Mode. These
bits are writable only through an external programming interface. Resetting the Lock Bits is only
possible by executing a Chip Erase Command.
Table 4-11.
Boot Lock Bit for The Boot Section
LB[1:0]
Group Configuration
11
NOLOCK3
10
WLOCK
Write lock, programming of the Flash and EEPROM is
disabled for the programming interface. Fuse bits are
locked for write from the programming interface.
RWLOCK
Read and Write Lock, programming and
read/verification of the flash and EEPROM is disabled
for the programming interface. The lock bits and fuses
are locked for read and write from the programming
interface.
00
Description
No Lock, no memory locks enabled.
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4.14
4.14.1
Register Description - Production Signature Row
RCOSC2M - Internal 2 MHz Oscillator Calibration Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x00
3
2
1
0
RCOSC2M[7:0]
RCOSC2M
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
• Bit 7:0 - RCOSC2M[7:0]: Internal 2 MHz Oscillator Calibration Value
This byte contains the oscillator calibration value for the internal 2 MHz oscillator. Calibration of
the oscillator is performed during production test of the device. During reset this value is automatically loaded into the Calibration Register B for the 2 MHz DFLL, refer to ”CALB - Calibration
Register B” on page 92 for more details.
4.14.2
RCOSC32K - Internal 32.768 kHz Oscillator Calibration Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
+0x02
3
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
x
x
x
x
RCOSC32K[7:0]
RCOSC32K
• Bit 7:0 - RCOSC32K[7:0]: Internal 32 kHz Oscillator Calibration Value
This byte contains the oscillator calibration value for the internal 32.768 kHz oscillator. Calibration of the oscillator is performed during production test of the device. During reset this value is
automatically loaded into the calibration register for the 32.768 kHz oscillator, refer to
”RC32KCAL - 32 KHz Oscillator Calibration Register” on page 90 for more details.
4.14.3
RCOSC32M - Internal 32 MHz RC Oscillator Calibration Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x03
3
2
1
0
RCOSC32M[7:0]
RCOSC32M
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
• Bit 7:0 - RCOSC32M[7:0]: Internal 32 MHz Oscillator Calibration Value
This byte contains the oscillator calibration value for the internal 32 MHz oscillator. Calibration of
the oscillator is performed during production test of the device. During reset this value is automatically loaded into the Calibration Register B for the 32 MHz DFLL, refer to ”CALB Calibration Register B” on page 92 for more details.
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4.14.4
LOTNUM0 - Lot Number Register 0
LOTNUM0, LOTNUM1, LOTNUM2, LOTNUM3, LOTNUM4 and LOTNUM5 contains the LOT
number for each device. Together with the wafer number and wafer coordinates this gives an
unique identifier or serial number for the device.
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x08
3
2
1
0
LOTNUM0[7:0]
LOTNUM0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
0
• Bit 7:0 - LOTNUM0[7:0] - LOT Number Byte 0
This byte contains byte 0 of the LOT number for the device.
4.14.5
LOTNUM1 - Lot Number Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x09
3
2
LOTNUM1[7:0]
LOTNUM1
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
0
• Bit 7:0 - LOTNUM1[7:0] - LOT Number Byte 1
This byte contains byte 1 of the LOT number for the device.
4.14.6
LOTNUM2 - Lot Number Register 2
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x0A
3
2
LOTNUM2[7:0]
LOTNUM2
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
2
1
0
• Bit 7:0 - LOTNUM2[7:0] - LOT Number Byte 2
This byte contains byte 2 of the LOT number for the device.
4.14.7
LOTNUM3- Lot Number Register 3
Bit
7
6
5
4
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
+0x0B
3
LOTNUM3[7:0]
LOTNUM3
• Bit 7:0 - LOTNUM3[7:0] - LOT Number Byte 3
This byte contains byte 3 of the LOT number for the device.
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
4.14.8
LOTNUM4 - Lot Number Register 4
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x0C
3
2
1
0
LOTNUM4[7:0]
LOTNUM4
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
2
1
0
• Bit 7:0 - LOTNUM4[7:0] - LOT Number Byte 4
This byte contains byte 4 of the LOT number for the device.
4.14.9
LOTNUM5 - Lot Number Register 5
Bit
7
6
5
4
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
2
1
0
+0x0D
3
LOTNUM5[7:0]
LOTNUM5
• Bit 7:0 - LOTNUM5[7:0] - LOT Number Byte 5
This byte contains byte 5of the LOT number for the device.
4.14.10
WAFNUM - Wafer Number Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x10
3
WAFNUM[7:0]
WAFNUM
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
x
x
x
x
x
• Bit 7:0 - WAFNUM[7:0] - Wafer Number
This byte contains the wafer number for each device. Together with the LOT number and wafer
coordinates this gives an unique identifier or serial number for the device.
4.14.11
COORDX0 - Wafer Coordinate X Register 0
COORDX0, COORDX1, COORDY0 and COORDY1 contains the wafer X and Y coordinates for
each device. Together with the LOT number and wafer number this gives an unique identifier er
or serial number for each devicei
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x12
3
2
1
0
COORDX0[7:0]
COORDX0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
• Bit 7:0 - COORDX0[7:0] - Wafer Coordinate X Byte 0
This byte contains byte 0 of wafer coordinate X for the device.
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
4.14.12
COORDX1 - Wafer Coordinate X Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x13
3
2
1
0
COORDX1[7:0]
COORDX1
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
2
1
0
• Bit 7:0 - COORDX0[7:0] - Wafer Coordinate X Byte 1
This byte contains byte 1 of wafer coordinate X for the device.
4.14.13
COORDY0 - Wafer Coordinate Y Register 0
Bit
7
6
5
4
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
0
+0x14
3
COORDY0[7:0]
COORDY0
• Bit 7:0 - COORDY0[7:0] - Wafer Coordinate Y Byte 0
This byte contains byte 0 of wafer coordinate Y for the device.
4.14.14
COORDY1 - Wafer Coordinate Y Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x15
3
2
COORDY1[7:0]
COORDY1
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
• Bit 7:0 - COORDY1[7:0] - Wafer Coordinate Y Byte 1
This byte contains byte 1 of wafer coordinate Y for the device
4.14.15
ADCACAL0 - ADCA Calibration Register 0
ADCACAL0 and ADCACAL1 contains the calibration value for the Analog to Digital Converter A
(ADCA). Calibration of the Analog to Digital Converters are done during production test of the
device. The calibration bytes are not loaded automatically into the ADC calibration registers, and
this must be done from software.
Bit
7
6
5
4
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
+0x20
3
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
x
x
x
x
ADCACAL0[7:0]
ADCACAL0
• Bit 7:0 - ADCACAL0[7:0] - ADCA Calibration Byte 0
This byte contains byte 0 of the ADCA calibration data, and must be loaded into the ADCA CALL
register.
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XMEGA D
4.14.16
ADCACAL1 - ADCA Calibration Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x21
3
2
1
0
ADCACAL1[7:0]
ADCACAL1
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
• Bit 7:0 - ADCACAL1[7:0] - ADCA Calibration Byte 1
This byte contains byte 1 of the ADCA calibration data, and must be loaded into the ADCA
CALH register.
4.14.17
TEMPSENSE0 - Temperature Sensor Calibration Register 0
TEMPSENSE0 and TEMPSENSE1 contains the 12-bit ADCA value from a temperature measurements done with the internal temperature sensor. The measurements is done in production
test at 85C and can be used for single- or multi-point temperature sensor calibration.
Bit
7
6
5
4
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
+0x2E
3
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
x
x
x
x
TEMPSENSE0[7:0]
TEMPSENSE0
• Bit 7:0 - TEMPSENSE0[7:0] - Temperature Sensor Calibration Byte 0
This byte contains the byte 0 (8 LSB) of the temperature measurement.
4.14.18
TEMPSENSE1 - Temperature Sensor Calibration Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x2F
3
2
1
0
TEMPSENSE1[7:0]
TEMPSENSE1
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
x
x
x
x
• Bit 7:0 - TEMPSENSE1[7:0] - Temperature Sensor Calibration Byte 1
This byte contains byte 1 of the temperature measurement.
4.15
4.15.1
Register Description – General Purpose I/O Memory
GPIORn – General Purpose I/O Register n
Bit
7
6
5
+n
4
3
2
1
0
GPIORn[7:0]
GPIORn
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
This is a general purpose register that can be used to store data such as global variables in the
bit accessible I/O memory space.
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8210B–AVR–04/10
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4.16
4.16.1
Register Description – MCU Control
DEVID0 - MCU Device ID Register 0
The DEVID0, DEVID1 and DEVID2 contains the 3-byte identification that identify each microcontroller device type. For details on the actual ID refer to the device datasheet.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
+0x00
DEVID0[7:0]
DEVID0
• Bit 7:0 - DEVID0[7:0]: MCU Device ID Byte 1
This byte will always be read as 0x1E. This indicates that the device is manufactured by Atmel
4.16.2
DEVID1 - MCU Device ID Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x01
3
2
1
0
DEVID1[7:0]
DEVID1
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
2
1
0
• Bit 7:0 - DEVID[7:0]: MCU Device ID Byte 1
Byte 1 of the device ID indicates the flash size of the device.
4.16.3
DEVID2 - MCU Device ID Register 2
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x02
3
DEVID2[7:0]
DEVID2
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
• Bit 7:0 - DEVID2[7:0]: MCU Device ID Byte 2
Byte 0 of the device ID indicates the device number.
4.16.4
REVID - MCU Revision ID
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x03
–
–
–
–
3
2
1
0
REVID[3:0]
REVID
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
1/0
• Bit 7:4 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 3:0 - REVID[3:0]: MCU Revision ID
These bits contains the device revision. 0=A, 1=B and so on.
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4.16.5
MCUCR – MCU Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x06
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MCUCR
• Bit 7:0 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
4.16.6
EVSYSLOCK – Event System Lock Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x08
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
EVSYS0LOCK
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EVSYSLOCK
• Bit 7:1 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 0 - EVSYS0LOCK:
Writing this bit to one will lock all registers in the Event System related to event channels 0 to 3
for further modifications. The following registers in the Event System are locked: CH0MUX,
CH0CTRL, CH1MUX, CH1CTRL, CH2MUX, CH2CTRL, CH3MUX, CH3CTRL. This bit is protected by the Configuration Change Protection mechanism, for details refer to Section 3.12
”Configuration Change Protection” on page 12.
4.16.7
AWEXLOCK – Advanced Waveform Extension Lock Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x09
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
AWEXCLOCK
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
AWEXLOCK
• Bit 7:1 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 0 - AWEXCLOCK: Advanced Waveform Extension Lock for TCC0
Writing this bit to one will lock all registers in the AWEXC module for Timer/Counter C0 for further modifications. This bit is protected by the Configuration Change Protection mechanism, for
details refer to Section 3.12 ”Configuration Change Protection” on page 12.
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4.17
Register Summary - NVM Controller
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
+0x00
ADDR0
NVM Address Byte 0
25
+0x01
ADDR1
NVM Address Byte 1
25
+0x02
ADDR2
NVM Address Byte 2
+0x03
Reserved
+0x04
DATA0
NVM Data Byte 0
26
+0x05
DATA1
NVM Data Byte 1
26
+0x06
DATA2
NVM Data Byte 2
+0x07
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x08
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x09
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0A
CMD
–
+0x0B
CTRLA
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
CMDEX
+0x0C
CTRLB
–
–
–
–
EEMAPEN
FPRM
EPRM
+0x0D
INTCTRL
–
–
–
–
+0x0E
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0F
STATUS
NVMBUSY
FBUSY
–
–
–
–
EELOAD
FLOAD
+0x10
LOCKBITS
4.18
–
–
–
–
25
–
–
–
–
26
CMD[6:0]
BLBB[1:0]
26
SPMLVL[1:0]
BLBA[1:0]
SPMLOCK
EELVL[1:0]
BLBAT[1:0]
27
27
28
LB[1:0]
28
29
Register Summary - Fuses and Lockbits
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
+0x01
FUSEBYTE1
WDWPER3:0]
+0x02
FUSEBYTE2
–
BOOTRST
–
–
–
–
+0x03
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x04
FUSEBYTE4
–
–
–
+0x05
FUSEBYTE5
–
–
+0x06
Reserved
–
–
+0x07
LOCKBITS
BLBB[1:0]
Bit 1
Bit 0
WDPER[3:0]
RSTDISBL
BODACT[1:0]
–
–
BLBA[1:0]
STARTUPTIME[1:0]
EESAVE
–
BLBAT[1:0]
30
BODPD[1:0]
30
–
–
WDLOCK
–
BODLEVEL[2:0]
–
Page
–
31
32
–
LB[1:0]
34
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
4.19
Register Summary - Production Signature Row
Address
+0x00
Auto Load
YES
+0x01
Name
RCOSC2M
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
RCOSC2M[7:0]
36
Reserved
+0x02
YES
RCOSC32K
RCOSC32K[7:0]
36
+0x03
YES
RCOSC32M
RCOSC32M[7:0]
37
+0x04
Reserved
+0x05
Reserved
+0x06
Reserved
+0x07
Reserved
+0x08
NO
LOTNUM0
LOTNUM0[7:0]
37
+0x09
NO
LOTNUM1
LOTNUM1[7:0]
37
+0x0A
NO
LOTNUM2
LOTNUM2[7:0]
37
+0x0B
NO
LOTNUM3
LOTNUM3[7:0]
38
+0x0C
NO
LOTNUM4
LOTNUM4[7:0]
38
+0x0D
NO
LOTNUM5
LOTNUM5[7:0]
38
WAFNUM[7:0]
38
+0x0E
Reserved
+0x0F
+0x10
Reserved
NO
+0x11
WAFNUM
Reserved
+0x12
NO
COORDX0
COORDX0[7:0]
39
+0x13
NO
COORDX1
COORDX1[7:0]
39
+0x14
NO
COORDY0
COORDY0[7:0]
39
+0x15
NO
COORDY1
COORDY1[7:0]
39
+0x16
Reserved
+0x17
Reserved
+0x18
Reserved
+0x19
Reserved
+0x1A
Reserved
+0x1B
Reserved
+0x1C
Reserved
+0x1D
Reserved
+0x0E
Reserved
+0x1E
Reserved
+0x20
NO
ADCACAL0
ADCACAL0[7:0]
39
+0x21
NO
ADCACAL1
ADCACAL1{7:0]
40
+0x22
Reserved
+0x23
Reserved
+0x24
Reserved
+0x25
Reserved
+0x26
Reserved
+0x27
Reserved
+0x28
Reserved
+0x29
Reserved
+0x2A
Reserved
+0x2B
Reserved
+0x2C
Reserved
+0x2D
Reserved
+0x2E
NO
TEMPSENSE0
+0x2F
NO
TEMPSENSE1
+0x34
Reserved
+0x35
Reserved
+0x36
Reserved
+0x37
Reserved
+0x38
Reserved
+0x39
Reserved
0x3A
Reserved
+0x3B
Reserved
+0x3C
Reserved
+0x3D
Reserved
+0x3E
Reserved
TEMPSENSE[7:0]
41
TEMPSENE[11:8]
41
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
4.20
Register Summary - General Purpose I/O Registers
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
+0x00
GPIOR0
GPIOR[7:0]
42
+0x01
GPIOR1
GPIOR[7:0]
42
+0x02
GPIOR2
GPIOR[7:0]
42
+0x03
GPIOR3
GPIOR[7:0]
42
4.21
Register Summary - MCU Control
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
+0x00
DEVID0
DEVID0[7:0]
43
+0x01
DEVID1
DEVID1[7:0]
43
+0x02
DEVID2
DEVID2[7:0]
+0x03
REVID
–
–
–
–
+0x05
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x06
MCUCR
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x07
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x08
EVSYSLOCK
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
EVSYS0LOCK
+0x09
AWEXLOCK
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
AWEXCLOCK
+0x0A
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0B
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.22
43
REVID[3:0]
43
48
Interrupt Vector Summary - NVM Controller
Table 4-12.
NVM Interrupt vectors and their word offset address from the NVM Controller interrupt base
Offset
Source
0x00
SPM_vect
0x02
EE_vect
Interrupt Description
Non-Volatile Memory SPM Interrupt vector
Non-Volatile Memory EEPROM Interrupt vector
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5. Event System
5.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
Inter peripheral communication and signalling
CPU independent operation
4 Event Channels allows for up to 4 signals to be routed at the same time
100% predictable timing between peripherals
Events can be generated by
– Timer/Counters (TCxn)
– Real Time Counter (RTC)
– Analog to Digital Converters (ADCx)
– Analog Comparators (ACx)
– Ports (PORTx)
– System Clock (ClkSYS)
• Events can be used by
– Timer/Counters (TCxn)
– Analog to Digital Converters (ADCx)
– Ports
• Advanced Features
– Manual Event Generation from software (CPU)
– Quadrature Decoding
– Digital Filtering
• Operative in Active and Idle mode
5.2
Overview
The Event System is a set of features for inter peripheral communication. It enables the possibility for a change of state in one peripheral to automatically trigger actions in other peripherals.
The change of state in a peripheral that will trigger actions in other peripherals is configurable in
software. It is a simple, but powerful system as it allows for autonomous control of peripherals
without any use of interrupt, CPU resource.
The indication of a change of state in a peripheral is referred to as an event. The events are
passed between peripherals using a dedicated routing network called the Event Routing Network. Figure 5-1 on page 45 shows a basic block diagram of the Event System with the Event
Routing Network and the peripherals that are connected.
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
Figure 5-1.
Event System Overview and Connected Peripherals
CPU
C lk S YS
RTC
PORTx
E ven t R o u tin g
N etw o rk
ADCx
ACx
IR C O M
T /C xn
The CPU is not part of the Event System, but it indicates that it is possible to manually generate
events from software or by using the on-chip debug system.
The Event System works in active and idle mode.
5.3
Events
In the context of the Event System, an indication that a change of state within a peripheral has
occurred is called an event. There are two main types of events: Signaling events and data
events. Signaling events only indicate a change of state while data events contain additional
information on the event.
The peripheral from where the event origin is called the Event Generator. Within each peripheral, for example a Timer/Counter, there can be several event sources, such as a timer compare
match or timer overflow. The peripheral using the event is called the Event User, and the action
that is triggered is called the Event Action.
Figure 5-2.
Example of event source, generator, user and action
Event Generator
Event User
Timer/Counter
ADC
Compare Match
Over-/Underflow
|
Error
Event
Routing
Network
Channel Sweep
Single
Conversion
Event Action Selection
Event Source
Event Action
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
Events can be manually generated by writing to the STROBE and DATA registers.
5.3.1
Signaling Events
Signaling events are the most basic type of events. A signaling event does not contain any information apart from the indication of a change in a peripheral. Most peripherals can only generate
and use signaling events. Unless otherwise stated, all occurrences of the word 'event' is to be
understood as a signaling event.
5.3.2
Data Events
Data events differ from signaling events in that they contain additional information that event
users can decode to decide event actions based on the receiver information.
The Event Routing Network can route all events to all event users. Event users that are only
meant for using signaling events have limited decode capabilities and cannot fully utilize data.
How event users decode data events is shown in Table 5-1 on page 46.
Event users that can utilize Data Events can also use Signaling Events. This is configurable, and
is described in the datasheet module for each peripheral.
5.3.3
Manually Generating Events
Events can be generated manually by writing the DATA and STROBE register. This can be done
from software, and by accessing the registers directly during on-chip debugging. The DATA register must be written first since writing the STROBE register triggers the operation. The DATA
and STROBE registers contain one bit for each event channel. Bit n corresponds to event channel n. It is possible to generate events on several channels at the same time by writing to several
bit locations at once.
Manually generated events last for one clock cycle and will overwrite events from other event
during that clock cycle. When manually generating events, event channels where no events are
entered will let other events through.
Table 5-1 on page 46 shows the different events, how they can be manually generated and how
they are decoded.
Table 5-1.
5.4
Manually Generated Events and decoding of events
STROBE
DATA
Data Event User
Signaling Event User
0
0
No Event
No Event
0
1
Data Event 01
No Event
1
0
Data Event 02
Signaling Event
1
1
Data Event 03
Signaling Event
Event Routing Network
The Event Routing Network routes events between peripherals. It consists of eight multiplexers
(CHnMUX), where events from all event sources are routed into all multiplexers. The multiplexers select which event is routed back as input to all peripherals. The output from a multiplexer is
referred to as an Event Channel. For each peripheral it is selectable if and how incoming events
should trigger event actions. Details on these are described in the datasheet for each peripheral.
The Event Routing Network is shown on Figure 5-3 on page 47.
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
Figure 5-3.
Event Routing Network
Event Channel 3
Event Channel 2
Event Channel 1
Event Channel 0
(PORTC)
(8)
(16)
TCC0
(8)
TCC1
(8)
CH0CTRL[7:0]
(PORTD)
(8)
TCD0
CH0MUX[7:0]
(8)
(PORTE)
(8)
TCE0
(8)
(PORTF)
CH1CTRL[7:0]
(8)
TCF0
(8)
(8)
ADCA
(4)
CH1MUX[7:0]
(7)
CH2CTRL[7:0]
CH2MUX[7:0]
AC0
AC1
RTC
(48)
PORTA
(8)
PORTB
(8)
PORTC
(8)
PORTD
(8)
PORTE
(8)
PORTF
(8)
CH3CTRL[7:0]
CH3MUX[7:0]
Having four multiplexers means that it is possible to route up to four events at the same time. It
is also possible to route one event through several multiplexers.
Not all XMEGA parts contain all peripherals. This only means that peripheral is not available for
generating or using events. The network configuration itself is compatible between all devices.
5.5
Event Timing
An event normally lasts for one peripheral clock cycle, but some event sources, such as low
level on an I/O pin, will generate events continuously. Details on this are described in the
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
datasheet for each peripheral, but unless stated, an event lasts for one peripheral clock cycle
only.
It takes maximum two clock cycles from an event is generated until the event actions in other
peripherals is triggered. It takes one clock cycle from the event happens until it is registered by
the event routing network on the first positive clock edge. It takes an additional clock cycle to
route the event through the event channel to the event user.
5.6
Filtering
Each event channel includes a digital filter. When this is enabled for an event channel, an event
must be sampled with the same value for configurable number of system clock cycles before it is
accepted. This is primarily intended for pin change events.
5.7
Quadrature Decoder
The Event System includes one Quadrature Decoder (QDEC). This enables the Event System
to decode quadrature input on I/O pins, and send data events that a Timer/Counter can decode
to trigger the appropriate event action: count up, count down or index/reset. Table 5-2 on page
48 summarizes which quadrature decoder data events are available, how they are decoded, and
how they can be generated. The QDEC and related features, control and status register are
available for event channel 0.
Table 5-2.
5.7.1
Quadrature Decoder Data Events
STROBE
DATA
Data Event User
Signaling Event User
0
0
No Event
No Event
0
1
Index/Reset
No Event
1
0
Count Down
Signaling Event
1
1
Count Up
Signaling Event
Quadrature Operation
A quadrature signal is characterized by having two square waves phase shifted 90 degrees relative to each other. Rotational movement can be measured by counting the edges of the two
waveforms. The phase relationship between the two square waves determines the direction of
rotation.
Figure 5-4.
Quadrature signals from a rotary encoder
1 cycle / 4 states
Forward Direction
QDPH0
QDPH90
QDINDX
00
10
11
01
01
11
10
00
Backward
Direction
QDPH0
QDPH90
QDINDX
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
Figure 5-4 shows typical quadrature signals from a rotary encoder. The signals QDPH0 and
QDPH90 are the two quadrature signals. When QDPH90 leads QDPH0, the rotation is defined
as positive or forward. When QDPH0 leads QDPH90, the rotation is defined as negative, or
reverse. The concatenation of the two phase signals is called the quadrature state or the phase
state.
In order to know the absolute rotary displacement a third index signal (QDINDX) can be used.
This gives an indication once per revolution.
5.7.2
QDEC Setup
For a full QDEC setup the following is required:
• I/O port pins - quadrature signal input
• The Event System - quadrature decoding
• A Timer/Counter - up, down and optional index count
The following procedure should be used for QDEC setup:
• Choose two successive pins on a port as QDEC phase inputs.
• Set pin direction for QDPH0 and QDPH90 as input.
• Set pin configuration for QDPH0 and QDPH90 to low level sense.
• Select QDPH0 pin as multiplexer input for an event channel, n.
• Enable quadrature decoding and digital filtering in the Event Channel.
• Optional:
a. Setup QDEC index (QINDX).
b.
Select a third pin for QINDX input.
c.
Set pin direction for QINDX as input.
d. Set pin configuration for QINDX to sense both edges.
e. Select QINDX as multiplexer input for Event Channel n+1
f.
Set the Quadrature Index Enable bit in Event Channel n+1.
g. Select the Index Recognition mode for Event Channel n+1.
• Set quadrature decoding as event action for a Timer/Counter.
• Select Event Channel n as event source the Timer/Counter.
• Set the period register of the Timer/Counter to ('line count' * 4 - 1). (The line count of the
quadrature encoder).
• Enable the Timer/Counter by setting CLKSEL to a CLKSEL_DIV1.
The angle of a quadrature encoder attached to QDPH0, QDPH90 (and QINDX) can now be read
directly from the Timer/Counter Count register. If the Count register is different from BOTTOM
when the index is recognized, the Timer/Counter error flag is set. Similarly the error flag is set if
the position counter passes BOTTOM without the recognition of the index.
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
5.8
5.8.1
Register Description
CHnMUX – Event Channel n Multiplexer Register
.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CHnMUX[7:0]
CHnMUX
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - CHnMUX[7:0]: Channel Multiplexer
These bits select the event source according to Table 5-3. This table is valid for all XMEGA
devices regardless of if the peripheral is present or not. Selecting event sources from peripherals that are not present will give the same result as when this register is zero. When this register
is zero no events are routed through. Manually generated events will override the CHnMUX and
be routed to the event channel even if this register is zero.
Table 5-3.
CHnMUX[7:0] Bit Settings
CHnMUX[7:4]
CHnMUX[3:0]
Group Configuration
Event Source
0000
0
0
0
0
None (manually generated events only)
0000
0
0
0
1
(Reserved)
0000
0
0
1
X
(Reserved)
0000
0
1
X
X
(Reserved)
0000
1
0
0
0
RTC_OVF
RTC Overflow
0000
1
0
0
1
RTC_CMP
RTC Compare March
0000
1
0
1
X
(Reserved)
0000
1
1
X
X
(Reserved)
0001
0
0
0
0
ACA_CH0
ACA Channel 0
0001
0
0
0
1
ACA_CH1
ACA Channel 1
0001
0
0
1
0
ACA_WIN
ACA Window
0001
0
0
1
1
(Reserved)
0001
0
1
X
X
(Reserved)
0001
1
X
X
X
(Reserved)
0010
0
0
n
0010
0
1
X
0010
1
X
X
X
(Reserved)
0011
X
X
X
X
(Reserved)
0100
X
X
X
X
ADCA_CHn
ADCA Channel n (n =0, 1, 2 or 3)
(Reserved)
(Reserved)
(1)
PORTA Pin n (n= 0, 1, 2 ... or 7)
0101
0
n
PORTA_PINn
0101
1
n
PORTB_PINn(1)
PORTB Pin n (n= 0, 1, 2 ... or 7)
0110
0
n
PORTC_PINn(1)
PORTC Pin n (n= 0, 1, 2 ... or 7)
n
(1)
PORTD Pin n (n= 0, 1, 2 ... or 7)
0110
1
PORTD_PINn
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Table 5-3.
CHnMUX[7:0] Bit Settings (Continued)
CHnMUX[7:4]
CHnMUX[3:0]
0111
0
0111
n
1
PORTF_PINn
M
Event Source
(1)
PORTE Pin n (n= 0, 1, 2 ... or 7)
(1)
PORTF Pin n (n= 0, 1, 2 ... or 7)
PORTE_PINn
n
1000
PRESCALER_M
ClkPER divide by M (M=1 to 32768)
1001
X
X
X
X
(Reserved)
1010
X
X
X
X
(Reserved)
1011
X
X
X
X
(Reserved)
1100
0
E
See Table 5-4
Timer/Counter C0 event type E
1100
1
E
See Table 5-4
Timer/Counter C1 event type E
1101
0
E
See Table 5-4
Timer/Counter D0 event type E
1101
1
1110
0
1110
1
1111
0
1111
1
Note:
X
X
X
(Reserved)
E
X
X
See Table 5-4
X
(Reserved)
E
X
X
Timer/Counter E0 event type E
See Table 5-4
Timer/Counter F0 event type E
X
(Reserved)
1. The description of how PORTS generate events are described in ”Port Event” on page 108.
Table 5-4.
5.8.2
Group Configuration
Timer/Counter Events
T/C Event E
Group Configuration
Event Type
0
0
0
TCxn_OVF
Over-/Underflow (x = C, D, E or F) (n= 0 or 1)
0
0
1
TCxn_ERR
Error (x = C, D, E or F) (n= 0 or 1)
0
1
X
1
0
0
TCxn_CCA
Capture or Compare A (x = C, D, E or F) (n= 0 or 1)
1
0
1
TCxn_CCA
Capture or Compare B (x = C, D, E or F) (n= 0 or 1)
1
1
0
TCxn_CCA
Capture or Compare C (x = C, D, E or F) (n= 0 or 1)
1
1
1
TCxn_CCA
Capture or Compare D (x = C, D, E or F) (n= 0 or 1)
(Reserved)
CHnCTRL – Event Channel n Control Register
.
Bit
7
6
–
5
QDIRM[1:0]
4
3
QDIEN
QDEN
2
1
0
DIGFILT[2:0]
CHnCTRL
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7 - Reserved
This bit is reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices, always
write this bit to zero when this register is written.
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• Bit 6:5 - QDIRM[1:0]: Quadrature Decode Index Recognition Mode
These bits determine the quadrature state for the QDPH0 and QDPH90 signals where a valid
index signal is recognized and the counter index data event is given according to Table 5-5 on
page 52. These bits is only needed to set when a quadrature encoed with a connected index signal is used.
These bits are only available for CH0CTRL and CH2CTRL
Table 5-5.
QDIRM Bit Settings
QDIRM[1:0]
Index Recognition State
0
0
{QDPH0, QDPH90} = 0b00
0
1
{QDPH0, QDPH90} = 0b01
1
0
{QDPH0, QDPH90} = 0b10
1
1
{QDPH0, QDPH90} = 0b11
• Bit 4 - QDIEN: Quadrature Decode Index Enable
When this bit is set the event channel will be used as QDEC index source, and the index data
event will be enabled.
These bit is only available for CH0CTRL and CH2CTRL.
• Bit 3 - QDEN: Quadrature Decode Enable
Setting this bit enables QDEC operation.
These bits is only available for CH0CTRL and CH2CTRL.
• Bit 2:0 - DIGFILT[2:0]: Digital Filter Coefficient
These bits define the length of digital filtering used. Events will be passed through to the event
channel only when the event source has been active and sampled with the same level for a a
number of peripheral clock for the number of cycles as defined by DIGFILT.
Table 5-6.
Digital Filter Coefficient values
DIGFILT[2:0]
Group Configuration
Description
000
1SAMPLE
1 sample
001
2SAMPLES
2 samples
010
3SAMPLES
3 samples
011
4SAMPLES
4 samples
100
5SAMPLES
5 samples
101
6SAMPLES
6 samples
110
7SAMPLES
7 samples
111
8SAMPLES
8 samples
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5.8.3
STROBE – Event Strobe Register
A single event lasting for one peripheral clock cycle will be generated.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x10
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STROBE[3:0]
STROBE
• Bit 7:4 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bit to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 3:0 - STROBE[3:0] - Event Strobe bit Register
If any of the STROBE bit is unequal to zero or simply written, each event channel will be set
according to the STROBE[n] and corresponding DATA[n] bit setting.
5.8.4
DATA – Event Data Register
This register must be written before the STROBE register, for details See ”STROBE – Event
Strobe Register” on page 53.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x11
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
DATA[3:0]
R/W
R/W
DATA
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:4 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 3:0 - DATA[3:0] - Event Data bit Register
Any of the DATA bits contains the data value when manually generating a data event.
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5.9
Register Summary
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
+0x00
CH0MUX
CH0MUX[7:0]
50
+0x01
CH1MUX
CH1MUX[7:0]
50
+0x02
CH2MUX
CH2MUX[7:0]
50
+0x03
CH3MUX
CH3MUX[7:0]
50
+0x04
Reserved
+0x05
Reserved
+0x06
Reserved
+0x07
Reserved
+0x08
CH0CTRL
–
QDIRM[1:0]
QDIEN
+0x09
CH1CTRL
–
–
QDEN
DIGFILT[2:0]
51
–
–
–
DIGFILT[2:0]
51
+0x0A
CH2CTRL
–
+0x0B
CH3CTRL
–
–
–
–
–
DIGFILT[2:0]
51
–
–
–
–
DIGFILT[2:0]
51
+0x0C
Reserved
+0x0D
Reserved
+0x0E
Reserved
+0x0F
Reserved
+0x10
STROBE
–
–
–
–
STROBE[3:0]
53
+0x11
DATA
–
–
–
–
DATA[3:0]
53
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6. System Clock and Clock options
6.1
Features
• Fast start-up time
• Safe run-time clock switching
• Internal Oscillators:
•
•
•
•
•
•
6.2
– 32 MHz run-time calibrated RC oscillator
– 2 MHz run-time calibrated RC oscillator
– 32.768 kHz calibrated RC oscillator
– 32 kHz Ultra Low Power (ULP) oscillator with 1 kHz output
External clock options
– 0.4 - 16 MHz Crystal Oscillator
– 32.768 kHz Crystal Oscillator
– External clock
PLL with internal and external clock options with 1 to 31x multiplication
Clock Prescalers with 1 to 2048x division
Fast peripheral clock running at 2 and 4 times the CPU clock speed
Automatic Run-Time Calibration of internal oscillators
Crystal Oscillator failure detection
Overview
XMEGA has a flexible clock system, supporting a large number of clock sources. It incorporates
both accurate integrated oscillators, and external crystal oscillators and resonators. A high frequency Phase Locked Loop (PLL) and clock prescalers can be used to generate a wide range of
clock frequencies. A calibration feature (DFLL) is available, and can be used for automatic runtime calibration of the internal oscillators. A Crystal Oscillator Failure Monitor can be enabled to
issue a Non-Maskable Interrupt and switch to internal oscillator if the external oscillator fails.
After reset, the device will always start up running from the 2 MHz internal oscillator. During normal operation, the System Clock source and prescalers can be changed from software at any
time.
Figure 6-1 on page 56 presents the principal clock system in the XMEGA. All of the clocks do not
need to be active at a given time. The clocks to the CPU and peripherals can be stopped using
sleep modes and power reduction registers as described in ”Power Management and Sleep” on
page 74.
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Figure 6-1.
The Clock system, clock sources and clock distribution
Real Time
Counter
Peripherals
RAM
Non-Volatile
Memory
AVR CPU
clkCPU
clkPER
clkPER2
clkPER4
clkrtc
System Clock
Prescalers
Brown-out
Detection
Watchdog
Timer
clkSYS
System Clock Multiplexer
PLL
DIV32
32.768 kHz
Int. Osc.
DIV4
DIV32
32 kHz
Int. ULP
2 MHz
Int. Osc.
32 MHz
Int. Osc.
XTAL
32.768 kHz
External
Clock
XTAL1
XTAL2
TOSC1
TOSC2
6.3
XTAL
0.4–16Mhz
Clock Distribution
Figure 6-1 on page 56 presents the principal clock distribution in the XMEGA.
6.3.1
System Clock - clkSYS
The System Clock is the output from the main system clock selection. This is fed into the prescalers that are used to generate all internal clocks except the Asynchronous Clock.
6.3.2
CPU Clock - clkCPU
The CPU Clock is routed to the CPU and Non-Volatile Memory. Halting the CPU Clock inhibits
the CPU from executing instructions.
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6.3.3
Peripheral Clock - clkPER
The majority of peripherals and system modules use the Peripheral Clock. This includes the
Event System, Interrupt Controller and RAM. This clock is always synchronous to the CPU
Clock but may run even if the CPU Clock is turned off.
6.3.4
Peripheral 2x/4x Clocks clkPER2/clkPER4
Modules that can run at two or four times the CPU Clock frequency can use the Peripheral 2x
and Peripheral 4x clocks.
6.3.5
Asynchronous Clock - clkASY
The Asynchronous Clock allows the Real Time Counter (RTC) to be clocked directly from an
external 32.768 kHz crystal oscillator, or the 32 times prescaled output from theinternal
32.768 kHz oscillator or ULP oscillator. The dedicated clock domain allows operation of this
peripheral, even if the device is in a sleep mode where the rest of the clocks are stopped.
6.4
Clock Sources
The clock sources are divided in two main groups: internal oscillators and external clock
sources. Most of the clock sources can be directly enabled and disabled from software, while
others are automatically enabled or disabled dependent on current peripheral settings. After
reset the device starts up running from the 2 MHz internal oscillator. The DFLLs and PLL are
turned off by default.
6.4.1
Internal Oscillators
The internal oscillators do not require any external components to run. For details on characteristics and accuracy of the internal oscillators refer to the device datasheet.
6.4.1.1
32 kHz Ultra Low Power Oscillator
This oscillator provides an approximate 32 kHz clock. The 32 kHz Ultra Low Power (ULP) Internal Oscillator is a very low power clock source, and it is not designed for high accuracy.The
oscillator employs a built in prescaler providing both a 32 kHz output and a 1 kHz output. The
oscillator is automatically enabled/disabled when used as clock source for any part of the
device. This oscillator can be selected as clock source for the RTC.
6.4.1.2
32.768 kHz Calibrated Internal Oscillator
This RC oscillator provides an approximate 32.768 kHz clock. A factory-calibrated value is written to the 32.768 kHz oscillator calibration register during reset to ensure that the oscillator is
running within its specification. The calibration register can also be written from software for runtime calibration of the oscillator frequency. The oscillator employs a built in prescaler providing
both a 32.768 kHz output and a 1.024 kHz output.
6.4.1.3
32 MHz Run-time Calibrated Internal Oscillator
This RC oscillator provides an approximate 32 MHz clock. The oscillator employs a Digital Frequency Locked Loop (DFLL) that can be enabled for automatic run-time calibration of the
oscillator. A factory-calibrated value is written to the 32 MHz DFLL Calibration Register during
reset to ensure that the oscillator is running within its specification. The calibration register can
also be written from software for manual run-time calibration of the oscillator.
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6.4.1.4
6.4.2
6.4.2.1
2 MHz Run-time Calibrated Internal Oscillator
This RC oscillator provides an approximate 2 MHz clock. The oscillator employs a Digital Frequency Looked Loop (DFLL) that can be enabled for automatic run-time calibration of the
oscillator. A factory-calibrated value is written to the 2 MHz DFLL Calibration Register during
reset to ensure that the oscillator is running within its specification. The calibration register can
also be written from software for manual run-time calibration of the oscillator.
External Clock Sources
The XTAL1 and XTAL2 pins can be used to drive an external oscillator, either a quartz crystal or
a ceramic resonator. XTAL1 can be used as input for an external clock signal. The TOSC1 and
TOSC2 pins is dedicated for driving a 32.768 kHz crystal oscillator.
0.4 - 16 MHz Crystal Oscillator
This oscillator can operate in four different modes, optimized for different frequency ranges, all
within 0.4 - 16 MHz. Figure 6-2 shows a typical connection of a crystal oscillator or resonator.
Figure 6-2.
Crystal Oscillator Connection
C2
XTAL2
C1
XTAL1
GND
Two capacitors, C1 and C2, may be added to match the required load capacitance for the connected crystal.
6.4.2.2
External Clock Input
To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL1 must be driven as shown in Figure 63 on page 58. In this mode, XTAL2 can be used as a general I/O pin.
Figure 6-3.
6.4.2.3
External Clock Drive Configuration
G e n e ra l
P u rp o s e
I/O
XTAL2
E x te r n a l
C lo c k
S ig n a l
XTAL1
32.768 kHz Crystal Oscillator
A 32.768 kHz crystal oscillator can be connected between TOSC1 and TOSC2 by enabling a
dedicated Low Frequency Oscillator input circuit. A typical connection is shown in Figure Figure
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6-4 on page 59. A low power mode with reduced voltage swing on TOSC2 is available. This
oscillator can be used as clock source for the System Clock, RTC and as the DFLL reference.
Figure 6-4.
32.768 kHz crystal oscillator connection
C2
TO SC2
C1
TO SC1
GND
Two capacitors, C1 and C2, may be added to match the required load capacitance for the connected crystal.
6.5
System Clock Selection and Prescalers
All the calibrated internal oscillators, the external clock sources (XOSC) and the PLL output can
be used as the System Clock source. The System Clock source is selectable from software, and
can be changed during normal operation. Built-in hardware protection prevents unsafe clock
switching. It is not possible to select a non-stable or disabled oscillator as clock source, or to disable the oscillator currently used as system clock source. Each oscillator option has a status flag
that can be read from software to check that the oscillator is ready.
The System Clock is fed into a prescaler block that can divide the clock signal by a factor from 1
to 2048 before it is routed to the CPU and peripherals. The prescaler settings can be changed
from software during normal operation. The first stage, prescaler A, can divide by a factor of 1 to
512. Then prescaler B and C can be individually configured to either pass the clock through or
divide it by a factor of 1 to 4. The prescaler guarantees that derived clocks are always in phase,
and that no glitches or intermediate frequencies occur when changing the prescaler setting. The
prescaler settings are always updated in accordance to the rising edge of the slowest clock.
Figure 6-5.
System Clock Selection and Prescalers
Clock Selection
Internal 32.768 kHz Osc.
ClkPER4
Internal 2 MHz Osc.
Internal 32 MHz Osc.
Internal PLL.
ClkPER2
ClkCPU
ClkSYS
Prescaler A
1, 2, 4, ... , 512
Prescaler B
1, 2, 4
Prescaler C
1, 2
ClkPER
External Oscillator or Clock.
Prescaler A divides the System Clock and the resulting clock is the clkPER4. Prescaler B and
prescaler C can be enabled to divide the clock speed further and enable peripheral modules to
run at twice or four times the CPU Clock frequency. If Prescaler B and C are not used all the
clocks will run at the same frequency as output from Prescaler A.
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The System Clock selection and prescaler registers are protected by the Configuration Change
Protection mechanism, employing a timed write procedure for changing the system clock and
prescaler settings. For details refer to ”Configuration Change Protection” on page 12.
6.6
PLL with 1-31x Multiplication Factor
A built-in Phase Locked Loop (PLL) can be used to generate a high frequency system clock. The
PLL has a user selectable multiplication factor from 1 to 31. The output frequency, fOUT is given
by the input frequency, fIN multiplied with the multiplication factor, PLL_FAC. For details on maximum and minimum input and output frequency for the PLL, refer to the device datasheet.
f OUT = f IN ⋅ PLL_FAC
Four different reference clock sources can be chosen as input to the PLL:
• 2 MHz internal oscillator
• 32 MHz internal oscillator divided by 4
• 0.4 - 16 MHz Crystal Oscillator
• External clock
To enable the PLL the following procedure must be followed:
1.Enable clock reference source.
2.Set the multiplication factor and select the clock reference for the PLL.
3.Wait until the clock reference source is stable.
4.Enable the PLL.
Hardware ensures that the PLL configuration cannot be changed when the PLL is in use. The
PLL must be disabled before a new configuration can be written.
It is not possible to use the PLL before the selected clock source is stabile and the PLL has
locked.
If using PLL and DFLL the active reference cannot be disabled.
6.7
DFLL 2 MHz and DFLL 32 MHz
Two built-in Digital Frequency Locked Loops (DFLLs) can be used to improve the accuracy of
the 2 MHz and 32 MHz internal oscillators. The DFLL compares the oscillator frequency with a
more accurate reference clock to do automatic run-time calibration of the oscillator. The choices
for the reference clock sources are:
• 32.768 kHz Calibrated Internal Oscillator
• 32.768 kHz Crystal Oscillator connected to the TOSC pins
The DFLLs divide the reference clock by 32 to use a 1.024 kHz reference. The reference clock is
individually selected for each DFLL as shown on Figure 6-6 on page 61.
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Figure 6-6.
TOSC1
Figure 5-5. DFLL reference clock selection
32.768 kHz Crystal Osc.
TOSC2
32.768 kHz Int. Osc.
DFLL
2 MHz Int. Osc.
DFLL
32 MHz Int. Osc.
When the DFLL is enabled it will count each oscillator clock cycle, and for each reference clock
edge, the counter value is compared to the fixed ideal relationship between the reference clock
and the 1.024 kHz reference frequency. If the internal oscillator runs too fast or too slow, the
DFLL will decrement or increment the corresponding DFLL Calibration Register value by one to
adjust the oscillator frequency slightly. When the DFLL is enabled the DFLL Calibration Register
cannot be written from software.
The ideal counter value representing the number of oscillator clock cycles for each reference
clock cycle is loaded to the DFLL Oscillator Compare Register during reset. The register can
also be written from software to change the frequency the internal oscillator is calibrated to.
The DFLL will stop when entering a sleep-mode where the oscillators are stopped. After wakeup the DFLL will continue with the calibration value found before entering sleep. For the DFLL
Calibration Register to be reloaded with the default value it has after reset, the DFLL must disabled before entering sleep and enabled the again after leaving sleep.
The active reference cannot be disabled when the DFLL is enabled.
When the DFLL is disabled the DFLL calibration Register can be written from software for manual run-time calibration of the oscillator.
For details on internal oscillator accuracy when the DFLL is enabled, refer to the device
datasheet.
6.8
External Clock Source Failure Monitor
To handle external clock source failures, there is a built-in monitor circuit monitoring the oscillator or clock used to derive the XOSC clock. The External Clock Source Failure Monitor is
disabled by default, and it must be enabled from software before it can be used. If an external
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clock or oscillator is used to derive the System Clock (i.e clock reference for the PLL when this is
used as the active system clock) and an clock or oscillator fails (stops), the device will:
• Switch to the 2 MHz internal oscillator, independently of any clock system lock setting.
• Reset the Oscillator Control Register and System Clock Selection Register to their default
values.
• Set the External Clock Source Failure Detection Interrupt Flag.
• Issue a non-maskable interrupt (NMI).
If the external oscillator fails when it is not used as the System Clock source, the external oscillator is automatically disabled while the system clock will continue to operate normally.
If the external clock is below 32 kHz then the failure monitor mechanism should not be enabled
in order to avoid unintentional fail detection.
When the failure monitor is enabled, it cannot be disabled until next reset.
The failure monitor is automatically disabled in all sleep modes where the external clock or oscillator is stopped. During wake-up from sleep it is automatically enabled again.
The External Clock Source Failure Monitor setting is protected by the Configuration Change Protection mechanism, employing a timed write procedure for changing the system clock and
prescaler settings. For details refer to ”Configuration Change Protection” on page 12.
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6.9
6.9.1
Register Description - Clock
CTRL - System Clock Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
+0x00
–
–
–
–
–
2
1
0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SCLKSEL[2:0]
CTRL
• Bit 7:3 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 2:0 - SCLKSEL[2:0]: System Clock Selection
SCLKSEL is used to select the source for the System Clock. See Table 6-1 for the different
selections. Changing the system clock source will take 2 clock cycles on the old clock source
and 2 clock cycles on the new clock source. These bits are protected by the Configuration
Change Protection mechanism, for details refer to ”Configuration Change Protection” on page
12.
SCLKSEL cannot be changed if the new source is not stable.
Table 6-1.
6.9.2
System Clock Selection
SCLKSEL[2:0]
Group Configuration
Description
000
RC2MHz
2 MHz Internal RC Oscillator
001
RC32MHz
32 MHz Internal RC Oscillator
010
RC32KHz
32.768 kHz Internal RC Oscillator
011
XOSC
100
PLL
101
-
Reserved
110
-
Reserved
111
-
Reserved
External Oscillator or Clock
Phase Locked Loop
PSCTRL - System Clock Prescaler Register
Bit
7
+0x01
–
6
5
4
3
2
1
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PSADIV[4:0]
0
PSBCDIV
PSCTRL
• Bit 7 - Reserved
This bit is reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices, always
write this bit to zero when this register is written.
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• Bit 6:2 - PSADIV[4:0]: Prescaler A Division Factor
These bits define the division ratio of the clock prescaler A according to Table 6-2. These bits
can be written run-time to change the clock frequency of the clkPER4 clock relative to the System
clock, clkSYS .
Table 6-2.
Prescaler A division factor
PSADIV[4:0]
Group Configuration
Description
00000
1
No division
00001
2
Divide by 2
00011
4
Divide by 4
00101
8
Divide by 8
00111
16
Divide by 16
01001
32
Divide by 32
01011
64
Divide by 64
01101
128
Divide by 128
01111
256
Divide by 256
10001
512
Divide by 512
10101
Reserved
10111
Reserved
11001
Reserved
11011
Reserved
11101
Reserved
11111
Reserved
• Bit 1:0 - PSBCDIV: Prescaler B and C Division Factor
These bits define the division ratio of the clock prescaler B and C according to Table 6-3. Prescaler B will set the clock frequency for the clkPER2 clock relative to the clkPER4. Prescaler C will
set the clock frequency for the clkPER and clkCPU clocks relative to the clkPER2 clock. Refer to Figure 6-5 on page 59 fore more details.
Table 6-3.
Prescaler B and C division factor
PSBCDIV[1:0]
Group Configuration
Prescaler B division
Prescaler C division
00
1_1
No division
No division
01
1_2
No division
Divide by 2
10
4_1
Divide by 4
No division
11
2_2
Divide by 2
Divide by 2
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6.9.3
LOCK - Clock System Lock Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x02
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
LOCK
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
LOCK
• Bit 7:1 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 0 - LOCK: Clock System Lock
When the LOCK bit is written to one the CTRL and PSCTRL registers cannot be changed, and
the system clock selection and prescaler settings is protected against all further updates until
after the next reset. This bits are protected by the Configuration Change Protection mechanism,
for details refer to ”Configuration Change Protection” on page 12.
The LOCK bit will only be cleared by a system reset.
6.9.4
RTCCTRL - RTC Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x03
–
–
–
–
3
2
1
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RTCSRC[2:0]
0
RTCEN
RTCCTRL
• Bit 7:4 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 3:1 - RTCSRC[2:0]: Clock Source
These bits select the clock source for the Real Time Counter according to Table 6-4.
Table 6-4.
RTC Clock Source
RTCSRC[2:0]
Group Configuration
Description
000
ULP
001
TOSC
010
RCOSC
011
-
Reserved
100
-
Reserved
101
TOSC32
110
-
Reserved
111
-
Reserved
1 kHz from internal 32 kHz ULP
1.024 kHz from 32.768 kHz Crystal Oscillator on TOSC
1.024 kHz from internal 32.768 kHz RC Oscillator
32.768 kHz from 32.768 kHz Crystal Oscillator on TOSC
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• Bit 0 - RTCEN: RTC Clock Source Enable
Setting the RTCEN bit enables the selected clock source for the Real Time Counter.
6.10
Register Description - Oscillator
6.10.1
CTRL - Oscillator Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x00
–
–
–
PLLEN
XOSCEN
RC32KEN
RC32MEN
RC2MEN
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
CTRL
• Bit 7:5 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 4 - PLLEN: PLL Enable
Setting this bit enables the PLL. Before the PLL is enabled, it should be configured with the
desired multiplication factor and input source. See ”STATUS - Oscillator Status Register” on
page 67.
• Bit 3 - XOSCEN: External Oscillator Enable
Setting this bit enables the selected external clock source, refer to ”XOSCCTRL - XOSC Control
Register” on page 67 for details on how to select and enable an external clock source. The
external clock source should be allowed time to become stable before it is selected as source for
the System Clock. See ”STATUS - Oscillator Status Register” on page 67.
• Bit 2 - RC32KEN: 32.768 kHz Internal RC Oscillator Enable
Setting this bit enables the 32.768 kHz internal RC oscillator. The oscillator must be stable
before it is selected as source for the System Clock. See ”STATUS - Oscillator Status Register”
on page 67.
• Bit 1- RC32MEN: 32 MHz Internal RC Oscillator Enable
Setting this bit will enable the 32 MHz internal RC oscillator. The oscillators should be allowed
time to become stable before wither is selected as source for the System Clock. See ”STATUS Oscillator Status Register” on page 67.
• Bit 0 - RC2MEN: 2 MHz Internal RC Oscillator enable
Setting this bit enables the 2MHz internal RC oscillator. The oscillator should be allowed time to
become stable before wither is selected as source for the System Clock. See ”STATUS - Oscillator Status Register” on page 67.
By default the 2 Mhz Internal RC Oscillator is enabled and this bit is set.
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6.10.2
STATUS - Oscillator Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x01
–
–
–
PLLRDY
XOSCRDY
RC32KRDY
R32MRDY
RC2MRDY
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STATUS
• Bit 7:5 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 4 - PLLRDY: PLL Ready
The PLLRDY flag is set when the PLL has locked on selected frequency and ready to be used
as he System Clock source.
• Bit 3 - XOSCRDY: External clock source Ready
The XOSCRDY flag is set when the external clock source is stable and ready to be used as the
System Clock source.
• Bit 2 - RC32KRDY: 32.768 kHz Internal RC Oscillator Ready
The RC32KRDY flag is set when the 32.768 kHz internal RC oscillator is stable and ready to be
used as the System Clock source.
• Bit 1 - RC32MRDY: 32 MHz Internal RC Oscillator Ready
The R32MRFY flag is set when the 32 MHz internal RC oscillator is stable and ready to be used
as the System Clock source.
• Bit 0 - RC2MRDY: 2 MHz Internal RC Oscillator Ready
The RC2MRDY flag is set when the 2 MHz internal RC oscillator is stable and is ready to be
used as the System Clock source.
6.10.3
XOSCCTRL - XOSC Control Register
Bit
7
6
+0x02
FRQRANGE[1:0]
5
4
X32KLPM
–
3
2
1
0
XOSCSEL[3:0]
XOSCCTRL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:6 - FRQRANGE[1:0]: Crystal Oscillator Frequency Range Select
These bits select the frequency range for the connected crystal oscillator according to Table 6-5
on page 68.
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
Table 6-5.
Oscillator frequency range selection
Recommended range
for capacitors C1 and C2 (pF)
FRQRANGE[1:0]
Group Configuration
Frequency range
00
04TO2
0.4 MHz - 2 MHz
100
01
2TO9
2 MHz - 9 MHz
15
10
9TO12
9 MHz - 12 MHz
15
11
12TO16
12 MHz - 16 MHz
10
• Bit 5 - X32KLPM: Crystal Oscillator 32.768 kHz Low Power Mode
Setting this bit enables low power mode for the 32.768 kHz Crystal Oscillator. This will reduce
the swing on the TOSC2 pin to save power.
• Bit 4 - Reserved
This bit is reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices, always
write this bit to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 3:0 - XOSCSEL[3:0]: Crystal Oscillator Selection
These bits select the type and start-up time for the crystal or resonator that is connected to the
XTAL or TOSC pins. It is impossible to change this configuration when XOSCEN in CTRL is set.
See Table 6-6 for crystal selections..
Table 6-6.
External Oscillator selection and Startup Time
XOSCSEL[3:0]
Group Configuration
Selected Clock Source
Start-up time
0000
EXTCLK
External Clock
6 CLK
0010
32KHZ
32.768 kHz TOSC
16K CLK
(1)
0.4 - 16 MHz XTAL
256 CLK
0111
XTAL_1KCLK
(2)
0.4 - 16 MHz XTAL
1K CLK
1011
XTAL_16KCLK
0.4 - 16 MHz XTAL
16K CLK
0011
Notes:
XTAL_256CLK
1. This option should only be used when frequency stability at start-up is not important for the
application. The option is not suitable for crystals.
2. This option is intended for use with ceramic resonators and will ensure frequency stability at
start-up. It can also be used when the frequency stability at start-up is not important for the
application.
6.10.4
XOSCFAIL - XOSC Failure Detection Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x03
–
–
–
–
–
–
XOSCFDIF
XOSCFDEN
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
XOSCFAIL
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• Bit 7:2 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 1 - XOSCFDIF: Failure Detection Interrupt Flag
If the external clock source oscillator failure monitor is enabled, the XOSCFDIF is set when a
failure is detected. Writing logic one to this location will clear XOSCFDIF. Note that having this
flag set will not stop the fail monitor circuit to request a new interrupt if the external clock sources
are re-enabled and a new failure occurs.
• Bit 0 - XOSCFDEN: Failure Detection Enable
Setting this bit will enable the failure detection monitor, and a Non-Maskable Interrupt will be
issued when the XOSCFDIF is set.
This bit is protected by the Configuration Change Protection mechanism, refer to ”Configuration
Change Protection” on page 12 for details. Once enabled, the failure detection will only be disabled by a reset.
6.10.5
RC32KCAL - 32.768 KHz Oscillator Calibration Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
x
x
x
x
+0x04
3
2
1
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
x
x
x
x
RC32KCAL[7:0]
RC32KCAL
• Bit 7:0 - RC32KCAL[7:0]: 32.768 KHz Internal Oscillator Calibration Register
This register is used to calibrate the Internal 32.768 kHz Oscillator. A factory-calibrated value is
loaded from the signature row of the device and written to this register during reset, giving an
oscillator frequency close to 32.768 kHz. The register can also be written from software to calibrate the oscillator frequency during normal operation.
6.10.6
PLLCTRL - PLL Control Register
Bit
7
+0x05
6
PLLSRC[1:0]
5
4
3
–
2
1
0
PLLFAC[4:0]
PLLCTRL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:6 - PLLSRC[1:0]: Clock Source
The PLLSRC bits select the input source for the PLL according to Table 6-7 on page 70.
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
Table 6-7.
PLL Clock Source
CLKSRC[1:0]
Group Configuration
00
RC2M
01
-
10
RC32M
32 MHz Internal RC Oscillator
11
XOSC
External Clock Source(1)
Notes:
PLL input source
2 MHz Internal RC Oscillator
Reserved
1. 32 kHz TOSC cannot be selected as source for the PLL. An external clock must be minimum
0.4 MHz to be used as source clock.
• Bit 5 - Reserved
This bit is reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices, always
write this bit to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 4:0 - PLLFAC[4:0]: Multiplication Factor
The PLLFAC bits set the multiplication factor for the PLL. The multiplication factor can be in the
range from 1x to 31x.
6.10.7
DFLLCTRL - DFLL Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x06
–
–
–
–
–
–
R32MCREF
RC2MCREF
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DFLLCTRL
• Bit 7:2 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 1 - RC32MCREF: 32 MHz Calibration Reference
This bit is used to select the calibration source for the 32 MHz DFLL. By default this bit is zero
and the 32.768 kHz internal RC oscillator is selected. If this bit is set to one the 32.768 kHz Crystal Oscillator connected to TOSC selected as reference. The XOSCEN bit in the CTRL register
must be set to enable the external oscillator, and the XOSCLSEL bits in the XOSCCTRL register
must be set to 32.768 kHz TOSC when this clock source is selected as the the 32 MHz DFLL
reference.
• Bit 0 - RC2MCREF: 2 MHz Calibration Reference
This bit is used to select the calibration source for the 2 MHz DFLL. By default this bit is zero and
the 32.768 kHz internal RC oscillator is selected. If this bit is set to one the 32.768 kHz Crystal
Oscillator on TOSC is selected as reference. The XOSCEN bit in the CTRL register must be set
to enable the external oscillator, and the XOSCLSEL bits in the XOSCCTRL register must be set
to 32.768 kHz TOSC when this clock source is selected as the the 2 MHz DFLL reference.
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6.11
6.11.1
Register Description - DFLL32M/DFLL2M
CTRL - DFLL Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x00
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
ENABLE
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTRL
• Bit 7:1 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 0 - ENABLE: DFLL Enable
Setting this bit enables the DFLL and auto-calibration of the internal oscillator
6.11.2
CALA - Calibration Register A
CALA and CALB register holds the 13 bit DFLL calibration value that is used for automatic runtime calibration the internal oscillator. When the DFLL is disabled, the calibration registers can
be written by software for manual run-time calibration of the oscillator. The oscillators will be calibrated according to the calibration value in these registers also when the DFLL is disabled.
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x02
3
2
1
0
CALL[7:0]
CALA
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - CALL[7:0]: DFLL Calibration bits
These bits hold the 7 Least Significant Bits (LSB) of the calibration value for the oscillator. After
reset CALL is set to its middle value, and during automatic runtime calibration of the oscillator
these bits are use to change the oscillator frequency. The bits are controlled by the DFLL when
the DFLL is enabled.
6.11.3
CALB - Calibration Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x03
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
x
x
x
x
x
CALH[12:8]
CALB
• Bit 7:5 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
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XMEGA D
• Bit 4:0 - CALH[12:8]: DFLL Calibration bits
These bits hold the 6 Most Significant Bits (MSB) of the calibration value for the oscillator. A factory-calibrated value is loaded from the signature row of the device and written to this register
during reset, giving an oscillator frequency approximate to the nominal frequency for the oscillator. These bits are not changed during automatic runtime calibration of the oscillator.
6.11.4
COMP0 - Oscillator Compare Register 0
COMP0, COMP1 and COMP2 represent the register value COMP that hold the oscillator compare value. During reset COMP is loaded with the default value representing the ideal
relationship between oscillator frequency and the 1.024 kHz reference clock. It is possible to
write these bits from software, and then enable the oscillator to tune to a frequency different than
its nominal frequency. These bits can only be written when the DFLL is disabled.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x04
COMP[7:0]
COMP0
• Bit 7:0 - COMP[7:0]
These bits are the low byte of the COMP register.
6.11.5
COMP1 - Oscillator Compare Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x05
COMP[15:8]
COMP1
• Bit 7:0 - COMP[15:8]
These bits are the middle byte of the COMP register.
6.11.6
COMP2 - Oscillator Compare Register 2
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x06
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
COMP[19:16]
R/W
R/W
COMP2
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:4 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 3:0 - COMP[19:16]
These bits are the highest bits of the COMP register.
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6.12
Register Summary - Clock
Address
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
+0x00
CTRL
–
–
–
–
–
+0x01
PSCTRL
–
+0x02
LOCK
–
–
–
–
+0x03
RTCCTRL
–
–
–
–
+0x04
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x05
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x06
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x07
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
6.13
Name
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
SCLKSEL[2:0]
PSADIV[4:0]
63
PSBCDIV[1:0]
–
–
–
RTCSRC[2:0]
Page
63
LOCK
65
RTCEN
65
Register Summary - Oscillator
Address
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
+0x00
Name
CTRL
–
–
–
PLLEN
XOSCEN
RC32KEN
R32MEN
RC2MEN
66
+0x01
STATUS
–
–
–
PLLRDY
XOSCRDY
RC32KRDY
R32MRDY
RC2MRDY
66
+0x02
XOSCCTRL
X32KLPM
-
+0x03
XOSCFAIL
–
–
XOSCFDEN
68
+0x04
RC32KCAL
+0x05
PLLCTRL
+0x06
DFLLCTRL
–
–
–
–
–
–
R32MCREF
RC2MCREF
FRQRANGE[1:0]
–
–
XOSCSEL[3:0]
–
–
67
XOSCFDIF
RC32KCAL[7:0]
PLLSRC[1:0]
-
69
PLLFAC[4:0]
69
+0x07
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x08
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x09
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0A
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0B
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0C
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0D
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0E
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0F
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
6.14
70
Register Summary - DFLL32M/DFLL2M
Address
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
+0x00
Name
CTRL
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
ENABLE
71
+0x01
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x02
CALA
+0x03
CALB
+0x04
COMP0
CALL[7:0]
71
COMP[7:0]
+0x05
COMP1
+0x06
COMP2
–
–
–
–
+0x07
Reserved
–
–
–
–
6.15
71
CALH[12:8]
71
COMP[15:8]
72
COMP[19:16]
–
–
72
–
–
Crystal Oscillator Failure Interrupt Vector Summary
Table 6-8.
Crystal Oscillator Failure Interrupt vector and its word offset address Crystal Oscillator Failure interrupt base
Offset
Source
0x00
OSCF_vect
Interrupt Description
Crystal Oscillator Failure Interrupt Vector (NMI)
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7. Power Management and Sleep
7.1
Features
• 5 sleep modes
– Idle
– Power-down
– Power-save
– Standby
– Extended standby
• Power Reduction register to disable clock to unused peripherals
7.2
Overview
XMEGA provides various sleep modes and software controlled clock gating in order to tailor
power consumption to the application's requirement. Sleep modes enables the microcontroller to
shut down unused modules to save power. When the device enters sleep mode, program execution is stopped and interrupts or reset is used to wake the device again. The individual clock to
unused peripherals can be stopped during normal operation or in sleep, enabling a much more
fine tuned power management than sleep modes alone.
7.3
Sleep Modes
Sleep modes are used to shut down modules and clock domains in the microcontroller in order
to save power. XMEGA has five different sleep modes. A dedicated Sleep instruction (SLEEP) is
available to enter sleep. Before executing SLEEP, the selected sleep mode to enter must be
configured. The available interrupt wake-up sources is dependent on the selected sleep mode.
When an enabled interrupt occurs the device will wake up and execute the interrupt service routine before continuing normal program execution from the first instruction after the SLEEP
instruction. If other higher priority interrupts are pending when the wake-up occurs, their interrupt
service routines will be executed according to their priority before the interrupt service routine for
the wake-up interrupt is executed. After wake-up the CPU is halted for four cycles before execution starts.
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Table 7-1 on page 75 shows the different sleep modes and the active clock domains, oscillators
and wake-up sources.
Active clock domains and wake-up sources in the different sleep modes.
X
X
Power-down
Power-save
X
Standby
Extended Standby
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
All interrupts
Asynchronous Port Interrupts
X
RTC clock source
RTC clock
X
Wake-up sources
Real Time Clock
Interrupts
X
Oscillators
TWI Address match
interrupts
Idle
CPU clock
Sleep modes
Peripheral clock
Active clock domain
System clock source
Table 7-1.
X
X
X
The wake-up time for the device is dependent on the sleep mode and the main clock source.
The start-up time for the system clock source must be added to the wake-up time for sleep
modes where the clock source is stopped. For details on the start-up time for the different oscillators options refer to ”System Clock and Clock options” on page 55.
The content of the Register File, SRAM and registers are kept during sleep. If a reset occurs
during sleep, the device will reset, start up and execute from the Reset Vector.
7.3.1
Idle Mode
In Idle mode the CPU and Non-Volatile Memory are stopped, (note that any active programming
will be completed) but all peripherals including the Interrupt Controller and Event System are
kept running. Any interrupt request interrupts will wake the device.
7.3.2
Power-down Mode
In Power-down mode all system clock sources, including the Real Time Counter clock source
are stopped. This allows operation of asynchronous modules only. The only interrupts that can
wake up the MCU are the Two Wire Interface address match interrupts, and asynchronous port
interrupts.
7.3.3
Power-save Mode
Power-save mode is identical to Power-down, with one exception:
If the Real Time Counter (RTC) is enabled, it will keep running during sleep and the device can
also wake up from either RTC Overflow or Compare Match interrupt.
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7.3.4
Standby Mode
Standby mode is identical to Power-down with the exception that the enabled system clock
sources are kept running, while the CPU, Peripheral and RTC clocks are stopped. This reduces
the wake-up time.
7.3.5
7.4
Extended Standby Mode
Extended Standby mode is identical to Power-save mode with the exception that the enabled
system clock sources are kept running while the CPU and Peripheral clocks are stopped. This
reduces the wake-up time.
Power Reduction Registers
The Power Reduction (PR) registers provides a method to stop the clock to individual peripherals. When this is done the current state of the peripheral is frozen and the associated I/O
registers cannot be read or written. Resources used by the peripheral will remain occupied;
hence the peripheral should in most cases be disabled before stopping the clock. Enabling the
clock to a peripheral again, puts the peripheral in the same state as before it was stopped. This
can be used in Idle mode and Active mode to reduce the overall power consumption significantly. In all other sleep modes, the peripheral clock is already stopped.
Not all devices have all the peripherals associated with a bit in the power reduction registers.
Setting a power reduction bit for a peripheral that is not available will have no effect.
7.5
Register Description – Sleep
7.5.1
CTRL- Sleep Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
SMODE[2:0]
0
+0x00
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
SEN
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTRL
• Bit 7:4 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 3:1 - SMODE[2:0]: Sleep Mode Selection
These bits select sleep modes according to Table 7-2 on page 76.
Table 7-2.
Sleep mode
SMODE[2:0]
SEN
Group Configuration
Description
XXX
0
OFF
No sleep mode enabled
000
1
IDLE
Idle Mode
001
1
-
Reserved
010
1
PDOWN
Power-down Mode
011
1
PSAVE
Power-save Mode
100
1
-
Reserved
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Table 7-2.
Sleep mode
SMODE[2:0]
SEN
Group Configuration
101
1
-
110
1
STDBY
111
1
ESTDBY
Description
Reserved
Standby Mode
Extended Standby Mode
• Bit 1 - SEN: Sleep Enable
This bit must be set to make the MCU enter the selected sleep mode when the SLEEP instruction is executed. To avoid unintentional entering of sleep modes, it is recommended to write
SEN just before executing the SLEEP instruction, and clearing it immediately after waking up.
7.6
Register Description – Power Reduction
7.6.1
PRGEN - General Power Reduction Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x00
–
–
–
–
–
RTC
EVSYS
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PRGEN
• Bit 7:3 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 2 - RTC: Real-Time Counter
Setting this stops the clock to the Real Time Counter. When the bit is cleared the peripheral
should be reinitialized to ensure proper operation.
• Bit 1 - EVSYS: Event System
Setting this stops the clock to the Event System. When the bit is cleared the module will continue
like before the shutdown.
• Bit 0 - Reserved
This bit is reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices, always
write this bit to zero when this register is written.
7.6.2
PRPA/B - Power Reduction Port A/B Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x01/+0x02
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADC
AC
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Note:
PRPA
Disabling of analog modules stops the clock to the analog blocks themselves and not only the
interfaces.
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• Bit 7:2 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 1 - ADC: Power Reduction ADC
Setting this bit stops the clock to the ADC. The ADC should be disabled before shut down.
• Bit 0 - AC: Power Reduction Analog Comparator
Setting this bit stops the clock to the Analog Comparator. The AC should be disabled before shut
down.
7.6.3
PRPC/D/E/F - Power Reduction Port C/D/E/F Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
–
Read/Write
R
Initial Value
0
0
3
2
TWI
–
R/W
R
0
1
0
USART0
SPI
HIRES
TC1
TC0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
0
PRPC/D/E/F
• Bit 7 - Reserved
This bit is reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices, always
write this bit to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 6 - TWI: Two-Wire Interface
Setting this bit stops the clock to the Two-Wire Interface. When the bit is cleared the peripheral
should be reinitialized to ensure proper operation.
• Bit 5 - Reserved
This bit is reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices, always
write this bit to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 4 - USART0
Setting this bit stops the clock to the USART0. When the bit is cleared the peripheral should be
reinitialized to ensure proper operation.
• Bit 3 - SPI: Serial Peripheral Interface
Setting this bit stops the clock to the SPI. When the bit is cleared the peripheral should be reinitialized to ensure proper operation.
• Bit 2 - HIRES: Hi-Resolution Extension
Setting this bit stops the clock to the Hi-Resolution Extension for the Timer/Counters. When the
bit is cleared the peripheral should be reinitialized to ensure proper operation.
• Bit 1 - TC1: Timer/Counter 1
Setting this bit stops the clock to the Timer/Counter 1. When the bit is cleared the peripheral will
continue like before the shut down.
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• Bit 0 - TC0: Timer/Counter 0
Setting this bit stops the clock to the Timer/Counter 0. When the bit is cleared the peripheral will
continue like before the shut down.
7.7
Register Summary - Sleep
Address
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
+0x00
CTRL
–
–
–
–
+0x01
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x02
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x03
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x04
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x05
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x06
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x07
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
7.8
Name
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
SMODE[2:0]
Bit 0
Page
SEN
76
Register Summary - Power Reduction
Address
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
+0x00
Name
PRGEN
–
–
–
–
–
RTC
EVSYS
–
77
+0x01
PRPA
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADC
AC
77
+0x02
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x03
PRPC
–
TWI
–
USART0
SPI
HIRES
TC1
TC0
78
+0x04
PRPD
–
–
–
USART0
SPI
–
–
TC0
78
+0x05
PRPE
–
–
–
USART0
–
–
–
TC0
78
+0x06
PRPF
–
–
–
USART0
–
–
–
TC0
78
+0x07
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
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8. Reset System
8.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
8.2
Power-on reset source
Brown-out reset source
Software reset source
External reset source
Watchdog reset source
Program and Debug Interface reset source
Overview
The Reset System will issue a system reset and set the device to its initial state if a reset source
goes active. All IO registers will be set to their initial value, and the program counter is reset to
the Reset Vector location. The reset controller is asynchronous, hence no running clock is
required to reset the device.
XMEGA has seven different reset sources. If more than one reset source is active, the device
will be kept in reset until all reset sources have released their reset. After reset is released from
all reset sources, the default oscillator is started and calibrated before the internal reset is
released and the device starts running.
The reset system has a status register with individual flags for each reset source. The Status
register is cleared at Power-on Reset, hence this register will show which source(s) that has
issued a reset since the last power-on. A software reset feature makes it possible to issue a system reset from the user software.
An overview of the reset system is shown in Figure 8-1 on page 81.
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Figure 8-1.
Reset system overview
Reset Status Register
Power - On
Detection
Reset
Brown - Out
Detection Reset
External Reset
Reset Delay Counter
Oscillator Startup
Oscillator Calibration
Program and
Debug Interface
Reset
Counter Reset
Timeout
Watchdog
Reset
R
Internal Reset
S
Software Reset
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8.3
Reset Sequence
Reset request from any reset source immediately reset the device, and keep it in reset as long
as the request is active. When all reset requests are released, the device will go through three
stages before the internal reset is released and the device starts running.
• Reset Counter Delay
• Oscillator startup
• Oscillator calibration
If one of the reset request occur during this, the reset sequence will start over again.
8.3.1
Reset Counter Delay
The Reset Counter Delay is the programmable period from all reset requests are released and
until the reset counter times out and releases reset. The Reset Counter Delay is timed from the
1 kHz output of the Ultra Low Power (ULP) Internal Oscillator, and the number of cycles before
the timeout is set by the STARTUPTIME fuse bits. The selectable delays are shown in Table 81.
Table 8-1.
Reset Counter Delay
SUT[1:0]
Number of 1 kHz ULP oscillator clock cycles
00
64
01
4
10
Reserved
11
0
8.3.2
Oscillator Startup
After the Reset Counter Delay, the default clock is started. This is the 2 MHz internal RC oscillator, and this uses 6 clock cycles to startup and stabilize.
8.3.3
Oscillator Calibration
After the default oscillator has stabilized, oscillator calibration values are loaded from Non-Volatile Memory into the Oscillator Calibration registers. Loading the calibration values takes
24 clock cycles on the internal 2 MHz oscillator. The 2 MHz, 32 MHz and 32.768 kHz internal RC
oscillators are calibrated. When this is done the device will enter active mode and program execution will begin.
8.4
8.4.1
Reset Sources
Power-On Reset
A Power-on detection circuit will give a Power-On Reset (POR) when supply voltage (VCC) is
applied to the device and the VCC slope is increasing in the Power-on Slope Range (VPOSR).
Power-on reset is released when the VCC stops rising or when the VCC level has reached the
Power-on Threshold Voltage (VPOT) level.
When VCC is falling, the POR will issue a reset when the Vpot level is reached. The Vpot level is
lower than the minimum operating voltage for the device, and is only used for power-off function-
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ality and not to ensure safe operation. The Brown-out detection (BOD) must be enabled to
ensure safe operation and detect if VCC voltage drops below minimum operating voltage.
Only the Power-on reset Flag will be set after Power-on reset. The Brown-out Reset Flag is not
set even though the BOD circuit is used.
Figure 8-2.
VCC
Power-On Reset (POR)
VPOT
VBOT
tTOUT
TIMEOUT
INTERNAL
RESET
Figure 8-3.
Increasing VCC slope in the Power-on slope range.
V
dV
VCC dt
VPOSR,MAX
VCC
VPOT
t
For characterization data on the VPOT level for rising and falling VCC, and VPOSR slope consult the
device datasheet.
Note that the Power-on detection circuit is not designed to detect drops in the VCC voltage.
Brown-out detection must be enabled to detect falling VCC voltage, even if the VCC level falls
below the VPOT level.
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8.4.2
Brown-Out Detection
The Brown-Out Detection (BOD) circuit monitors that the VCC level is kept above a configurable
trigger level, VBOT. When the BOD is enabled, a BOD reset will be given if the VCC level falls bellow the trigger level for a minimum time, tBOD. The reset is kept active until the VCC level rises
above the trigger level again.
Figure 8-4.
Brown-out Detection reset.
tBOD
VCC
VBOT-
VBOT+
tTOUT
TIME-OUT
INTERNAL
RESET
For characterization data on tBOD consult the device datasheet. The trigger level is determined
by a programmable BODLEVEL setting, see Table 8-2.
Table 8-2.
Programmable BODLEVEL setting
BODLEVEL[2:0] (1)
VBOT
111
1.6
110
1.8
101
2.0
100
2.2
011
2.4
010
2.6
001
2.8
000
3.0
UNIT
V
Note:
1. The values here are nominal values only. For typical, maximum and minimum numbers consult
the device datasheet.
The BOD circuit has 3 modes of operation:
• Disabled: In this mode there is no monitoring of the VCC level, and hence it is only
recommended for applications where the power supply is stable.
• Enabled: In this mode the VCC level is continuously monitored, and a drop in VCC below VBOT
for at least tBOD will give a brown-out reset.
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• Sampled: In this mode the BOD circuit will sample the VCC level with a period identical to
the 1 kHz output from the Ultra Low Power (ULP) oscillator. Between each sample the BOD is
turned off. This mode will reduce the power consumption compared to the enabled mode, but
a fall in the VCC level between 2 positive edges of the 1 kHz ULP output will not be detected.
If a brown-out is detected in this mode, the BOD circuit is set in enabled mode to ensure that
the device is kept in reset until VCC is above VBOT again.
The BODACT fuse determines the BOD setting for active mode and idle mode, while the
BODDS fuse determines the brown-out detection setting for all sleep modes except idle mode.
Table 8-3.
8.4.3
BOD setting Fuse Decoding
BODACT[1:0]/ BODDS[1:0]
Mode
00
Reserved
01
Sampled
10
Enabled
11
Disabled
External reset
The External reset circuit is connected to the external RESET pin. The external reset will trigger
when the RESET pin is driven below the RESET pin threshold voltage, VRST, for longer than the
minimum pulse period tEXT. The reset will be held as long as the pin is kept low. The reset pin
includes an internal pull-up resistor.
Figure 8-5.
External reset characteristics.
CC
tEXT
For characterization data on V RST and t EXT and pull-up resistor values consult the device
datasheet.
8.4.4
Watchdog reset
The Watchdog Timer (WDT) is a system function for monitoring correct program operation. If the
WDT is not reset from the software within a programmable timout period, a Watchdog reset will
be given. The Watchdog reset is active for 1-2 clock cycles on the 2 MHz internal RC oscillator.
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Figure 8-6.
Watchdog reset.
CC
1-2 2MHz Cycles
For information on configuration and use of the WDT, refer to the ”WDT – Watchdog Timer” on
page 89.
8.4.5
Software reset
The Software reset makes it possible to issue a system reset from software by writing to the
Software Reset bit in the Reset Control Register.The reset will be issued within 1-2 system clock
CPU cycles after writing the bit. It is not possible to execute any instruction from a software reset
is requested and until it is issued.
Figure 8-7.
Software reset
CC
SOFTWARE
8.4.6
1-2 2MHz Cycle
Program and Debug Interface Reset
The Program and Debug Interface reset contains a separate reset source that is used to reset
the device during external programming and debugging. This reset source is only accessible
from debuggers and programmers.
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8.5
8.5.1
Register Description
STATUS - Reset Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x00
–
–
SRF
PDIRF
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
STATUS
• Bit 7:6 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 5 - SRF: Software Reset Flag
This flag is set if a Software reset occurs. The flag will be cleared by a power-on reset or by writing a one to the bit location.
• Bit 4 - PDIRF: Program and Debug Interface Reset Flag
This flag is set if a Programming interface reset occurs. The flag will be cleared by a power-on
reset or by writing a one to the bit location.
• Bit 3 - WDRF: Watchdog Reset Flag
This flag is set if a Watchdog reset occurs. The flag will be cleared by a power-on reset or by
writing a one to the bit location.
• Bit 2 - BORF: Brown Out Reset Flag
This flag is set if a Brown out reset occurs. The flag will be cleared by a power-on reset or by
writing a one to the bit location.
• Bit 1 - EXTRF: External Reset Flag
This flag is set if an External reset occurs. The flag will be cleared by a power-on reset or by writing a one to the bit location.
• Bit 0 - PORF: Power On Reset Flag
This flag is set if a Power-on reset occurs. Writing a one to the flag will clear the bit location.
8.5.2
CTRL - Reset Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x01
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SWRST
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTRL
• Bit 7:1 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
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• Bit 0 - SWRST: Software Reset
When this bit is set, a Software reset will occur. The bit is cleared when a reset is issued. This bit
is protected by the Configuration Change Protection, for details refer to ”Configuration Change
Protection” on page 12.
8.6
Register Summary
Address
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
+0x00
Name
STATUS
–
–
SRF
PDIRF
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
87
+0x01
CTRL
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SWRST
87
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9. WDT – Watchdog Timer
9.1
Features
• 11 selectable timeout period, from 8 ms to 8s
• Two operation modes
– Standard mode
– Window mode
• Runs from 1 kHz Ultra Low Power clock reference
• Configuration lock
9.2
Overview
The Watchdog Timer (WDT) is a system function for monitoring correct program operation, making it possible to recover from error situations, for instance run-away code. The WDT is a timer,
configured to a predefined timeout period and is constantly running when enabled. If the WDT is
not reset within the timeout period, it will issue a system reset. The WDT is reset by executing
the WDR (Watchdog Timer Reset) instruction from the application code.
The WDT also has a window mode that enables the user to define a time slot where WDT must
be reset within. If the WDT is reset too early or too late, a system reset will be issued.
The WDT will run in all power modes if enabled. It runs from a CPU independent clock source,
and will continue to operate to issue a system reset even if the main clocks fail.
The Configuration Change Protection mechanism ensures that the WDT settings cannot be
changed by accident. In addition the settings can be locked by a fuse.
9.3
Normal Mode Operation
In normal mode operation a single timeout period is set for the WDT. If the WDT is not reset from
the application code before the timeout occurs the WDT will issue a system reset. There are 11
possible WDT timeout (TOWDT) periods selectable from 8 ms to 8s, and the WDT can be reset at
any time during the period. After each reset, a new timeout period is started. The default timeout
period is controlled by fuses. Normal mode operation is illustrated in Figure 9-1.
Figure 9-1.
Normal mode operation.
System Reset
WDT Count
Timely WDT
Reset
TO WDT = 16
WDT Timeout
5
10
15
20
25
30
TOWDT
35
t [ms]
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9.4
Window Mode Operation
In window mode operation the WDT uses two different timeout periods, a "closed" window timeout period (TOWDTW) and the normal timeout period (TOWDT). The closed window timeout period
defines a duration from 8 ms to 8s where the WDT cannot be reset: if the WDT is reset in this
period the WDT will issue a system reset. The normal WDT timeout period, which is also 8 ms to
8s, defines the duration of the "open" period, in which the WDT can (and should) be reset. The
open period will always follow the closed period, so the total duration of the timeout period is the
sum of the closed window and the open window timeout periods. The default closed window timeout period is controlled by fuses. The window mode operation is illustrated in Figure 9-2.
Figure 9-2.
Window mode operation.
WDT Count
Timely WDT
Reset
TOWDT = 8
Open
Early WDT Reset
Closed
TOWDTW = 8
System Reset
5
9.5
10
15
20
TOWDTW
25
30
TOWDT
35
t [ms]
Watchdog Timer clock
The WDT is clocked from the 1 kHz output from the internal 32 kHz Ultra Low Power (ULP) oscillator. Due to the ultra low power design, the oscillator is not very accurate so the exact timeout
period may vary from device to device. When designing software which uses the WDT, this
device-to-device variation must be kept in mind to ensure that the timeout periods used are valid
for all devices. For more information on the ULP oscillator accuracy, consult the device
datasheet.
9.6
Configuration Protection and Lock
The WDT is designed with two security mechanisms to avoid unintentional changes of the WDT
settings.
The first mechanism is the Configuration Change Protection mechanism, employing a timed
write procedure for changing the WDT control registers. In addition, for the new configuration to
be written to the control registers, the register’s Change Enable bit must be written at the same
time.
The second mechanism is to lock the configuration by setting the WDT lock fuse. When this fuse
is set, the Watchdog Time Control Register can not be changed, hence the WDT can not be disabled from software. After system reset the WDT will resume at configured operation. When the
WDT lock fuse is programmed the window mode timeout period cannot be changed, but the window mode itself can still be enabled or disabled.
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9.7
9.7.1
Registers Description
CTRL – Watchdog Timer Control Register
Bit
7
6
+0x00
–
–
5
4
3
Read/Write
(unlocked)
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Read/Write
(locked)
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
(x = fuse)
0
0
X
X
2
1
0
ENABLE
CEN
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R
X
X
X
0
PER[3:0]
CTRL
• Bits 7:6 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bits 5:2 - PER[3:0]: Watchdog Timeout Period
These bits determine the Watchdog timeout period as a number of 1 kHz ULP oscillator cycles.
In window mode operation, these bits define the open window period. The different typical timeout periods are found in Table 9-1. The initial values of these bits are set by the Watchdog
Timeout Period (WDP) fuses, and will be loaded at power-on.
In order to change these bits the CEN bit must be written to 1 at the same time. These bits are
protected by the Configuration Change Protection mechanism, for detailed description refer to
”Configuration Change Protection” on page 12.
Table 9-1.
Watchdog timeout periods
PER[3:0]
Group Configuration
Typical timeout periods
0000
8CLK
8 ms
0001
16CLK
16 ms
0010
32CLK
32 ms
0011
64CLK
64 ms
0100
125CLK
0.125 s
0101
250CLK
0.25 s
0110
500CLK
0.5 s
0111
1KCLK
1.0 s
1000
2KCLK
2.0 s
1001
4KCLK
4.0 s
1010
8KCLK
8.0 s
1011
Reserved
1100
Reserved
1101
Reserved
1110
Reserved
1111
Reserved
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• Bit 1 - ENABLE: Watchdog Enable
This bit enables the WDT.
In order to change this bit the CEN bit in ”CTRL – Watchdog Timer Control Register” on page 91
must be written to one at the same time. This bit is protected by the Configuration Change Protection mechanism, for detailed description refer to ”Configuration Change Protection” on page
12.
• Bit 0 - CEN: Watchdog Change Enable
This bit enables the possibility to change the configuration of the ”CTRL – Watchdog Timer Control Register” on page 91. When writing a new value to this register, this bit must be written to
one at the same time for the changes to take effect. This bit is protected by the Configuration
Change Protection mechanism, for detailed description refer to ”Configuration Change Protection” on page 12.
9.7.2
WINCTRL – Window Mode Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
+0x01
–
–
Read/Write
(unlocked)
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Read/Write
(locked)
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
(x = fuse)
0
0
X
X
2
1
0
WEN
WCEN
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
X
X
X
0
WPER[3:0]
WINCTRL
• Bits 7:6 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bits 5:2 - WPER[3:0]: Watchdog Window Mode Timeout Period
These bits determine the closed window period as a number of 1 kHz ULP oscillator cycles in
window mode operation. The typical different closed window periods are found in Table 9-2. The
initial values of these bits are set by the Watchdog Window Timeout Period (WDWP) fuses, and
will be loaded at power-on. In normal mode these bits are not in use.
In order to change these bits the WCEN bit must be written to one at the same time. These bits
are protected by the Configuration Change Protection mechanism, for detailed description refer
to ”Configuration Change Protection” on page 12.
Table 9-2.
Watchdog closed window periods
WPER[3:0]
Group Configuration
Typical closed window periods
0000
8CLK
8 ms
0001
16CLK
16 ms
0010
32CLK
32 ms
0011
64CLK
64 ms
0100
125CLK
0.125 s
0101
250CLK
0.25 s
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Table 9-2.
Watchdog closed window periods (Continued)
WPER[3:0]
Group Configuration
Typical closed window periods
0110
500CLK
0.5 s
0111
1KCLK
1.0 s
1000
2KCLK
2.0 s
1001
4KCLK
4.0 s
1010
8KCLK
8.0 s
1011
Reserved
1100
Reserved
1101
Reserved
1110
Reserved
1111
Reserved
• Bit 1 - WEN: Watchdog Window Mode Enable
This bit enables the Watchdog Window Mode. In order to change this bit the WCEN bit in
”WINCTRL – Window Mode Control Register” on page 92 must be written to one at the same
time. This bit is protected by the Configuration Change Protection mechanism, for detailed
description refer to ”Configuration Change Protection” on page 12.
• Bit 0 - WCEN: Watchdog Window Mode Change Enable
This bit enables the possibility to change the configuration of the ”WINCTRL – Window Mode
Control Register” on page 92. When writing a new value to this register, this bit must be written
to one at the same time for the changes to take effect. This bit is protected by the Configuration
Change Protection mechanism, but not protected by the WDT lock fuse.
9.7.3
STATUS – Watchdog Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x02
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SYNCBUSY
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STATUS
• Bit 7:1 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 0 - SYNCBUSY
When writing to the CTRL or WINCTRL registers, the WDT needs to be synchronized to the
other clock domains. During synchronization the SYNCBUSY bit will be read as one. This bit is
automatically cleared after the synchronization is finished. Synchronization will only take place
when the ENABLE bit for the Watchdog Timer is set.
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9.8
Register Summary
Address
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
+0x00
Name
CTRL
–
–
Bit 5
PER[3:0]
ENABLE
CEN
91
+0x01
WINCTRL
–
–
WPER[3:0]
WEN
WCEN
92
+0x02
STATUS
–
–
–
SYNCBUSY
93
–
Bit 4
–
Bit 3
–
Bit 2
–
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10. Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller
10.1
Features
• Separate interrupt vector for each interrupt
• Short, predictable interrupt response time
• Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller
– 3 programmable interrupt levels
– Selectable priority scheme within low level interrupts (round-robin or fixed)
– Non-Maskable Interrupts (NMI)
• Interrupt vectors can be moved to the start of the Boot Section.
10.2
Overview
Interrupts signal a change of state in peripherals, and this can be used to alter program execution. Peripherals can have one or more interrupts, and all are individually enabled. When the
interrupt is enabled and the interrupt condition is present this will generate a corresponding interrupt request. All interrupts have a separate interrupt vector address.
The Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller (PMIC) controls the handling of interrupt
requests, and prioritizing between the different interrupt levels and interrupt priorities. When an
interrupt request is acknowledged by the PMIC, the program counter is set to point to the interrupt vector, and the interrupt handler can be executed.
All peripherals can select between three different priority levels for their interrupts; low, medium
or high. Medium level interrupts will interrupt low level interrupt handlers. High level interrupts
will interrupt both medium and low level interrupt handlers. Within each level, the interrupt priority is decided from the interrupt vector address, where the lowest interrupt vector address has
the highest interrupt priority. Low level interrupts have an optional round-robin scheduling
scheme to ensure that all interrupts are serviced within a certain amount of time.
Non-Maskable Interrupts (NMI) are also supported.
10.3
Operation
Interrupts must be globally enabled for any interrupts to be generated. This is done by setting
the global interrupt enable bit (I-bit) in the CPU Status Register. The I-bit will not be cleared
when an interrupt is acknowledged. Each interrupt level must also be enabled before interrupts
with the corresponding level can be generated.
When an interrupt is enabled and the interrupt condition is present, the PMIC will receive the
interrupt request. Based on the interrupt level and interrupt priority of any ongoing interrupts, the
interrupt is either acknowledged or kept pending until it has priority. When the interrupt request
is acknowledged, the program counter is updated to point to the interrupt vector. The interrupt
vector is normally a jump to the interrupt handler; the software routine that handles the interrupt.
After returning from the interrupt handler, program execution continues from where it was before
the interrupt occurred. One instruction is always executed before any pending interrupt is
served.
The PMIC status register contains state information that ensures that the PMIC returns to the
correct interrupt level when the RETI (interrupt return) instruction is executed at the end of an
interrupt handler. Returning from an interrupt will return the PMIC to the state it had before entering the interrupt. The Status Register (SREG) is not saved automatically upon an interrupt
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request. The RET (subroutine return) instruction cannot be used when returning from the interrupt handler routine, as this will not return the PMIC to its right state.
10.4
Interrupts
All interrupts and the reset vector each have a separate program vector address in the program
memory space. The lowest address in the program memory space is the reset vector. All interrupts are assigned individual control bits for enabling and setting the interrupt level, and this is
set in the control registers for each peripheral that can generate interrupts. Details on each interrupt are described in the peripheral where the interrupt is available.
All interrupts have an interrupt flag associated to it. When the interrupt condition is present, the
interrupt flag will be set, even if the corresponding interrupt is not enabled. For most interrupts,
the interrupt flag is automatically cleared when executing the interrupt vector. Writing a logical
one to the interrupt flag will also clear the flag. Some interrupt flags are not cleared when executing the interrupt vector, and some are cleared automatically when an associated register is
accessed (read or written). This is described for each individual interrupt flag.
If an interrupt condition occurs while another higher priority interrupt is executing or pending, the
interrupt flag will be set and remembered until the interrupt has priority. If an interrupt condition
occurs while the corresponding interrupt is not enabled, the interrupt flag will be set and remembered until the interrupt is enabled, or the flag is cleared by software. Similarly, if one or more
interrupt conditions occur while global interrupts are disabled, the corresponding interrupt flag
will be set and remembered until global interrupts are enabled. All pending interrupts are then
executed according to their order of priority.
Interrupts can be blocked when executing code from a locked section, e.g. when the Boot Lock
bits are programmed. This feature improves software security, refer to memory programming for
details on lock bit settings.
Interrupts are automatically disabled for up to 4 CPU clock cycles when the Configuration
Change Protection register is written with the correct signature, refer to ”Configuration Change
Protection” on page 12 for more details.
10.4.1
NMI – Non-Maskable Interrupts
Non-Maskable Interrupts (NMI) are hardwired. It is not selectable which interrupts represent NMI
and which represent regular interrupts. Non-Maskable Interrupts must be enabled before they
can be used. Refer to the device datasheet for NMI present on each the device.
A NMI will be executed regardless of the setting of the I-bit, and it will never change the I-bit. No
other interrupts can interrupt a NMI interrupt handler.
10.4.2
Interrupt Response Time
The interrupt response time for all the enabled interrupts is five CPU clock cycles minimum. During these five clock cycles the program counter is pushed on the stack. After five clock cycles,
the program vector for the interrupt is executed. The jump to the interrupt handler takes three
clock cycles.
If an interrupt occurs during execution of a multi-cycle instruction, this instruction is completed
before the interrupt is served. If an interrupt occurs when the device is in sleep mode, the interrupt execution response time is increased by five clock cycles. In addition the response time is
increased by the start-up time from the selected sleep mode.
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A return from an interrupt handling routine takes five clock cycles. During these five clock cycles,
the program counter is popped from the stack and the stack pointer is incremented.
10.5
Interrupt level
The interrupt level is independently selected for each interrupt source. For any interrupt request,
the PMIC also receives the interrupt level for the interrupt. The interrupt levels and their corresponding bit values for the interrupt level configuration of all interrupts is shown in Table 10-1.
Table 10-1.
Interrupt level
Interrupt level
configuration
Group Configuration
00
OFF
Interrupt disabled.
01
LO
Low level interrupt
10
MED
11
HI
Description
Medium level interrupt
High level interrupt
The interrupt level of an interrupt request is compared against the current level and status of the
interrupt controller. An interrupt request on higher level will interrupt any ongoing interrupt handler from a lower level interrupt. When returning from the higher level interrupt handler, the
execution of the lower level interrupt handler will continue.
10.6
Interrupt priority
Within each interrupt level, all interrupts have a priority. When several interrupt requests are
pending, the order of which interrupts are acknowledged is decided both by the level and the priority of the interrupt request. Interrupts can be organized in a static or dynamic (round-robin)
priority scheme. High and Medium level interrupts and the NMI will always have static priority.
For Low level interrupts, static or dynamic priority scheduling can be selected.
10.6.1
Static priority
Interrupt vectors (IVEC) are located at fixed addresses. For static priority, the interrupt vector
address decides the priority within one interrupt level where the lowest interrupt vector address
has the highest priority. Refer to the device datasheet for interrupt vector table with the base
address for all modules and peripherals with interrupt. Refer to the interrupt vector summary of
each module and peripheral in this manual for a list of interrupts and their corresponding offset
address within the different modules and peripherals.
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Figure 10-1. Static priority.
Lowes t Addres s
IVEC 0
Highes t Priority
:
:
:
IVEC x
IVEC x+1
:
:
:
Highes t Addres s
10.6.2
IVEC N
Lowes t Priority
Round-robin scheduling
To avoid the possible starvation problem for low level interrupts with static priority, the PMIC
gives the possibility for round-robin scheduling for low level interrupts. When round-robin scheduling is enabled, the interrupt vector address for the last acknowledged low level interrupt will
have the lowest priority next time one or more interrupts from the low level is requested.
Figure 10-2. Round-robin scheduling.
IV EC x las t ack now le dge d
inte rrupt
IV EC x+1 las t ack now le dge d
inte rrupt
IV EC 0
IV EC 0
:
:
:
:
:
:
IV EC x
Low est Priority
IV EC x
IV EC x+1
Highest Priority
IV EC x+1
Low est Priority
IV EC x+2
Highest Priority
:
:
:
IV EC N
:
:
:
IV EC N
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10.7
Moving Interrupts Between Application and Boot Section
The interrupt vectors can be moved from the default location in the Application Section in Flash
to the start of the Boot Section.
10.8
10.8.1
Register Description
STATUS - PMIC Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
NMIEX
–
–
–
–
HILVLEX
MEDLVLEX
LOLVLEX
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x00
STATUS
• Bit 7 - NMIEX: Non-Maskable Interrupt Executing
This flag is set if a Non-Maskable Interrupt is executing. The flag will be cleared when returning
(RETI) from the interrupt handler.
• Bit 6:3 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 2 - HILVLEX: High Level Interrupt Executing
This flag is set if a high level interrupt is executing or the interrupt handler has been interrupted
by an NMI. The flag will be cleared when returning (RETI) from the interrupt handler.
• Bit 1 - MEDLVLEX: Medium Level Interrupt Executing
This flag is set if a medium level interrupt is executing or the interrupt handler has been interrupted by an interrupt from higher level or an NMI. The flag will be cleared when returning (RETI)
from the interrupt handler.
• Bit 0 - LOLVLEX: Low Level Interrupt Executing
This flag is set if a low level interrupt is executing or the interrupt handler has been interrupted by
an interrupt from higher level or an NMI. The flag will be cleared when returning (RETI) from the
interrupt handler.
10.8.2
INTPRI - PMIC Priority Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x01
3
2
1
0
INTPRI[7:0]
INTPRI
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - INTPRI: Interrupt Priority
When round-robin scheduling is enabled, this register stores the interrupt vector of the last
acknowledged low-level interrupt. The stored interrupt vector will have the lowest priority next
time one or more low-level interrupts are pending. The register is accessible from software to
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change the priority queue. This register is not reinitialized to its initial value if round-robing
scheduling is disabled, so if default static priority is needed the register must be written to zero.
10.8.3
CTRL - PMIC Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RREN
IVSEL
–
–
–
HILVLEN
MEDLVLEN
LOLVLEN
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x02
CTRL
• Bit 7 - RREN: Round-robin Scheduling Enable
When the RREN bit is set the round-robin scheduling scheme is enabled for low level interrupts.
When this bit is cleared, the priority is static according to interrupt vector address where the lowest address has the highest priority.
• Bit 6 - IVSEL: Interrupt Vector Select
When the IVSEL bit is cleared (zero), the interrupt vectors are placed at the start of the Application section in flash. When this bit is set (one), the interrupt vectors are moved to the beginning
of the Boot section of the Flash. Refer to the device datasheet for the absolute address.
This bit is protected by the Configuration Change Protection mechanism, refer to ”Configuration
Change Protection” on page 12 for details.
• Bit 5:3 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 2 - HILVLEN: High Level Interrupt Enable
When this bit is set all high level interrupts are enabled. If this bit is cleared, high level interrupt
requests will be ignored.
• Bit 1 - MEDLVLEN: Medium Level Interrupt Enable
When this bit is set all medium level interrupts are enabled. If this bit is cleared, medium level
interrupt requests will be ignored.
• Bit 0 - LOLVLEN: Low Level Interrupt Enable
When this bit is set all low level interrupts are enabled. If this bit is cleared, low level interrupt
requests will be ignored.
10.9
Register Summary
Address
Name
+0x00
STATUS
+0x01
INTPRI
+0x02
CTRL
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
NMIEX
–
–
–
–
HILVLEX
MEDLVLEX
LOLVLEX
99
–
HILVLEN
MEDLVLEN
LOLVLEN
100
INTPRI[7:0]
RREN
IVSEL
–
–
99
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11. I/O Ports
11.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
11.2
Selectable input and output configuration for each pin individually
Flexible pin configuration through dedicated Pin Configuration Register
Synchronous and/or asynchronous input sensing with port interrupts and events
Asynchronous wake-up signalling
Highly configurable output driver and pull settings:
–
Totem-pole
–
Pull-up/-down
–
Wired-AND
–
Wired-OR
–
Bus keeper
–
Inverted I/O
Flexible pin masking
Configuration of multiple pins in a single operation
Read-Modify-Write (RMW) support
Toggle/clear/set registers for OUT and DIR registers
Clock output on port pin
Event Channel 0 output on port pin 7
Mapping of port registers (virtual ports) into bit accessible I/O memory space
Overview
XMEGA has flexible General Purpose I/O (GPIO) Ports. A port consists of up to 8 pins ranging
from pin 0 to 7, where each pin can be configured as input or output with highly configurable
driver and pull settings. The ports also implement several functions including interrupts, synchronous/asynchronous input sensing and asynchronous wake-up signalling.
All functions are individual per pin, but several pins may be configured in a single operation. All
ports have true Read-Modify-Write (RMW) functionality when used as general purpose I/O ports.
The direction of one port pin can be changed without unintentionally changing the direction of
any other pin. The same applies when changing drive value when configured as output, or
enabling/disabling of pull-up or pull-down resistors when configured as input.
Figure 11-1 on page 102 shows the I/O pin functionality, and the registers that is available for
controlling a pin.
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Figure 11-1. General I/O pin functionality.
Pull Enable
Pull Keep
Pull Direction
PINnCTRL
Q
D
R
Input Disable
Wired AND/OR
Inverted I/O
OUTn
Pxn
Q
D
R
DIRn
Q
D
R
Synchronizer
INn
Q
D
R
Q
D
R
Digital Input Pin
Analog Input/Output
11.3
Using the I/O Pin
Use of an I/O pin is controlled from the user software. Each port has one Data Direction (DIR),
Data Output Value (OUT) that is used for port pin control. The Data Input Value (IN) register is
used for reading the port pins. In addition each pin has a Pin Configuration (PINnCTRL) register
for additional pin configuration.
Direction of the pin is decided by the DIRn bit in the DIR register. If DIRn is written to one, pin n
is configured as an output pin. If DIRn is written to zero, pin n is configured as an input pin.
When direction is set as output, the OUTn bit in OUT is used to set the value of the pin. If OUTn
is written to one, pin n is driven high. If OUTn is written to zero, pin n is driven low.
The IN register is used for reading the pin value. The pin value can always be read regardless of
the pin being configured as input or output, except if digital input is disabled.
I/O pins are tri-stated when reset condition becomes active, even if no clocks are running.
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11.4
I/O Pin Configuration
The Pin n Configuration (PINnCTRL) register is used for additional I/O pin configuration. A pin
can be set in a totem-pole, wired-AND, or wired-OR configuration. It is also possible to enable
inverted input and output for the pin.
For totem-pole output there are four possible pull configurations: Totem-pole (Push-pull), Pulldown, Pull-up and Bus-keeper. The bus-keeper is active in both directions. This is to avoid oscillation when disabling the output. The totem-pole configurations with pull-up and pull-down only
have active resistors when the pin is set as input. This feature eliminates unnecessary power
consumption.
For wired-AND and wired-OR configuration, the optional pull-up and pull-down resistors are
active in both input and output direction.
Since pull configuration is configured through the pin configuration register, all intermediate port
states during switching of pin direction and pin values are avoided.
The I/O pin configurations are summarized with simplified schematics from Figure 11-2 on page
103 to Figure 11-7 on page 105.
11.4.1
Totem-pole
Figure 11-2. I/O pin configuration - Totem-pole (push-pull).
DIRn
OUTn
Pn
INn
11.4.2
Pull-down
Figure 11-3. I/O pin configuration - Totem-pole with pull-down (on input).
DIRn
OUTn
Pn
INn
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11.4.3
Pull-up
Figure 11-4. I/O pin configuration - Totem-pole with pull-up (on input).
DIRn
OUTn
Pn
INn
11.4.4
Bus-keeper
The bus-keeper’s week output produces the same logical level as the last output level. It acts as
a pull-up if the last level was '1', and pull-down if the last level was '0'.
Figure 11-5. I/O pin configuration - Totem-pole with bus-keeper.
DIRn
OUTn
Pn
INn
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11.4.5
Wired-OR
Figure 11-6. Output configuration - Wired-OR with optional pull-down.
OUTn
Pn
INn
11.4.6
Wired-AND
Figure 11-7. Output configuration - Wired-AND with optional pull-up.
INn
Pn
OUTn
11.5
Reading the Pin value
Independent of the pin data direction, the pin value can be read from the IN register as shown in
Figure 11-1 on page 102. If the digital input is disabled, the pin value cannot be read. The IN
register bit and the preceding flip-flop constitute a synchronizer. The synchronizer is needed to
avoid metastability if the physical pin changes value near the edge of the internal clock. The
Synchronizer introduces a delay on the internal signal line. Figure 11-8 on page 106 shows a
timing diagram of the synchronization when reading an externally applied pin value. The maximum and minimum propagation delays are denoted tpd,max and tpd,min respectively.
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Figure 11-8. Synchronization when reading an externally applied pin value.
PERIPHERAL CLK
INSTRUCTIONS
xxx
xxx
lds r17, PORTx+IN
SYNC FLIPFLOP
IN
r17
0x00
0xFF
tpd, max
tpd, min
11.6
Input Sense Configuration
Input sensing is used to detect an edge or level on the I/O pin input. The different sense configurations that are available for each pin are detection of rising edge, falling edge or both edges, or
detection of low level. High level can be detected by using inverted input. Input sensing can be
used to trigger interrupt requests (IREQ) or s when there is a change on the pin.
The I/O pins support synchronous and asynchronous input sensing. Synchronous sensing
requires presence of the peripheral clock, while asynchronous sensing does not require any
clock.
Figure 11-9. Input sensing.
Asynchronous sensing
EDGE
DETECT
Interrupt
Control
IREQ
Synchronous sensing
Pn
Synchronizer
INn
QD
D
INVERTED I/O
R
Q
EDGE
DETECT
Event
R
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11.7
Port Interrupt
Each port has two interrupt vectors, and it is configurable which pins on the port that can be
used to trigger each interrupt request. Port interrupts must be enabled before they can be used.
Which sense configurations that can be used to generate interrupts is dependent on whether
synchronous or asynchronous input sensing is used.
For synchronous sensing, all sense configurations can be used to generate interrupts. For edge
detection, the changed pin value must be sampled once by the peripheral clock for an interrupt
request to be generated.
For asynchronous sensing, only port pin 2 on each port has full asynchronous sense support.
This means that for edge detection, pin 2 will detect and latch any edge and it will always trigger
an interrupt request. The other port pins have limited asynchronous sense support. This means
that for edge detection the changed value must be held until the device wakes up and a clock is
present. If the pin value returns to its initial value before the end of the device start-up time, the
device will still wake up, but no interrupt request will be generated.
A low level can always be detected by all pins, regardless of a peripheral clock being present or
not. If a pin is configured for low level sensing, the interrupt will trigger as long as the pin is held
low. In active mode the low level must be kept until the completion of the currently executing
instructions for an interrupt to be generated. In all sleep modes the low level must be kept until
the end of the device start-up time for an interrupt to be generated. If the low level disappears
before the end of the start-up time, the device will still wake up, but no interrupt will be
generated.
Table 11-1, Table 11-2, and Table 11-3 on page 108 summarizes when interrupts can be triggered for the various input sense configurations.
Table 11-1.
Synchronous sense support
Sense settings
Supported
Interrupt description
Rising edge
Yes
Always Triggered
Falling edge
Yes
Always Triggered
Both edges
Yes
Always Triggered
Low level
Yes
Pin-level must be kept unchanged.
Table 11-2.
Full asynchronous sense support
Sense settings
Supported
Interrupt description
Rising edge
Yes
Always Triggered
Falling edge
Yes
Always Triggered
Both edges
Yes
Always Triggered
Low level
Yes
Pin-level must be kept unchanged.
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Table 11-3.
Limited asynchronous sense support
Sense settings
11.8
Supported
Interrupt description
Rising edge
No
-
Falling edge
No
-
Both edges
Yes
Pin value must be kept unchanged.
Low level
Yes
Pin-level must be kept unchanged.
Port Event
Port pins can generate an event when there is a change on the pin. The sense configurations
decide when each pin will generate events. Event generation requires the presence of a peripheral clock, hence asynchronous event generation is not possible. For edge sensing, the
changed pin value must be sampled once by the peripheral clock for an event to be generated.
For low level sensing, events generation will follow the pin value.
A pin change from high to low (falling edge) will not generate an event, the pin change must be
from low to high (rising edge) for events to be generated. In order to generate events on falling
edge, the pin configuration must be set to inverted I/O. A low pin value will not generate events,
and a high pin value will continuously generate events.
11.9
Alternate Port Functions
Most port pins have alternate pin functions in addition to being a general purpose I/O pin. When
an alternate function is enabled this might override the normal port pin function or pin value. This
happens when other peripherals that require pins are enabled or configured to use pins. If, and
how a peripheral will override and use pins is described in section for that peripheral.
The port override signals and related logic (grey) is shown in Figure 11-10 on page 109. These
signals are not accessible from software, but are internal signals between the overriding peripheral and the port pin.
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Figure 11-10. Port override signals and related logic
Pull Enable
Pull Keep
Pull Direction
PINnCTRL
Q
D
Digital Input Disable (DID)
R
DID Override Value
DID Override Enable
Wired AND/OR
Inverted I/O
OUTn
Q
D
Pxn
OUT Override Value
R
OUT Override Enable
DIRn
Q
D
DIR Override Value
R
DIR Override Enable
Synchronizer
INn
Q
D
R
Q
D
R
Digital Input Pin
Analog Input/Output
11.10 Clock and Event Output
It is possible to output both the Peripheral Clock and the signaling event from Event Channel 0
to pin. Output port pin is selected from software. If an event occur on Event Channel 0, this will
be visible on the port pin as long as the event last. Normally this is one peripheral clock cycle
only.
11.11 Multi-configuration
MPCMASK can be used to set a bit mask for the pin configuration registers. When setting bit n in
MPCMASK, PINnCTRL is added to the pin configuration mask. During the next write to any of
the port's pin configuration registers, the same value will be written to all the port's pin configuration registers set by the mask. The MPCMASK register is cleared automatically after the write
operation to the pin configuration registers is finished.
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11.12 Virtual Registers
Virtual port registers allows for port registers in the extended I/O memory space to be mapped
virtually in the I/O memory space. When mapping a port, writing to the virtual port register will be
the same as writing to the real port register. This enables use of I/O memory specific instructions
for bit-manipulation, and the I/O memory specific instructions IN and OUT on port register that
normally resides in the extended I/O memory space. There are four virtual ports, so up to four
ports can be mapped virtually at the same time. The mapped registers are IN, OUT, DIR and
INTFLAGS.
11.13 Register Description – Ports
11.13.1
DIR - Data Direction Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
+0x00
2
1
0
DIR[7:0]
DIR
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - DIR[7:0]: Data Direction
This register sets the data direction for the individual pins in the port. If DIRn is written to one, pin
n is configured as an output pin. If DIRn is written to zero, pin n is configured as an input pin.
11.13.2
DIRSET - Data Direction Set Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x01
3
2
1
0
DIRSET[7:0]
DIRSET
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - DIRSET[7:0]: Port Data Direction Set
This register can be used instead of a Read-Modify-Write to set individual pins as output. Writing
a one to a bit will set the corresponding bit in the DIR register. Reading this register will return
the value of the DIR register.
11.13.3
DIRCLR - Data Direction Clear Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x02
DIRCLR[7:0]
DIRCLR
• Bit 7:0 - DIRCLR[7:0]: Port Data Direction Clear
This register can be used instead of a Read-Modify-Write to set individual pins as input. Writing
a one to a bit will clear the corresponding bit in the DIR register. Reading this register will return
the value of the DIR register.
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11.13.4
DIRTGL - Data Direction Toggle Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x03
3
2
1
0
DIRTGL[7:0]
DIRTGL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - DIRTGL[7:0]: Port Data Direction Toggle
This register can be used instead of a Read-Modify-Write to toggle the direction on individual
pins. Writing a one to a bit will toggle the corresponding bit in the DIR register. Reading this register will return the value of the DIR register.
11.13.5
OUT - Data Output Value
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
+0x04
2
1
0
OUT[7:0]
OUT
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - OUT[7:0]: Port Data Output value
This register sets the data output value for the individual pins in the port. If OUTn is written to
one, pin n is driven high. If OUTn is written to zero, pin n is driven low. For this setting to have
any effect the pin direction must be set as output.
11.13.6
OUTSET - Data Output Value Set Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x05
3
2
1
0
OUTSET[7:0]
OUTSET
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - OUTSET[7:0]: Data Output Value Set
This register can be used instead of a Read-Modify-Write to set the output value on individual
pins to one. Writing a one to a bit will set the corresponding bit in the OUT register. Reading this
register will return the value in the OUT register.
11.13.7
OUTCLR - Data Output Value Clear Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x06
3
2
1
0
OUTCLR[7:0]
OUTCLR
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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• Bit 7:0 - OUTCLR[7:0]: Data Output Value Clear
This register can be used instead of a Read-Modify-Write to set the output value on individual
pins to zero. Writing a one to a bit will clear the corresponding bit in the OUT register. Reading
this register will return the value in the OUT register.
11.13.8
OUTTGL - Data Output Value Toggle Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x07
3
2
1
0
OUTTGL[7:0]
OUTTGL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - OUTTGL[7:0]: Port Data Output Value Toggle
This register can be used instead of a Read-Modify-Write to toggle the output value on individual
pins. Writing a one to a bit will toggle the corresponding bit in the OUT register. Reading this register will return the value in the OUT register.
11.13.9
IN - Data Input Value Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x08
3
2
1
0
IN[7:0]
IN
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - IN[7:0]: Data Input Value
This register shows the value present on the pins if the digital input driver is enabled. INn shows
the value of pin n on the port.
11.13.10 INTCTRL - Interrupt Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
+0x09
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
INT1LVL[1:0]
0
INT0LVL[1:0]
INTCTRL
• Bit 7:4 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 3:2/1:0 - INTnLVL[1:0]: Interrupt n Level
These bits enable interrupt request for port interrupt n and select the interrupt level as described
in Section 11. ”Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller” on page 117.
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11.13.11 INT0MASK - Interrupt 0 Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x0A
3
2
1
0
INT0MSK[7:0]
INT0MASK
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - INT0MSK[7:0]: Interrupt 0 Mask Register
These bits are used to mask which pins can be used as sources for port interrupt 0. If
INT0MASKn is written to one, pin n is used as source for port interrupt 0.The input sense configuration for each pin is decided by the PINnCTRL-registers.
11.13.12 INT1MASK - Interrupt 1 Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
+0x0B
4
3
2
1
0
INT1MSK[7:0]
INT1MASK
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - INT1MASK[7:0]: Interrupt 1 Mask Register
These bits are used to mask which pins can be used as sources for port interrupt 1. If
INT1MASKn is written to one, pin n is used as source for port interrupt 1.The input sense configuration for each pin is decided by the PINnCTRL-registers.
11.13.13 INTFLAGS - Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x0C
–
–
–
–
–
–
INT1IF
INT0IF
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
INTFLAGS
• Bit 7:2 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 1:0 - INTnIF: Interrupt n Flag
The INTnIF flag is set when a pin change according to the pin's input sense configuration
occurs, and the pin is set as source for port interrupt n. Writing a one to this flag's bit location will
clear the flag. For enabling and executing the interrupt refer to the interrupt level description.
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11.13.14 PINnCTRL - Pin n Configuration Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
–
INVEN
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
OPC[2:0]
0
ISC[2:0]
PINnCTRL
• Bit 7 - Reserved
This bit is reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices, always
write this bit to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 6 - INVEN: Inverted I/O Enable
Setting this bit will enable inverting output and input data on pin n.
• Bit 5:3 - OPC: Output and Pull Configuration
These bits sets the Output/Pull configuration on pin n according to Table 11-4.
Table 11-4.
Output/Pull Configuration
Description
OPC[2:0]
Group Configuration
Output configuration
Pull configuration
000
TOTEM
Totempole
(N/A)
001
BUSKEEPER
Totempole
Bus keeper
010
PULLDOWN
Totempole
Pull-down (on input)
011
PULLUP
Totempole
Pull-up (on input)
100
WIREDOR
Wired OR
(N/A)
101
WIREDAND
Wired AND
(N/A)
110
WIREDORPULL
Wired OR
Pull-down
111
WIREDANDPULL
Wired AND
Pull-up
• Bit 2:0 - ISC[2:0]: Input/Sense Configuration
These bits sets the input and sense configuration on pin n according to Table 11-5. The sense
configuration decides how the pin can trigger port interrupts and events. When the input buffer is
not disabled, the schmitt triggered input is sampled (synchronized) and can be read in the IN
register.
Table 11-5.
ISC[2:0]
Input/Sense Configuration
Group Configuration
Description
000
BOTHEDGES
Sense both edges
001
RISING
Sense rising edge
010
FALLING
Sense falling edge
011
LEVEL
Sense low level(1)
100
Reserved
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Table 11-5.
Input/Sense Configuration
ISC[2:0]
Group Configuration
Description
101
Reserved
110
Reserved
111
Note:
Input buffer disabled(2)
INTPUT_DISABLE
1. A low pin value will not generate events, and a high pin value will continuously generate
events.
2. Only Port A - F supports the input buffer disable option.
11.14 Register Description – Multiport Configuration
11.14.1
MPCMASK - Multi-pin Configuration Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
+0x00
4
3
2
1
0
MPCMASK[7:0]
MPCMASK
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - MPCMASK[7:0]: Multi-pin Configuration Mask
The MPCMASK register enables several pins in a port to be configured at the same time. Writing
a one to bit n allows that pin to be part of the multi-pin configuration. When a pin configuration is
written to one of the PINnCTRL registers of the port, that value is written to all the PINnCTRL
registers of the pins matching the bit pattern in the MPCMASK register for that port. It is not necessary to write to one of the registers that is set by the MPCMASK register. The MPCMASK
register is automatically cleared after any PINnCTRL registers is written.
11.14.2
VPCTRLA - Virtual Port-map Control Register A
Bit
7
6
+0x02
5
4
3
2
VP1MAP[3:0]
1
0
VP0MAP[3:0]
VPCTRLA
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:4 - VP1MAP: Virtual Port 1 Mapping
These bits decide which ports should be mapped to Virtual Port 1. The registers DIR, OUT, IN
and INTFLAGS will be mapped. Accessing the virtual port registers is equal to accessing the
actual port registers. See Table 11-6 for configuration.
• Bit 3:0 - VP0MAP: Virtual Port 0 Mapping
These bits decide which ports should be mapped to Virtual Port 0. The registers DIR, OUT, IN
and INTFLAGS will be mapped. Accessing the virtual port registers is equal to accessing the
actual port registers. See Table 11-6 for configuration.
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11.14.3
VPCTRLB - Virtual Port-map Control Register B
Bit
7
6
+0x03
5
4
3
2
VP3MAP[3:0]
1
0
VP2MAP[3:0]
VPCTRLB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:4 - VP3MAP: Virtual Port 3 Mapping
These bits decide which ports should be mapped to Virtual Port 3. The registers DIR, OUT, IN
and INTFLAGS will be mapped. Accessing the virtual port registers is equal to accessing the
actual port registers. See Table 11-6 for configuration.
• Bit 3:0 - VP2MAP: Virtual Port 2 Mapping
These bits decide which ports should be mapped to Virtual Port 2. The registers DIR, OUT, IN
and INTFLAGS will be mapped. Accessing the virtual port registers is equal to accessing the
actual port registers. See Table 11-6 for configuration.
Table 11-6.
Virtual Port mapping.
VPnMAP[3:0]
11.14.4
Group Configuration
Description
0000
PORTA
PORTA mapped to virtual Port n
0001
PORTB
PORTB mapped to virtual Port n
0010
PORTC
PORTC mapped to virtual Port n
0011
PORTD
PORTD mapped to virtual Port n
0100
PORTE
PORTE mapped to virtual Port n
0101
PORTF
PORTF mapped to virtual Port n
0110
PORTG
PORTG mapped to virtual Port n
0111
PORTH
PORTH mapped to virtual Port n
1000
PORTJ
PORTJ mapped to virtual Port n
1001
PORTK
PORTK mapped to virtual Port n
1010
PORTL
PORTL mapped to virtual Port n
1011
PORTM
PORTM mapped to virtual Port n
1100
PORTN
PORTN mapped to virtual Port n
1101
PORTP
PORTP mapped to virtual Port n
1110
PORTQ
PORTQ mapped to virtual Port n
1111
PORTR
PORTR mapped to virtual Port n
CLKEVOUT - Clock and Event Out Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x04
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EVOUT[1:0]
3
2
1
CLKOUTSEL[1:0]
0
CLKOUT[1:0]
CLKEVOUT
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• Bit 7:6 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as one. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 5:4 - EVOUT[1:0] - Event Output Port
These bits decide which port the Event Channel 0 from the Event System should be output to.
Pin 7 on the selected port is always used, and the CLKOUT bits must be set different from
EVOUT. The pin must be configured as an output pin for the Signaling Event to be available on
the pin.
Table 11-7 on page 117 shows the possible configurations.
Table 11-7.
Event Channel 0 output configurations
EVOUT[1:0]
Group Configuration
Description
00
OFF
Event out disabled
01
PC7
Event Channel 0 output on Port C pin 7
10
PD7
Event Channel 0 output on Port D pin 7
11
PE7
Event Channel 0 output on Port E pin 7
• Bits 3:2 - CLKOUTSEL[1:0] - Clock Output Select
These bits are used to select which clock is output to pin.
Table 11-8.
Clock Output Select
CLKOUTSEL[1:0]
Group Configuration
Description
00
CLK1X
CLKPER output to pin
01
CLK2X
CLKPER2 output to pin
10
CLK4X
CLKPER4 output to pin
• Bit 1:0 - CLKOUT[1:0] - Clock Output Port
These bits decide which port the Peripheral Clock should be output to. Pin 7 on the selected port
is always used. The Clock output setting, will override the Event output setting, thus if both are
enabled on the same port pin, the Peripheral Clock will be visible. The pin must be configured as
an output pin for the Clock to be available on the pin.
Table 11-9 on page 117 shows the possible configurations.
Table 11-9.
Clock output configurations
CLKOUT[1:0]
Group Configuration
Description
00
OFF
Clock out disabled
01
PC7
Clock output on Port C pin 7
10
PD7
Clock output on Port D pin 7
11
PE7
Clock output on Port E pin 7
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11.15 Register Description – Virtual Port
11.15.1
DIR - Data Direction
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x00
3
2
1
0
DIR[7:0]
DIR
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - DIR[7:0]: Data Direction Register
This register sets the data direction for the individual pins in the port mapped by "VPCTRLA Virtual Port-map Control Register A" or "VPCTRLB - Virtual Port-map Control Register B". When
a port is mapped as virtual, accessing this register is identical to accessing the actual DIR register for the port.
11.15.2
OUT - Data Output Value
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x01
3
2
1
0
OUT[7:0]
OUT
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - OUT[7:0]: Data Output value
This register sets the data output value for the individual pins in the port mapped by "VPCTRLA
- Virtual Port-map Control Register A" or "VPCTRLB - Virtual Port-map Control Register B".
When a port is mapped as virtual, accessing this register is identical to accessing the actual
OUT register for the port.
11.15.3
IN - Data Input Value
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x02
3
2
1
0
IN[7:0]
IN
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - IN[7:0]: Data Input Value
This register shows the value present on the pins if the digital input buffer is enabled. The configuration of "VPCTRLA - Virtual Port-map Control Register A" or "VPCTRLB - Virtual Port-map
Control Register B" decides the value in the register. When a port is mapped as virtual, accessing this register is identical to accessing the actual IN register for the port.
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11.15.4
INTFLAGS - Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x03
–
–
–
–
–
–
INT1IF
INT0IF
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
INTFLAGS
• Bit 7:2 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 1:0 - INTnIF: Interrupt n Flag
The INTnIF flag is set when a pin change according to the pin's input sense configuration
occurs, and the pin is set as source for port interrupt n. Writing a one to this flag's bit location will
clear the flag. For enabling and executing the interrupt refer to the Interrupt Level description.
The configuration of "VPCTRLA - Virtual Port-map Control Register A" or "VPCTRLB - Virtual
Port-map Control Register B" decides which the flags mapped. When a port is mapped as virtual, accessing this register is identical to accessing the actual INTFLAGS register for the port.
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11.16 Register Summary – Ports
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
+0x00
DIR
DIR[7:0]
110
+0x01
DIRSET
DIRSET[7:0]
110
+0x02
DIRCLR
DIRCLR[7:0]
110
+0x03
DIRTGL
DIRTGL[7:0]
111
+0x04
OUT
OUT[7:0]
111
+0x05
OUTSET
OUTSET[7:0]
111
+0x06
OUTCLR
OUTCLR[7:0]
111
+0x07
OUTTGL
OUTTGL[7:0]
112
+0x08
IN
IN[7:0]
+0x09
INTCTRL
+0x0A
INT0MASK
+0x0B
INT1MASK
+0x0C
INTFLAGS
–
–
–
–
–
–
INT1IF
INT0IF
+0x0D
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0E
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0F
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x10
PIN0CTRL
–
INVEN
OPC[2:0]
ISC[2:0]
114
+0x11
PIN1CTRL
–
INVEN
OPC[2:0]
ISC[2:0]
114
+0x12
PIN2CTRL
–
INVEN
OPC[2:0]
ISC[2:0]
114
+0x13
PIN3CTRL
–
INVEN
OPC[2:0]
ISC[2:0]
114
+0x14
PIN4CTRL
–
INVEN
OPC[2:0]
ISC[2:0]
114
+0x15
PIN5CTRL
–
INVEN
OPC[2:0]
ISC[2:0]
114
+0x16
PIN6CTRL
–
INVEN
OPC[2:0]
ISC[2:0]
114
+0x17
PIN7CTRL
–
INVEN
OPC[2:0]
ISC[2:0]
+0x18
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
112
–
INT1LVL[1:0]
INT0LVL[1:0]
112
INT0MSK[7:0]
113
INT1MSK[7:0]
113
113
114
+0x19
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x1A
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x1B
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x1C
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x1D
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x1E
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x1F
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
–
–
–
11.17 Register Summary – Port Configuration
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
+0x00
MPCMASK
MPCMASK[7:0]
+0x01
Reserved
+0x02
VPCTRLA
VP1MAP[3:0]
VP0MAP[3:0]
+0x03
VPCTRLB
VP3MAP[3:0]
VP2MAP[3:0]
+0x04
CLKEVOUT
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
EVOUT[1:0]
Page
115
–
–
Bit 3
Bit 2
115
116
CLKOUT[1:0]
116
11.18 Register Summary – Virtual Ports
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
+0x00
DIR
DIR[7:0]
118
+0x01
OUT
OUT[7:0]
118
+0x02
IN
IN[7:0]
+0x03
INTFLAGS
–
–
–
–
118
–
–
INT1IF
INT0IF
119
11.19 Interrupt vector Summary - Ports
Table 11-10. Ports Interrupt vectors and their word offset address
Offset
Source
Interrupt Description
0x00
INT0_vect
Port Interrupt vector 0 offset
0x02
INT1_vect
Port Interrupt vector 1 offset
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12. TC - 16-bit Timer/Counter
12.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
12.2
16-bit Timer/Counter
Double Buffered Timer Period Setting
Up to 4 Combined Compare or Capture (CC) Channels (A, B, C, and D)
All Compare or Capture Channels are Double Buffered
Waveform Generation:
– Single Slope Pulse Width Modulation
– Dual Slope Pulse Width Modulation
– Frequency Generation
Input Capture:
– Input Capture with Noise Cancelling
– Frequency capture
– Pulse width capture
32-bit input capture Direction Control
Timer Overflow and Timer Error Interrupts / Events
One Compare Match or Capture Interrupt / Event per CC Channel
Hi-Res- Hi-Resolution Extension
– Increases PWM/FRQ Resolution by 2-bits (4x)
AWeX - Advanced Waveform Extension
– 4 Dead-Time Insertion (DT) Units with separate high- and low-side settings
– Event controlled fault protection
– Single channel multiple output operation
– Pattern Generation
Overview
XMEGA has a set of high-end and very flexible 16-bit Timer/Counters (TC). Their basic capabilities include accurate program execution timing, frequency and waveform generation, event
management, and time measurement of digital signals. The Hi-Resolution Extension (Hi-Res)
and Advanced Waveform Extension (AWeX) can be used together with a Timer/Counter to ease
implementation of more advanced and specialized frequency and waveform generation
features.
A block diagram of the 16-bit Timer/Counter with extensions and closely related peripheral modules (in grey) is shown in Figure 12-1 on page 122.
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Figure 12-1. 16-bit Timer/Counter and Closely Related Peripheral
Timer/Counter
Base Counter
Prescaler
clkPER
Timer Period
Control Logic
Counter
Event
System
Buffer
Capture
Control
Waveform
Generation
DTI
Dead-Time
Insertion
Pattern
Generation
Fault
Protection
Hi-Res
Comparator
AWeX
PORTS
clkPER4
Compare/Capture Channel D
Compare/Capture Channel C
Compare/Capture Channel B
Compare/Capture Channel A
The Timer/Counter consists of a Base Counter and a set of Compare or Capture (CC) channels.
The Base Counter can be used to count clock cycles or events. It has direction control and
period setting that can be used for timing. The CC channels can be used together with the Base
Counter to do compare match control, waveform generation (FRQ or PWM) or various input capture operations.
Compare and capture cannot be done at the same time, i.e. a single Timer/Counter cannot
simultaneously perform both waveform generation and capture operation. When used for compare operations, the CC channels is referred to as compare channels. When used for capture
operations, the CC channels are referred to as capture channels.
The Timer/Counter comes in two versions: Timer/Counter 0 that has four CC channels, and
Timer/Counter 1 that has two CC channels. Hence, all registers and register bits that are related
to CC channel 3 and CC channel 4 will only exist in Timer/Counter 0.
All Timer/Counter units are connected to the common peripheral clock prescaler, the Event System, and their corresponding general purpose I/O port.
Some of the Timer/Counters will have Extensions. The function of the Timer/Counter Extensions
can only be performed by these Timers. The Advanced Waveform Extension (AWeX) can be
used for Dead Time Insertion, Pattern Generation and Fault Protection. The AWeX Extension is
only available for Timer/Counter 0.
Waveform outputs from a Timer/Counter can optionally be passed through to a Hi-Resolution
(Hi-Res) Extension before forwarded to the port. This extension, running at up to four times the
Peripheral Clock frequency, to enhance the resolution by four times. All Timer/Counters will
have the Hi-Res Extention.
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12.2.1
Definitions
The following definitions are used extensively throughout the Timer/Counter documentation:
Table 12-1.
Timer/Counter definitions
Name
Description
BOTTOM
The Counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes zero.
MAX
The Counter reaches MAXimum when it becomes all ones.
TOP
The Counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the
count sequence. The TOP value can be equal to the period (PER) or the Compare
Channel A (CCA) register setting. This is selected by the Waveform Generator Mode.
UPDATE
The Timer/Counter signalizes an update when it reaches BOTTOM or TOP
dependent of the Waveform Generator Mode.
In general the term Timer is used when the Timer/Counter clock control is handled by an internal
source and the term Counter is used if the clock is given externally (from an event).
12.3
Block Diagram
Figure 12-2 on page 124 shows a detailed block diagram of the Timer/Counter without the
extensions.
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Figure 12-2. Timer/Counter Block Diagram
Base Counter
V
PERBUF
CKSEL
Clock Select
EVSEL
Event Select
PER
"count"
"clear"
"load"
"direction"
Counter
CNT
OVF/UNF
(INT Req.)
Control Logic
ERRIF
TOP
=
BOTTOM
=0
"ev"
UPDATE
I/O Data Bus (16-bit)
(INT Req.)
Compare/Capture
(x = {A,B,C,D})
V
"capture"
CCxBUF
CCx
Waveform
Generation
"match"
=
Bus Bridge
TEMP
A
Control Logic
OCx Out
CCxIF
(INT Req.)
B
CTRL
C
D
E
G
INTCTRL
A
B
INTFLAGS
I/O Data Bus (8-bit)
The Counter Register (CNT), the Period Registers w/buffer (PER and PERBUF), and the compare and Capture registers w/buffers (CCx and CCxBUF) are 16-bit registers.
During normal operation the counter value is continuously compared to zero and the period
(PER) value to determine whether the counter has reached TOP or BOTTOM.
The counter value is also compared to the CCx registers. These comparators can be used to
generate interrupt requests. They also generate events for the Event System. The waveform
generator modes use the comparators to set the waveform period or pulse width.
A prescaled peripheral clock and events from the Event System can be used for controlling the
counter. The Event System is also used as source to the input capture. Combined with the
Quadrature Decoding functionality in the Event System QDEC, the Timer/Counter can be used
for high speed Quadrature Decoding.
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12.4
Clock and Event Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked from the Peripheral Clock (clkPER) and from the Event System, and Figure 12-3 shows the clock and event selection logic.
Figure 12-3. Clock and Event Selection
clkPER
Common
Prescaler
clkPER /
2{0,...,15}
Event System
clk /
{1,2,4,8,64,256,1024}
event channels
events
CLKSEL
Control Logic
EVSEL
CNT
EVACT
(Encoding)
The Peripheral Clock is fed into the Common Prescaler (common for all Timer/Counters in a
device). A selection of the prescaler outputs is directly available for the Timer/Counter. In addition the whole range from 1 to 215 times prescaling is available through the Event System.
Each Timer/Counter has separate clock selection (CLKSEL), to select one of the prescaler outputs directly or an event channel as the Counter (CNT) input. This is referred to as Normal
Operation for the Counter, for details refer to ”Normal Operation” on page 127. By using the
Event System, any event source such as an external clock signal on any I/O pin can be used as
clock input.
In addition the Timer/Counter can be controlled via the Event System. The Event Selection
(EVSEL) and Event Action (EVACT) settings can be used to trigger an event action from one or
more events. This is referred to as Event Action Controlled Operation for the Counter, for details
refer to ”Event Action Controlled Operation” on page 127. When Event Action Controlled Operation is used, the clock selection must be set to us an event channel as the Counter input.
By default no clock input is selected and the Timer/Counter is not running (OFF state).
12.5
Double Buffering
The Period Register and the CC registers are all double buffered. Each buffer registers have an
associated Buffer Valid (BV) flag, which indicate that the buffer contains a valid, i.e. a new value
that is to be copied into the belonging period or compare register. For the Period register and for
the CC channels when used for compare operation, the Buffer Valid flag is set when data is written to the buffer register and cleared on UPDATE condition. This is shown for a compare
register in Figure 12-4 on page 126.
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Figure 12-4. Period and Compare Double Buffering
I/O Bus (16-bit)
"write enable"
"data"
BV
UPDATE
EN
CCxBUF
EN
CCx
CNT
=
"match"
When the CC channels is used for capture operation a similar Double buffering mechanism is
used, but the Buffer Valid flag is set on the capture event as shown in Figure 12-5. For capture
the buffer and the corresponding CCx register acts like a FIFO. When the CC register is empty
or read, any contents in the buffer is passed to the CC register. The Buffer valid flag is passed to
the CCx Interrupt Flag (IF) which is them set and the optional interrupt is generated.
Figure 12-5. Capture Double Buffering
CNT
BV
EN
CCxBUF
IF
EN
CCx
I/O Bus (16-bit)
"capture"
"INT request"
Both the CCx and CCxBUF registers are available in the I/O register address map. This allows
initialization and bypassing of the buffer register, and the double buffering feature.
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12.6
Counter Operation
Dependent of the mode of operation, the Counter is cleared, reloaded, incremented, or decremented at each Timer/Counter clock input.
12.6.1
Normal Operation
In Normal Operation the Counter will count in the direction set by the Direction (DIR) bit for each
clock until it reaches TOP or BOTTOM. When TOP is reached when up-counting, the counter
will be set to zero when the next clock is given. When down-counting the Counter is reloaded
with Period Register value when BOTTOM is reached.
Figure 12-6. Normal Mode of Operation
CNT written
MAX
"update"
CNT
TOP
BOT
DIR
As shown in Figure 12-6 changing the counter value while the counter is running is possible. The
write access has higher priority than count, clear, or reload and will be immediate. The direction
of the Counter can also be changed during normal operation.
Normal operation must be used when using the counter as timer base for the capture channels.
12.6.2
Event Action Controlled Operation
The Event Selection and Event Action settings can be used to control the Counter from the
Event System. For the Counter the event actions can be selected to:
• Event system controlled Up/Down counting.
• Event system controlled Quadrature Decode counting.
12.6.3
32-bit Operation
Two Timer/Counters can be used together to enable 32-bit counter operation. By using two
Timer/Counters the overflow event from one Timer/Counter (least significant timer) can be
routed via the Event System and used as clock input for another Timer/Counter (most significant
timer).
12.6.4
Changing the Period
The Counter period is changed by writing a new TOP value to the Period Register. If double
buffering is not used, any period update is immediate as shown in Figure 12-7 on page 128.
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Figure 12-7. Changing The Period without Buffering
Counter Wraparound
MAX
"update"
"write"
CNT
BOT
New TOP written to
PER that is higher
than current CNT
New TOP written to
PER that is lower
than current CNT
When double buffering is used, the buffer can be written at any time, but the Period Register is
always updated on the “update” condition as shown in Figure 12-8. This prevents wraparound
and generation of odd waveforms.
Figure 12-8. Changing Period using Buffering
MAX
"update"
"write"
CNT
BOT
New Period written to
PERBUF that is higher
than current CNT
12.7
New Period written to
PERBUF that is lower
than current CNT
New PER is updated
with PERBUF value.
Capture Channel
The CC channels can be used as capture channel to capture external events and give them a
time-stamp indicating time of occurrence. To use capture the Counter must be set in normal
operation.
Events are used to trigger the capture, i.e any events from the Event System including pin
change from any pin can trigger a capture operation. The Event Source Select setting, selects
the event channel that will trigger CC channel A, and the following event channels will then trigger events on the following CC channels if configured. For instance setting the Event Source
Select to event channel 2 will result in CC channel A being connected to Event Channel 2, CC
channel B to event channel 3 and so on.
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Event Source Selection for capture operation
Event System
CH0MUX
CH1MUX
Event channel 0
Event channel 1
CH7MUX
Event channel 7
CCA capture
CCB capture
CCC capture
Rotate
CCD capture
Event Source Selection
The Event Action setting in the Timer/Counter will determine the type of capture that is done.
The CC channel to use must be enabled individually before capture can be done. When the capture condition occur, the Timer/Counter will time-stamp the event by copying the current value in
the Count register into the enabled CC channel register.
When an I/O pin is used as event source for the Capture, the pin must be configured for edge
sensing. For details on sense configuration on I/O pins, refer to ”Input Sense Configuration” on
page 106. If the Period register value is set lower than 0x8000, the polarity of the I/O pin edge
will be stored in the Most Significant Bit (MSB) of the Capture register after a Capture. If the
MSB of the Capture register is zero, a falling edge generated the Capture. If the MSB is one, a
rising edge generated the Capture.
Three different types of capture are available.
12.7.1
Input Capture
Selecting the input capture event action, makes the enabled capture channel perform an input
capture on any event. The interrupt flags will be set and indicate that there is a valid capture
result in the corresponding CC register. Equally the buffer valid flags indicates valid data in the
buffer registers. Refer to ”Double Buffering” on page 125 for more details on capture double
buffering.
The counter will continuously count for BOTTOM to TOP, then restart on BOTTOM as shown in
Figure 12-9. The figure also shows four capture events for one capture channel.
Figure 12-9. Input capture timing
events
TOP
CNT
BOT
Capture 0
Capture 1
Capture 2
Capture 3
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12.7.2
Frequency Capture
Selecting the frequency capture event action, makes the enabled capture channel perform a
input capture and restart on any event. This enables Timer/Counter to use capture to measure
the period or frequency of a signal directly. The capture result will be the time, T, from the previous Timer/Counter restart and until the event occurred. This can be used to calculate the
frequency, f, of the signal:
f = 1
--T
Figure 12-10 on page 130 shows an example where the Period is measured twice for an external signal.
Figure 12-10. Frequency capture of an external signal
Period (T)
external signal
events
MAX
"capture"
CNT
BOT
Since all capture channels uses the same Counter (CNT), only one capture channels must be
enabled at a time. If two capture channels are used with different source, the Counter will be
restarted on positive edge events from both input sources, and the result from the input capture
will have no meaning.
12.7.3
Pulse-width Capture
Selecting the pulse-width measure event action makes the enabled compare channel perform
the input capture action on falling edge events and the restart action on rising edge events. The
counter will then start at zero at every start of a pulse and the input capture will be performed at
the end of the pulse. The event source must be an I/O pin and the sense configuration for the pin
must be set up to generate an event on both edges. Figure 12-11 on page 131 shows and example where the pulse width is measured twice for an external signal.
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Figure 12-11. Pulse-width capture of external signal.
Pulsewitdh (tp)
external signal
events
MAX
"capture"
CNT
BOT
12.7.4
32-bit Input Capture
Two Timer/Counters can be used together to enable true 32-bit Input Capture. In a typical 32-bit
Input Capture setup the overflow event of the least significant timer is connected via the Event
System and used as clock input for the most significant timer.
Since all events are pipelined, the most significant timer will be updated one peripheral clock
period after an overflow occurs for the least significant timer. To compensate for this delay the
capture event for the most significant timer must be equally delayed by setting the Event Delay
bit for this timer.
12.7.5
12.8
Capture Overflow
The Timer/Counter can detect buffer overflow on any of the Input Capture Channels. In the case
where both the Buffer Valid flag and Capture Interrupt Flag are set, and a new capture event is
detected there is nowhere to store the new time-stamp. If a buffer overflow is detected the new
value is rejected, the Error Interrupt Flag is set and the optional interrupt is generated.
Compare Channel
Each compare channel continuously compares the counter value (CNT) with the CCx register. If
CNT equals CCx the comparator signals a match. The match will set the CC channel's interrupt
flag at the next timer clock cycle, and the event and optional interrupt is generated.
The compare buffer register provides double buffer capability equivalent to the period buffer.
The double buffering synchronizes the update of the CCx register with the buffer value to either
the TOP or BOTTOM of the counting sequence according to the UPDATE condition signal from
the Timer/Counter control logic. The synchronization prevents the occurrence of odd-length,
non-symmetrical PWM/FRQ pulses, thereby making the output glitch-free.
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12.8.1
Waveform Generation
The compare channels can be used for waveform generation on the corresponding port pins. To
make the waveform visible on the connected port pin, the following requirements must be
fulfilled:
1. A waveform generation mode must be selected.
2. Event actions must be disabled.
3. The CC channels to be used must be enabled. This will override the corresponding port
pin output register.
4. The direction for the associated port pin must be set to output.
Inverted waveform output can be achieved by setting the invert output bit for the port pin.
12.8.2
Frequency (FRQ) Waveform Generation
For frequency generation the period time (T) is controlled by the CCA register instead of PER,
which in this case is not in use. The Waveform Generation (WG) output is toggled on each compare match between the CNT and CCA registers as shown in Figure 12-12 on page 132.
Figure 12-12. Frequency Waveform Generation
Period (T)
Direction Change
CNT written
MAX
"update"
CNT
TOP
BOT
WG Output
The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of half of the Peripheral clock frequency (f PER ) when CCA is set to zero (0x0000). This also applies when using the Hi-Res
Extension since this only increase the resolution and not the frequency. The waveform frequency (fFRQ)is defined by the following equation:
f PER
f FRQ = ------------------------------2N ( CCA+1 )
where N represents the prescaler divider used (1, 2, 4, 8, 64, 256, 1024, or event channel n).
12.8.3
Single Slope PWM Generation
For single slope PWM generation, the Period (T) is controlled by the PER, while CCx registers
control the duty cycle of the WG output. Figure 12-13 shows how the counter counts from BOTTOM to TOP then restarts from BOTTOM. The waveform generator (WG) output is set on the
compare match between the CNT and CCx registers, and cleared at TOP.
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Figure 12-13. Single slope Pulse Width Modulation
Period (T)
CCx=BOT
CCx=TOP
"update"
"match"
MAX
TOP
CNT
CCx
BOT
WG Output
The PER register defines the PWM resolution. The minimum resolution is 2-bit (PER=0x0003),
and maximum resolution is 16-bit (PER=MAX).
The following equation can be used for calculate the exact resolution for single-slope PWM
(RPWM_SS):
( PER + 1 )R PWM_SS = log
---------------------------------log ( 2 )
The single slow PWM frequency (fPWM_SS) depends on the period setting (PER) and the Peripheral clock frequency (fPER), and can be calculated by the following equation:
f PER
f PWM_SS = -----------------------------N ( PER + 1 )
where N represents the prescaler divider used (1, 2, 4, 8, 64, 256, 1024, or event channel n).
12.8.4
Dual Slope PWM
For dual slope PWM generation, the Period (T) is controlled by the PER, while CCx registers
control the duty cycle of the WG output. Figure 12-14 shows how for dual slope PWM the Counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM to TOP, and then from TOP to BOTTOM. The WG output
is. The waveform generator output is set on BOTTOM, cleared on compare match when
upcounting and set on compare match when down counting.
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Figure 12-14. Dual-slope Pulse Width Modulation
Period (T)
CCx=BOT
CCx=TOP
"update"
"match"
MAX
CCx
CNT
TOP
BOT
WG Output
Using dual-slope PWM result in a lower maximum operation frequency compared to the singleslope PWM operation.
The period register (PER) defines the PWM resolution. The minimum resolution is 2-bit
(PER=0x0003), and maximum resolution is 16-bit (PER=MAX).
The following equation can be used for calculate the exact resolution for dual-slope PWM
(RPWM_DS):
( PER + 1 )R PWM_DS = log
---------------------------------log ( 2 )
The PWM frequency depends on the period setting (PER) and the Peripheral Clock frequency
(fPER), and can be calculated by the following equation:
f PER
f PWM_DS = ------------------2NPER
N represents the prescaler divider used (1, 2, 4, 8, 64, 256, 1024, or event channel n).
12.8.5
Port override for Waveform Generation
To make the waveform generation available on the port pins the corresponding port pin direction
must be set as output. The Timer/Counter will override the port pin values when the CC channel
is enabled (CCENx) and a waveform generation mode is selected.
Figure 12-15 on page 135 shows the port override for Timer/Counter 0 and 1. For Timer/Counter
1, CC channel A to D will override port pin 0 to 3 output value (OUTxn) on the corresponding
port pin (Pxn). For Timer/Counter 1, CC channel A and B will override port pin 4 and 5. Enabling
inverted I/O on the port pin (INVENxn) inverts the corresponding WG output.
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Figure 12-15. Port override for Timer/Counter 0 and 1
OUTx0
Px0
OC0A
WG 0A
CCENA
INVENx0
CCENB
INVENx1
Px1
OC0B
WG 0B
OUTx1
OUTx2
Px2
OC0C
WG 0C
CCENC
INVENx2
CCEND
INVENx3
Px3
OC0D
WG 0D
OUTx3
OUTx4
Px4
OC1A
WG 1A
CCENA
INVENx4
CCENB
INVENx5
Px5
OC1B
WG 1B
OUTx5
12.9
Interrupts and events
The T/C can generate both interrupts and events. The Counter can generate an interrupt on
overflow/underflow, and each CC channel has a separate interrupt that is used for compare or
capture. In addition the T/C can generate an error interrupt if any of the CC channels is used for
capture and a buffer overflow condition occurs on a capture channel.
Event will be generated for all conditions that can generate interrupts. For details on event generation and available events refer to ”Event System” on page 44.
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12.10 Timer/Counter Commands
A set of commands can be given to the Timer/Counter by software to immediately change the
state of the module. These commands give direct control of the Update, Restart, and Reset
signals.
An update command has the same effect as when an update condition occurs. The update command is ignored if the Lock Update bit is set.
The software can force a restart of the current waveform period by issuing a restart command. In
this case the Counter, direction, and all compare outputs are set to zero.
A reset command will set all Timer/Counter registers to their initial values. A reset can only be
given when the Timer/Counter is not running (OFF).
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12.11 Register Description
12.11.1
CTRLA - Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x00
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CLKSEL[3:0]
CTRLA
• Bit 7:4 - Reserved bits
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 3:0 - CLKSEL[3:0]: Clock Select
These bits select clock source for the Timer/Counter according to Table 12-2.
CLKSEL=0001 must be set to ensure a correct output from the waveform generator when the
Hi-Res extension is enabled.
Table 12-2.
12.11.2
Clock Select
CLKSEL[3:0]
Group Configuration
Description
0000
OFF
None (i.e, Timer/Counter in ‘OFF’ state)
0001
DIV1
Prescaler: clk
0010
DIV2
Prescaler: clk/2
0011
DIV4
Prescaler: clk/4
0100
DIV8
Prescaler: clk/8
0101
DIV64
Prescaler: clk/64
0110
DIV256
Prescaler: clk/256
0111
DIV1024
Prescaler: clk/1024
1xxx
EVCHn
Event channel n, n= [0,...,7]
CTRLB - Control Register B
Bit
+0x01
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CCDEN
CCCEN
CCBEN
CCAEN
–
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
WGMODE[2:0]
R/W
R/W
CTRLB
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:4 – CCxEN: Compare or Capture Enable
Setting these bits in FRQ or PWM waveform generation mode of operation will override of the
port output register for the corresponding OCn output pin.
When input capture operation is selected the CCxEN bits enables the capture operation for the
corresponding CC channel.
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• Bit 3 – Reserved
This bit is unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always write
this bit to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 2:0 – WGMODE[2:0]: Waveform Generation Mode
These bits select the Waveform Generation Mode, and control the counting sequence of the
Counter, the TOP value, the UPDATE condition, the Interrupt/event condition, and type of waveform that is generated, according to Table 12-3 on page 138.
No waveform generation is performed in normal mode of operation. For all other modes the
result from the waveform generator will only be directed to the port pins if the corresponding
CCxEN bit has been set to enable this. The port pin direction must be set as output.
Table 12-3.
Timer Waveform Generation Mode
WGMODE[2:0]
Group
Configuration
000
NORMAL
001
FRQ
010
011
SS
100
12.11.3
Mode of
operation
Top
Update
OVFIF/Event
Normal
PER
TOP
TOP
FRQ
CCA
TOP
TOP
Reserved
-
-
-
Single Slope
PWM
PER
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
Reserved
-
-
-
101
DS_T
Dual Slope PWM
PER
BOTTOM
TOP
110
DS_TB
Dual Slope PWM
PER
BOTTOM
TOP and BOTTOM
111
DS_B
Dual Slope PWM
PER
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
CTRLC - Control Register C
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x02
–
–
–
–
CMPD
CMPC
CMPB
CMPA
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTRLC
• Bit 7:4 – Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 3:0 – CMPx: Compare Output Value n
These bits allow direct access to the Waveform Generator's output compare value when the
Timer/Counter is set in “OFF” state. This is used to set or clear the WG output value when the
Timer/Counter is not running.
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12.11.4
CTRLD - Control Register D
Bit
7
+0x03
6
5
EVACT[2:0]
4
3
2
EVDLY
1
0
EVSEL[3:0]
CTRLD
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:5 – EVACT[2:0]: Event Action
These bits define the Event Action the timer will perform on an event according to Table 12-4 on
page 139.
The EVSEL setting will decide which event source or sources that have the control in this case.
Table 12-4.
Timer Event Action Selection
EVACT[2:0]
Group Configuration
000
OFF
001
CAPT
010
UPDOWN
011
QDEC
100
RESTART
101
FRQ
Frequency Capture
110
PW
Pulse Width Capture
111
Event Action
None
Input Capture
Externally Controlled Up/ Down Count
Quadrature decode
Restart waveform period
Reserved
Selecting the any of the capture event action changes the behavior of the CCx registers and
related status and control bits to be used as for capture. The error status flag (ERRIF) will in this
configuration indicate a buffer overflow.
• Bit 4 – EVDLY: Timer Delay Event
When this bit is set, the selected event source is delayed by one peripheral clock cycle. This feature is intended for 32-bit input capture operation. Adding the event delay is necessary for
compensating for the carry propagation delay that is inserted when cascading two counters via
the Event System.
• Bit 3:0 – EVSEL[3:0]:Timer Event Source Select
These bits select the event channel source for the Timer/Counter. For the selected event channel to have any effect the Event Action bits (EVACT) must be set according to Table 12-5. When
the Event Action is set to capture operation, the selected event channel n will be the event channel source for CC channel A, and event channel (n+1)%8, (n+2)%8 and (n+3)%8 will be the
event channel source for CC channel B, C and D.
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Table 12-5.
Timer Event Source Selection
EVSEL[3:0]
Group Configuration
0000
OFF
None
0001
Reserved
0010
Reserved
0011
Reserved
0100
Reserved
0101
Reserved
0110
Reserved
0111
Reserved
1xxx
12.11.5
Event Source
CHn
Event channel n, n={0,...,3}
CTRLE - Control Register E
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x04
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
BYTEM
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTRLE
• Bit 7:1 – Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 0 - BYTEM: Byte Mode:
Enabling the Byte Mode, sets the Timer/Counter in Byte (8-bit) Mode. Setting this bit will disable
the update of the temporary register (TEMP) when any of the 16-bit Timer/Counter registers are
accessed. In addition the upper byte of the counter (CNT) register will be set to zero after each
counter clock.
12.11.6
INTCTRLA - Interrupt Enable Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x06
–
–
–
–
ERRINTLVL[1:0]
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
OVFINTLVL[1:0]
INTCTRLA
• Bit 7:4 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
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• Bit 3:2 - ERRINTLVL[1:0]:Timer Error Interrupt Level
These bits enable the Timer Error Interrupt and select the interrupt level as described in ”Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller” on page 95.
• Bit 1:0 - OVFINTLVL[1:0]:Timer Overflow/Underflow Interrupt Level
These bits enable the Timer Overflow/Underflow Interrupt and select the interrupt level as
described in ”Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller” on page 95.
12.11.7
INTCTRLB - Interrupt Enable Register B
Bit
7
6
+0x07
CCDINTLVL[1:0]
5
4
3
CCCINTLVL[1:0]
2
1
CCBINTLVL[1:0]
0
CCAINTLVL[1:0]
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
INTCTRLB
• Bit 7:0 - CCxINTLVL[1:0] - Compare or Capture x Interrupt Level:
These bits enable the Timer Compare or Capture Interrupt and select the interrupt level as
described in ”Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller” on page 95.
12.11.8
CTRLFCLR/CTRLFSET - Control Register F Clear/Set
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x08
–
–
–
–
3
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
+0x09
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
LUPD
DIR
R
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
CMD[1:0]
2
1
0
LUPD
DIR
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
CMD[1:0]
CTRLFCLR
CTRLFSET
This register is mapped into two I/O memory locations, one for clearing (CTRLxCLR) and one for
setting the register bits (CTRLxSET) when written. Both memory locations yield the same result
when read.
The individual status bit can be set by writing a one to its bit location in CTRLxSET, and cleared
by writing a one to its bit location in CTRLxCLR. This each bit to be set or cleared without using
of a Read-Modify-Write operation on a single register.
• Bit 7:4 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 3:2 - CMD[1:0]: Timer/Counter Command
These command bits can be used for software control of update, restart, and reset of the
Timer/Counter. The command bits are always read as zero.
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Table 12-6.
Command selections
CMD
Group Configuration
Command Action
00
NONE
01
UPDATE
Force Update
10
RESTART
Force Restart
11
RESET
None
Force Hard Reset (Ignored if T/C is not in “OFF“state)
• Bit 1 - LUPD: Lock Update:
When this bit is set no update of the buffered registers is performed, even though an UPDATE
condition has occurred. Locking the update ensures that all buffers, including DTI buffers, are
valid before an update is performed.
This bit has no effect when input capture operation is enabled.
• Bit 0 - DIR: Counter Direction:
When zero, this bit indicates that the counter is counting up (incrementing). A one indicates that
the counter is in down counting (decrementing) state.
Normally this bit is controlled in hardware by the waveform generation mode, or by event
actions, but this bit can also be changed from software.
12.11.9
CTRLGCLR/CTRLGSET - Control Register G Clear/Set
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x0A/ +0x0B
–
–
–
CCDBV
CCCBV
CCBBV
CCABV
PERBV
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTRLGCLR/SET
Refer to section ”CTRLFCLR/CTRLFSET - Control Register F Clear/Set” on page 141 for information on how to access this type of status register.
• Bit 7:5 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 4:1 - CCxBV: Compare or Capture x Buffer Valid
These bits are set when a new value is written to the corresponding CCxBUF register. These
bits are automatically cleared on an UPDATE condition.
Note that when input capture operation is used, this bit is set on capture event and cleared if the
corresponding CCxIF is cleared.
• Bit 0 - PERBV: Period Buffer Valid
This bit is set when a new value is written to the PERBUF register. This bit is automatically
cleared on an UPDATE condition.
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12.11.10 INTFLAGS - Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CCDIF
CCCIF
CCBIF
CCAIF
–
–
ERRIF
OVFIF
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x0C
INTFLAGS
• Bit 7:4 - CCxIF: Compare or Capture Channel x Interrupt Flag
The Compare or Capture Interrupt Flag (CCxIF) is set on a compare match or on an input capture event on the corresponding CC channel.
For all modes of operation except for capture the CCxIF will be set when a compare match
occurs between the count register (CNT) and the corresponding compare register (CCx). The
CCxIF is automatically cleared when the corresponding interrupt vector is executed.
For input capture operation the CCxIF will be set if the corresponding compare buffer contains
valid data (i.e. when CCxBV is set). The flag will be cleared when the CCx register is read. Executing the Interrupt Vector will in this mode of operation not clear the flag.
The flag can also be cleared by writing a one to its bit location.
• Bit 3:2 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 1 - ERRIF: Error Interrupt Flag
The ERRIF is set on multiple occasions depending on mode of operation.
In FRQ or PWM waveform generation mode of operation the ERRIF is set on a fault detect condition from the fault protection feature in the AWeX Extention. For Timer/Counters which do not
have the AWeX extention available, this flag is never set in FRQ or PWM waveform generation
mode.
For capture operation the ERRIF is set if a buffer overflow occurs on any of the CC channels.
For event controlled QDEC operation the ERRIF is set when an incorrect index signal is given.
The ERRIF is automatically cleared when the corresponding interrupt vector is executed. The
flag can also be cleared by writing a one to its bit location.
• Bit 0 - OVFIF: Overflow/Underflow Interrupt Flag
The OVFIF is set either on a TOP (overflow) or BOTTOM (underflow) condition depending on
the WGMODE setting. The OVFIF is automatically cleared when the corresponding interrupt
vector is executed. The flag can also be cleared by writing a one to its bit location.
12.11.11 TEMP - Temporary Register for 16-bit Access
The TEMP register is used for single cycle 16-bit access to the 16-bit Timer/Counter registers
from the CPU. There is one common TEMP register for all the 16-bit Timer/Counter registers.
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For more details refer to ”Accessing 16-bits Registers” on page 12.
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x0F
3
2
1
0
TEMP[7:0]
TEMP
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12.11.12 CNTH - Counter Register H
The CNTH and CNTL register pair represents the 16-bit value CNT. CNT contains the 16-bit
counter value in the Timer/Counter. The CPU write access has priority over count, clear, or
reload of the counter.
For more details on reading and writing 16-bit register refer to ”Accessing 16-bits Registers” on
page 12.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
+0x21
2
1
0
CNT[15:8]
CNTH
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
• Bit 7:0 - CNT[15:8]
These bits holds the 8 MSB of the 16-bit Counter register.
12.11.13 CNTL - Counter Register L
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
+0x20
CNT[7:0]
CNTL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - CNT[7:0]
These bits holds the 8 LSB of the 16-bit Counter register.
12.11.14 PERH - Period Register H
The PERH and PERL register pair represents the 16-bit value PER. PER contains the 16-bit
TOP value in the Timer/Counter.
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x27
3
2
1
0
PER[15:8]
PERH
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
• Bit 7:0 - PER[15:8]
These bits holds the 8 MSB of the 16-bit Period register.
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12.11.15 PERL - Period Register L
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
+0x26
2
1
0
PER[7:0]
PERL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
• Bit 7:0 - PER[7:0]
These bits holds the 8 LSB of the 16-bit Period register.
12.11.16 CCxH - Compare or Capture Register n H
The CCxH and CCxL register pair represents the 16-bit value CCx.
These 16-bit registers have two functions dependent of mode of operation. For capture operation these registers constitute the second buffer level and access point for the CPU. For
compare operation these registers are all continuously compared to the counter value. Normally
the outputs form the comparators are then used for generating waveforms.
CCx are updated with the buffer value from the corresponding CCxBUF register when an
UPDATE condition occurs.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CCx[15:8]
CCxH
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - CCx[15:8]
These bits holds the 8 MSB of the 16-bit Compare or Capture register.
12.11.17 CCxL - Compare or Capture Register n L
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CCx[7:0]
CCxL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - CCx[7:0]
These bits holds the 8 LSB of the 16-bit Compare or Capture register.
12.11.18 PERBUFH - Timer/Counter Period Buffer H
The PERBUFH and PERBUFL register pair represents the 16-bit value PERBUF. This 16-bit
register serves as the buffer for the period register (PER). Accessing this register using CPU will
affect the PERBUFV flag.
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Bit
7
6
5
+0x37
4
3
2
1
0
PERBUF[15:8]
PERBUFH
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
• Bit 7:0 - PERBUF[15:8]
These bits holds the 8 MSB of the 16-bit Period Buffer register.
12.11.19 PERBUFL - Timer/Counter Period Buffer L
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
+0x36
PERBUF[7:0]
PERBUFL
• Bit 7:0 - PERBUF[7:0]
These bits holds the 8 LSB of the 16-bit Period Buffer register.
12.11.20 CCxBUFH - Compare or Capture x Buffer Register H
The CCxBUFH and CCxBUFL register pair represents the 16-bit value CCxBUF. These 16-bit
registers serve as the buffer for the associated compare or capture registers (CCx). Accessing
any of these register using CPU will affect the corresponding CCxBV status bit.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CCxBUF[15:8]
CCxBUFH
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - CCxBUF[15:8]
These bits holds the 8 MSB of the 16-bit Compare or Capture Buffer register.
12.11.21 CCxBUFL - Compare or Capture x Buffer Register L
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CCxBUFx[7:0]
CCxBUFL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - CCxBUF[7:0]
These bits holds the 8 LSB of the 16-bit Compare or Capture Buffer register.
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12.12 Register Summary
Address
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
+0x00
Name
CTRLA
–
–
–
–
Bit 3
+0x01
CTRLB
CCDEN
CCCEN
CCBEN
CCAEN
–
–
–
–
–
CPMD
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
CLKSEL[3:0]
137
WGMODE[2:0]
+0x02
CTRLC
CTRLD
+0x04
CTRLE
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x05
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x06
INTCTRLA
–
–
–
–
+0x07
INTCTRLB
+0x08
CTRLFCLR
–
–
–
–
CMD[1:0]
LUPD
DIR
+0x09
CTRLFSET
–
–
–
–
CMD[1:0]
LUPD
DIR
142
+0x0A
CTRLGCLR
–
–
–
CCDBV
CCCBV
CCBBV
CCABV
PERBV
142
CCCINTLVL[1:0]
EVDLY
CPMB
137
+0x03
EVACT[2:0]
CPMC
Page
CPMA
138
BYTEM
140
EVSEL[3:0]
CCCINTLVL[1:0]
139
–
ERRINTLVL[1:0]
OVINTLVL[1:0]
140
CCBINTLVL[1:0]
CCAINTLVL[1:0]
140
141
+0x0B
CTRLGSET
–
–
–
CCDBV
CCCBV
CCBBV
CCABV
PERBV
142
+0x0C
INTFLAGS
CCDIF
CCCIF
CCBIF
CCAIF
–
–
ERRIF
OVFIF
143
+0x0D
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0E
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0F
TEMP
+0x10 to +0x1F
Reserved
–
–
–
–
TEMP[7:0]
–
–
–
–
143
+0x20
CNTL
CNT[7:0]
144
+0x21
CNTH
CNT[15:8]
144
+0x22 to +0x25
Reserved
+0x26
PERL
PER[7:0]
+0x27
PERH
PER[8:15]
144
+0x28
CCAL
CCA[7:0]
145
145
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
145
+0x29
CCAH
CCA[15:8]
+0x2A
CCBL
CCB[7:0]
145
+0x2B
CCBH
CCB[15:8]
145
145
+0x2C
CCCL
CCC[7:0]
+0x02D
CCCH
CCC[15:8]
145
+0x2E
CCDL
CCD[7:0]
145
+0x2F
CCDH
+0x30 to +0x35
Reserved
CCD[15:8]
–
–
–
–
145
–
–
–
–
+0x36
PERBUFL
PERBUF[7:0]
146
+0x37
PERBUFH
PERBUF[15:8]
145
146
+0x38
CCABUFL
CCABUF[7:0]
+0x39
CCABUFH
CCABUF[15:8]
146
+0x3A
CCBBUFL
CCBBUF[7:0]
146
+0x3B
CCBBUFH
CCBBUF[15:8]
146
+0x3C
CCCBUFL
CCCBUF[7:0]
146
+0x3D
CCCBUFH
CCCBUF[15:8]
146
+0x3E
CCDBUFL
CCDBUF[7:0]
146
+0x3F
CCDBUFH
CCDBUF[15:8]
146
12.13 Interrupt Vector Summary
Table 12-7.
Note:
Timer/Counter Interrupt vectors and their word offset address
Offset
Source
Interrupt Description
0x00
OVF_vect
Timer/Counter Overflow/Underflow Interrupt vector offset
0x02
ERR_vect
Timer/Counter Error Interrupt vector offset
0x4
CCA_vect
Timer/Counter Compare or Capture Channel A Interrupt vector offset
0x6
CCB_vect
Timer/Counter Compare or Capture Channel B Interrupt vector offset
0x8
CCC_vect(1)
Timer/Counter Compare or Capture Channel C Interrupt vector offset
0x0A
CCD_vect(1)
Timer/Counter Compare or Capture Channel D Interrupt vector offset
1. Only available on Timer/Counter with 4 Compare or Capture channels 16-bit.
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13. Hi-Res - High Resolution Extension
13.1
Features
•
•
•
•
13.2
Increases Waveform Generator Resolution by 4x (2 bits)
Supports Frequency generation, and single and dual-slope PWM operation
Supports Dead-Time Insertion (AWeX)
Supports Pattern Generation (AWeX)
Overview
The High-Resolution (Hi-Res) Extension can be used to increase the resolution of the waveform
generation output from a Timer/Counter by four (two bits). It can be used during Frequency and
PWM generation, and also in combination with the corresponding AWeX.
The Hi-Res Extension uses the Peripheral 4x Clock. The System Clock prescalers must be set
up so the Peripheral 4x Clock frequency is four times higher than the Peripheral and CPU clock
frequency (see ”System Clock Selection and Prescalers” on page 59) when the Hi-Res
Extension is enabled.
Figure 13-1. Timer/Counter operation with Hi-Res Extension enabled
PER[15:2]
0
CNT[15:2]
clkPER
clkPER4
0
=0
BOTTOM
=
TOP
HiRes
AWeX
=
2
CCx[15:2]
Pnx
"match"
Waveform
Generation
2
[1:0]
DTI
Dead-Time
Insertion
Pattern
Generation
Fault
Protection
2
CCBUFx[15:0]
Time/Counter
The Hi-Res Extension is implemented by letting the Timer/Counter run at 4x its normal speed.
When Hi-Res Extension is enabled, the counter will ignore its two lowest significant bits (LSB)
and count by four for each Peripheral clock cycle. Overflow/Underflow and Compare match of
the 14 most significant bits (LSB) is done in the Timer/Counter. Count and Compare of the two
LSB is then handled and compared in the Hi-Res Extension running from the Peripheral 4x
clock.
The two LSB of the Period register must always be set to zero to ensure correct operation. If the
Count register is read, the two LSB will always be read as zero since the Timer/Counter run from
the Peripheral clock.
The Hi-Res Extension has narrow pulse deletion preventing output of any pulse shorter than one
Peripheral clock cycle, e.g. a compare value lower than foure will have no visible output.
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13.3
Register Description
13.3.1
CTRLA - Hi-Res Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
+0x00
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
HREN[1:0]
CTRLA
• Bit 7:2 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 1:0 - HREN[1:0]: Hi-Resolution Enable
Enables Hi-Resolution mode for a Timer/Counter according to Table 13-1.
Setting one or both HREN bits will enable Hi-Resolution waveform generation output for the
entire general purpose I/O port. This means that both Timer/Counters connected to the same
port must enable Hi-Res if both are used for generating PWM or FRQ output on pins.
Table 13-1.
Hi-Resolution Enable
HREN[1:0]
13.4
Hi-Resolution Enabled
00
None
01
Timer/Counter 0
10
Timer/Counter 1
11
Both Timer/Counters
Register Summary
Address
+0x00
Name
CTRLA
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
–
–
–
–
–
–
Bit 1
Bit 0
HREN[1:0]
Page
149
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14. AWeX – Advanced Waveform Extension
14.1
Features
• 4 Dead-Time Insertion (DTI) Units (8-pin)
•
•
•
•
14.2
– 8-bit Resolution
– Separate High and Low Side Dead-Time Setting
– Double Buffered Dead-Time
– Halts Timer During Dead-Time (Optional)
Event Controlled Fault Protection
Single Channel Multiple Output Operation (for BLDC control)
Double Buffered Pattern Generation
The Hi-Resolution Timer Extension Increases PWM/FRQ Resolution by 2-bits (4x)
Overview
The Advanced Waveform Extention (AWeX) provides extra features to the Timer/Counter in
Waveform Generation (WG) modes. The AWeX enables easy and robust implementation of
advanced motor control (AC, BLDC, SR, and Stepper) and power control applications.
Figure 14-1. Advanced Waveform eXtention and closely related peripherals (grey)
AWeX
Pattern
Generation
Timer/Counter 0
PORTx
WG
Channel A
DTI
Channel A
WG
Channel B
DTI
Channel B
Port
Override
WG
Channel C
DTI
Channel C
WG
Channel D
DTI
Channel D
Event
System
Fault
Protection
INVEN
Px0
INVEN
Px1
INVEN
Px2
INVEN
Px3
INVEN
Px4
INVEN
Px5
INVEN
Px6
INVEN
Px7
As shown in Figure 14-1 on page 150 each of the waveform generator outputs from the
Timer/Counter 0 are split into a complimentary pair of outputs when any AWeX features is
enabled. These output pairs go through a Dead-Time Insertion (DTI) unit that enables generation of the non-inverted Low Side (LS) and inverted High Side (HS) of the WG output with dead
time insertion between LS and HS switching. The DTI output will override the normal port value
according to the port override setting. Optionally the final output can be inverted by using the
invert I/O (INVEN) bit setting for the port pin (Pxn).
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The Pattern Generation unit can be used to generate a synchronized bit pattern on the port it is
connected to. In addition, the waveform generator output from the Compare Channel A can be
distributed to and override all the port pins. When the Pattern Generator unit is enabled the DTI
unit is bypassed.
The Fault Protection unit is connected to the Event System, enabling any event to trigger a fault
condition that will disable the AWeX output.
14.3
Port Override
Common for all the timer/counter extensions is the port override logic. Figure 14-2 on page 152
shows a schematic diagram of the port override logic. When the dead-time enable (DTIENx) bit
is set the timer/counter extension takes control over the pin pair for the corresponding channel.
Given this condition the Output Override Enable (OOE) bits takes control over the CCxEN.
Note that timer/counter 1 (TCx1) can still be used even when DTI channels A, B, and D are
enabled.
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Figure 14-2. Timer/Counter extensions and port override logic
CWCM
W G 0A
PO R Tx0
D TI
C C EN A
LS
W G 0A
C hannel
A
HS
D TIE N A
OOE1
C C EN B
PO R Tx1
W G 0C
PO R Tx2
C C EN C
LS
W G 0B
C hannel
B
HS
C C EN D
PO R Tx4
C C EN A
C hannel
C
HS
W G 1B
Px2
O C 0C
O C LSB
IN V x2
OOE3
W G 1A
W G 0C
Px1
O C 0B
OCHSA
D TIE N B
PO R Tx3
LS
IN V x1
OOE2
W G 0D
D TI
IN V x0
OOE0
W G 0B
D TI
Px0
O C 0A
O C LSA
IN V x3
Px3
O C 0D
OCHSB
Px4
O C 1A
O C LSC
IN V x4
OOE4
D TIE N C
OOE5
C C EN B
IN V x5
Px5
O C 1B
OCHSC
PO R Tx5
PO R Tx6
Px6
O C LSD
"0"
D TI
LS
W G 0D
C hannel
D
HS
IN V x6
OOE6
D TIE N D
OOE7
"0"
IN V x7
Px7
PO R Tx7
OCHSD
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14.4
Dead Time Insertion
The Dead Time Insertion (DTI) unit enables generation of “off” time where both the non-inverted
Low Side (LS) and inverted High Side (HS) of the WG output is low. This “off” time is called
dead-time, and dead-time insertion ensure that the LS and HS does not switch simultaneously.
The DTI unit consists of four equal dead time generators, one for each of the capture or compare channel in Timer/Counter 0. Figure 14-3 on page 153 shows the block diagram of one dead
time generator. The dead time registers that define the number of peripheral clock cycles the
dead time is going to last, are common for all four channels. The High Side and Low Side can
have independent dead time setting and the dead time registers are double buffered.
Figure 14-3. Dead Time Generator block diagram
V
DTLSBUF
DTILS
V
DTHSBUF
DTIHS
Dead Time Generator
LOAD
Counter
E
("dti_cnt")
=0
WG output
D
"dtls"
Q
(To PORT)
"dths"
Edge Detect
(To PORT)
As shown in Figure 14-4 on page 154, the 8-bit Dead Time Counter (dti_cnt) is decremented by
one for each peripheral clock cycle until it reaches zero. A non-zero counter value will force both
the Low Side and High Side outputs into their “off” state. When a change is detected on the WG
output, the Dead Time Counter is reloaded with the DTx register value according to the edge of
the input. Positive edge initiates a counter reload of the DTLS Register and a negative edge a
reload of DTHS Register.
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Figure 14-4. Dead Time Generator timing diagram
"dti_cnt"
T
tP
tDTILS
tDTIHS
"WG output"
"dtls"
"dths"
14.5
Pattern Generation
The pattern generator extension reuses the DTI registers to produce a synchronized bit pattern
on the port it is connected to. In addition, the waveform generator output from CC channel A
(CCA)) can be distributed to and override all the port pins. These features are primarily intended
for handling the commutation sequence in BLDC and Stepper Motor Applications.
Figure 14-5. Pattern Generator block diagram
Timer/Counter 0 (TCx0)
UPDATE
V
DTIBLS
EN
DTIOE[7:0]
V
CCA WG output
1 to 8
Expand
DTIBHS
EN
PORTx[7:0]
Px[7:0]
A block diagram of the pattern generator is shown in Figure 14-5 on page 154. For each port pin
where the corresponding OOE bit is set the multiplexer will output the waveform from CCA.
As for all other types of the Timer/Counter double-buffered registers the register update is synchronized to the UPDATE condition set by the waveform generation mode. If the
synchronization provided is not required by the application, the application code can simply
access the DTIOE and PORTx registers directly.
The pins direction must be set for any output from the pattern generator to be visible on the port.
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14.6
Fault Protection
The Fault Protection feature enables fast and deterministic action when a fault is detected. The
fault protection is event controlled, thus any event from the Event System can be used to trigger
a fault action.
When the Fault Protection is enabled an incoming event from any of the selected event channel
can trigger the event action. Each event channel can be separately enabled as fault protection
input, and the specified event channels will be ORed together allowing multiple event sources
top be used for fault protection at the same time.
14.6.1
Fault Actions
Two different even actions can be selected:
• The Clear Override Enable action will clear the Output Override Enable register (OUTOVEN)
and disable the output override on all Timer/Counter outputs. The result is that the in the
output will be as set by the port pin configuration.
• The Direction Clear action will clear the Direction (DIR) register in the associated port, setting
all port pins as tri-stated inputs.
When a fault is detected the Fault Detection Flag is set, and the Timer/Counter’s Error Interrupt
Flag is set and the optional interrupt is generated.
From the event occurs in one peripherals until the Fault Protection triggers the event action,
there is maximum two peripheral clock cycles. The Fault Protection is fully independent of the
CPU, but it requires the Peripheral Clock to run.
14.6.2
Fault Restore Modes
After a fault, that is when the fault condition is no longer active, it is selectable how the AWeX
and Timer/Counter can return from fault state and restore with normal operation. Two different
modes are available:
• In Latched Mode the waveform output will remain in the fault state until the fault condition is
no longer active and the fault detect flag has been cleared by software. When both of these
conditions are met, the waveform output will return to normal operation at the next UPDATE
condition.
• In Cycle-by-Cycle Mode the waveform output will remain in the fault state until the fault
condition is no longer active. When this condition is met, the waveform output will return to
normal operation at the next UPDATE condition.
When entering fault state and the Clear Override Enable action is selected, the OUTOVEN[7:0]
bits are reassigned a value on the next UPDATE condition. In pattern generation mode the register is restored with the value in the DTLSBUF register. Otherwise the register bits are restored
according to the enabled DTI channels.
When entering fault state and Direction Clear action is select is set, corresponding DIR[7:0] bits
is restored with the value in the DTLSBUF register in pattern generation mode and for the pin
pairs corresponding to enabled DTI channels otherwise.
The UPDATE condition used to restore the normal operation is the same update as in the
Timer/Counter.
14.6.3
Change Protection
To avoid unintentional changes in the fault protection setup all the control registers in the AWeX
Extension can be protected by writing the corresponding lock bit Advanced Waveform Extension
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Lock Register. For more details refer to ”IO Memory Protection” on page 22 and ”AWEXLOCK –
Advanced Waveform Extension Lock Register” on page 40.
When the lock bit is set, the Control Register A, the Output Override Enable Register and the
Fault Dedec.tion Event Mask register cannot be changed.
To avoid unintentional changes in the fault event setup it is possible to lock the Event System
channel configuration by writing the corresponding Event System Lock Register. For more
details refer to ”IO Memory Protection” on page 22 and ”EVSYSLOCK – Event System Lock
Register” on page 40.
14.6.4
On-Chip Debug
When fault detection is enabled an OCD system receives a break request from the debugger,
this will by default function as a fault source. When an OCD break request is received, the
AWeX and corresponding Timer/Counter will enter fault state and the specified fault action(s) will
be performed.
After the OCD exits from the break condition, normal operation will be started again. In cycle-bycycle mode the waveform output will start on the first update condition after exit from break, and
in latched mode, the Fault Condition Flag must be cleared in software before the output will be
restored. This feature guarantees that the output waveform enters a safe state during break.
It is possible to disable this feature.
14.7
14.7.1
Register Description
CTRL - Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x00
–
–
PGM
CWCM
DTICCDEN
DTICCCEN
DTICCBEN
DTICCAEN
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTRL
• Bit 7:6 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 5 - PGM: Pattern Generation Mode
Setting this bit enables the pattern generation mode if set. This will override the DTI if enabled,
and the Pattern Generation reuses the dead-time registers for storing the pattern.
• Bit 4 - CWCM: Common Waveform Channel Mode
If this bit is set CC channel A waveform output will be used as input for all the dead-time generators. CC channel B, C, and D waveforms will be ignored.
• Bit 3:0 - DTICCxEN: Dead-Time Insertion CCx Enable
Setting these bits enables the Dead Time Generator for the corresponding CC channel. This will
override the Timer/Counter waveform outputs.
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14.7.2
FDEMASK - Fault Detect Event Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
+0x02
4
3
2
1
0
FDEVMASK[7:0]
FDEMASK
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - FDEVMASK[7:0]: Fault Detect Event Mask
These bits enables the corresponding event channel as fault condition input source. Event from
all event channels will be ORed together allowing multiple sources to be used for fault detection
at the same time. When a fault is detected the Fault Detect Flag FDF is set and the fault detect
action (FDACT) will be performed.
14.7.3
FDCTRL - Fault Detection Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x03
–
–
–
FDDBD
–
FDMODE
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
FDACT[1:0]
FDCTRL
• Bit 7:5 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 4 - FDDBD: Fault Detection on Debug Break Detection
By default, when this bit is cleared and the fault protection is enabled, and OCD break request is
treated as a fault. When this bit is set, an OCD break request will not trigger a fault condition.
• Bit 3 - Reserved
This bit is unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always write
this bit to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 2- FDMODE: Fault Detection Restart Mode
This bit sets the fault protection restart mode. When this bit is cleared Latched Mode is use, and
when this is set Cycle-by-Cycle Mode is used.
In Latched Mode the waveform output will remain in the fault state until the fault condition is no
longer active and the FDF has been cleared by software. When both of these conditions are
met, the waveform output will return to normal operation at the next UPDATE condition.
In Cycle-by-Cycle Mode the waveform output will remain in the fault state until the fault condition
is no longer active. When this condition is met, the waveform output will return to normal operation at the next UPDATE condition.
• Bit 1:0 - FDACT[1:0]: Fault Detection Action
These bits define the action performed if a fault condition is detected, according to Table 14-1.
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Table 14-1.
14.7.4
Fault actions
FDACT[1:0]
Group Configuration
Description
00
NONE
01
CLEAROE
Clear all override enable (OUTOVEN) bits, i.e. disable
the output override.
11
CLEARDIR
Clear all Direction (DIR) bits, which correspond to
enabled DTI channel(s), i.e. tri-state the outputs
None (Fault protection disabled)
STATUS - Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x04
–
–
–
–
–
FDF
DTHSBUFV
DTLSBUFV
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STATUS
• Bit 7:3 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 2 - FDF: Fault Detect Flag
This flag is set when a fault detect condition is detected, i.e. when an event is detected on one of
the event channels enabled by the FDEVMASK. This flag is cleared by writing a one to its bit
location.
• Bit 1 - DTHSBUFV: Dead-Time High Side Buffer Valid
If this bit is set the corresponding DT buffer is written and contains valid data that will be copied
into the DTLS Register on the UPDATE condition. If this bit is zero no action will be taken. The
connected Timer/Counter’s lock update (LUPD) flag also affects the update for dead time
buffers.
• Bit 0 - DTLSBUFV: Dead-Time Low Side Buffer Valid
If this bit is set the corresponding DT buffer is written and contains valid data that will be copied
into the DTHS Register on the UPDATE condition. If this bit is zero no action will be taken. Note
that the connected Timer/Counter unit's lock update (LUPD) flag also affects the update for dead
time buffers.
14.7.5
DTBOTH - Dead-time Concurrent Write to Both Sides
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x06
DTBOTH[7:0]
DTBOTH
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• Bit 7:0 - DTBOTH: Dead-Time Both Sides
Writing to this register will update both DTHS and DTLS registers at the same time (i.e. at the
same I/O write access).
14.7.6
DTBOTHBUF - Dead-time Concurrent Write to Both Sides Buffer
Bit
7
6
5
+0x07
4
3
2
1
0
DTBOTHBUF[7:0]
DTBOTHBUF
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - DTBOTHBUF: Dead-Time Both Sides Buffer
Writing to this memory location will update both DTHSBUF and DTLSBUF registers at the same
time (i.e. at the same I/O write access).
14.7.7
DTLS - Dead-Time Low Side Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x08
3
2
1
0
DTLS[7:0]
DTLS
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - DTLS: Dead-Time Low Side
This register holds the number of peripheral clock cycles for the Dead-Time Low Side.
14.7.8
DTHS - Dead-Time High Side Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x09
3
2
1
0
DTHS[7:0]
DTHS
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - DTHS: Dead-Time High Side
This register holds the number of peripheral clock cycles for the Dead-Time High Side.
14.7.9
DTLSBUF - Dead-Time Low Side Buffer Register
Bit
7
6
5
+0x0A
4
3
2
1
0
DTLSBUF[7:0]
DTLSBUF
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - DTLSBUF: Dead-Time Low Side Buffer
This register is the buffer for the DTLS Register. If double buffering is used, valid contents in this
register is copied to the DTLS Register on an UPDATE condition.
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14.7.10
DTHSBUF - Dead-Time High Side Buffer Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x0B
3
2
1
0
DTHSBUF[7:0]
DTHSBUF
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - DTHSBUF: Dead-Time High Side Buffer
This register is the buffer for the DTHS Register. If double buffering is used, valid contents in this
register is copied to the DTHS Register on an UPDATE condition.
14.7.11
OUTOVEN - Output Override Enable Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x0C
(1)
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
Note:
3
2
1
0
OUTOVEN[7:0]
(1)
(1)
R/W
R/W
0
0
(1)
OUTOVEN
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
1. Can only be written if the fault detect flag (FDF) is zero.
• Bit 7:0 - OUTOVEN[7:0]: Output Override Enable
These bits enable override of corresponding port output register (i.e. one-to-one bit relation to
pin position). The port direction is not overridden
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14.8
Register Summary
Address
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
+0x00
Name
CTRL
–
–
PGM
CWCM
DTICDAEN
DTICCCEN
DTICCBEN
DTICCAEN
156
+0x01
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x02
FDEMASK
+0x03
FDCTRL
–
–
–
FDDBD
–
FDMODE
+0x04
STATUS
–
–
–
–
–
FDF
DTBHSV
DTBLSV
+0x05
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
FDEVMASK[7:0]
157
FDACT[1:0]
157
158
+0x06
DTBOTH
DTBOTH[7:0]
158
+0x07
DTBOTHBUF
DTBOTHBUF[7:0]
159
159
+0x08
DTLS
DTLS[7:0]
+0x09
DTHS
DTHS[7:0]
159
+0x0A
DTLSBUF
DTLSBUF[7:0]
159
+0x0B
DTHSBUF
DTHSBUF[7:0]
159
+0x0C
OUTOVEN
OUTOVEN[7:0]
160
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15. RTC - Real Time Counter
15.1
Features
• 16-bit resolution
• Selectable clock reference
•
•
•
•
•
15.2
– 32.768 kHz
– 1.024 kHz
Programmable prescaler
1 Compare register
1 Period register
Clear Timer on overflow
Optional Interrupt/ Event on overflow and compare match
Overview
The Real Time Counter (RTC) is a 16-bit counter, counting reference clock cycles and giving an
event and/or an interrupt request when it reaches a configurable compare and/or top value. The
reference clock is typically generated from a high accuracy crystal of 32.768 kHz, and the design
is optimized for low power consumption. The RTC typically operate in low power sleep modes,
keeping track of time and waking up the device at regular intervals.
The RTC reference clock may be taken from an 32.768 kHz or 1.024 kHz input. Both an external
32.768 kHz crystal oscillator or the 32.768 kHz internal RC oscillator can be selected as clock
source. For details on reference clock selection to the RTC refer to ”RTCCTRL - RTC Control
Register” on page 65 in the Clock System section. The RTC has a programmable prescaler to
scale down the reference clock before it reaches the Counter.
The RTC can generate both compare and overflow interrupt request and/or events.
Figure 15-1. Real Time Counter overview.
16-bit Period
Overflow
32.768 kHz
=
10-bit
prescaler
16-bit Counter
1.024 kHz
=
Compare Match
16-bit Compare
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15.2.1
Clock domains
The RTC is asynchronous, meaning it operates from a different clock source and independently
of the main System Clock and its derivative clocks such as the Peripheral Clock. For Control and
Count register updates it will take a number of RTC clock and/or Peripheral clock cycles before
an updated register value is available or until a configuration change has effect on the RTC. This
synchronization time is described for each register.
15.2.2
Interrupts and events
The RTC can generate both interrupts and events. The RTC will give a compare interrupt
request and/or event when the counter value equals the Compare register value. The RTC will
give an overflow interrupt request and/or event when the counter value equals the Period register value. The overflow will also reset the counter value to zero.
Due to the asynchronous clock domains event will only will only be generated for every third
overflow or compare if the period register is zero. If the period register is one, events will only be
generated for every second overflow or compare. When the period register is equal to or above
two, events will trigger at every overflow or compare just as the interrupt request.
15.3
15.3.1
Register Description
CTRL - Real Time Counter Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
+0x00
–
–
–
–
–
2
1
0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PRESCALER[2:0]
CTRL
• Bits 7:3 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bits 2:0 - PRESCALER[2:0]: RTC Clock Prescaling factor
These bits define the prescaling factor for the RTC clock before the counter according to Table
15-1 on page 163.
Table 15-1.
Real Time Counter Clock prescaling factor
PRESCALER[2:0]
Group Configuration
RTC clock prescaling
000
OFF
No clock source, RTC stopped
001
DIV1
RTC clock / 1 (No prescaling)
010
DIV2
RTC clock / 2
011
DIV8
RTC clock / 8
100
DIV16
RTC clock / 16
101
DIV64
RTC clock / 64
110
DIV256
RTC clock / 256
111
DIV1024
RTC clock / 1024
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15.3.2
STATUS - Real Time Counter Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x01
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SYNCBUSY
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STATUS
• Bits 7:1 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 0 - SYNCBUSY: RTC Synchronization Busy Flag
This bit is set when the CNT, CTRL or COMP register is busy synchronizing between the RTC
clock and system clock domains.
15.3.3
INTCTRL - Real Time Counter Interrupt Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x02
–
–
–
–
COMPINTLVL[1:0]
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
OVFINTLVL[1:0]
INTCTRL
• Bits 7:4 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bits 3:2 - COMPINTLVL[1:0]: RTC Compare Match Interrupt Enable
These bits enable the RTC Compare Match Interrupt and select the interrupt level as described
in ”Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller” on page 95. The enabled interrupt will trigger when the COMPIF in the INTFLAGS register is set.
• Bits 1:0 - OVFINTLVL[1:0]: RTC Overflow Interrupt Enable
These bits enable the RTC Overflow Interrupt and select the interrupt level as described in
”Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller” on page 95. The enabled interrupt
will trigger when the OVFIF in the INTFLAGS register is set.
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15.3.4
INTFLAGS - RTC Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x03
–
–
–
–
–
–
COMPIF
OVFIF
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
INTFLAGS
• Bits 7:2 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 1 - COMPIF: RTC Compare Match Interrupt Flag
This flag is set on the next count after a Compare Match condition occurs. The flag is cleared
automatically when RTC compare match interrupt vector is executed. The flag can also be
cleared by writing a one to its bit location.
• Bit 0 - OVFIF: RTC Overflow Interrupt Flag
This flag is set on the count after a overflow condition occurs. The flag is cleared automatically
when RTC overflow interrupt vector is executed. The flag can also be cleared by writing a one to
its bit location.
15.3.5
TEMP - RTC Temporary Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x04
3
2
1
0
TEMP[7:0]
TEMP
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bits 7:0 - TEMP[7:0]: Real Time Counter Temporary Register
This register is used for 16-bit access to the counter value, compare value and top value registers. The low byte of the 16-bit register is stored here when it is written by the CPU. The high
byte of the 16-bit register is stored when low byte is read by the CPU. For more details refer to
”Accessing 16-bits Registers” on page 12.
15.3.6
CNTH - Real Time Counter Register H
The CNTH and CNTL register pair represents the 16-bit value CNT. CNT counts positive clock
edges on the prescaled RTC clock. Reading and writing 16-bit values require special attention,
refer to ”Accessing 16-bits Registers” on page 12 for details.
Due to synchronization between RTC clock and the system clock domains, there is a latency of
two RTC clock cycles from updating the register until this has an effect. Application software
needs to check that the SYNCBUSY flag in the ”STATUS - Real Time Counter Status Register”
on page 164 is cleared before writing to this register.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x09
CNT[15:8]
CNTH
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• Bits 7:0 - CNT[15:8]: Real Time Counter value High byte
These bits hold the 8 MSB of the 16-bit Real Time Counter value.
15.3.7
CNTL - Real Time Counter Register L
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x08
CNT[7:0]
CNTL
• Bits 7:0 - CNT[7:0]: Real Time Counter value Low byte
These bits hold the 8 LSB of the 16-bit Real Time Counter value.
15.3.8
PERH - Real Time Counter Period Register High
The PERH and PERL register pair represents the 16-bit value PER. PER is constantly compared with the counter value (CNT). A match will set the OVFIF in the INTFLAGS register and
clear CNT. Reading and writing 16-bit values require special attention, refer to ”Accessing 16bits Registers” on page 12 for details.
Due to synchronization between RTC clock and the system clock domains, there is a latency of
two RTC clock cycles from updating the register until this has an effect. Application software
needs to check that the SYNCBUSY flag in the ”STATUS - Real Time Counter Status Register”
on page 164 is cleared before writing to this register.
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x0B
3
2
1
0
PER[15:8]
PERH
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
• Bits 7:0 - PER[15:8]: Real Time Counter Period High byte
These bits hold the 8 MSB of the 16-bit RTC top value.
15.3.9
PERL - Real Time Counter Period Register L
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
+0x0A
PER[7:0]
PERL
• Bits 7:0 - PER[7:0]: Real Time Counter Period Low byte
These bits hold the 8 LSB of the 16-bit RTC top value.
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15.3.10
COMPH - Real Time Counter Compare Register H
The COMPH and COMPL register pair represent the 16-bit value COMP. COMP is constantly
compared with the counter value (CNT). A compare match will set the COMPIF in the INTFLAGS register. Reading and writing 16-bit values require special attention, refer to
”Configuration Change Protection” on page 12 for details.
Due to synchronization between RTC clock and the system clock domains, there is a latency of
two RTC clock cycles from updating the register until this has an effect. Application SW needs to
check that the SYNCBUSY flag in the ”STATUS - Real Time Counter Status Register” on page
164 is cleared before writing to this register.
If the COMP value is higher than the PER value, no RTC Compare Match interrupt requests or
events will ever be generated.
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x0D
3
2
1
0
COMP[15:8]
COMPH
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bits 7:0 - COMP[15:8]: Real Time Counter Compare Register High byte
These bits hold the 8 MSB of the 16-bit RTC compare value.
15.3.11
COMPL - Real Time Counter Compare Register L
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x0C
COMP[7:0]
COMPL
• Bits 7:0 - COMP[7:0]: Real Time Counter Compare Register Low byte
These bits hold the 8 LSB of the 16-bit RTC compare value.
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15.4
Register Summary
Address
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
+0x00
CTRL
–
–
–
–
–
+0x01
STATUS
–
–
–
–
–
+0x02
INTCTRL
–
–
–
–
COMPINTLVL[1:0]
+0x03
INTFLAGS
–
–
–
–
–
+0x04
TEMP
TEMP[7:0]
165
+0x08
CNTL
CNT[7:0]
165
+0x09
CNTH
CNT[15:8]
166
+0x0A
PERL
PER[7:0]
166
+0x0B
PERH
PER[15:8]
166
+0x0C
COMPL
COMP[7:0]
167
+0x0D
COMPH
COMP[15:8]
167
15.5
Name
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
SYNCBUSY
164
PRESCALER[2:0]
–
–
–
163
OVFINTLVL[1:0]
COMPIF
OVFIF
164
165
Interrupt Vector Summary
Table 15-2.
RTC Interrupt vectors and their word offset address
Offset
Source
0x00
OVF_vect
0x02
COMP_vect
Interrupt Description
Real Time Counter Overflow Interrupt vector
Real Time Counter Compare Match Interrupt vector
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16. TWI – Two Wire Interface
16.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
16.2
Fully Independent Master and Slave Operation
Multi-Master, Single Master, or Slave Only Operation
Phillips I2C compatible
SMBus compatible
100 kHz and 400 kHz support at low system clock frequencies
Slew-Rate Limited Output Drivers
Input Filter provides noise suppression
7-bit, and General Call Address Recognition in Hardware
Address mask register for address masking or dual address match
10-bit addressing supported
Optional Software Address Recognition Provides Unlimited Number of Slave Addresses
Slave can operate in all sleep modes, including Power Down
Support for Arbitration between START/Repeated START and Data Bit (SMBus)
Slave Arbitration allows support for Address Resolve Protocol (ARP) (SMBus)
Overview
The Two Wire Interface (TWI) is bi-directional 2-wire bus communication, which is I2C and
SMBus compatible.
A device connected to the bus must act as a master or slave.The master initiates a data transaction by addressing a slave on the bus, and telling whether it wants to transmit or receive data.
One bus can have several masters, and an arbitration process handles priority if two or more
masters try to transmit at the same time.
The TWI module in XMEGA implements both master and slave functionality. The master and
slave functionality are separated from each other and can be enabled separately. They have
separate control and status register, and separate interrupt vectors. Arbitration lost, errors, collision and clock hold on the bus will be detected in hardware and indicated in separate status
flags available in both master and slave mode.
The master module contains a baud rate generator for flexible clock generation. Both 100 kHz
and 400 kHz bus frequency at low system clock speed is supported. Quick Command and Smart
Mode can be enabled to auto trigger operations and reduce software complexity.
For the slave, 7-bit and general address call recognition is implemented in hardware. 10-bit
addressing is also supported. A dedicated address mask register can act as a second address
match register or as a mask register for the slave address to match on a range of addresses.
The slave logic continues to operate in all sleep modes, including Power down. This enables the
slave to wake up from sleep on TWI address match. It is possible to disable the address matching and let this be handled in software instead. This allows the slave to detect and respond to
several addresses. Smart Mode can be enabled to auto trigger operations and reduce software
complexity.
The TWI module includes bus state logic that collects information to detect START and STOP
conditions, bus collision and bus errors. This is used to determine the bus state (idle, owner,
busy or unknown) in master mode. The bus state logic continues to operate in all sleep modes
including Power down.
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It is possible to disable the internal TWI drivers in the device, and enabling a 4-wire interface for
connecting external bus drivers.
16.3
General TWI Bus Concepts
The Two-Wire Interface (TWI) provides a simple two-wire bi-directional bus consisting of a serial
clock line (SCL) and a serial data line (SDA). The two lines are open collector lines (wired-AND),
and pull-up resistors (Rp) are the only external components needed to drive the bus. The pull-up
resistors will provide a high level on the lines when none of the connected devices are driving
the bus. A constant current source can be used as an alternative to the pull-up resistors.
The TWI bus is a simple and efficient method of interconnecting multiple devices on a serial bus.
A device connected to the bus can be a master or slave, where the master controls the bus and
all communication.
Figure 16-1 illustrates the TWI bus topology.
Figure 16-1. TWI Bus Topology
VCC
RP
RP
TWI
DEVICE #1
TWI
DEVICE #2
TWI
DEVICE #N
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
SDA
SCL
Note: RS is optional
A unique address is assigned to all slave devices connected to the bus, and the master will use
this to address a slave and initiate a data transaction. 7-bit or 10-bit addressing can be used.
Several masters can be connected to the same bus, and this is called a multi-master environment. An arbitration mechanism is provided for resolving bus ownership between masters since
only one master device may own the bus at any given time.
A device can contain both master and slave logic, and can emulate multiple slave devices by
responding to more than one address.
A master indicates the start of transaction by issuing a START condition (S) on the bus. An
address packet with a slave address (ADDRESS) and an indication whether the master wishes
to read or write data (R/W), is then sent. After all data packets (DATA) are transferred, the master issues a STOP condition (P) on the bus to end the transaction. The receiver must
acknowledge (A) or not-acknowledge (A) each byte received.
Figure 16-2 shows a TWI transaction.
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Figure 16-2. Basic TWI Transaction Diagram Topology
SDA
SCL
6 ... 0
S
ADDRESS
S
ADDRESS
7 ... 0
R/W
R/W
ACK
A
DATA
DATA
7 ... 0
ACK
A
DATA
P
ACK/NACK
DATA
A/A
P
Direction
Address Packet
Data Packet #0
Data Packet #1
Transaction
The master provides data on the bus
The master or slave can provide data on the bus
The slave provides data on the bus
The master provides the clock signal for the transaction, but a device connected to the bus is
allowed to stretch the low level period of the clock to decrease the clock speed.
16.3.1
Electrical Characteristics
The TWI in XMEGA follows the electrical specifications and timing of I2C and SMBus. These
specifications are not 100% compliant so to ensure correct behavior the inactive bus timeout
period should be set in TWI master mode.
16.3.2
START and STOP Conditions
Two unique bus conditions are used for marking the beginning (START) and end (STOP) of a
transaction. The master issues a START condition(S) by indicating a high to low transition on the
SDA line while the SCL line is kept high. The master completes the transaction by issuing a
STOP condition (P), indicated by a low to high transition on the SDA line while SCL line is kept
high.
Figure 16-3. START and STOP Conditions
SDA
SCL
S
P
START
Condition
STOP
Condition
Multiple START conditions can be issued during a single transaction. A START condition not
directly following a STOP condition, are named a Repeated START condition (Sr).
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16.3.3
Bit Transfer
As illustrated by Figure 16-4 a bit transferred on the SDA line must be stable for the entire high
period of the SCL line. Consequently the SDA value can only be changed during the low period
of the clock. This is ensured in hardware by the TWI module.
Figure 16-4. Data Validity
SDA
SCL
DATA
Valid
Change
Allowed
Combining bit transfers results in the formation of address and data packets. These packets
consist of 8 data bits (one byte) with the most significant bit transferred first, plus a single bit notacknowledge (NACK) or acknowledge (ACK) response. The addressed device signals ACK by
pulling the SCL line low, and NACK by leaving the line SCL high during the ninth clock cycle.
16.3.4
Address Packet
After the START condition, a 7-bit address followed by a read/write (R/W) bit is sent. This is
always transmitted by the Master. A slave recognizing its address will ACK the address by pulling the data line low the next SCL cycle, while all other slaves should keep the TWI lines
released, and wait for the next START and address. The 7-bit address, the R/W bit and the
acknowledge bit combined is the address packet. Only one address packet for each START
condition is given, also when 10-bit addressing is used.
The R/W specifies the direction of the transaction. If the R/W bit is low, it indicates a Master
Write transaction, and the master will transmit its data after the slave has acknowledged its
address. Opposite, for a Master Read operation the slave will start to transmit data after
acknowledging its address.
16.3.5
Data Packet
Data packets succeed an address packet or another data packet. All data packets are nine bits
long, consisting of one data byte and an acknowledge bit. The direction bit in the previous
address packet determines the direction in which the data is transferred.
16.3.6
Transaction
A transaction is the complete transfer from a START to a STOP condition, including any
Repeated START conditions in between. The TWI standard defines three fundamental transaction modes: Master Write, Master Read, and combined transaction.
Figure 16-5 illustrates the Master Write transaction. The master initiates the transaction by issuing a START condition (S) followed by an address packet with direction bit set to zero
(ADDRESS+W).
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Figure 16-5. Master Write Transaction
Transaction
Data Packet
Address Packet
S
ADDRESS
W
A
DATA
A
DATA
A/A
P
N data packets
Given that the slave acknowledges the address, the master can start transmitting data (DATA)
and the slave will ACK or NACK (A/A) each byte. If no data packets are to be transmitted, the
master terminates the transaction by issuing a STOP condition (P) directly after the address
packet. There are no limitations to the number of data packets that can be transferred. If the
slave signal a NACK to the data, the master must assume that the slave cannot receive any
more data and terminate the transaction.
Figure 16-6 illustrates the Master Read transaction. The master initiates the transaction by issuing a START condition followed by an address packet with direction bit set to one (ADRESS+R).
The addressed slave must acknowledge the address for the master to be allowed to continue
the transaction.
Figure 16-6. Master Read Transaction
Transaction
Data Packet
Address Packet
S
ADDRESS
R
A
DATA
A
DATA
A
P
N data packets
Given that the slave acknowledges the address, the master can start receiving data from the
slave. There are no limitations to the number of data packets that can be transferred. The slave
transmits the data while the master signals ACK or NACK after each data byte. The master terminates the transfer with a NACK before issuing a STOP condition.
Figure 16-7 illustrates a combined transaction. A combined transaction consists of several read
and write transactions separated by a Repeated START conditions (Sr).
Figure 16-7. Combined Transaction
Transaction
Address Packet #1
S
ADDRESS
N Data Packets
R/W A
Direction
DATA
Address Packet #2
A/A Sr
ADDRESS
M Data Packets
R/W A
DATA
A/A
P
Direction
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16.3.7
Clock and Clock Stretching
All devices connected to the bus are allowed to stretch the low period of the clock to slow down
the overall clock frequency or to insert wait states while processing data. A device that needs to
stretch the clock can do this by holding/forcing the SCL line low after it detects a low level on the
line.
Three types of clock stretching can be defined as shown in Figure 16-8.
Figure 16-8. Clock Stretching
SDA
bit 7
bit 6
bit 0
ACK/NACK
SCL
S
Wakeup clock
stretching
Periodic clock
stretching
Random clock
stretching
If the device is in a sleep mode and a START condition is detected the clock is stretched during
the wake-up period for the device.
A slave device can slow down the bus frequency by stretching the clock periodically on a bit
level. This allows the slave to run at a lower system clock frequency. However, the overall performance of the bus will be reduced accordingly. Both the master and slave device can
randomly stretch the clock on a byte level basis before and after the ACK/NACK bit. This provides time to process incoming or prepare outgoing data, or performing other time critical tasks.
In the case where the slave is stretching the clock the master will be forced into a wait-state until
the slave is ready and vice versa.
16.3.8
Arbitration
A master can only start a bus transaction if it has detected that the bus is idle. As the TWI bus is
a multi master bus, it is possible that two devices initiate a transaction at the same time. This
results in multiple masters owning the bus simultaneously. This is solved using an arbitration
scheme where the master loses control of the bus if it is not able to transmit a high level on the
SDA line. The masters who lose arbitration must then wait until the bus becomes idle (i.e. wait
for a STOP condition) before attempting to reacquire bus ownership. Slave devices are not
involved in the arbitration procedure.
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Figure 16-9. TWI Arbitration
DEVICE1 Loses arbitration
DEVICE1_SDA
DEVICE2_SDA
SDA
(wired-AND)
bit 7
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
SCL
S
Figure 16-9 shows an example where two TWI masters are contending for bus ownership. Both
devices are able to issue a START condition, but DEVICE1 loses arbitration when attempting to
transmit a high level (bit 5) while DEVICE2 is transmitting a low level.
Arbitration between a repeated START condition and a data bit, a STOP condition and a data
bit, or a repeated START condition and STOP condition are not allowed and will require special
handling by software.
16.3.9
Synchronization
A clock synchronization algorithm is necessary for solving situations where more than one master is trying to control the SCL line at the same time. The algorithm is based on the same
principles used for clock stretching previously described. Figure 16-10 shows an example where
two masters are competing for the control over the bus clock. The SCL line is the wired-AND
result of the two masters clock outputs.
Figure 16-10. Clock Synchronization
Low Period
Count
Wait
State
High Period
Count
DEVICE1_SCL
DEVICE2_SCL
SCL
(wired-AND)
A high to low transition on the SCL line will force the line low for all masters on the bus and they
start timing their low clock period. The timing length of the low clock period can vary between the
masters. When a master (DEVICE1 in this case) has completed its low period it releases the
SCL line. However, the SCL line will not go high before all masters have released it. Consequently the SCL line will be held low by the device with the longest low period (DEVICE2).
Devices with shorter low periods must insert a wait-state until the clock is released. All masters
start their high period when the SCL line is released by all devices and has become high. The
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device which first completes its high period (DEVICE1) forces the clock line low and the procedure are then repeated. The result of this is that the device with the shortest clock period
determines the high period while the low period of the clock is determined by the longest clock
period.
16.4
TWI Bus State Logic
The bus state logic continuously monitors the activity on the TWI bus lines when the master is
enabled. It continues to operate in all sleep modes, including Power down.
The bus state logic includes START and STOP condition detectors, collision detection, inactive
bus timeout detection, and bit counter. This is used to determine the bus state. Software can get
the current bus state by reading the Bus State bits in the Master Status register. The bus state
can be 'unknown', 'idle', 'busy' or 'owner' and is determined according to the state diagram
shown in Figure 16-11. The value of the Bus State bits according to state is shown in binary in
the figure.
Figure 16-11. Bus State, State Diagram
RESET
UNKNOWN
(0b00)
P + Timeout
S
Sr
IDLE
BUSY
P + Timeout
(0b01)
(0b11)
Command P
Arbitration
Lost
Write ADDRESS
(S)
OWNER
(0b10)
Write
ADDRESS(Sr)
After a system reset, the bus state is unknown. From this the bus state machine can be forced to
enter idle by writing to the Bus State bits accordingly. If no state is set by application software
the bus state will become idle when a STOP condition is detected. If the Master Inactive Bus
Timeout is enabled the bus state will change to idle on the occurrence of a timeout. After a
known bus state is established the bus state will not re-enter the unknown state from any of the
other states. Only a system reset or disabling the TWI master will set the state to unknown.
When the bus is idle it is ready for a new transaction. If a START condition generated externally
is detected, the bus becomes busy until a STOP condition is detected. The STOP condition will
change the bus state to idle. If the Master Inactive Bus Timeout is enabled bus state will change
from busy to idle on the occurrence of a timeout.
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If a START condition is generated internally while in idle state the owner state is entered. If the
complete transaction was performed without interference, i.e. no collisions are detected, the
master will issue a STOP condition and the bus state changes back to idle. If a collision is
detected the arbitration is assumed lost and the bus state becomes busy until a STOP condition
is detected. A Repeated START condition will only change the bus state if arbitration is lost during the issuing of the Repeated START.
16.5
TWI Master Operation
The TWI master is byte-oriented with optional interrupt after each byte. There are separate interrupts for Master Write and Master Read. Interrupt flags can also be used for polled operation.
There are dedicated status flags for indicating ACK/NACK received, bus error, arbitration lost,
clock hold and bus state.
When an interrupt flag is set, the SCL line is forced low. This will give the master time to respond
or handle any data, and will in most cases require software interaction. Figure 16-12 shows the
TWI master operation. The diamond shaped symbols (SW) indicate where software interaction
is required. Clearing the interrupt flags, releases the SCL line.
Figure 16-12. TWI Master Operation
APPLICATION
MASTER WRITE INTERRUPT + HOLD
M1
M2
BUSY
P
M3
IDLE
S
Wait for
IDLE
SW
M4
ADDRESS
R/W BUSY
SW
R/W
A
SW
P
W
A
SW
Sr
M2
IDLE
M3
BUSY
DATA
SW
SW
M1
BUSY
M4
A/A
Driver software
MASTER READ INTERRUPT + HOLD
The master provides data
on the bus
SW
Slave provides data on
the bus
A
A/A
BUSY
P
IDLE
M4
M2
Bus state
A/A Sr
Mn
M3
Diagram connections
A/A
R
A
DATA
The number of interrupts generated is kept at a minimum by automatic handling of most conditions. Quick Command and Smart Mode can be enabled to auto trigger operations and reduce
software complexity.
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16.5.1
Transmitting Address Packets
After issuing a START condition, the master starts performing a bus transaction when the master Address register is written with the slave address and direction bit. If the bus is busy the TWI
master will wait until the bus becomes idle. When the bus is idle the master will issue a START
condition on the bus before the address byte is transmitted.
Depending on arbitration and the R/W direction bit one of four distinct cases (1 to 4) arises following the address packet. The different cases must be handled in software.
16.5.1.1
Case M1: Arbitration lost or bus error during address packet
If arbitration is lost during the sending of the address packet the master Write Interrupt Flag and
Arbitration Lost flag are both set. Serial data output to the SDA line is disabled and the SCL line
is released. The master is no longer allowed to perform any operation on the bus until the bus
state has changed back to idle.
A bus error will behave in the same way as an arbitration lost condition, but the Error flag is set
in addition to Write Interrupt Flag and Arbitration Lost flag.
16.5.1.2
Case M2: Address packet transmit complete - Address not acknowledged by slave
If no slave device responds to the address the master Write Interrupt Flag is set and the master
Received Acknowledge flag is set. The clock hold is active at this point preventing further activity
on the bus.
16.5.1.3
Case M3: Address packet transmit complete - Direction bit cleared
If the master receives an ACK from the slave, the master Write Interrupt Flag is set, and the
master Received Acknowledge flag is cleared. The clock hold is active at this point preventing
further activity on the bus.
16.5.1.4
Case M4: Address packet transmit complete - Direction bit set
If the master receives an ACK from the slave, the master proceeds receiving the next byte of
data from the slave. When the first data byte is received the master Read Interrupt Flag is set
and the master Received Acknowledge flag is cleared. The clock hold is active at this point preventing further activity on the bus.
16.5.2
Transmitting Data Packets
Assuming case 3 above, the master can start transmitting data by writing to the master Data register. If the transfer was successful the slave will signal with ACK. The master Write Interrupt
Flag is set, the master Received Acknowledge flag is cleared and the master can prepare new
data to send. During data transfer the master is continuously monitoring the bus for collisions.
The Received Acknowledge flag must be checked for each data packet transmitted before the
next data packet can be transferred. The master is not allowed to continue transmitting data if
the slave signals a NACK.
If a collision is detected and the master looses arbitration during transfer, the Arbitration Lost
flag is set.
16.5.3
Receiving Data Packets
Assuming case 4 above the master has already received one byte from the slave. The master
Read Interrupt Flag is set, and the master must prepare to receive new data. The master must
respond to each byte with ACK or NACK. Indicating a NACK might not be successfully executed
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since arbitration can be lost during the transmission. If a collision is detected the master looses
arbitration and the Arbitration Lost flag is set.
16.6
TWI Slave Operation
The TWI slave is byte-oriented with optional interrupts after each byte. There are separate slave
Data Interrupt and Address/Stop Interrupt. Interrupt flags can also be used for polled operation.
There are dedicated status flags for indicating ACK/NACK received, clock hold, collision, bus
error and read/write direction.
When an interrupt flag is set, the SCL line is forced low. This will give the slave time to respond
or handle any data, and will in most cases require software interaction. Figure 16-13. shows the
TWI slave operation. The diamond shapes symbols (SW) indicate where software interaction is
required.
Figure 16-13. TWI Slave Operation
SLAVE ADDRESS INTERRUPT
S1
S3
S2
S
A
ADDRESS
R
SW
P
S2
Sr
S3
DATA
SW
S1
P
S2
Sr
S3
A/A
Driver software
The master provides data
on the bus
Slave provides data on
the bus
Sn
S1
A
A
SW
SLAVE DATA INTERRUPT
W
SW
Interrupt on STOP
Condition Enabled
SW
Collision
(SMBus)
SW
A/A
Release
Hold
DATA
SW
A/A
S1
Diagram connections
The number of interrupts generated is kept at a minimum by automatic handling of most conditions. Quick Command can be enabled to auto trigger operations and reduce software
complexity.
Promiscuous Mode can be enabled to allow the slave to respond to all received addresses.
16.6.1
Receiving Address Packets
When the TWI slave is properly configured, it will wait for a START condition to be detected.
When this happens, the successive address byte will be received and checked by the address
match logic, and the slave will ACK the correct address. If the received address is not a match,
the slave will not acknowledge the address and wait for a new START condition.
The slave Address/Stop Interrupt Flag is set when a START condition succeeded by a valid
address packet is detected. A general call address will also set the interrupt flag.
A START condition immediately followed by a STOP condition, is an illegal operation and the
Bus Error flag is set.
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The R/W Direction flag reflects the direction bit received with the address. This can be read by
software to determine the type of operation currently in progress.
Depending on the R/W direction bit and bus condition one of four distinct cases (1 to 4) arises
following the address packet. The different cases must be handled in software.
16.6.1.1
Case 1: Address packet accepted - Direction bit set
If the R/W Direction flag is set, this indicates a master read operation. The SCL line is forced
low, stretching the bus clock. If ACK is sent by the slave, the slave hardware will set the Data
Interrupt Flag indicating data is needed for transmit. If NACK is sent by the slave, the slave will
wait for a new condition and address match.
16.6.1.2
Case 2: Address packet accepted - Direction bit cleared
If the R/W Direction flag is cleared this indicates a master write operation. The SCL line is forced
low, stretching the bus clock. If ACK is sent by the slave, the slave will wait for data to be
received. Data, Repeated START or STOP can be received after this. If NACK is indicated the
slave will wait for a new START condition and address match.
16.6.1.3
Case 3: Collision
If the slave is not able to send a high level or NACK, the Collision flag is set and it will disable the
data and acknowledge output from the slave logic. The clock hold is released. A START or
repeated START condition will be accepted.
16.6.1.4
Case 4: STOP condition received.
Operation is the same as case 1 or 2 above with one exception. When the STOP condition is
received, the Slave Address/Stop flag will be set indicating that a STOP condition and not an
address match occurred.
16.6.2
Receiving Data Packets
The slave will know when an address packet with R/W direction bit cleared has been successfully received. After acknowledging this, the slave must be ready to receive data. When a data
packet is received the Data Interrupt Flag is set, and the slave must indicate ACK or NACK.
After indicating a NACK, the slave must expect a STOP or Repeated START condition.
16.6.3
Transmitting Data Packets
The slave will know when an address packet, with R/W direction bit set, has been successfully
received. It can then start sending data by writing to the Slave Data register. When a data packet
transmission is completed, the Data Interrupt Flag is set. If the master indicates NACK, the slave
must stop transmitting data, and expect a STOP or Repeated START condition.
16.7
Enabling External Driver Interface
An external drivers interface can be enabled. When this is done the internal TWI drivers with
input filtering and slew rate control are bypassed. The normal I/O pin function is used and the
direction must be configured by the user software. When this mode is enabled an external TWI
compliant tri-state driver is needed for connecting to a TWI bus.
By default port pin 0 (Pn0) and 1 (Pn1) is used for SDA and SCL. The external driver interface
uses port pin 0 to 3 for the signals SDA_IN, SCL_IN, SDA_OUT and SCL_OUT.
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16.8
16.8.1
Register Description - TWI
CTRL– TWI Common Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x00
–
–
–
–
–
–
SDAHOLD
EDIEN
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTRL
• Bit 7:2 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 1 - SDAHOLD: SDA Hold Time Enable.
Setting this bit to one enables an internal hold time on SDA with respect to the negative edge of
SCL.
• Bit 0 - EDIEN: External Driver Interface Enable
Setting this bit enables the use of the external driver interface, clearing this bit enables normal
two wire mode. See Table 16-1 for details.
Table 16-1.
EDIEN
16.9
16.9.1
External Driver Interface Enable
Mode
Comment
0
Normal TWI
Two pin interface,
Slew rate control and input filter.
1
External Driver
Interface
Four pin interface,
Standard I/O, no slew-rate control, no input filter.
Register Description - TWI Master
CTRLA - TWI Master Control Register A
Bit
7
+0x00
6
INTLVL[1:0]
5
4
3
2
1
0
RIEN
WIEN
ENABLE
–
–
–
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTRLA
• Bit 7:6 - INTLVL[1:0]: Interrupt Level
The Interrupt Level (INTLVL) bit select the interrupt level for the TWI master interrupts.
• Bit 5 - RIEN: Read Interrupt Enable
Setting the Read Interrupt Enable (RIEN) bit enables the Read Interrupt when the Read Interrupt
Flag (RIF) in the STATUS register is set. In addition the INTLVL bits must be unequal zero for
TWI master interrupts to be generated.
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• Bit 4 - WIEN: Write Interrupt Enable
Setting the Write Interrupt Enable (WIEN) bit enables the Write Interrupt when the Write Interrupt
Flag (WIF) in the STATUS register is set. In addition the INTLVL bits must be unequal zero for
TWI master interrupts to be generated.
• Bit 3 - ENABLE: Enable TWI Master
Setting the Enable TWI Master (ENABLE) bit enables the TWI Master.
• Bit 2:0 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
16.9.2
CTRLB - TWI Master Control Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
+0x01
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
QCEN
SMEN
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
TIMEOUT[1:0]
CTRLB
• Bit 7:4 - Reserved Bits
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 3:2 - TIMEOUT[1:0]: Inactive Bus Timeout
Setting the Inactive Bus Timeout (TIMEOUT) bits unequal zero will enable the inactive bus timeout supervisor. If the bus is inactive for longer than the TIMEOUT settings, the bus state logic
will enter the idle state.
Figure 16-2 lists the timeout settings.
Table 16-2.
TWI master inactive bus timeout settings
TIMEOUT[1:0]
Group Configuration
Description
00
DISABLED
01
50US
10
100US
100 µs
11
200US
200 µs
Disabled, normally used for I2C
50 µs, normally used for SMBus at 100 kHz
• Bit 1 - QCEN: Quick Command Enable
Setting the Quick Command Enable (QCEN) bit enables Quick Command. When Quick Command is enabled, a STOP condition is sent immediate after the slave acknowledges the
address.
• Bit 0 - SMEN: Smart Mode Enable
Setting the Smart Mode Enable (SMEN) bit enables Smart Mode. When Smart mode is enabled,
the Acknowledge Action, as set by the ACKACT bit in Control Register C, is sent immediately
after reading the DATA register.
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16.9.3
CTRLC - TWI Master Control Register C
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x02
–
–
–
–
–
ACKACT
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CMD[1:0]
CTRLC
• Bits 7:3 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 2 - ACKACT: Acknowledge Action
The Acknowledge Action (ACKACT) bit defines the master's acknowledge behavior in Master
Read mode. The Acknowledge Action is executed when a command is written to the CMD bits. If
SMEN in Control Register B is set, the Acknowledge Action is performed when the DATA register is read.
Table 16-3 lists the acknowledge actions.
Table 16-3.
ACKACT Bit Description
ACKACT
Action
0
Send ACK
1
Send NACK
• Bit 1:0 - CMD[1:0]: Command
Writing the Command (CMD) bits triggers a master operation as defined by Table 16-4. The
CMD bits are strobe bits, and always read as zero. The Acknowledge Action is only valid in Master Read mode (R). In Master Write mode (W), a command will only result in a Repeated START
or STOP condition. The ACKACT bit and the CMD bits can be written at the same time, and then
the Acknowledge Action will be updated before the command is triggered.
Table 16-4.
CMD Bit Description
CMD[1:0]
MODE
Operation
00
X
Reserved
01
X
Execute Acknowledge Action succeeded by repeated START
condition
W
No operation
R
Execute Acknowledge Action succeeded by a byte receive
X
Execute Acknowledge Action succeeded by issuing a STOP
condition
10
11
Writing a command to the CMD bits will clear the master interrupt flags and the CLKHOLD flag.
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16.9.4
STATUS - Master Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x03
RIF
WIF
CLKHOLD
RXACK
ARBLOST
BUSERR
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
BUSSTATE[1:0]
STATUS
• Bit 7 - RIF: Read Interrupt Flag
This Read Interrupt Flag (RIF) is set when a byte is successfully received in Master Read mode,
i.e. no arbitration lost or bus error occurred during the operation. Writing a one to this bit location
will clear the RIF. When this flag is set the master forces the SCL line low, stretching the TWI
clock period. Clearing the interrupt flags will release the SCL line.
This flag is also automatically cleared when:
• Writing to the ADDR register.
• Writing to the DATA register.
• Reading the DATA register.
• Writing a valid command to the CMD bits in the CTRLC register.
• Bit 6 - WIF: Write Interrupt Flag
The Write Interrupt Flag (WIF) flag is set when a byte is transmitted in Master Write mode. The
flag is set regardless of the occurrence of a bus error or an arbitration lost condition. The WIF is
also set if arbitration is lost during sending of NACK in Master Read mode, and if issuing a
START condition when the bus state is unknown. Writing a one to this bit location will clear the
WIF. When this flag is set the master forces the SCL line low, stretching the TWI clock period.
Clearing the interrupt flags will release the SCL line.
The flag is also automatically cleared for the same conditions as RIF.
• Bit 5 - CLKHOLD: Clock Hold
The master Clock Hold (CLKHOLD) flag is set when the master is holding the SCL line low. This
is a status flag, and a read only bit that is set when the RIF and WIF is set. Clearing the interrupt
flags and releasing the SCL line, will indirectly clear this flag.
The flag is also automatically cleared for the same conditions as RIF.
• Bit 4 - RXACK: Received Acknowledge
The Received Acknowledge (RXACK) flag contains the most recently received acknowledge bit
from slave. This is a read only flag. When read as zero the most recent acknowledge bit from the
slave was ACK, and when read as one the most recent acknowledge bit was NACK.
• Bit 3 - ARBLOST: Arbitration Lost
The Arbitration Lost (ARBLOST) flag is set if arbitration is lost while transmitting a high data bit,
a NACK bit, or while issuing a START or Repeated START condition on the bus. Writing a one
to this bit location will clear the ARBLOST flag.
Writing the ADDR register will automatically clear the ARBLOST flag.
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• Bit 2 - BUSERR: Bus Error
The Bus Error (BUSERR) flag is set if an illegal bus condition has occurred. An illegal bus condition occurs if a Repeated START or STOP condition is detected, and the number of bits from the
previous START condition is not a multiple of nine. Writing a one to this bit location will clear the
BUSERR flag.
Writing the ADDR register will automatically clear the BUSERR flag.
• Bit 1:0 - BUSSTATE[1:0]: Bus State
The Bus State (BUSSTATE) bits indicate the current TWI bus state as defined in Table 16-5.
The change of bus state is dependent on bus activity. Refer to the Section 16.4 ”TWI Bus State
Logic” on page 176.
Table 16-5.
TWI master Bus State
BUSSTATE[1:0]
Group Configuration
00
UNKNOWN
01
IDLE
10
OWNER
11
BUSY
Description
Unknown Bus State
Idle
Owner
Busy
Writing 01 to the BUSSTATE bits forces the bus state logic into idle state. The bus state logic
cannot be forced into any other state. When the master is disabled, and after reset the Bus State
logic is disabled and the bus state is unknown.
16.9.5
BAUD - TWI Baud Rate Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x04
BAUD[7:0]
BAUD
The Baud Rate (BAUD) register defines the relation between the system clock and the TWI Bus
Clock (SCL) frequency. The frequency relation can be expressed by using the following
equation:
f sys
f TWI = ---------------------------------------- [Hz]
2(5 + TWMBR)
[1]
The BAUD register must be set to a value that results in a TWI bus clock frequency (fTWI) equal
or less 100 kHz or 400 kHz dependent on standard used by the application. The following equation [2] expresses equation [1] with respect to the BAUD value:
f sys
TWMBR = ------------- – 5 [2]
2f TWI
The BAUD register should be written while the master is disabled.
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16.9.6
ADDR - TWI Master Address Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x05
3
2
1
0
ADDR[7:0]
ADDR
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
When the Address (ADDR) register is written with a slave address and the R/W-bit while the bus
is idle, a START condition is issued, and the 7-bit slave address and the R/W-bit are transmitted
on the bus. If the bus is already owned when ADDR is written, a Repeated START is issued. If
the previous transaction was a Master Read and no acknowledge is sent yet, the Acknowledge
Action is sent before the Repeated START condition.
After completing the operation and the acknowledge bit from the slave is received, the SCL line
is forced low if arbitration was not lost. The WIF is set.
If the Bus State is unknown when ADDR is written. The WIF is set, and the BUSERR flag is set.
All TWI master flags are automatically cleared when ADDR is written. This includes BUSERR,
ARBLOST, RIF, and WIF. The Master ADDR can be read at any time without interfering with
ongoing bus activity.
16.9.7
DATA -TWI Master Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x05
3
2
1
0
DATA[7:0]
DATA
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The data (DATA) register is used when transmitting and receiving data. During data transfer,
data is shifted from/to the DATA register and to/from the bus. This implies that the DATA register
cannot be accessed during byte transfers, and this is protected in hardware. The Data register
can only be accessed when the SCL line is held low by the master, i.e. when CLKHOLD is set.
In Master Write mode, writing the DATA register will trigger a data byte transfer, followed by the
master receiving the acknowledge bit from the slave. The WIF and the CLKHOLD flag are set.
In Master Read mode the RIF and the CLKHOLD flag are set when one byte is received in the
DATA register. If Smart Mode is enabled, reading the DATA register will trigger the bus operation as set by the ACKACT bit. If a bus error occurs during reception the WIF and BUSERR flag
are set instead of the RIF.
Accessing the DATA register will clear the master interrupt flags and the CLKHOLD flag.
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16.10 Register Description - TWI Slave
16.10.1
CTRLA - TWI Slave Control Register A
Bit
7
+0x00
6
INTLVL[1:0]
5
4
3
2
1
0
DIEN
APIEN
ENABLE
PIEN
PMEN
SMEN
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTRLA
• Bit 7:6 - INTLVL[1:0]: TWI Slave Interrupt Level
The Slave Interrupt Level (INTLVL) bits select the interrupt level for the TWI slave interrupts.
• Bit 5 - DIEN: Data Interrupt Enable
Setting the Data Interrupt Enable (DIEN) bit enables the Data Interrupt when the Data Interrupt
Flag (DIF) in the STATUS register is set. The INTLVL bits must be unequal zero for the interrupt
to be generated.
• Bit 4 - APIEN: Address/Stop Interrupt Enable
Setting the Address/Stop Interrupt Enable (APIEN) bit enables the Address/Stop Interrupt when
the Address/Stop Interrupt Flag (APIF) in the STATUS register is set. The INTLVL bits must be
unequal zero for interrupt to be generated.
• Bit 3 - ENABLE: Enable TWI Slave
Setting the Enable TWI Slave (ENABLE) bit enables the TWI slave.
• Bit 2 - PIEN: Stop Interrupt Enable
Setting the Stop Interrupt Enable (PIEN) bit will set the APIF in the STATUS register when a
STOP condition is detected.
• Bit 1 - PMEN: Promiscuous Mode Enable
By setting the Promiscuous Mode Enable (PMEN) bit, the slave address match logic responds to
all received addresses. If this bit is cleared, the address match logic uses the ADDR register to
determine which address to recognize as its own address.
• Bit 0 - SMEN: Smart Mode Enable
Setting the Smart Mode Enable (SMEN) bit enables Smart Mode. When Smart mode is enabled,
the Acknowledge Action, as set by the ACKACT bit in the CTRLB register, is sent immediately
after reading the DATA register.
16.10.2
CTRLB - TWI Slave Control Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x01
–
–
–
–
–
ACKACT
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CMD[1:0]
CTRLB
• Bit 7:3 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
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• Bit 2 - ACKACT: Acknowledge Action
The Acknowledge Action (ACKACT) bit defines the slave's acknowledge behavior after an
address or data byte is received from the master. The Acknowledge Action is executed when a
command is written to the CMD bits. If the SMEN bit in the CTRLA register is set, the Acknowledge Action is performed when the DATA register is read.
Table 16-6 lists the acknowledge actions.
Table 16-6.
TWI slave acknowledge action
ACKACT
Action
0
Send ACK
1
Send NACK
• Bit 1:0 - CMD[1:0]: Command
Writing the Command (CMD) bits triggers the slave operation as defined by Table 16-7. The
CMD bits are strobe bits, and always read as zero. The operation is dependent on the slave
interrupt flags, DIF and APIF. The Acknowledge Action is only executed when the slave receives
data bytes or address byte from the master.
Table 16-7.
TWI slave command
CMD[1:0]
DIR
Operation
00
X
No action
01
X
Reserved
Used to complete transaction
10
0
Execute Acknowledge Action succeeded by waiting for any START
(S/Sr) condition.
1
Wait for any START (S/Sr) condition.
Used in response to an Address Byte (APIF is set)
0
Execute Acknowledge Action succeeded by reception of next byte.
1
Execute Acknowledge Action succeeded by the DIF being set
11
Used in response to a Data Byte (DIF is set)
0
Execute Acknowledge Action succeeded by waiting for the next byte.
1
No operation.
Writing the CMD bits will automatically clear the slave interrupt flags, the CLKHOLD flag and
release the SCL line. The ACKACT bit and CMD bits can be written at the same time, and then
the Acknowledge Action will be updated before the command is triggered.
16.10.3
STATUS– TWI Slave Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x02
DIF
APIF
CLKHOLD
RXACK
COLL
BUSERR
DIR
AP
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STATUS
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• Bit 7 - DIF: Data Interrupt Flag
The Data Interrupt Flag (DIF) is set when a data byte is successfully received, i.e. no bus error
or collision occurred during the operation. Writing a one to this bit location will clear the DIF.
When this flag is set the slave forces the SCL line low, stretching the TWI clock period. Clearing
the interrupt flags will release the SCL line.
This flag is also automatically cleared when writing a valid command to the CMD bits in the
CTRLB register
• Bit 6 - APIF: Address/Stop Interrupt Flag
The Address/Stop Interrupt Flag (APIF) is set when the slave detects that a valid address has
been received, or when a transmit collision is detected. If the PIEN bit in the CTRLA register is
set a STOP condition on the bus will also set APIF. Writing a one to this bit location will clear the
APIF. When this flag is set the slave forces the SCL line low, stretching the TWI clock period.
Clearing the interrupt flags will release the SCL line.
The flag is also automatically cleared for the same condition as DIF.
• Bit 5 - CLKHOLD: Clock Hold
The slave Clock Hold (CLKHOLD) flag is set when the slave is holding the SCL line low.This is a
status flag, and a read only bit that is set when the DIF or APIF is set. Clearing the interrupt flags
and releasing the SCL line, will indirectly clear this flag.
• Bit 4 - RXACK: Received Acknowledge
The Received Acknowledge (RXACK) flag contains the most recently received acknowledge bit
from the master. This is a read only flag. When read as zero the most recent acknowledge bit
from the maser was ACK, and when read as one the most recent acknowledge bit was NACK.
• Bit 3 - COLL: Collision
The slave Collision (COLL) flag is set when slave is not been able to transfer a high data bit or a
NACK bit. If a collision is detected, the slave will commence its normal operation, disable data
and acknowledge output, and no low values will be shifted out onto the SDA line. Writing a one
to this bit location will clear the COLL flag.
The flag is also automatically cleared when a START or Repeated START condition is detected.
• Bit 2 - BUSERR: TWI Slave Bus Error
The slave Buss Error (BUSERR) flag is set when an illegal bus condition has occurs during a
transfer. An illegal bus condition occurs if a Repeated START or STOP condition is detected,
and the number of bits from the previous START condition is not a multiple of nine. Writing a one
to this bit location will clear the BUSERR flag.
For bus errors to be detected, the bus state logic must be enabled. This is done by enable TWI
master.
• Bit 1 - DIR: Read/Write Direction
The Read/Write Direction (DIR) flag reflects the direction bit from the last address packet
received from a master. When this bit is read as one, a Master Read operation is in progress.
When read as zero a Master Write operation is in progress.
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• Bit 0 - AP: Slave Address or Stop
The Slave Address or Stop (AP) flag indicates whether a valid address or a STOP condition
caused the last setting of the APIF in the STATUS register.
Table 16-8.
TWI slave address or stop
AP
16.10.4
Description
0
A stop condition generated the interrupt on APIF
1
Address detection generated the interrupt on APIF
ADDR - TWI Slave Address Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x03
ADDR[7:0]
ADDR
The slave address (ADDR) register contains the TWI slave address used by the slave address
match logic to determine if a master has addressed the slave. When using 7-bit or 10-bit
address recognition mode, the upper 7-bits of the address register (ADDR[7:1]) represents the
slave address. The least significant bit (ADDR[0]) is used for general call address recognition.
Setting ADDR[0] enables general call address recognition logic.
When using 10-bit addressing the address match logic only support hardware address recognition of the first byte of a 10-bit address. By setting ADDR[7:1] = "0b11110nn", 'nn' represents bit
9 and 8 or the slave address. The next byte received is bit 7 to 0 in the 10-bit address, and this
must be handled by software.
When the address match logic detects that a valid address byte is received, the APIF is set, and
the DIR flag is updated.
If the PMEN bit in the CTRLA register is set, the address match logic responds to all addresses
transmitted on the TWI bus. The ADDR register is not used in this mode.
16.10.5
DATA - TWI Slave Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x04
3
2
1
0
DATA[7:0]
DATA
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The data (DATA) register is used when transmitting and received data. During data transfer,
data is shifted from/to the DATA register and to/from the bus. This implies that the DATA register
cannot be accessed during byte transfers, and this is protected in hardware. The Data register
can only be accessed when the SCL line is held low by the slave, i.e. when CLKHOLD is set.
When a master is reading data from the slave, data to send must be written to the DATA register. The byte transfer is started when the Master start to clock the data byte from the slave,
followed by the slave receiving the acknowledge bit from the master. The DIF and the CLKHOLD
flag are set.
When a master write data to the slave the DIF and the CLKHOLD flag are set when one byte is
received in the DATA register. If Smart Mode is enabled, reading the DATA register will trigger
the bus operation as set by the ACKACT bit.
Accessing the DATA register will clear the slave interrupt flags and the CLKHOLD flag.
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16.10.6
ADDRMASK - TWI Slave Address Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
+0x05
4
3
2
1
ADDRMASK[7:1]
0
ADDREN
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADDRMASK
• Bit 7:1 - ADDRMASK[7:1]: Read/Write Direction
These bits in the ADDRMASK register can act as a second address match register, or an
address mask register depending on the ADDREN setting.
If ADDREN is set to zero, ADDRMASK can be loaded with a 7-bit Slave Address mask. Each bit
in ADDRMASK can mask (disable) the corresponding address bit in the ADDR register. If the
mask bit is one the address match between the incoming address bit and the corresponding bit
in ADDR is ignored, i.e. masked bits will always match.
If ADDREN is set to one, ADDRMASK can be loaded with a second slave address in addition to
the ADDR register. In this mode, the slave will match on 2 unique addresses, one in ADDR and
the other in ADDRMASK.
• Bit 0- ADDREN: Address Enable
By default this bit is zero and the ADDRMASK bits acts as an address mask to the ADDR register. If this bit is set to one, the slave address match logic responds to the 2 unique addresses in
ADDR and ADDRMASK.
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16.11 Register Summary - TWI
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
–
–
–
–
–
–
SDAHOLD
EDIEN
181
+0x00
CTRL
+0x01
MASTER
Offset address for TWI Master
+0x08
SLAVE
Offset address for TWI Slave
16.12 Register Summary - TWI Master
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
RIEN
WIEN
ENABLE
–
–
–
181
–
–
–
QCEN
SMEN
–
–
–
–
RIF
WIF
CLKHOLD
RXACK
+0x00
CTRLA
INTLVL[1:0]
+0x01
CTRLB
–
+0x02
CTRLC
+0x03
STATUS
+0x04
BAUD
BAUD[7:0]
185
+0x05
ADDR
ADDR[7:0]
186
+0x06
DATA
DATA[7:0]
186
TIMEOUT[1:0]
–
ACKACT
CMD[1:0]
ARBLOST
BUSERR
BUSSTATE[1:0]
182
183
184
16.13 Register Summary - TWI Slave
Address
Name
Bit 7
+0x00
CTRLA
+0x01
CTRLB
–
+0x02
STATUS
DIF
+0x03
ADDR
+0x04
DATA
+0x05
ADDRMASK
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
DIEN
APIEN
ENABLE
PIEN
TPMEN
SMEN
–
–
–
–
ACKACT
APIF
CLKHOLD
RXACK
COLL
BUSERR
INTLVL[1:0]
CMD[1:0]
DIR
187
187
AP
ADDR[7:0]
188
190
DATA[7:0]
ADDRMASK[7:1]
Page
190
ADDREN
191
16.14 Interrupt Vector Summary
Table 16-9.
TWI Interrupt vectors and their word offset addresses
Offset
Source
Interrupt Description
0x00
MASTER_vect
TWI Master Interrupt vector
0x02
SLAVE_vect
TWI Slave Interrupt vector
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17. SPI – Serial Peripheral Interface
17.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
17.2
Full-duplex, Three-wire Synchronous Data Transfer
Master or Slave Operation
LSB First or MSB First Data Transfer
Eight Programmable Bit Rates
End of Transmission Interrupt Flag
Write Collision Flag Protection
Wake-up from Idle Mode
Double Speed (CK/2) Master SPI Mode
Overview
The Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) is a high-speed synchronous data transfer interface using
three or four pins. It allows fast communication between an XMEGA device and peripheral
devices or between several AVR devices. The SPI supports full duplex communication.
A device connected to the bus must act as a master or slave.The master initiates and controls all
data transactions. The interconnection between Master and Slave CPUs with SPI is shown in
Figure 17-1 on page 193. The system consists of two shift Registers, and a Master clock generator. The SPI Master initiates the communication cycle when pulling low the Slave Select (SS)
pin of the desired Slave. Master and Slave prepare the data to be sent in their respective Shift
Registers, and the Master generates the required clock pulses on the SCK line to interchange
data. Data is always shifted from Master to Slave on the Master Out - Slave In (MOSI) line, and
from Slave to Master on the Master In - Slave Out (MISO) line. After each data packet, the Master can synchronize the Slave by pulling high the SS line.
Figure 17-1. SPI Master-slave Interconnection
SHIFT
ENABLE
The XMEGA SPI module is single buffered in the transmit direction and double buffered in the
receive direction. This means that bytes to be transmitted cannot be written to the SPI Data Register before the entire shift cycle is completed. When receiving data, a received character must
be read from the Data register before the next character has been completely shifted in. Otherwise, the first byte is lost.
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In SPI Slave mode, the control logic will sample the incoming signal of the SCK pin. To ensure
correct sampling of this clock signal, the minimum low and high periods must be:
Low period: longer than 2 CPU clock cycles.
High period: longer than 2 CPU clock cycles.
When the SPI module is enabled, the data direction of the MOSI, MISO, SCK, and SS pins is
overridden according to Table 17-1. The pins with user defined direction, must be configured
from software to have the correct direction according to the application.
Table 17-1.
Pin
17.3
SPI pin overrides
Direction, Master SPI
Direction, Slave SPI
MOSI
User Defined
Input
MISO
Input
User Defined
SCK
User Defined
Input
SS
User Defined
Input
Master Mode
When configured as a Master, the SPI interface has no automatic control of the SS line. The SS
pin must be configured as output, and controlled by user software. If the bus consists of several
SPI slaves and/or masters, a SPI master can use general I/O pins to control the SS line to each
of the slaves on the bus.
Writing a byte to the Data register starts the SPI clock generator, and the hardware shifts the
eight bits into the selected Slave. After shifting one byte, the SPI clock generator stops and the
SPI Interrupt Flag is set. The Master may continue to shift the next byte by writing new data to
the Data register, or signal the end of transfer by pulling the SS line high. The last incoming byte
will be kept in the Buffer Register.
If the SS pin is configured as an input, it must be held high to ensure Master operation. If the SS
pin is input and being driven low by external circuitry, the SPI module will interpret this as
another master trying to take control of the bus. To avoid bus contention, the Master will take the
following action:
1. The Master enters Slave mode.
2. The SPI Interrupt Flag is set.
17.4
Slave Mode
When configured as a Slave, the SPI interface will remain sleeping with MISO tri-stated as long
as the SS pin is driven high. In this state, software may update the contents of the Data register,
but the data will not be shifted out by incoming clock pulses on the SCK pin until the SS pin is
driven low. If SS is driven low and assuming the MISO pin is configured as output, the Slave will
start to shift out data on the first SCK clock pulse. As one byte has been completely shifted, the
SPI Interrupt Flag is set. The Slave may continue to place new data to be sent into the Data register before reading the incoming data. The last incoming byte will be kept in the Buffer Register.
When SS is driven high, the SPI logic is reset, and the SPI Slave will not receive any data. Any
partially received packet in the shift register will be dropped.
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As the SS pin is used to signal start and end of transfer, it is also useful for doing packet/byte
synchronization, keeping the Slave bit counter synchronous with the Master clock generator.
17.5
Data Modes
There are four combinations of SCK phase and polarity with respect to serial data. The SPI data
transfer formats are shown in Figure 17-2. Data bits are shifted out and latched in on opposite
edges of the SCK signal, ensuring sufficient time for data signals to stabilize.
Table 17-2.
SPI Modes
Mode
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
0
Rising, Sample
Falling, Setup
1
Rising, Setup
Falling, Sample
2
Falling,Sample
Rising, Setup
3
Falling, Setup
Rising, Sample
Leading edge is the first clock edge in a clock cycle. Trailing edge is the last clock edge in a
clock cycle.
Figure 17-2. SPI Transfer modes
Mode 0
Mode 2
SAMPLE I
MOSI/MISO
CHANGE 0
MOSI PIN
CHANGE 0
MISO PIN
SS
MSB first (DORD = 0) MSB
LSB first (DORD = 1) LSB
Bit 6
Bit 1
Bit 5
Bit 2
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 3
Bit 4
Bit 2
Bit 5
Bit 1
Bit 6
LSB
MSB
Mode 1
Mode 3
SAMPLE I
MOSI/MISO
CHANGE 0
MOSI PIN
CHANGE 0
MISO PIN
SS
MSB first (DORD = 0)
LSB first (DORD = 1)
MSB
LSB
Bit 6
Bit 1
Bit 5
Bit 2
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 3
Bit 4
Bit 2
Bit 5
Bit 1
Bit 6
LSB
MSB
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17.6
17.6.1
Register Description
CTRL - SPI Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
CLK2X
ENABLE
DORD
MASTER
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x00
3
2
MODE[1:0]
1
0
PRESCALER[1:0]
CTRL
• Bit 7 - CLK2X: SPI Clock Double
When this bit is set the SPI speed (SCK Frequency) will be doubled in Master mode (see Table
17-4 on page 197).
• Bit 6 - ENABLE: SPI Enable
Setting this bit enables the SPI modules. This bit must be set to enable any SPI operations.
• Bit 5 - DORD: Data Order
DORD decide the data order when a byte is shifted out from the Data register. When DORD is
written to one, the LSB of the data byte is transmitted first, and when DORD is written to zero,
the MSB of the data byte is transmitted first.
• Bit 4 - MASTER: Master/Slave Select
This bit selects Master mode when written to one, and Slave mode when written to zero. If SS is
configured as an input and is driven low while MASTER is set, MASTER will be cleared.
• Bit 3:2 - MODE[1:0]: SPI Mode
These bits select the transfer mode. The four combinations of SCK phase and polarity with
respect to serial data is shown in Figure 17-3 on page 196. This decide whether the first edge in
a clock cycles (leading edge) is rising or falling, and if data setup and sample is on lading or trailing edge.
When the leading edge is rising the bit SCK is low when idle, and when the leading edge is falling the SCK is high when idle.
Table 17-3.
SPI transfer modes
MODE[1:0]
Group Configuration
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
00
0
Rising, Sample
Falling, Setup
01
1
Rising, Setup
Falling, Sample
10
2
Falling,Sample
Rising, Setup
11
3
Falling, Setup
Rising, Sample
• Bits 1:0 - PRESCALER[1:0]: SPI Clock Prescaler
These two bits control the SCK rate of the device configured in a Master mode. These bits have
no effect in Slave mode.
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The relationship between SCK and the Peripheral Clock frequency (clkPER)is shown in Table 174 on page 197.
Table 17-4.
17.6.2
Relationship Between SCK and the Peripheral Clock (clkPER) frequency
CLK2X
PRESCALER[1:0]
SCK Frequency
0
00
clkPER/4
0
01
clkPER/16
0
10
clkPER/64
0
11
clkPER/128
1
00
clkPER/2
1
01
clkPER/8
1
10
clkPER/32
1
11
clkPER/64
INTCTRL - SPI Interrupt Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x01
–
–
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
INTLVL[1:0]
R/W
INTCTRL
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bits 7:2 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bits 1:0 - INTLVL[1:0]: SPI Interrupt Level
These bits enable the SPI Interrupt and select the interrupt level as described in ”Interrupts and
Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller” on page 95. The enabled interrupt will be triggered when the IF in the STATUS register is set.
17.6.3
STATUS - SPI Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x02
IF
WCOL
–
–
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STATUS
• Bit 7 - IF: SPI Interrupt Flag
When a serial transfer is complete and one byte is completely shifted in/out of the DATA register, the IF bit is set. If SS is an input and is driven low when the SPI is in Master mode, this will
also set the IF bit. The IF is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt
handling vector. Alternatively, the SPIF bit can be cleared by first reading the STATUS register
with IF set, and then access the DATA register.
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• Bit 6 - WRCOL: Write Collision Flag
The WRCOL bit is set if the DATA register is written during a data transfer. The WRCOL bit is
cleared by first reading the STATUS register with WRCOL set, and then accessing the DATA
register.
• Bit 5:0 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
17.6.4
DATA - SPI Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
+0x03
2
1
0
DATA[7:0]
DATA
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The DATA register used for sending and receiving data. Writing to the register initiates the data
transmission, and the byte written to the register will be shifted out on the SPI output line. Reading the register causes the Shift Register Receive buffer to be read, and return the last bytes
successfully received.
17.7
Register Summary
Address
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
+0x00
CTRL
CLK2X
ENABLE
DORD
MASTER
+0x01
INTCTRL
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x02
STATUS
IF
WRCOL
–
–
–
–
+0x03
DATA
17.8
Name
Bit 3
DATA[7:0]
Bit 2
MODE[1:0]
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
PRESCALER[1:0]
196
INTLVL[1:0]
197
–
–
197
198
SPI Interrupt vectors
Table 17-5.
SPI Interrupt vector and its offset word address
Offset
Source
Interrupt Description
0x00
SPI_vect
SPI Interrupt vector
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18. USART
18.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Full Duplex Operation (Independent Serial Receive and Transmit Registers)
Asynchronous or Synchronous Operation
Master or Slave Clocked Synchronous Operation
Enhanced Baud Rate Generator
Supports Serial Frames with 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 Data Bits and 1 or 2 Stop Bits
Odd or Even Parity Generation and Parity Check Supported by Hardware
Data OverRun and Framing Error Detection
Noise Filtering Includes False Start Bit Detection and Digital Low Pass Filter
Separate Interrupts on TX Complete, TX Data Register Empty and RX Complete
Multi-processor Communication Mode
Double Speed Asynchronous Communication Mode
Master SPI mode, Three-wire Synchronous Data Transfer
– Supports all four SPI Modes of Operation (Mode 0, 1, 2, and 3)
– LSB First or MSB First Data Transfer (Configurable Data Order)
– Queued Operation (Double Buffered)
– High Speed Operation (fXCK,max = fPER/2)
• IRCOM Module for IrDA compliant pulse modulation/demodulation
18.2
Overview
The Universal Synchronous and Asynchronous serial Receiver and Transmitter (USART) is a
highly flexible serial communication module. The USART supports full duplex communication,
and both asynchronous and clocked synchronous operation. The USART can be set in Master
SPI compliant mode and be used for SPI communication.
Communication is frame based, and the frame format can be customized to support a wide
range of standards. The USART is buffered in both direction, enabling continued data transmission without any delay between frames. There are separate interrupt vectors for receive and
transmit complete, enabling fully interrupt driven communication. Frame error and buffer overflow are detected in hardware and indicated with separate status flags. Even or odd parity
generation and parity check can also be enabled.
A block diagram of the USART is shown in Figure 18-1 on page 200. The main parts are the
Clock Generator, the Transmitter and the Receiver, indicated in dashed boxes.
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Figure 18-1. USART Block Diagram
BSEL [H:L]
OSC
Clock Generator
BAUD RATE GENERATOR
FRACTIONAL DEVIDE
SYNC LOGIC
PIN
CONTROL
XCK
Transmitter
TX
CONTROL
DATA(Transmit)
DATA BUS
PARITY
GENERATOR
PIN
CONTROL
TRANSMIT SHIFT REGISTER
TxD
Receiver
CTRLA
CLOCK
RECOVERY
RX
CONTROL
RECEIVE SHIFT REGISTER
DATA
RECOVERY
PIN
CONTROL
DATA(Receive)
PARITY
CHECKER
CTRLB
RxD
CTRLC
The Clock Generation logic has a fractional baud rate generator that is able to generate a wide
range of USART baud rates. It also includes synchronization logic for external clock input in synchronous slave operation.
The Transmitter consists of a single write buffer (DATA), a shift register, Parity Generator and
control logic for handling different frame formats. The write buffer allows continuous data transmission without any delay between frames.
The Receiver consists of a two level FIFO receive buffer (DATA), and a shift register. Data and
clock recovery units ensure robust synchronization and noise filtering during asynchronous data
reception. It includes frame error, buffer overflow and parity error detection.
When the USART is set in Master SPI compliant mode, all USART specific logic is disabled,
leaving the transmit and receive buffers, shift registers, and Baud Rate Generator enabled. Pin
control and interrupt generation is identical in both modes. The registers are used in both
modes, but the functionality differs for some control settings.
An IRCOM Module can be enabled for one USART to support IrDA 1.4 physical compliant pulse
modulation and demodulation for baud rates up to 115.2 kbps. For details refer to ”IRCOM - IR
Communication Module” on page 220 for details.
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18.3
Clock Generation
The clock used for baud rate generation, and for shifting and sampling data bits is generated
internally by the Fractional Baud Rate Generator or externally from the Transfer Clock (XCK)
pin. Five modes of clock generation are supported: Normal and Double Speed asynchronous
mode, Master and Slave synchronous mode, and Master SPI mode.
Figure 18-2. Clock Generation Logic, Block Diagram.I
BSEL
Baud Rate
Generator
CLK2X
fBAUD
/2
/4
/2
0
1
0
fOSC
1
PORT_INV
xcki
XCK
Pin
DDR_XCK
xcko
Sync
Register
Edge
Detector
0
UMSEL [1]
1
1
0
18.3.1
txclk
DDR_XCK
rxclk
Internal Clock Generation - The Fractional Baud Rate Generator
The Fractional Baud Rate Generator is used for internal clock generation for asynchronous
modes, synchronous master mode, and SPI master mode operation. The generated output frequency (fBAUD) is given by the period setting (BSEL), an optional scale setting (BSACLE) and the
Peripheral Clock frequency (fPER). Table 18-1 on page 202 contains equations for calculating the
baud rate (in bits per second) and for calculating the BSEL value for each mode of operation.
BSEL can be set to any value between 0 and 4095. It also show the maximum baud rate versus
peripheral clock speed.
Fractional baud rate generation can be used in asynchronous mode of operation to increase the
average resolution. A scale factor (BSCALE) allows the baud rate to be optionally left or right
scaled. Choosing a positive scale value will results in right scaling, which increase the period
and consequently reduce the frequency of the produced baud rate, without changing the resolution. If the scale value is negative the divider uses fractional arithmetic counting to increase the
resolution by distributing the fractional divide value over time. BSCALE can be set to any value
from -7 to +7, where 0 implies no scaling. There is a limit to how high the scale factor can be and
the value 2BSCALE must be at least half of the minimum number of clock cycles a frame takes,
see Section 18.9 on page 210 for more details.
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Table 18-1.
Equations for Calculating Baud Rate Register Setting
Operating Mode
Asynchronous Normal
Speed mode (CLK2X = 0)
Asynchronous Double
Speed mode (CLK2X = 1)
Conditions
Note:
18.3.2
Equation for Calculation
BSEL Value
BSCALE ≥ 0
f PER
f BAUD ≤ ----------16
f PER
f BAUD = ------------------------------------------------------------BSCALE
2
⋅ 16( BSEL + 1)
f PER
BSEL = -----------------------------------------------–1
BSCALE
2
⋅ 16 f BAUD
BSCALE < 0
f PER
f BAUD ≤ ----------16
f PER
f BAUD = -----------------------------------------------------------------BSCALE
16((2
⋅ BSEL ) + 1)
f PER
1
⎛ --------------------BSEL = --------------------- – 1⎞⎠
BSCALE ⎝ 16f
BAUD
2
BSCALE ≥ 0
f PER
f BAUD ≤ ----------8
f PER
f BAUD = -------------------------------------------------------------BSCALE
2
⋅ 8 ⋅ ( BSEL + 1 )
f PER
BSEL = --------------------------------------------–1
BSCALE
2
⋅ 8 f BAUD
BSCALE < 0
f PER
f BAUD ≤ ----------8
Synchronous and SPI
Master mode
Equation for Calculation
Baud Rate(1)
f PER
f BAUD < ----------2
f PER
f BAUD = --------------------------------------------------------------BSCALE
8((2
⋅ BSEL ) + 1)
f PER
f BAUD = -----------------------------------2 ⋅ ( BSEL + 1 )
f PER
1
⎛ -----------------BSEL = --------------------- – 1⎞⎠
BSCALE ⎝ 8f
BAUD
2
f PER
BSEL = ------------------–1
2f BAUD
1. The baud rate is defined to be the transfer rate in bit per second (bps)
External Clock
External clock is used in synchronous slave mode operation. The XCK clock input is sampled on
the Peripheral Clock frequency (fPER) by a synchronization register to minimize the chance of
meta-stability. The output from the synchronization register is then passed through an edge
detector. This process introduces a delay of two peripheral clock periods, and therefore the maximum external XCK clock frequency (fXCK)is limited by the following equation:
f PER
f XCK < ----------4
Each high and low period the XCK clock cycles must be sampled twice by the Peripheral Clock.
If the XCK clock has jitter, or the high/low period duty cycle is not 50/50, the maximum XCK
clock speed must be reduced accordingly.
18.3.3
Double Speed Operation (CLK2X)
Double Speed operation can be enabled to allow for higher baud rates on lower peripheral clock
frequencies under asynchronous operation. When Double Speed operation is enabled the baud
rate for a given asynchronous baud rate setting as shown in Table 18-1 on page 202 will be doubled. In this mode the Receiver will use half the number of samples (reduced from 16 to 8) for
data sampling and clock recovery. Due to the reduced sampling more accurate baud rate setting
and peripheral clock are required. See ”Asynchronous Data Reception” on page 207 for more
details on accuracy.
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18.3.4
Synchronous Clock Operation
When synchronous mode is used, the XCK pin controls whether the transmission clock is input
(slave mode) or output (master mode). The corresponding port pin must be set to output for
master mode and to input for slave mode. The normal port operation of the XCK pin will be overridden. The dependency between the clock edges and data sampling or data change is the
same. Data input (on RxD) is sampled at the opposite XCK clock edge of the edge where data
output (TxD) is changed.
Figure 18-3. Synchronous Mode XCKn Timing.
XCK
INVEN = 1
RxD / TxD
Sample
INVEN = 0
XCK
RxD / TxD
Sample
Using the Inverted I/O (INVEN) setting in the Pin Configuration Register for the corresponding
XCK port pin, it is selectable which XCK clock edge is used for data sampling and which is used
for data change. If inverted I/O is disabled (INVEN=0) data will be changed at rising XCK clock
edge and sampled at falling XCK clock edge. If inverted I/O is enabled (INVEN=1) data will be
changed at falling XCK clock edge and sampled at rising XCK clock edge. For more details, see
in “I/O Ports” on page 106.
18.3.5
SPI Clock Generation
For SPI operation only master mode with internal clock generation is supported. This is identical
to the USART synchronous master mode and the baud rate or BSEL setting are calculated by
using the same equations, see Table 18-1 on page 202.
There are four combinations of the XCK (SCK) clock phase and polarity with respect to serial
data, and these are determined by the Clock Phase (UCPHA) control bit and the Inverted I/O pin
(INVEN) setting. The data transfer timing diagrams are shown in Figure 18-4 on page 204. Data
bits are shifted out and latched in on opposite edges of the XCK signal, ensuring sufficient time
for data signals to stabilize. The UCPHA and INVEN settings are summarized in Table 18-2 on
page 203. Changing the setting of any of these bits during transmission will corrupt for both the
Receiver and Transmitter.
Table 18-2.
INVEN and UCPHA Functionality
SPI Mode
INVEN
UCPHA
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
0
0
0
Rising, Sample
Falling, Setup
1
0
1
Rising, Setup
Falling, Sample
2
1
0
Falling, Sample
Rising, Setup
3
1
1
Falling, Setup
Rising, Sample
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Leading edge is the first clock edge in a clock cycle. Trailing edge is the last clock edge in a
clock cycle.
Figure 18-4. UCPHA and INVEN data transfer timing diagrams.
UCPHA=0
UCPHA=1
INVEN=0
18.4
INVEN=1
XCK
XCK
Data setup (TXD)
Data setup (TXD)
Data sample (RXD)
Data sample (RXD)
XCK
XCK
Data setup (TXD)
Data setup (TXD)
Data sample (RXD)
Data sample (RXD)
Frame Formats
Data transfer is frame based, where a serial frame consists of one character of data bits with
synchronization bits (start and stop bits), and an optional parity bit for error checking. Note that
this does not apply to SPI operation (See Section 18.4.2 on page 205). The USART accepts all
30 combinations of the following as valid frame formats:
• 1 start bit
• 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 data bits
• no, even or odd parity bit
• 1 or 2 stop bits
A frame starts with the start bit followed by the least significant data bit and all data bits ending
with the most significant bit. If enabled, the parity bit is inserted after the data bits, before the first
stop bit. One frame can be directly followed by a start bit and a new frame, or the communication
line can return to idle (high) state. Figure 18-5 on page 204 illustrates the possible combinations
of the frame formats. Bits inside brackets are optional.
Figure 18-5. Frame Formats
FRAME
(IDLE)
St
0
1
2
3
4
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[P]
Sp1 [Sp2]
(St / IDLE)
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Table 1.
St
(n)
P
Sp
IDLE
Start bit, always low.
Data bits (0 to 8).
Parity bit. Can be odd or even.
Stop bit, always high.
No transfers on the communication line (RxD or TxD). The IDLE state is always high.
18.4.1
Parity Bit Calculation
Even or odd parity can be selected for error checking. If even parity is selected, the parity bit is
set to one if the number of data bits that is one is odd (making the total number of ones even). If
odd parity is selected, the parity bit is set to one if the number of data bits that is one is even
(making the total number of ones odd).
18.4.2
SPI Frame Formats
The serial frame in SPI mode is defined to be one character of 8 data bits. The USART in Master
SPI mode has two valid frame formats:
• 8-bit data with MSB first
• 8-bit data with LSB first
When a complete frame of 8 bits is transmitted, a new frame can directly follow it, or the communication line returns to idle (high) state.
18.5
USART Initialization
USART initialization should use the following sequence:
1. Set the TxD pin value high, and optionally the XCK pin low.
2. Set the TxD and optionally the XCK pin as output.
3. Set the baud rate and frame format.
4. Set mode of operation (enables the XCK pin output in synchronous mode).
5. Enable the Transmitter or the Receiver depending on the usage.
For interrupt driven USART operation, global interrupts should be disabled during the
initialization.
Before doing a re-initialization with changed baud rate or frame format, be sure that there are no
ongoing transmissions during the period the registers are changed. The transit and receive complete interrupt flags can be used to check that the Transmitter has completed all transfers, and
that there are no unread data in the receive buffer.
18.6
Data Transmission - The USART Transmitter
When the Transmitter has been enabled, the normal port operation of the TxD pin is overridden
by the USART and given the function as the Transmitter's serial output. The direction of the pin
must be set as output using the Direction register in the corresponding port. For details on port
pin control refer to ”I/O Ports” on page 101.
18.6.1
Sending Frames
A data transmission is initiated by loading the transmit buffer (DATA) with the data to be sent.
The data in the transmit buffer is moved to the Shift Register when the Shift Register is empty
and ready to send a new frame. The Shift Register is loaded if it is in idle state (no ongoing
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transmission) or immediately after the last stop bit of the previous frame is transmitted. When the
Shift Register is loaded with data, it will transfer one complete frame.
The Transmit Complete Interrupt Flag (TXCIF) is set and the optional interrupt is generated
when the entire frame in the Shift Register has been shifted out and there are no new data present in the transmit buffer.
The Transmit Data Register (DATA) can only be written when the Data Register Empty Flag
(DREIF) is set, indicating that the register is empty and ready for new data.
When using frames with less than eight bits, the most significant bits written to the DATA are
ignored. If 9-bit characters are used the ninth bit must be written to the TXB8 bit before the low
byte of the character is written to DATA.
18.6.2
18.7
Disabling the Transmitter
A disabling of the Transmitter will not become effective until ongoing and pending transmissions
are completed, i.e. when the Transmit Shift Register and Transmit Buffer Register do not contain
data to be transmitted. When Transmitter is disabled it will no longer override the TxDn pin and
the pin direction is set as input.
Data Reception - The USART Receiver
When the Receiver is enabled, the RxD pin is given the function as the Receiver's serial input.
The direction of the pin must be set as input, which is the default pin setting.
18.7.1
Receiving Frames
The Receiver starts data reception when it detects a valid start bit. Each bit that follows the start
bit will be sampled at the baud rate or XCK clock, and shifted into the Receive Shift Register until
the first stop bit of a frame is received. A second stop bit will be ignored by the Receiver. When
the first stop bit is received and a complete serial frame is present in the Receive Shift Register,
the contents of the Shift Register will be moved into the receive buffer. The Receive Complete
Interrupt Flag (RXCIF) is set, and the optional interrupt is generated.
The receiver buffer can be read by reading the Data Register (DATA) location. DATA should not
be read unless the Receive Complete Interrupt Flag is set. When using frames with less than
eight bits, the unused most significant bits are read as zero. If 9-bit characters are used, the
ninth bit must be read from the RXB8 bit before the low byte of the character is read from DATA.
18.7.2
Receiver Error Flags
The USART Receiver has three error flags. The Frame Error (FERR), Buffer Overflow
(BUFOVF) and Parity Error (PERR) flags are accessible from the Status Register. The error
flags are located in the receive FIFO buffer together with their corresponding frame. Due to the
buffering of the error flags, the Status Register must be read before the receive buffer (DATA),
since reading the DATA location changes the FIFO buffer.
18.7.3
Parity Checker
When enabled, the Parity Checker calculates the parity of the data bits in incoming frames and
compares the result with the parity bit of the corresponding frame. If a parity error is detected the
Parity Error flag is set.
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18.7.4
Disabling the Receiver
A disabling of the Receiver will be immediate. The Receiver buffer will be flushed, and data from
ongoing receptions will be lost.
18.7.5
Flushing the Receive Buffer
If the receive buffer has to be flushed during normal operation, read the DATA location until the
Receive Complete Interrupt Flags is cleared.
18.8
Asynchronous Data Reception
The USART includes a clock recovery and a data recovery unit for handling asynchronous data
reception. The clock recovery logic is used for synchronizing the incoming asynchronous serial
frames at the RxD pin to the internally generated baud rate clock. The data recovery logic samples and low pass filters each incoming bit, thereby improving the noise immunity of the
Receiver. The asynchronous reception operational range depends on the accuracy of the internal baud rate clock, the rate of the incoming frames, and the frame size in number of bits.
18.8.1
Asynchronous Clock Recovery
The clock recovery logic synchronizes internal clock to the incoming serial frames. Figure 18-6
on page 207 illustrates the sampling process of the start bit of an incoming frame. The sample
rate is 16 times the baud rate for Normal mode, and eight times the baud rate for Double Speed
mode. The horizontal arrows illustrate the synchronization variation due to the sampling process. Note the larger time variation when using the Double Speed mode of operation. Samples
denoted zero are samples done when the RxD line is idle, i.e. no communication activity.
Figure 18-6. Start Bit Sampling
RxD
Sample
(U2X = 0)
Sample
(U2X = 1)
IDLE
0
0
0
START
1
1
2
3
2
4
5
3
6
7
4
8
9
5
BIT 0
10
11
6
12
13
7
14
15
8
16
1
1
2
3
2
When the clock recovery logic detects a high (idle) to low (start) transition on the RxD line, the
start bit detection sequence is initiated. Sample 1 denotes the first zero-sample as shown in the
figure. The clock recovery logic then uses samples 8, 9, and 10 for Normal mode, and samples
4, 5, and 6 for Double Speed mode (indicated with sample numbers inside boxes on the figure)
to decide if a valid start bit is received. If two or more of these three samples have a low level
(the majority wins), the start bit is accepted. The clock recovery logic is synchronized and the
data recovery can begin. If two or more of the three samples have a high level the start bit is
rejected as a noise spike and the Receiver starts looking for the next high to low-transition. The
synchronization process is repeated for each start bit.
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18.8.2
Asynchronous Data Recovery
The data recovery unit uses sixteen samples in Normal mode and eight samples in Double
Speed mode for each bit. Figure 18-7 on page 208 shows the sampling process of data and parity bits.
Figure 18-7. Sampling of Data and Parity Bit
RxD
BIT n
Sample
(CLK2X = 0)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
1
Sample
(CLK2X = 1)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
As for start bit detection, identical majority voting technique is used on the three center samples
(indicated with sample numbers inside boxes) for deciding of the logic level of the received bit.
This majority voting process acts as a low pass filter for the received signal on the RxD pin. The
process is repeated for each bit until a complete frame is received. Including the first, but excluding additional stop bits. If the stop bit sampled has a logic 0 value, the Frame Error (FERR) Flag
will be set.
Figure 18-8 on page 208 shows the sampling of the stop bit in relation to the earliest possible
beginning of the next frame's start bit.
Figure 18-8. Stop Bit Sampling and Next Start Bit Sampling
RxD
STOP 1
(A)
(B)
(C)
Sample
(CLK2X = 0)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0/1
0/1
0/1
Sample
(CLK2X = 1)
1
2
3
4
5
6
0/1
A new high to low transition indicating the start bit of a new frame can come right after the last of
the bits used for majority voting. For Normal Speed mode, the first low level sample can be at
point marked (A) in Stop Bit Sampling and Next Start Bit Sampling. For Double Speed mode the
first low level must be delayed to (B). (C) marks a stop bit of full length at nominal baud rate. The
early start bit detection influences the operational range of the Receiver.
18.8.3
Asynchronous Operational Range
The operational range of the Receiver is dependent on the mismatch between the received bit
rate and the internally generated baud rate. If an external Transmitter is sending on bit rates that
are too fast or too slow, or the internally generated baud rate of the Receiver does not match the
external source’s base frequency, the Receiver will not be able to synchronize the frames to the
start bit.
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The following equations can be used to calculate the ratio of the incoming data rate and internal
receiver baud rate.
Table 1.
( D + 1 )S
R slow = ------------------------------------------S – 1 + D ⋅ S + SF
( D + 2 )S
R fast = ----------------------------------( D + 1 )S + S M
Table 1.
D
S
SF
SM
Rslow
Rfast
Sum of character size and parity size (D = 5 to 10 bit).
Samples per bit. S = 16 for Normal Speed mode and S = 8 for Double Speed mode.
First sample number used for majority voting. SF = 8 for normal speed and SF = 4 for
Double Speed mode.
Middle sample number used for majority voting. SM = 9 for normal speed and SM = 5
for Double Speed mode.
Is the ratio of the slowest incoming data rate that can be accepted in relation to the
receiver baud rate.
Is the ratio of the fastest incoming data rate that can be accepted in relation to the
receiver baud rate.
Table 18-3 and Table 18-4 on page 209 list the maximum receiver baud rate error that can be
tolerated. Normal Speed mode has higher toleration of baud rate variations.
Table 18-3.
Recommended Maximum Receiver Baud Rate Error for Normal Speed Mode
(CLK2X = 0)
D
#(Data + Parity Bit)
Rslow (%)
Rfast (%)
Max Total Error (%)
Recommended Max
Receiver Error (%)
5
93.20
106.67
+6.67/-6.80
± 3.0
6
94.12
105.79
+5.79/-5.88
± 2.5
7
94.81
105.11
+5.11/-5.19
± 2.0
8
95.36
104.58
+4.58/-4.54
± 2.0
9
95.81
104.14
+4.14/-4.19
± 1.5
10
96.17
103.78
+3.78/-3.83
± 1.5
Table 18-4.
Recommended Maximum Receiver Baud Rate Error for Double Speed Mode
(CLK2X = 1)
D
#(Data + Parity Bit)
Rslow (%)
Rfast (%)
Max Total Error (%)
Recommended Max
Receiver Error (%)
5
94.12
105.66
+5.66/-5.88
± 2.5
6
94.92
104.92
+4.92/-5.08
± 2.0
7
95.52
104.35
+4.35/-4.48
± 1.5
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Table 18-4.
Recommended Maximum Receiver Baud Rate Error for Double Speed Mode
(CLK2X = 1) (Continued)
D
#(Data + Parity Bit)
Rslow (%)
Rfast (%)
Max Total Error (%)
Recommended Max
Receiver Error (%)
8
96.00
103.90
+3.90/-4.00
± 1.5
9
96.39
103.53
+3.53/-3.61
± 1.5
10
96.70
103.23
+3.23/-3.30
± 1.0
The recommendations of the maximum receiver baud rate error was made under the assumption that the Receiver and Transmitter equally divides the maximum total error.
There are two possible sources for the receivers baud rate error. The Receiver's system clock
will always have some minor instability. In addition, the baud rate generator can not always do
an exact division of the peripheral clock frequency to get the baud rate wanted. In this case the
BSEL and BSCALE value should be selected to give the lowest possible error.
18.9
The Impact of Fractional Baud Rate Generation
Fractional baud rate generation is possible for asynchronous operation due to the relatively high
number of clock cycles (i.e. samples) for each frame. Each bit is sampled sixteen times, but only
the center samples are of importance. This leaves some slack for each bit. Not only that, but the
total number of samples for one frame is also relatively high. Given a 1-start, 8-data, no-parity,
and 1-stop bit frame format, and assumes that normal speed mode is used, the total number of
samples for a frame is, (1+8+1)*16, or 160. As earlier stated, the UART can tolerate plus minus
some samples. The critical factor is the time from the falling edge of the start bit (i.e. the clock
synchronization) to the last bit's (i.e. the first stop bit) value is recovered.
Standard baud rate generators have the unwanted property of having large frequency steps
between high baud rate settings. Worst case is found between BSEL value 0x000 and 0x001.
Going from an BSEL value of 0x000 for which has a 10-bit frame of 160 samples, to an BSEL
value 0x001 with 320 samples, shows a 50% change in frequency. However, when increasing
the BSEL values the step change will quickly decrease. Ideally the step size should be small
even between the fastest baud rates. This is where the advantage of the fractional baud rate
generator emerges.
In principle the fractional baud rate generator works by doing uneven counting and distributing
the error evenly over the entire frame. A typical count sequence for an ordinary baud rate generator is:
2, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 2, …
which has an even period time. A baud rate clock tick each time the counter reaches zero, and a
sample of the received signal on RXD is taken for each baud rate clock tick. For the fractional
baud rate generator the count sequence can have an uneven period:
2, 1, 0, 3, 2, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 3, 2, …
In this example an extra cycle is added every second cycle. This gives a baud rate clock tick jitter, but the average period has been increased by a fraction, more precisely 0.5 clock cycles.
The impact of the fractional baud rate generation is that the step size between baud rate settings
has been reduced. Given a scale factor of -1 the worst-case step, then becomes from 160 to 240
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samples per 10-bit frame compared to the previous from 160 to 320. Higher negative scale factor gives even finer granularity. There is a limit to how high the scale factor can be. A rule of
thumb is that the value 2BSCALE must be at least half of the minimum number of clock cycles a
frame takes. For instance for 10-bit frames the minimum number of clock cycles is 160. This
means that the highest applicable scale factor is -6 (2-6 = 64 < 160/2 = 80). For higher BSEL settings the scale factor can be increased.
18.10 USART in Master SPI Mode
Using the USART in Master SPI mode (MSPIM) requires the Transmitter to be enabled. The
Receiver can optionally be enabled to serve as the serial input. The XCK pin will be used as the
transfer clock.
As for USART a data transfer is initiated by writing to the DATA location. This is the case for both
sending and receiving data since the transmitter controls the transfer clock. The data written to
DATA is moved from the transmit buffer to the shift register when the shift register is ready to
send a new frame.
The Transmitter and Receiver interrupt flags and corresponding USART interrupts in Master SPI
mode are identical in function to the normal USART operation. The receiver error status flags
are not in use and is always read as zero.
Disabling of the USART transmitter or receiver in Master SPI mode is identical in function to the
normal USART operation.
18.11 USART SPI vs. SPI
The USART in Master SPI mode is fully compatible with the SPI regarding:
• Master mode timing diagram.
• The UCPHA bit functionality is identical to the SPI CPHA bit.
• The UDORD bit functionality is identical to the SPI DORD bit.
Since the USART in Master SPI mode reuses the USART resources, the use of the USART in
MSPIM is somewhat different compared to the XMEGA SPI module. In addition to differences of
the control register bits and no SPI slave support, the following features differ between the two
modules:
• The Transmitter USART in Master SPI mode includes buffering. The XMEGA SPI has no
transmit buffer.
• The Receiver in USART in Master SPI includes an additional buffer level.
• The SPI WCOL (Write Collision) bit is not included in USART in Master SPI mode.
• The SPI double speed mode (SPI2X) bit is not included. However, the same effect is
achieved by setting BSEL accordingly.
• Interrupt timing is not compatible.
• Pin control differs due to the master only operation of the USART in Master SPI mode.
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A comparison of the USART in Master SPI mode and the SPI pins is shown Table 18-5.
Table 18-5.
Comparison of USART in Master SPI mode and SPI pins.
USART
SPI
Comment
TxD
MOSI
Master Out only
RxD
MISO
Master In only
XCK
SCK
Functionally identical
N/A
SS
Not supported by USART in Master SPI
18.12 Multi-processor Communication Mode
Enabling the Multi-processor Communication Mode (MPCM) effectively reduces the number of
incoming frames that has to be handled by the Receiver in a system with multiple MCUs communicating via the same serial bus. In this mode a dedicated bit in the frames is used to indicate
whether the frame is an address or data frame.
If the Receiver is set up to receive frames that contain 5 to 8 data bits, the first stop bit is used to
indicate the frame type. If the Receiver is set up for frames with 9 data bits, the ninth bit is used.
When the frame type bit is one, the frame contains an address. When the frame type bit is zero,
the frame is a data frame. The Transmitter is unaffected by the MPCM setting, but if 5- to 8-bit
character frames are used, the Transmitter must be set to use two stop bit since the first stop bit
is used for indicating the frame type.
If a particular slave MCU has been addressed, it will receive the following data frames as normal, while the other slave MCUs will ignore the received frames until another address frame is
received.
18.12.1
Using Multi-processor Communication Mode
For an MCU to act as a master MCU, it should use a 9-bit character frame format. The ninth bit
must be set when an address frame is being transmitted and cleared when a data frame is being
transmitted. The slave MCUs must in this case be set to use a 9-bit character frame format.
The following procedure should be used to exchange data in Multi-processor Communication
mode:
1. All Slave MCUs are in Multi-processor Communication mode.
2. The Master MCU sends an address frame, and all slaves receive and read this frame.
3. Each Slave MCU determines if it has been selected.
4. The addressed MCU will disable MPCM and receive all data frames. The other slave
MCUs will ignore the data frames.
5. When the addressed MCU has received the last data frame, it must enable MPCM
again and wait for new address frame from the Master. The process then repeats from
2.
Using any of the 5- to 8-bit character frame formats is possible, but impractical since the
Receiver must change between using n and n+1 character frame formats. This makes full
duplex operation difficult since the Transmitter and Receiver uses the same character size
setting.
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18.13 IRCOM Mode of Operation
IRCOM mode can be enabled to use the IRCOM Module with the USART. This enables IrDA 1.4
physical compliant modulation and demodulation for baud rates up to 115.2 Kbps. When IRCOM
mode is enabled, Double Transmission Speed cannot be used for the USART.
For devices with more than one USART, IRCOM mode can only be enabled for one USART at a
time. For details refer to ”IRCOM - IR Communication Module” on page 220.
18.14 Register Description
18.14.1
DATA - USART I/O Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXB[[7:0]
+0x00
TXB[[7:0]
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The USART Transmit Data Buffer Register and USART Receive Data Buffer Registers share the
same I/O address referred to as USART Data Register (DATA). The Transmit Data Buffer Register (TXB) will be the destination for data written to the DATA Register location. Reading the
DATA Register location will return the contents of the Receive Data Buffer Register (RXB).
For 5-, 6-, or 7-bit characters the upper unused bits will be ignored by the Transmitter and set to
zero by the Receiver.
The transmit buffer can only be written when the DREIF Flag in the STATUS Register is set.
Data written to DATA when the DREIF Flag is not set, will be ignored by the USART Transmitter.
When data is written to the transmit buffer, and the Transmitter is enabled, the Transmitter will
load the data into the Transmit Shift Register when the Shift Register is empty. The data is then
transmitted on the TxD pin.
The receive buffer consists of a two level FIFO. The FIFO and the corresponding flags in the
Status Register (STATUS) will change state whenever the receive buffer is accessed (read).
Always read STATUS before DATA in order to get the correct flags.
18.14.2
STATUS - USART Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXCIF
TXCIF
DREIF
FERR
BUFOVF
PERR
–
RXB8
Read/Write
R
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
+0x01
STATUS
• Bit 7 - RXCIF: USART Receive Complete Interrupt Flag
This flag is set when there are unread data in the receive buffer and cleared when the receive
buffer is empty (i.e., does not contain any unread data). When the Receiver is disabled, the
receive buffer will be flushed and consequently the RXCIF will become zero.
When interrupt-driven data reception is used, the receive complete interrupt routine must read
the received data from DATA in order to clear the RXCIF. If not, a new interrupt will occur
directly after the return from the current interrupt. This flag can also be cleared by writing a one
to its bit location.
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• Bit 6 - TXCIF: USART Transmit Complete Interrupt Flag
This flag is set when the entire frame in the Transmit Shift Register has been shifted out and
there are no new data in the transmit buffer (DATA). The TXCIF is automatically cleared when
the transmit complete interrupt vector is executed. The flag can also be cleared by writing a one
to its bit location.
• Bit 5 - DREIF: USART Data Register Empty Flag
The DREIF indicates if the transmit buffer (DATA) is ready to receive new data. The flag is one
when the transmit buffer is empty, and zero when the transmit buffer contains data to be transmitted that has not yet been moved into the Shift Register. DREIF is set after a reset to indicate
that the Transmitter is ready. Always write this bit to zero when writing the STATUS register.
DREIF is cleared by writing DATA. When interrupt-driven data transmission is used, the Data
Register Empty interrupt routine must either write new data to DATA in order to clear DREIF or
disable the Data Register Empty interrupt. If not, a new interrupt will occur directly after the
return from the current interrupt.
• Bit 4 - FERR: Frame Error
The FERR flag indicates the state of the first stop bit of the next readable frame stored in the
receive buffer. The bit is set if the received character had a Frame Error, i.e. when the first stop
bit was zero, and cleared when the stop bit of the received data is one. This bit is valid until the
receive buffer (DATA) is read. The FERR is not affected by setting the SBMODE bit in CTRLC
since the Receiver ignores all, except for the first stop bit. Always write this bit location to zero
when writing the STATUS register.
This flag is not used in Master SPI mode of operation.
• Bit 3 - BUFOVF: Buffer Overflow
The BUFOVF flag indicates data loss due to a receiver buffer full condition. This flag is set if a
Buffer Overflow condition is detected. A Buffer Overflow occurs when the receive buffer is full
(two characters), it is a new character waiting in the Receive Shift Register, and a new start bit is
detected. This flag is valid until the receive buffer (DATA) is read. Always write this bit location to
zero when writing the STATUS register.
This flag is not used in Master SPI mode of operation.
• Bit 2 - PERR: Parity Error
If parity checking is enabled and the next character in the receive buffer has a Parity Error this
flag is set. If Parity Check is not enabled the PERR will always be read as zero. This bit is valid
until the receive buffer (DATA) is read. Always write this bit location to zero when writing the
STATUS register. For details on parity calculation refer to ”Parity Bit Calculation” on page 205.
This flag is not used in Master SPI mode of operation.
• Bit 1 - Reserved
This bit is reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices, always
write this bit to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 0 - RXB8: Receive Bit 8
RXB8 is the ninth data bit of the received character when operating with serial frames with nine
data bits. When used, this bit must be read before reading the low bits from DATA.
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This bit is unused in Master SPI mode of operation.
18.14.3
CTRLA – USART Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
+0x03
–
–
RXCINTLVL[1:0]
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TXCINTLVL[1:0]
1
0
DREINTLVL[1:0]
CTRLA
• Bit 7:6 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 5:4 - RXCINTLVL[1:0]: Receive Complete Interrupt Level
These bits enable the Receive Complete Interrupt and select the interrupt level as described in
”Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller” on page 95. The enabled interrupt
will be triggered when the RXCIF in the STATUS register is set.
• Bit 3:2 - TXCINTLVL[1:0]: Transmit Complete Interrupt Level
These bits enable the Transmit Complete Interrupt and select the interrupt level as described in
”Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller” on page 95. The enabled interrupt
will be triggered when the TXCIF in the STATUS register is set.
• Bit 1:0 - DREINTLVL[1:0]: USART Data Register Empty Interrupt Level
These bits enable the Data Register Empty Interrupt and select the interrupt level as described
in ”Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller” on page 95. The enabled interrupt will be triggered when the DREIF in the STATUS register is set.
18.14.4
CTRLB - USART Control Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x04
–
–
–
RXEN
TXEN
CLK2X
MPCM
TXB8
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTRLB
• Bit 7:5 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 4 - RXEN: Receiver Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the USART Receiver. The Receiver will override normal port operation for the RxD pin when enabled. Disabling the Receiver will flush the receive buffer
invalidating the FERR, BUFOVF, and PERR flags.
• Bit 3 - TXEN: Transmitter Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the USART Transmitter. The Transmitter will override normal port
operation for the TxD pin when enabled. Disabling the Transmitter (writing TXEN to zero) will not
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become effective until ongoing and pending transmissions are completed, i.e., when the Transmit Shift Register and Transmit Buffer Register do not contain data to be transmitted. When
disabled, the Transmitter will no longer override the TxD port.
• Bit 2 - CLK2X: Double Transmission Speed
Writing this bit to one will reduce the divisor of the baud rate divider from16 to 8 effectively doubling the transfer rate for asynchronous communication modes. For synchronous operation this
bit has no effect and should always be written to zero. This bit must be zero when the USART
Communication Mode is configured to IRCOM.
This bit is unused in Master SPI mode of operation.
• Bit 1 - MPCM: Multi-processor Communication Mode
This bit enables the Multi-processor Communication mode. When the MPCM bit is written to
one, the USART Receiver ignores all the incoming frames that do not contain address information. The Transmitter is unaffected by the MPCM setting. For more detailed information see
”Multi-processor Communication Mode” on page 212.
This bit is unused in Master SPI mode of operation.
• Bit 0 - TXB8: Transmit Bit 8
TXB8 is the ninth data bit in the character to be transmitted when operating with serial frames
with nine data bits. When used this bit must be written before writing the low bits to DATA.
This bit is unused in Master SPI mode of operation.
18.14.5
CTRLC - USART Control Register C
Bit
7
6
+0x05
5
4
CMODE[1:0]
(1)
+0x05
3
PMODE[1:0]
1
SBMODE
0
CHSIZE[2:0]
–
–
–
UDORD
UCPHA
–
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
Note:
CMODE[1:0]
2
1. Master SPI mode
• Bits 7:6 - CMODE[1:0]: USART Communication Mode
These bits select the mode of operation of the USART as shown in Table 18-6.
Table 18-6.
CMODE bit settings
CMODE[1:0]
Group Configuration
Mode
00
ASYNCHRONOUS
Asynchronous USART
01
SYNCHRONOUS
Synchronous USART
10
IRCOM
11
MSPI
IRCOM (1)
Master SPI (2)
1.
See ”IRCOM - IR Communication Module” on page 220 for full description on using IRCOM mode.
2.
See ”USART” on page 199 for full description of the Master SPI Mode (MSPIM) operation
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• Bits 5:4 - PMODE[1:0]: Parity Mode
These bits enable and set the type of parity generation according to Table 18-7 on page 217.
When enabled, the Transmitter will automatically generate and send the parity of the transmitted
data bits within each frame. The Receiver will generate a parity value for the incoming data and
compare it to the PMODE setting and if a mismatch is detected, the PERR flag in STATUS will
be set.
These bits are unused in Master SPI mode of operation.
Table 18-7.
PMODE Bits Settings
PMODE[1:0]
Group Configuration
00
DISABLED
01
Parity mode
Disabled
Reserved
10
EVEN
Enabled, Even Parity
11
ODD
Enabled, Odd Parity
• Bit 3 - SBMODE: Stop Bit Mode
This bit selects the number of stop bits to be inserted by the Transmitter according to Table 18-8
on page 217. The Receiver ignores this setting.
This bit is unused in Master SPI mode of operation.
Table 18-8.
SBMODE Bit Settings
SBMODE
Stop Bit(s)
0
1-bit
1
2-bit
• Bit 2:0 - CHSIZE[2:0]: Character Size
The CHSIZE[2:0] bits sets the number of data bits in a frame according to Table 18-9 on page
217. The Receiver and Transmitter use the same setting.
Table 18-9.
CHSIZE Bits Settings
CHSIZE[2:0]
Group Configuration
Character size
000
5BIT
5-bit
001
6BIT
6-bit
010
7BIT
7-bit
011
8BIT
8-bit
100
Reserved
101
Reserved
110
Reserved
111
9BIT
9-bit
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• Bit 2 - UDORD: Data Order
This bit sets the frame format. When written to one the LSB of the data word is transmitted first.
When written to zero the MSB of the data word is transmitted first. The Receiver and Transmitter
use the same setting. Changing the setting of UDORD will corrupt all ongoing communication for
both receiver and transmitter.
• Bit 1 - UCPHA: Clock Phase
The UCPHA bit setting determine if data is sampled on the leading (first) edge or tailing (last)
edge of XCKn. Refer to the ”SPI Clock Generation” on page 203 for details.
18.14.6
BAUDCTRLA - USART Baud Rate Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x06
BSEL[7:0]
BAUDCTRLA
• Bit 7:0 - BSEL[7:0]: USART Baud Rate Register
This is a 12-bit value which contains the USART baud rate setting. The BAUDCTRLB contains
the four most significant bits, and the BAUDCTRLA contains the eight least significant bits of the
USART baud rate. Ongoing transmissions by the Transmitter and Receiver will be corrupted if
the baud rate is changed. Writing BAUDCTRLA will trigger an immediate update of the baud rate
prescaler.
18.14.7
BAUDCTRLB - USART Baud Rate Register
Bit
7
6
+0x07
5
4
3
2
BSCALE[3:0]
1
0
BSEL[11:8]
BAUDCTRLB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:4 - BSCALE[3:0]: USART Baud Rate Scale factor
These bits select the Baud Rate Generator scale factor. The scale factor is given in two's complement form from -7 (0b1001) to 7 (0b0111). The -8 (0b1000) setting is reserved. For positive
scale values the Baud Rate Generator is prescaled by 2BSCALE. For negative values the Baud
Rate Generator will use fractional counting, which increases the resolution. See equations in
Table 18-1 on page 202.
• Bit 3:0 - BSEL[3:0]: USART Baud Rate Register
This is a 12-bit value which contains the USART baud rate setting. The BAUDCTRLB contains
the four most significant bits, and the BAUDCTRLA contains the eight least significant bits of the
USART baud rate. Ongoing transmissions by the Transmitter and Receiver will be corrupted if
the baud rate is changed. Writing BAUDCTRLA will trigger an immediate update of the baud rate
prescaler.
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18.15 Register Summary
18.15.1
Register Description - USART
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
BUFOVF
PERR
–
RXB8
–
–
–
–
–
RXEN
TXEN
CLK2X
MPCM
+0x00
DATA
+0x01
STATUS
RXCIF
TXCIF
DREIF
FERR
+0x02
Reserved
–
–
–
+0x03
CTRLA
–
–
+0x04
CTRLB
–
–
+0x05
CTRLC
+0x06
BAUDCTRLA
+0x07
BAUDCTRLB
18.15.2
Bit 3
DATA[7:0]
RXCINTLVL[1:0]
–
CMODE[1:0]
213
TXCINTLVL[1:0]
PMODE[1:0]
Page
DREINTLVL[1:0]
SBMODE
213
215
TXB8
CHSIZE[2:0]
215
217
BSEL[7:0]
219
BSCALE[3:0]
BSEL[11:8]
218
Register Description - USART in Master SPI Mode
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
RXEN
TXEN
–
–
–
–
–
–
UDORD
UCPH
–
+0x00
DATA
+0x01
STATUS
RXCIF
TXCIF
DREIF
–
+0x02
Reserved
–
–
–
+0x03
CTRLA
–
–
+0x04
CTRLB
–
–
+0x05
CTRLC
+0x06
BAUDCTRLA
+0x07
BAUDCTRLB
Bit 3
DATA[7:0]
RXCINTLVL[1:0]
CMODE[1:0]
Page
213
TXCINTLVL[1:0]
DREINTLVL[1:0]
BSEL[7:0]
BSCALE[3:0]
213
215
215
216
218
BSEL[11:8]
218
18.16 Interrupt Vector Summary
Table 18-10. USART Interrupt vectors and their word offset address
Offset
Source
Interrupt Description
0x00
RXC_vect
USART Receive Complete Interrupt vector
0x02
DRE_vect
USART Data Register Empty Interrupt vector
0x04
TXC_vect
USART Transmit Complete Interrupt vector
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19. IRCOM - IR Communication Module
19.1
Features
• Pulse modulation/demodulation for infrared communication
• IrDA 1.4 Compatible for baud rates up to 115.2 kbps
• Selectable pulse modulation scheme
– 3/16 of baud rate period
– Fixed pulse period, 8-bit programmable
– Pulse modulation disabled
• Built in filtering
• Can be connected to and used by any USART
19.2
Overview
XMEGA contains an Infrared Communication Module (IRCOM) IrDA 1.4 compatible module for
baud rates up to 115.2 kbps. This supports three modulation schemes: 3/16 of baud rate period,
fixed programmable pulse time based on the Peripheral Clock speed, or pulse modulation disabled. There is one IRCOM available, and this can be connected to any USART to enable
infrared pulse coding/decoding for that USART.
Figure 19-1. IRCOM connection to USARTs and associated port pins
Event System
events
DIF
USARTxn
IRCOM
RXD...
TXD...
....
Pulse
Decoding
encoded RXD
USARTD0
USARTC0
decoded RXD
RXDnx
TXDnx
RXDD0
TXDD0
RXDC0
TXDC0
decoded TXD
Pulse
Encoding
encoded TXD
The IRCOM is automatically enabled when a USART is set in IRCOM mode. When this is done
signals between the USART and the RX/TX pins are routed through the module as shown in Figure 19-1 on page 220. It is also possible to select an Event Channel from the Event System as
input for the IRCOM receiver. This will disable the RX input from the USART pin.
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For transmission, three pulse modulation schemes are available:
• 3/16 of baud rate period.
• Fixed programmable pulse time based on the Peripheral Clock speed.
• Pulse modulation disabled.
For reception, a minimum high-level pulse width for the pulse to be decoded as a logical 0 can
be selected. Shorter pulses will then be discarded and the bit will be decoded to logical 1 as if no
pulse where received.
One IRCOM will be available for use with any USART in the device. The module can only be
used in combination with one USART at a time, thus IRCOM mode must not be set for more
than one USART at a time. This must be ensured in the user software.
19.2.1
Event System Filtering
The Event System can be used as the receiver input. This enables IRCOM or USART input from
other I/O pins or sources than the corresponding RX pin. If Event System input is enabled, input
from the USART's RX pin is automatically disabled. The Event System has Digital Input Filter
(DIF) on the Event Channels, that can be used for filtering. Refer to Section 6. ”Event System”
on page 65” for details on using the Event System.
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19.3
19.3.1
Registers Description
TXPLCTRL - IRCOM Transmitter Pulse Length Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
+0x00
4
3
2
1
0
TXPLCTRL[7:0]
TXPLCTRL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bits 7:0 - TXPLCTRL[7:0] - Transmitter Pulse Length Control
The 8-bit value sets the pulse modulation scheme for the transmitter. Setting this register will
have no effect if IRCOM mode is not selected by a USART.
By leaving this register value to zero, 3/16 of baud rate period pulse modulation is used.
Setting this value from 1 to 254 will give a fixed pulse length coding. The 8-bit value sets the
number of system clock periods for the pulse. The start of the pulse will be synchronized with the
rising edge of the baud rate clock.
Setting the value to 255 (0xFF) will disable pulse coding, letting the RX and TX signals pass
through the IRCOM Module unaltered. This enables other features through the IRCOM Module,
such as half-duplex USART, Loop-back testing and USART RX input from an Event Channel.
Note:
19.3.2
TXPCTRL must be configured before USART transmitter is enabled (TXEN).
RXPLCTRL - IRCOM Receiver Pulse Length Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
+0x00
4
3
2
1
0
RXPLCTRL[7:0]
RXPLCTRL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bits 7:0 - RXPLCTRL[7:0] - Receiver Pulse Length Control
The 8-bit value sets the filter coefficient for the IRCOM transceiver. Setting this register will have
no effect if IRCOM mode is not selected by a USART.
By leaving this register value to zero, filtering is disabled. Setting this value between 1 and 255
will enable filtering, where x+1 equal samples is required for the pulse to be accepted.
Note:
19.3.3
RXPCTRL must be configured before USART receiver is enabled (RXEN).
CTRL - IRCOM Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x00
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EVSEL[3:0]
CTRL
• Bits 7:4 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
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• Bits 3:0 - EVSEL [3:0]: Event Channel Selection
These bits select the event channel source for the IRCOM Receiver, according to Table 19-1 on
page 223. If event input is selected for the IRCOM Receiver, the input from the USART’s RX pin
is automatically disabled.
Table 19-1.
Event Channel Select
EVSEL[3:0]
Group Configuration
0000
None
0001
(Reserved)
0010
(Reserved)
0011
(Reserved)
0100
(Reserved)
0101
(Reserved)
0110
(Reserved)
0111
(Reserved)
1xxx
19.4
Event Source
Event System Channelx; x = {0, …,3}
CHn
Register Summary
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
+0x00
TXPLCTRL
TXPLCTRL[7:0]
+0x00
RXPLCTRL
RXPLCTRL[7:0]
+0x00
CTRL
–
–
–
–
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
222
222
EVSEL[3:0]
222
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20. ADC - Analog to Digital Converter
20.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
20.2
12-bit resolution
Up to 200 Ksps conversion rate
Single-ended or Differential measurements
Signed and Unsigned mode
8 - 16 single-ended inputs
8x4 differential inputs without gain
8x4 differential input with gain
3 internal inputs
– Temperature Sensor
– VCC voltage divided by 10
– Bandgap voltage
1x, 2x, 4x, 8x, 16x, 32x or 64x software selectable gain
8-, or 12-bit selectable resolution
Minimum single result propagation delay of 4.25µs with 8-bit resolution
Minimum single result propagation delay of 5.0µs with 12-bit resolution
Built-in accurate reference
Optional external reference
Optional event triggered conversion for accurate timing
Optional interrupt/event on compare result
Overview
The ADC converts analog voltages to digital values. The ADC has 12-bit resolution and is capable of converting up to 200K samples per second. The input selection is flexible, and both singleended and differential measurements can be done. For differential measurements an optional
gain stage is available to increase the dynamic range. In addition several internal signal inputs
are available. The ADC can provide both signed and unsigned results.
ADC measurements can either be started by application software or an incoming event from
another peripheral in the device. The latter ensure the ADC measurements can be started with
predictable timing, and without software intervention. The ADC has one channel, meaning there
is one input selection (MUX selection) and one result register available.
Both internal and external analog reference voltages can be used. A very accurate internal
1.00V reference is available.
An integrated temperature sensor is available and the output from this can be measured with the
ADC. A VCC/10 signal and the Bandgap voltage can also be measured by the ADC.
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Figure 20-1. ADC overview
Internal inputs
M U X selection
Differential
Pin inputs
Pin inputs
C onfiguration
Reference selection
20.3
AD C
1-64 X
R esult R egister
Event
triggers
Input sources
The input sources for the ADC are the analog voltage inputs that the ADC can measure and
convert. Four types of measurements can be selected:
• Differential input
• Differential input with gain
• Single ended input
• Internal input
The analog input pins are used for single ended and differential input, while the internal inputs
are directly available inside the device. Both PORTA and PORTB analog pins can then be used
as input for the ADC.
The MUX Control register select which input that is converted and the type of measurements in
one operation. The four types of measurements and their corresponding MUX selections are
shown in Figure 20-2 on page 226 to Figure 20-6 on page 228.
The ADC itself is always differential, also for single ended inputs where the negative input for the
ADC will be connected to an fixed internal value.
20.3.1
Differential input
When differential input is selected all analog input pins can be selected as positive input, and
analog input pins 0 to 3 can be selected as negative input. The ADC must be set in signed mode
when differential input is used.
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Figure 20-2. Differential measurement
ADC0
ADC1
ADC2
ADC3
...
...
ADC14
ADC15
+
ADC
ADC0
ADC1
ADC2
ADC3
20.3.2
Differential input with gain
When differential input with gain is selected all analog input pins can be selected as positive
input, and analog input pins 4 to 7 can be selected as negative input. When the gain stage is
used, the differential analog input is first sampled and amplified by the gain stage before the
result is fed into the ADC. The ADC must be set in signed mode when differential input with gain
is used.
The gain is selectable to 1x, 2x, 4x, 8x, 16x, 32x and 64x gain. In addition a 1/2x (divide by two)
setting is available, enabling measurement of differential input of up to 2x the reference voltage.
Figure 20-3. Differential measurement with gain
ADC0
ADC1
ADC2
ADC3
...
...
ADC14
ADC15
+
1-64 X
ADC
-
ADC4
ADC5
ADC6
ADC7
20.3.3
Single ended input
For single ended measurements all analog input pins can be used as input. Single ended measurements can be done in both signed and unsigned mode.
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The negative input is connected to internal ground in signed mode.
Figure 20-4. Single-ended measurement in signed mode
ADC0
ADC1
ADC2
ADC3
...
...
ADC14
ADC15
+
ADC
-
In unsigned mode the negative input is connected to half of the voltage reference (VREF) voltage minus a fixed offset. The nominal value for the offset is:
ΔV = VREF × 0.05
Since the ADC is differential, unsigned mode is achieved by dividing the reference by two internally, resulting in an input range from VREF to zero for the positive single ended input. The
offset enables the ADC to measure zero cross detection in unsigned mode, and to calibrate any
positive offset where the internal ground in the device is higher than the external ground. See
Figure 20-11 on page 230 for details.
Figure 20-5. Single ended measurement in unsigned mode
ADC0
ADC1
ADC2
ADC3
ADC...
...
ADC14
ADC15
20.3.4
+
VREF
− ΔV
2
ADC
-
Internal inputs
Three internal analog signals can be selected as input and measured by the ADC.
• Temperature sensor
• Bandgap voltage
• VCC scaled
The voltage output from an internal temperature reference can be measured with the ADC and
the voltage output will give an ADC result representing the current temperature in the microcontroller. During production test, the ADC measures a fixed temperature using the internal
temperature sensor, and the value is store in the production calibration row and can be used for
temperature sensor calibration.
The bandgap voltage is an accurate voltage reference inside the microcontroller that is the
source for other internal voltage references.
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VCC can be measured directly by scaling it down and dividing it by 10 before the ADC input.
Thus, VCC of 1.8 V will be measured as 0.18 V and VCC of 3.6 V will be measured as 0.36 V.
Some of the internal signals need to be turned on before they can be used measured. Refer to
the manual for these modules for details of how to turn them on. The sample rate for the internal
signals is lower than the maximum speed for the ADC, refer to the ADC characteristics in the
device datasheets for details on sample rate of the internal signals.
When measuring the internal signals, the negative input is connected to internal ground in
signed mode.
Figure 20-6. Internal measurements in signed mode
TEMP REF
VCC SCALED
+
ADC
BANDGAP REF
-
In unsigned mode the negative input is connected to a fixed value which is half of the voltage reference (VREF) minus a fixed offset as it is for single ended unsigned input. Refer to Figure 2011 on page 230 for details.
Figure 20-7. Internal measurements in unsigned mode
TEMP REF
VCC SCALED
+
ADC
BANDGAP REF
VREF
− ΔV
2
-
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20.4
Voltage reference selection
The following voltages can be used as the voltage reference (VREF) for the ADC:
•
•
•
•
Accurate internal 1.00 V voltage.
Internal VCC/1.6 voltage.
External voltage applied to AREF pin on PORTA.
External voltage applied to AREF pin on PORTB.
Figure 20-8. ADC voltage reference selection
Internal 1.00V
Internal VCC/1.6
AREFA
AREFB
20.5
VREF
Conversion Result
The ADC can be set up to be either in signed or in unsigned mode.
In signed mode, both negative and positive voltages can be measured, both for single ended
and differential input. With 12-bit resolution, the TOP value of a signed result is 2047 and the
results will be in the range -2048 to +2047 (0xF800 - 0x07FF). In unsigned mode the TOP value
is 4095 and results will be in the range 0 - 4095 (0 - 0x0FFF).
Signed mode must be used when any of the ADC inputs are set up for differential measurements. In unsigned mode only single ended or internal signals can be measured.
The result of the analog to digital conversion is written to the result registers, RES.
In signed mode the ADC transfer function can be written as:
VINP - VINN
RES = --------------------------------- ⋅ GAIN ⋅ TOP
VREF
VINP and VINN are the positive and negative inputs to the ADC. GAIN is 1 unless differential
measurement with gain is used.
In unsigned mode the ADC transfer functions can be written as:
VINP - (-ΔV )
RES = ---------------------------------- ⋅ TOP
VREF
VINP is the single ended or internal input.
The application software selects if an 8- or 12-bit result should be generated. A result with lower
resolution will be available faster. See the ”ADC Clock and Conversion Timing” on page 231 for
a description on how to calculate the propagation delay for.
The result register is 16-bit. An 8-bit result is always represented right adjusted in the 16-bit
result registers. Right adjusted means that the 8 LSB is found in the low byte. A 12-bit result can
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be represented both left- or right adjusted. Left adjusted means that the 8 MSB are found in the
high byte.
When the ADC is in signed mode, the MSB represents the sign bit. In 12-bit right adjusted mode,
the sign bit (bit 11) is padded to bits 12-15 to create a signed 16-bit number directly. In 8-bit
mode, the sign bit (bit 7) is padded to the entire high byte.
Figure 20-9 on page 230 to Figure 20-11 on page 230 shows the different input options, the signal input range and the result representation with 12-bit right adjusted mode.
Figure 20-9. Signed differential input (with gain), input range, and result representation
VREF
GAIN
VINN
VINP
0V
RES
-VREF
GAIN
Dec
2047
2046
2045
...
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
...
-2045
-2046
-2047
-2048
Hex
7FF
7FE
7FD
...
3
2
1
0
FFF
FFE
...
803
802
801
800
Binary
0111 1111 1111
0111 1111 1110
0111 1111 1101
...
0000 0000 0011
0000 0000 0010
0000 0000 0001
0000 0000 0000
1111 1111 1111
1111 1111 1110
...
1000 0000 0011
1000 0000 0010
1000 0000 0001
1000 0000 0000
16-bit result register
0000 0111 1111 1111
0000 0111 1111 1110
0000 0111 1111 1101
...
0000 0000 0000 0011
0000 0000 0000 0010
0000 0000 0000 0001
0000 0000 0000 0000
1111 1111 1111 1111
1111 1111 1111 1110
...
1111 1000 0000 0011
1111 1000 0000 0010
1111 1000 0000 0001
1111 1000 0000 0000
Figure 20-10. Signed single ended and internal input, input range, and result representation
VREF
VINP
VINN = GND
0V
-VREF
Dec
2047
2046
2045
...
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
...
-2045
-2046
-2047
-2048
Hex
7FF
7FE
7FD
...
3
2
1
0
FFF
FFE
...
803
802
801
800
Binary
0111 1111 1111
0111 1111 1110
0111 1111 1101
...
0000 0000 0011
0000 0000 0010
0000 0000 0001
0000 0000 0000
1111 1111 1111
1111 1111 1110
...
1000 0000 0011
1000 0000 0010
1000 0000 0001
1000 0000 0000
16-bit result register
0000 0111 1111 1111
0000 0111 1111 1110
0000 0111 1111 1101
...
0000 0000 0000 0011
0000 0000 0000 0010
0000 0000 0000 0001
0000 0000 0000 0000
1111 1111 1111 1111
1111 1111 1111 1110
...
1111 1000 0000 0011
1111 1000 0000 0010
1111 1000 0000 0001
1111 1000 0000 0000
Figure 20-11. Unsigned single ended and internal input, input range, and result representation
VREF − ΔV
VINP
VINN =
GND
VREF
− ΔV
2
Dec
4095
4094
4093
...
203
202
201
200
...
0
Hex
FFF
FFE
FFD
...
0CB
0CA
0C9
0C8
Binary
1111 1111 1111
1111 1111 1110
1111 1111 1101
...
0000 1100 1011
0000 1100 1010
0000 1100 1001
0000 1100 1000
16-bit result register
0000 1111 1111 1111
0000 1111 1111 1110
0000 1111 1111 1101
...
0000 0000 1100 1011
0000 0000 1100 1010
0000 0000 1100 1001
0000 0000 1100 1000
0
0000 0000 0000
0000 0000 0000 0000
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20.6
Compare function
The ADC has a built in 12-bit compare function. The ADC compare register can hold a 12-bit
value that represent an analog threshold voltage. The ADC can be configured to automatically
compare its result with this 12-bit compare value to give an interrupt or event only when the
result is above or below the threshold.
20.7
Starting a conversion
Before a conversion is started, the desired input source must be selected for the ADC. An ADC
conversion can either be started by the application software writing to the start conversion bit, or
from any of the events in the Event System.
20.8
ADC Clock and Conversion Timing
The ADC is clocked from the Peripheral Clock. The ADC can prescale the Peripheral Clock to
provide an ADC Clock (ClkADC) that is within the minimum and maximum frequency for the ADC.
Figure 20-12. ADC Prescaler
CLK/512
CLK/256
CLK/128
CLK/64
CLK/32
CLK/16
CLK/8
9-bit ADC Prescaler
CLK/4
ClkPER
PRESCALER[2:0]
ClkADC
The maximum ADC sample rate is given by the ADC clock frequency (fADC). The ADC can sample a new measurement once the previous conversion is done. The propagation delay of an
ADC measurement is given by:
1 + RES
----------- + GAIN
2
Propagation Delay = -----------------------------------------f ADC
RES is the resolution, 8- or 12-bit. The propagation delay will increase by one, two or three extra
ADC clock cycles if the Gain Stage (GAIN) is used, according to the following gain settings:
• GAIN = 1 for 2x and 4x gain settings
• GAIN = 2 for 8x and 16x gain settings
• GAIN = 3 for 32x and 64x gain settings
20.8.1
Single conversion without gain
Figure 20-13 on page 232 shows the ADC timing for a single conversion without gain. The writing of the start conversion bit, or the event triggering the conversion (START), must occur
minimum one peripheral clock cycles before the ADC clock cycle where the conversion actually
start (indicated with the grey slope of the START trigger).
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The analog input source is sampled in the first half of the first cycle, and the sample time is onehalf ADC clock period. Using a faster or slower ADC clock and sample rate will affect the sample
time.
The Most Significant Bit (MSB) of the result is converted first, and the rest of the bits are converted during the next 3 (for 8-bit results) or 5 (for 12-bit results) ADC clock cycles. Converting
one bit takes a half ADC clock period. During the last cycle the result is prepared before the
Interrupt Flag is set. The result is available in the Result Register for readout.
Figure 20-13. ADC timing for one single conversion without gain
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
CLK ADC
START
ADC SAMPLE
IF
MSB
CONVERTING BIT
20.8.2
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
LSB
Single conversion with gain
Figure 20-14 on page 232 to Figure 20-16 on page 233show the ADC timing for one single conversion with various gain settings. As seen in the ”Overview” on page 224 the gain stage is
placed prior to the actual ADC. This means that the gainstage will sample and amplify the analog input source before the ADC samples an converts the amplified analog value.
The gain stage will require between one and three ADC clock cycles in order to amplify the input
source. This will add one to three ADC clock cycles to the total propagation delay compared to
single conversion without gain. The sample time for the gain stage is a half ADC clock cycle.
Figure 20-14. ADC timing for one single conversion with 2x or 4x gain
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
CLKADC
START
GAINSTAGE SAMPLE
GAINSTAGE AMPLIFY
ADC SAMPLE
IF
CONVERTING BIT
MSB
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
LSB
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Figure 20-15. ADC timing for one single conversion with 8x or 16x gain
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
CLKADC
START
GAINSTAGE SAMPLE
GAINSTAGE AMPLIFY
ADC SAMPLE
IF
MSB
CONVERTING BIT
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
LSB
Figure 20-16. ADC timing for one single conversion with 32x or 64x gain
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
CLKADC
START
GAINSTAGE SAMPLE
GAINSTAGE AMPLIFY
ADC SAMPLE
IF
MSB
CONVERTING BIT
20.9
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
LSB
ADC Input Model
An analog voltage input must be able to fully charge the sample and hold (S/H) capacitor in the
ADC in order to achieve maximum accuracy. Seen externally the ADC input consists of a input
channel (Rchannel) and the switch (Rswitch) resistance, and the S/H capacitor. Figure 20-17 on
page 233 and Figure 20-18 on page 234 shows the input models for the ADC inputs.
Figure 20-17. ADC input for single ended measurements
Positive
input
Rchannel
Rswitch
CSample
VCC/2
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Figure 20-18. ADC input for differential measurements and differential measurements with gain
Positive
input
Rchannel
Rswitch
CSample
VCC/2
CSample
Negative
input
Rchannel
Rswitch
In order to achieve n bit accuracy, the source output resistance, Rsource, must be less than the
ADC input resistance on a pin:
Ts
- – R channel – R switch
R source ≤ ---------------------------------------------n+1
C sample ⋅ ln ( 2
)
where TS is the ADC sample time.
For details on Rchannel, Rswitch and Csample refer to the ADC and ADC gain stage electrical characteristic in the device datasheet.
20.10 Interrupts and events
The ADC can generate both interrupt requests and events. Interrupt requests and events can be
generated either when an ADC conversion is complete or if an ADC measurement is above or
below the ADC Compare register values.
20.11 Calibration
The ADC has a built-in calibration mechanism that calibrates the internal pipeline in the ADC.
The calibration value from the production test must be loaded from the signature row and into
the ADC calibration register from software to obtain best possible accuracy.
20.12 Register Description - ADC
20.12.1
CTRLA - ADC Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x00
–
–
–
–
–
CH0START
FLUSH
ENABLE
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTRLA
• Bits 7:3 – Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility reasons always write these
bits to zero when this register is written
• Bits 2 – CH0START: ADC Start single conversion
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Setting this bit will start an ADC conversion. Bit is cleared by hardware when the conversion has
started. Writing this bit is equivalent to writing the START bits inside the ADC channel register.
• Bit 1 – FLUSH: ADC Flush:
Writing this bit to one will flush the ADC. When this is done the ADC Clock will be restarted on
the next Peripheral clock edge and any ongoing conversion in progress is aborted and lost.
After the flush and the ADC Clock restart, any new conversions pending will start.
• Bit 0 – ENABLE: ADC Enable
Setting this bit enables the ADC.
20.12.2
CTRLB - ADC Control Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
+0x01
–
–
–
CONVMODE
FREERUN
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
RESOLUTION[1:0]
–
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
0
0
0
0
CTRLB
• Bits 7:5 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility reasons, always write these
bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 4 - CONVMODE: ADC Conversion Mode
This bit controls whether the ADC should work in signed or unsigned mode. By default this bit is
zero and the ADC is then configured for unsigned mode where single ended and internal signals
can be measured. When this bit is set to one the ADC is configured for signed mode where also
differential input can be used.
• Bit 3 - FREERUN: ADC Free Running Mode
This bit controls the free running mode for the ADC. Once a conversion is finished, the next input
will be sampled and converted.
• Bits 2:1 - RESOLUTION[1:0]: ADC Conversion Result Resolution
These bits define whether the ADC completes the conversion at 12- or 8-bit result. They also
define whether the 12-bit result is left or right oriented in the 16-bit result registers.
See Table 20-1 on page 235 for possible settings.
Table 20-1.
ADC Conversion Result resolution
RESOLUTION[1:0]
Group Configuration
00
12BIT
01
Description
12-bit result, right adjusted
Reserved
10
8BIT
8-bit result, right adjusted
11
LEFT12BIT
12-bit result, left adjusted
• Bit 0 - Reserved
This bit is unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility reasons, always write this bit to
zero when this register is written.
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20.12.3
REFCTRL - ADC Reference Control register
Bit
7
6
5
+0x02
–
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
BANDGAP
TEMPREF
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
0
REFSEL[2:0]
REFCTRL
• Bit 7 – Reserved
This bit is unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility reasons, always write this bit to
zero when this register is written.
• Bits 6:4 – REFSEL[2:0]: ADC Reference Selection
These bits selects the reference and conversion range for the ADC according to Table 20-2 on
page 236.
Table 20-2.
ADC Reference Configuration
REFSEL[2:0]
Group Configuration
000
INT1V
001
INTVCC
Internal VCC/1.6
010(1)
AREFA
External reference from AREF pin on PORT A.
(2)
AREFB
External reference from AREF pin on PORT B.
011
Description
Internal 1.00V
100
101
110
111
Notes:
1. Only available if AREF exist on PORT A.
2. Only available it AREF exist on PORT B.
• Bit 3:2 – Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility reasons, always write these
bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 1 – BANDGAP: Bandgap enable
Setting this bit enables the bandgap to prepare for ADC measurement. Note that if any other
functions are using the bandgap already, this bit does not need to be set. This could be when the
internal 1.00V reference is used in ADC or if the Brown-out Detector is enabled.
• Bit 0 – TEMPREF: Temperature Reference enable
Setting this bit enables the temperature reference to prepare for ADC measurement.
20.12.4
EVCTRL - ADC Event Control Register
Bit
7
6
+0x03
–
–
5
4
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
–
–
EVACT0
R/W
R
R
R/W
0
0
0
0
EVSEL[2:0]
EVCTRL
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• Bits 7:6 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility reasons, always write these
bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bits 5:3 - EVSEL[2:0]: event channel input select
These bits define which event channel should trigger the ADC. See Table 20-3 on page 237.
Table 20-3.
ADC Event Line Select
EVSEL[2:0]
Group Configuration
000
0
Event channel 0 selected inputs
001
1
Event channel 1 as selected input
010
2
Event channel 2 as selected input
011
3
Event channel 3 as selected input
111
Selected event lines
Reserved
• Bits 2:1 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility reasons, always write these
bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bits 0 - EVACT0: ADC Event Mode
Setting this bit to one will enable the event line defined by EVSEL to trigger the conversion. Writing this bit to zero disable ADC event triggering.
20.12.5
PRESCALER - ADC Clock Prescaler register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x04
–
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PRESCALER[2:0]
PRESCALER
• Bits 7:3 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero. For compatibility reasons always write
these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bits 2:0 - PRESCALER[2:0]: ADC Prescaler configuration
These bits define the ADC clock relative to the Peripheral clock, according to Table 20-4 on
page 237.
Table 20-4.
ADC Prescaler settings
PRESCALER[2:0]
Group Configuration
System clock division factor
000
DIV4
4
001
DIV8
8
010
DIV16
16
011
DIV32
32
100
DIV64
64
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Table 20-4.
20.12.6
ADC Prescaler settings
101
DIV128
128
110
DIV256
256
111
DIV512
512
INTFLAGS - ADC Interrupt Flag register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x06
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
CH0IF
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
INTFLAGS
• Bits 7:1 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero. For compatibility reasons always write
these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bits 0 - CH0IF: Interrupt flags
This flag is set when the ADC conversion is complete. If the ADC is configured for compare
mode, the interrupt flag will be set if the compare condition is met. CH0IF is automatically
cleared when the ADC interrupt vector is executed. The flag can also be cleared by writing a one
to its bit location.
20.12.7
TEMP - ADC Temporary register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
+0x07
2
1
0
TEMP[7:0]
TEMP
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bits 7:0 - TEMP[7:0]: ADC Temporary Register
This register is used when reading 16-bit registers in the ADC controller. The high byte of the 16bit register is stored here when the low byte read by the CPU. This register can also be read and
written from the user software.
For more details on 16-bit register access refer to ”Accessing 16-bits Registers” on page 12.
20.12.8
CALL - ADC Calibration value registers
The CALL and CALH register pair hold the 12-bit value ADC calibration value CAL. The ADC is
calibrated during production programming, the calibration value must be read from the signature
row and written to the CAL register from in order to get best possible accuracy.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x0C
CAL[7:0]
CAL
• Bits 7:0 - CAL[7:0]: ADC Calibration value
This is the 8 LSB of the 12-bit CAL value.
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20.12.9
CALH - ADC Calibration value registers
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x0D
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CAL[11:8]
CAL
• Bits 7:4 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero. For compatibility reasons always write
these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bits 3:0 - CAL[11:8]: ADC Calibration value
This is the 4 MSB of the 12-bit CAL value.
20.12.10 CH0RESH - ADC Channel Result register High
The CH0RESL and CH0RESH register pair represents the 16-bit value CH0RES. For details on
reading 16-bit register refer to ”Accessing 16-bits Registers” on page 12.
Bit
7
6
5
4
12-bit, left
2
1
0
CHRES[11:4]
12-bit, right
–
8-bit
20.12.10.1
3
–
–
–
CHRES[11:8]
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12-bit mode, left adjusted
• Bits 7:0 - CHRES[11:4]: ADC Channel Result, high byte
These are the 8 MSB of the 12-bit ADC result.
20.12.10.2
12-bit mode, right adjusted
• Bits 7:4 - Reserved
These bits will in practice be the extension of the sign bit CHRES11 when ADC works in differential mode and set to zero when ADC works in signed mode.
• Bits 3:0 - CHRES[11:8]: ADC Channel Result, high byte
These are the 4 MSB of the 12-bit ADC result.
20.12.10.3
8-bit mode
• Bits 7:0 - Reserved
These bits will in practice be the extension of the sign bit CHRES7 when ADC works in signed
mode and set to zero when ADC works in single-ended mode.
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20.12.11 CH0RESL - ADC Channel Result register Low
Bit
7
6
5
4
12-/8-
2
1
0
CHRES[7:0]
12-bit, left
20.12.11.1
3
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
CHRES[3:0]
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12-/8-bit mode
• Bits 7:0 - CHRES[7:0]: ADC Channel Result, low byte
These are the 8 LSB of the ADC result.
20.12.11.2
12-bit mode, left adjusted
• Bits 7:4 - CHRES[3:0]: ADC Channel Result, low byte
These are the 4 LSB of the 12 bit ADC result.
• Bits 3:0 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero. For compatibility reasons always write
these bits to zero when this register is written.
20.12.12 CMPH - ADC Compare register High
The CMPH and CMPL register pair represents the 16-bit value ADC Compare (CMP). For
details on reading and writing 16-bit registers refer to ”Accessing 16-bits Registers” on page 12.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x19
CMP[15:0]
CMPH
• Bits 7:0 - CMP[15:0]: ADC Compare value high byte
These are the 8 MSB of the 16-bit ADC compare value. In signed mode, the number representation is 2's complement and the MSB is the sign bit.
20.12.13 CMPL - ADC Compare register Low
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x18
3
2
1
0
CMP[7:0]
CMPL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bits 7:0 - CMP[7:0]: ADC compare value high byte
These are the 8 LSB of the 16-bit ADC compare value. In signed mode, the number representation is 2's complement.
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20.13 Register Description - ADC Channel
20.13.1
CTRL - ADC Channel Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
START
–
–
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+0x00
4
3
2
GAIN[2:0}
1
0
INPUTMODE[1:0]
CTRL
• Bit 7 - START: START Conversion on Channel
Writing this to one will start a conversion on the channel. The bit is cleared by hardware when
the conversion has started. Writing this bit to one when it already is set will have no effect. Writing or reading these bits is equivalent to writing the CH0START bit in ”CTRLA - ADC Control
Register A” on page 234.
• Bits 6:5 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility reasons always write these
bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bits 4:2 - GAIN[2:0]: ADC Gain Factor
These bits define the gain factor in order to amplify input signals before the ADC conversion.
See Table 20-5 on page 241 for different gain factor settings. Gain is only valid with certain MUX
settings, see ”MUXCTRL - ADC Channel MUX Control registers” on page 242.
Table 20-5.
ADC Gain Factor
GAIN[2:0]
Group Configuration
Gain factor
000
1X
1x
001
2X
2x
010
4X
4x
011
8X
8x
100
16X
16x
101
32X
32x
110
64X
64x
111
DIV2
1/2x
• Bit 1:0 - INPUTMODE[1:0]: ADC Input Mode
These bits define the ADC Channel input mode. This setting is independent of the ADC CONVMODE (signed/unsigned mode) setting, but differential input mode can only be done in ADC
signed mode. In single ended input mode, the negative input to the ADC will be connected to a
fixed value both for ADC signed and unsigned mode.
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Table 20-6.
INPUTMODE[1:0]
Group Configuration
00
INTERNAL
01
SINGLEENDED
Description
Internal positive input signal
Single-ended positive input signal
10
Reserved
11
Reserved
Table 20-7.
20.13.2
Input Modes, CONVMODE=0 (unsigned mode)
Input Modes, CONVMODE=1 (signed mode)
INPUTMODE[1:0]
Group Configuration
00
INTERNAL
01
SINGLEENDED
10
DIFF
11
DIFFWGAIN
Description
Internal positive input signal
Single-ended positive input signal
Differential input signal
Differential input signal with gain
MUXCTRL - ADC Channel MUX Control registers
The MUX register defines the input source for the channel.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
+0x01
–
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MUXPOS[3:0]
2
–
1
0
MUXNEG[1:0]
MUXCTRL
• Bit 7 - Reserved
This bit is unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility reasons always write this bit to
zero when this register is written.
• Bits 6:3 - MUXPOS[3:0]: MUX selection on Positive ADC input
These bits define the MUX selection for the positive ADC input. Table 20-8 on page 242 and
Table 20-9 on page 243 shows the possible input selection for the different input modes.
Table 20-8.
ADC MUXPOS Configuration when INPUTMODE[1:0] = 00 (Internal) is used
MUXPOS[2:0]
Group Configuration
Analog input
000
TEMP
Temperature Reference.
001
BANDGAP
Bandgap voltage
010
SCALEDVCC
1/10 scaled VCC
011
Reserved
100
Reserved
101
Reserved
110
Reserved
111
Reserved
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Table 20-9.
ADC MUXPOS Configuration when INPUTMODE[1:0] = 01 (Single-ended),
INPUTMODE[1:0] = 10 (Differential) or INPUTPMODE[1:0] = 1 (Differential with
gain) is used.
MUXPOS[3:0]
Group Configuration
Analog input
0000
PIN0
ADC0 pin
0001
PIN1
ADC1 pin
0010
PIN2
ADC2 pin
0011
PIN3
ADC3 pin
0100
PIN4
ADC4 pin
0101
PIN5
ADC5 pin
0110
PIN6
ADC6 pin
0111
PIN7
ADC7 pin
1000
PIN8
ADC8 pin
1001
PIN9
ADC9 pin
1010
PIN10
ADC10 pin
1011
PIN11
ADC11 pin
1100
PIN12
ADC12 pin
1101
PIN13
ADC13 pin
1110
PIN14
ADC14 pin
1111
PIN15
ADC15 pin
• Bits 2 - Reserved
This bit is unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility reasons always write this bit to
zero when this register is written.
• Bits 1:0 - MUXNEG[1:0]: MUX selection on Negative ADC input
These bits define the MUX selection for the negative ADC input when differential measurements
are done. For internal or single-ended measurements, these bits are not in use.
Table 20-10 on page 243 and Table 20-11 on page 244 shows the possible input sections.
Table 20-10. ADC MUXNEG Configuration, INPUTMODE[1:0] = 10, Differential without gain
MUXNEX[1:0]
Group Configuration
Analog input
00
PIN0
ADC0 pin
01
PIN1
ADC1 pin
10
PIN2
ADC2 pin
11
PIN3
ADC3 pin
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Table 20-11. ADC MUXNEG Configuration, INPUTMODE[1:0] = 11, Differential with gain
20.13.3
MUXNEG[1:0]
Group Configuration
Analog input
00
PIN4
ADC4 pin
01
PIN5
ADC5 pin
10
PIN6
ADC6 pin
11
PIN7
ADC7 pin
INTCTRL - ADC Channel Interrupt Control registers
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
+0x02
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
INTMODE[1:0]
0
INTLVL[1:0]
INTCTRL
• Bits 7:4 – Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility reasons always write these
bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 3:2 – INTMODE[1:]: ADC Interrupt Mode
These bits select the interrupt mode for channel n according to Table 20-12
Table 20-12. ADC Interrupt mode
INTMODE[1:0]
Group Configuration
00
COMPLETE
01
BELOW
Interrupt mode
Conversion Complete
Compare Result Below Threshold
10
Reserved
11
ABOVE
Compare Result Above Threshold
• Bits 1:0 – INTLVL[1:0]: ADC Interrupt Priority Level and Enable
These bits enable the ADC channel interrupt and select the interrupt level as described in ”Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller” on page 95. The enabled interrupt will
be triggered when the IF in the INTFLAGS register is set.
20.13.4
INTFLAGS - ADC Channel Interrupt Flag registers
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x03
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
IF
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
INTFLAGS
• Bits 7:1 – Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero. For compatibility reasons always write
these bits to zero when this register is written.
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• Bit 0 – IF: ADC Channel Interrupt Flag
The interrupt flag is set when the ADC conversion is complete. If the channel is configured for
compare mode, the flag will be set if the compare condition is met. IF is automatically cleared
when the ADC channel interrupt vector is executed. The bit can also be cleared by writing a one
to the bit location.
20.13.5
RESH - ADC Channel Result register High
For all result registers and with any ADC result resolution, a signed number is represented in 2’s
complement form and the MSB represents the sign bit.
The RESL and RESH register pair represents the 16-bit value ADCRESULT. Reading and writing 16-bit values require special attention, refer to ”Accessing 16-bits Registers” on page 12 for
details.
Bit
7
6
5
4
12-bit, left.
12-bit, right
2
1
0
RES[11:4]
+0x05
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8-bit
20.13.5.1
3
–
–
–
RES[11:8]
12-bit mode, left adjusted
• Bits 7:0 - RES[11:4]: ADC Channel Result, high byte
These are the 8 MSB of the 12-bit ADC result.
20.13.5.2
12-bit mode, right adjusted
• Bits 7:4 - Reserved
These bits will in practice be the extension of the sign bit CHRES11 when ADC works in differential mode and set to zero when ADC works in signed mode.
• Bits 3:0 - RES[11:8]: ADC Channel Result, high byte
These are the 4 MSB of the 12-bit ADC result.
20.13.5.3
8-bit mode
• Bits 7:0 - Reserved
These bits will in practice be the extension of the sign bit CHRES7 when ADC works in signed
mode and set to zero when ADC works in single-ended mode.
20.13.6
RESL - ADC Channel Result register Low
Bit
7
6
5
4
12-/8-
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
RES[7:0]
+0x04
12-bit, left.
RES[3:0]
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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20.13.6.1
12-/8-bit mode
• Bits 7:0 - RES[7:0]: ADC Channel Result, low byte
These are the 8 LSB of the ADC result.
20.13.6.2
12-bit mode, left adjusted
• Bits 7:4 - RES[3:0]: ADC Channel Result, low byte
These are the 4 LSB of the 12 bit ADC result.
• Bits 3:0 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
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20.14 Register Summary - ADC
This is the register summary when the ADC is configured to give standard 12-bit results. The register summary for 8-bit and
12-bit left adjusted will be similar, but with some changes in the result registers CH0RESH and CH0RESL.
Address
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
+0x00
Name
CTRLA
–
–
–
–
–
CH0START
FLUSH
ENABLE
234
+0x01
CTRLB
–
–
–
CONVMODE
FREERUN
-
235
+0x02
REFCTRL
–
+0x03
EVCTRL
–
–
REFSEL[2:0]
EVSEL[2:0]
RESOLUTION[1:0]
Page
-
BANDGAP
TEMPREF
236
-
-
EVACT
236
+0x04
PRESCALER
–
–
–
–
–
+0x05
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
PRESCALER[2:0]
–
–
237
+0x06
INTFLAGS
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
CH0IF
+0x07
TEMP
+0x08
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
TEMP[7:0]
238
238
+0x09
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0A
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0B
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0C
CALL
+0x0D
CALH
–
–
–
–
+0x0E
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0F
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x10
CH0RESL
CH0RES[7:0]
240
+0x11
CH0RESH
CH0RES[15:8]
240
+0x12
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x13
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x14
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x15
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x16
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x17
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x18
CMPL
CMP[7:0]
240
+0x19
CMPH
CMP[15:8]
240
CAL[7:0]
238
CAL[11:8]
+0x1A
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x1B
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x1C
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x1D
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x1E
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x1F
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x20
CH0 Offset
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x21
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x22
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x23
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
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20.15 Register Summary - ADC Channel
Address
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
+0x00
Name
CTRL
START
–
–
+0x01
MUXCTRL
–
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
GAIN[2:0]
MUXPOS[3:0]
INTMODE[1:0]
Bit 0
Page
INPUTMODE[1:0]
241
MUXNEG[1:0]
242
+0x02
INTCTRL
–
–
–
–
+0x03
INTFLAGS
–
–
–
–
+0x04
RESL
RES[7:0]
245
+0x05
RESH
RES[15:8]
245
–
INTLVL[1:0]
–
–
244
IF
+0x06
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x07
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
244
20.16 Interrupt Vector Summary
Table 20-13. Analog to Digital Converter Interrupt vector and word offset address
Offset
Source
0x00
CH0
Interrupt Description
Analog to Digital Converter Channel 0 Interrupt vector
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21. AC - Analog Comparator
21.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
21.2
Flexible input selection
High speed option
Low power option
Selectable input hysteresis
Analog comparator output available on pin
Window mode
Overview
The Analog Comparator (AC) compares the voltage level on two inputs and gives a digital output
based on this comparison. The Analog Comparator may be configured to give interrupt requests
and/or events upon several different combinations of input change.
Two important properties of the Analog Comparator when it comes to the dynamic behavior, are
hysteresis and propagation delay. Both these parameters may be adjusted in order to find the
optimal operation for each application.
The Analog Comparators are always grouped in pairs (AC0 and AC1) on each analog port. They
have identical behavior but separate control registers.
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Figure 21-1. Analog Comparator overview.
Pin inputs
Internal inputs
+
Pin 0 output
AC0
Pin inputs
-
Internal inputs
VCC scaled
Interrupt
sensitivity
control
Pin inputs
Interrupts
Events
Internal inputs
+
AC1
Pin inputs
Internal inputs
-
VCC scaled
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21.3
Input Channels
Each Analog Comparator has one positive and one negative input. Each input may be chosen
among a wide selection of input channels: the analog input pins, internal inputs and a scaled
inputs. The digital output from the Analog Comparator is one when the difference between the
positive and the negative input is positive, and zero when the difference is negative.
21.3.1
Pin Inputs
The analog input pins on the port can be selected as input to the Analog Comparator.
21.3.2
Internal Inputs
There are three Internal inputs that are directly available for the Analog Comparator:
• Bandgap reference voltage.
• Voltage scaler that can do a 64-level scaling of the internal VCC voltage.
21.4
Start of Signal Compare
In order to start a signal compare, the Analog Comparator must be configured with the preferred
properties and inputs, before the module is enabled to start comparing the two selected inputs.
The result of the comparison is continuous and available for application software and the Event
System.
When the AC is enabled the muxes need some time to connect to the inputs configured. This
can result in unexpected transitions on the AC output during this time. In addition if the Voltage
scaler is used as a input on any of the two AC inside a ac system it has a startuptime that is
lagrer than the mux enable time(see ac mdac spesification). This startup time applies even if one
AC already uses the voltage scaler as input.
21.5
Generating Interrupts and Events
The Analog Comparator can be configured to generate interrupts when the output toggles, when
output changes from zero to one (rising edge) or when the output changes from one to zero (falling edge). Events will be generated for the same condition as the interrupt, and at all times,
regardless of the interrupt being enabled or not.
21.6
Window Mode
Two Analog Comparators on the same analog port can be configured to work together in Window Mode. In this mode a voltage range may be defined, and the Analog Comparators may give
information about whether an input signal is within this range or not.
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Figure 21-2. Analog Comparator Window Mode
+
AC0
U p p e r lim it o f w in d o w
In te rru p t
s e n s itiv ity
c o n tro l
In p u t s ig n a l
In te rru p ts
E v e n ts
+
AC1
L o w e r lim it o f w in d o w
21.7
-
Input hysteresis
Application software can select between no, low, and high hysteresis. Adding hysteresis can
avoid constant toggling of the output if the input signals are very close to each other and some
noise exists in either of the signals or in the system.
21.8
Power consumption vs. propagation delay
It is possible to enable High-speed mode to get the shortest possible propagation delay. This
mode consumes more power than the default Low-power mode that has a longer propagation
delay.
21.9
21.9.1
Register Description
ACnCTRL – Analog Comparator n Control Register
Bit
7
+0x00 / +0x01
6
5
INTMODE[1:0]
4
INTLVL[1:0]
3
HSMODE
2
1
HYSMODE[2:0]
0
ENABLE
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ACnCTRL
• Bits 7:6 - INTMODE[1:0]:Analog Comparator Interrupt Modes
These bits configure the interrupt mode for Analog Comparator n according to Table 21-1.
Table 21-1.
Analog Comparator n Interrupt Settings
INTMODE[1:0]
Group Configuration
Description
00
BOTHEDGES
01
-
10
FALLING
Comparator interrupt or event on falling output edge
11
RISING
Comparator interrupt or event on rising output edge
Comparator interrupt on output toggle
Reserved
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• Bits 5:4 - INTLVL[1:0]: Analog Comparator Interrupt Level
These bits enable the Analog Comparator n Interrupt and select the interrupt level as described
in ”Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller” on page 95. The enabled interrupt will trigger according to the INTMODE setting.
• Bit 3 - HSMODE: Analog Comparator High-Speed Mode Select
Setting this bit selects High-speed mode and clearing this bit to select Low-power mode.
• Bits 2:1 - HYSMODE[1:0]: Analog Comparator Hysteresis Mode Select
These bits select hysteresis according to Table 21-2. For details on actual hysteresis levels refer
to device datasheet.
Table 21-2.
Analog Comparator n Hysteresis Settings
HYSMODE[1:0]
Group Configuration
Description
00
NO
No hysteresis
01
SMALL
Small hysteresis
10
LARGE
Large hysteresis
11
-
Reserved
• Bit 0 - ENABLE: Analog Comparator Enable
Settings this bit enables the Analog Comparator n.
21.9.2
ACnMUXCTRL – Analog Comparator Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
+0x02 / +0x03
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MUXPOS[2:0]
0
MUXNEG[2:0]
ACnMUXCTRL
• Bits 7:6 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bits 5:3 - MUXPOS[2:0]: Analog Comparator Positive Input MUX Selection
These bits select which input to be connected to the positive input of Analog Comparator n,
according to Table 21-3.
Table 21-3.
Analog Comparator n Positive Input MUX Selection
MUXPOS[2:0]
Group Configuration
Description
000
PIN0
Pin 0
001
PIN1
Pin 1
010
PIN2
Pin 2
011
PIN3
Pin 3
100
PIN4
Pin 4
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Table 21-3.
Analog Comparator n Positive Input MUX Selection (Continued)
101
PIN5
Pin 5
110
PIN6
Pin 6
111
-
Reserved
• Bits 2:0 - MUXNEG[2:0]: Analog Comparator Negative Input MUX Selection
These bits select which input to be connected to the negative input of Analog Comparator n,
according to Table 21-4 on page 254.
Table 21-4.
21.9.3
Analog Comparator n Negative Input MUX Selection
MUXNEG[2:0]
Group Configuration
Negative Input MUX Selection
000
PIN0
Pin 0
001
PIN1
Pin 1
010
PIN3
Pin 3
011
PIN5
Pin 5
100
PIN7
Pin 7
101
-
Reserved
110
BANDGAP
Internal Bandgap Voltage
111
SCALER
VCC Voltage Scaler
CTRLA – Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
+0x04
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
AC0OUT
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTRLA
• Bits 7:1 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 0 – AC0OUT: Analog Comparator Output
Setting this bit makes the output of Analog Comparator 0 available on pin 7 on the same port.
21.9.4
CTRLB – Control Register B
Bit
+0x05
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
SCALEFAC[5:0]
R/W
R/W
R/W
CTRLB
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bits 7:6 - Res - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
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• Bits 5:0 - SCALEFAC[5:0]: Analog Comparator Input Voltage Scaling Factor
These bits define the scaling factor for the Vcc voltageF. The input to the Analog Comparator,
VSCALE, is:
V CC ⋅ ( SCALEFAC + 1 )
V SCALE = -----------------------------------------------------------64
21.9.5
WINCTRL – Analog Comparator Window Function Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x06
–
–
–
WEN
3
2
1
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WINTMODE[1:0]
0
WINTLVL[1:0]
WINCTRL
• Bits 7:5 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 4 - WEN: Analog Comparator Window Enable
Setting this bit enables Window Mode for the two Analog Comparators on the same port.
• Bits 3:2 - WINTMODE[1:0]: Analog Comparator Window Interrupt Mode Settings
These bits configure the interrupt mode for Analog Comparator Window Mode according to
Table 21-5.
Table 21-5.
Analog Comparator Window Mode Interrupt Settings
WINTMODE[1:0]
Group Configuration
Description
00
ABOVE
Interrupt on signal above window
01
INSIDE
Interrupt on signal inside window
10
BELOW
Interrupt on signal below window
11
OUTSIDE
Interrupt on signal outside window
• Bits 1:0 - WINTLVL[1:0]: Analog Comparator Window Interrupt Enable
These bits enable the Analog Comparator Window Mode Interrupt and select the interrupt level
as described in ”Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller” on page 95. The
enabled interrupt will trigger according to the WINTMODE setting.
21.9.6
STATUS – Analog Comparator Common Status Register
Bit
7
+0x07
6
WSTATE[1:0]
5
4
3
2
1
0
AC1STATE
AC0STATE
–
WIF
AC1IF
AC0IF
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STATUS
• Bits 7:6 - WSTATE[1:0]: Analog Comparator Window Mode Current State
These bits show the current state of the signal if the Window Mode is enabled according to
Table 21-6.
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Table 21-6.
Analog Comparator Window Mode Current State
WSTATE[1:0]
Group Configuration
Description
00
ABOVE
Signal is above window
01
INSIDE
Signal is inside window
10
BELOW
Signal is below window
11
-
Reserved
• Bit 5 - AC1STATE: Analog Comparator 1 Current State
This bit shows the current state of the input signal to Analog Comparator 1.
• Bit 4 - AC0STATE: Analog Comparator 0 Current State
This bit shows the current state of the input signal to Analog Comparator 0.
• Bit 3 - Reserved
This bit is unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always write
this bit to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 2 - WIF: Analog Comparator Window Interrupt Flag
This is the interrupt flag for the Window Mode. WIF is set according to the WINTMODE setting in
the ”WINCTRL – Analog Comparator Window Function Control Register” on page 255.
The WIF is automatically cleared when the analog comparator window interrupt vector is executed. The flag can also be cleared by writing a one to its bit location.
• Bit 1 - AC1IF: Analog Comparator 1 Interrupt Flag
This is the interrupt flag for Analog Comparator 1. AC1IF is set according to the INTMODE setting in the corresponding ”ACnCTRL – Analog Comparator n Control Register” on page 252.
The AC1IF is automatically cleared when the analog comparator 1 interrupt vector is executed.
The flag can also be cleared by writing a one to its bit location.
• Bit 0 - AC0IF: Analog Comparator 0 Interrupt Flag
This is the interrupt flag for Analog Comparator 0. AC0IF is set according to the INTMODE setting in the corresponding ”ACnCTRL – Analog Comparator n Control Register” on page 252.
The AC0IF is automatically cleared when the analog comparator interrupt vector is executed.
The flag can also be cleared by writing a one to its bit location.
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21.10 Register Summary
Address
Bit 0
Page
+0x00
Name
AC0CTRL
Bit 7
INTMODE[1:0]
Bit 6
INTLVL[1:0]
HSMODE
HYSMODE[1:0]
ENABLE
252
+0x01
AC1CTRL
INTMODE[1:0]
INTLVL[1:0]
HSMODE
HYSMODE[1:0]
ENABLE
+0x02
AC0MUXCTR
–
–
+0x03
AC1MUXCTR
–
–
+0x04
CTRLA
–
–
+0x05
CTRLB
–
–
+0x06
WINCTRL
–
–
+0x07
STATUS
WSTATE[1:0]
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
MUXPOS[2:0]
MUXNEG[2:0]
MUXPOS[2:0]
–
–
–
WEN
AC1STATE
AC0STATE
Bit 1
MUXNEG[2:0]
–
–
–
253
ACOOUT
SCALEFAC5:0]
WINTMODE[1:0]
–
WIF
252
253
254
254
WINTLVL[1:0]
AC1IF
AC0IF
255
255
21.11 Interrupt vector Summary
Table 21-7.
Analog Comparator Interrupt vectors
Offset
Source
Interrupt Description
0x00
COMP0_vect
Analog Comparator 0 Interrupt vector
0x02
COMP1_vect
Analog Comparator 1 Interrupt vector
0x04
WINDOW_vect
Analog Comparator Window Interrupt vector
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22. Program and Debug Interface
22.1
Features
• Program and Debug Interface (PDI)
– 2-pin interface for external programming and on-chip debugging
– Uses Reset pin and dedicated Test pin
• No I/O pins required during programming or debugging
• Programming Features
– Flexible communication protocol
– 8 Flexible instructions.
– Minimal protocol overhead.
– Fast
• 10 MHz programming clock at 1.8V VCC
– Reliable
• Built in error detection and handling
• Debugging Features
– Non-Intrusive Operation
• Uses no hardware or software resource
– Complete Program Flow Control
• Symbolic Debugging Support in Hardware
• Go, Stop, Reset, Step into, Step over, Step out, Run-to-Cursor
– 1 dedicated program address breakpoint or symbolic breakpoint for AVR studio/emulator
– 4 Hardware Breakpoints
– Unlimited Number of User Program Breakpoints
– Uses CPU for Accessing I/O, Data, and Program
– High Speed Operation
• No limitation on system clock frequency
22.2
Overview
The Program and Debug Interface (PDI) is an Atmel proprietary interface for external programming and on-chip debugging of the device.
The PDI supports high-speed programming of all Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) spaces; Flash,
EEPOM, Fuses, Lockbits and the User Signature Row. This is done by accessing the NVM Controller, and executing NVM Controller commands as described in Memory Programming.
The On-Chip Debug (OCD) system supports fully intrusive operation. During debugging no software or hardware resources in the device is used. The OCD system has full program flow
control, supports unlimited number of program and data breakpoints and has full access
(read/write) to all memories.
Both programming and debugging can be done through two physical interfaces. The primary
interface is the PDI Physical. This is a 2-pin interface using the Reset pin for the clock input
(PDI_CLK), and the dedicated Test pin for data input and output (PDI_DATA). Unless otherwise
stated, all references to the PDI assumes access through the PDI physical. Any external programmer or on-chip debugger/emulator can be directly connected to these interfaces, and no
external components are required.
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Figure 22-1. The PDI with PDI physical and closely related modules (grey)
PDIBUS
Program and Debug Interface (PDI)
Internal Interfaces
OCD
PDI_CLK
PDI_DATA
PDI Physical
(physical layer)
PDI
Controller
NVM
Memories
NVM
Controller
22.3
PDI Physical
The PDI physical layer handles the basic low-level serial communication. The physical layer
uses a bi-directional half-duplex synchronous serial receiver and transmitter (as a USART in
USRT mode). The physical layer includes start-of-frame detection, frame error detection, parity
generation, parity error detection, and collision detection.
The PDI is accessed through two pins:
• PDI_CLK: PDI clock input (Reset pin).
• PDI_DATA: PDI data input/output (Test pin).
In addition to these two pins, VCC and GND must also be connected between the External Programmer/debugger and the device. Figure 22-2 on page 259 shows a typical connection.
Figure 22-2. PDI connection
PDI_CLK (RESET)
PDI_DATA (TEST)
Vcc
Programmer/
Debugger
Gnd
The remainder of this section is only intended for third parties developing programming support
for XMEGA.
22.3.1
Enabling
The PDI Physical must be enabled before it can be used. This is done by first forcing the
PDI_DATA line high for a period longer than the equivalent external reset minimum pulse width
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(refer to device datasheet for external reset pulse width data). This will disable the RESET functionality of the Reset pin, if not already disabled by the fuse settings.
In the next step of the enabling procedure the PDI_DATA line must be kept high for 16 PDI_CLK
cycles (16 positive edges detected). The first PDI_CLK cycle must start no later than 100uS
after the RESET functionality of the Reset pin was disabled. If this does not occur in time the
RESET functionality of the Reset pin is automatically enabled again and the enabling procedure
must start over again.
After this the PDI is enabled and ready to receive instructions. The enable sequence is shown in
Figure 22-3 on page 260.
From the PDI_DATA line goes high and until the first PDI_CLK start, the
The PDI_DATA pin has en internal pull-down resistor that is enabled when the PDI is enabled.
Figure 22-3. Sequence for enabling the PDI.
Disable RESET function on Reset (PDI_CLK) pin
Activate PDI
PDI_DATA
PDI_CLK
22.3.2
Disabling
If the clock frequency on the PDI_CLK is lower than approximately 10 kHz, this is regarding as
inactivity on the clock line. This will then automatically disable the PDI. If not disabled by fuse,
the RESET function on the Reset (PDI_CLK) pin is automatically enabled again. If the time-out
occurs during the PDI enabling sequence, the whole sequence must be started from the
beginning.
This also means that the minimum programming frequency is approximately 10 kHz.
22.3.3
Frame Format and Characters
The PDI physical layer uses a fixed frame format. A serial frame is defined to be one character
of eight data bits with start and stop bits and a parity bit.
Figure 22-4. PDI serial frame format.
FRAME
(IDLE)
St
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
P
Sp1 Sp2
(St/IDLE)
Table 1.
St
(0-7)
P
Sp1
Sp2
Start bit, always low.
Data bits (0 to 7)
Parity bit, even parity is used
Stop bit 1, always high.
Stop bit 2, always high.
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22.3.3.1
Characters
Three different characters, DATA, BREAK and IDLE, are used. The BREAK character is equal
to 12 bit-length of low level. The IDLE character is equal to 12 bit-length of high level. Both the
BREAK and the IDLE character can be extended beyond the bit-length of 12.
Figure 22-5. Characters and timing for the PDI Physical.
1 DATA character
START
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
P
STOP
1 BREAK character
BREAK
1 IDLE character
IDLE
22.3.4
Serial transmission and reception
The PDI physical layer is either in Transmit (TX) or Receive (RX) mode of operation. By default
it is in RX mode, waiting for a start bit.
The programmer and the PDI operate synchronously on the PDI_CLK provided by the programmer. The dependency between the clock edges and data sampling or data change is fixed. As
illustrated in Figure 22-6 on page 261, output data (either from the programmer or from the PDI)
is always set up (changed) on the falling edge of PDI_CLK, while data is always sampled on the
rising edge of PDI_CLK.
Figure 22-6. Changing and sampling of data.
PDI_CLK
PD I_DATA
Sam ple
22.3.5
Sam ple
Sam ple
Serial Transmission
When a data transmission is initiated (by the PDI Controller), the transmitter simply shifts the
start bit, data bits, the parity bit, and the two stop bits out on the PDI_DATA line. The transmission speed is dictated by the PDI_CLK signal. While in transmission mode, IDLE bits (high bits)
are automatically transmitted to fill possible gaps between successive DATA characters. If a collision is detected during transmission, the output driver is disabled and the interface is put into a
RX mode waiting for a BREAK character.
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22.3.5.1
Drive contention and collision detection
In order to reduce the effect of a drive contention (the PDI and the programmer drives the
PDI_DATA line at the same time), a mechanism for collision detection is supported. The mechanism is based on the way the PDI drives data out on the PDI_DATA line. As shown in Figure 7,
the output pin driver is only active when the output value changes (from 0-1 or 1-0). Hence, if
two or more successive bit values are the same, the value is only actively driven the first clock
cycle. After this point the output driver is automatically tri-stated, and the PDI_DATA pin has a
bus-keeper responsible for keeping the pin-value unchanged until the output driver is re-enabled
due to a bit value change.
Figure 22-7. Driving data out on the PDI_DATA using bus-keeper
PDI_CLK
Output enable
Driven output
PDI_DATA
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
If the programmer and the PDI both drives the PDI_DATA line at the same time, the situation of
drive contention will occur as illustrated in Figure 22-8 on page 262. Every time a bit value is
kept for two or more clock cycles, the PDI is able to verify that the correct bit value is driven on
the PDI_DATA line. If the programmer is driving the PDI_DATA line to the opposite bit value
than what the PDI expects, a collision is detected.
Figure 22-8. Drive contention and collision detection on the PDI_DATA line
PDI_CLK
PDI output
Programmer
output
PDI_DATA
1
0
X
1
X
1
1
Collision
detect
= Collision
As long as the PDI transmits alternating ones and zeros, collisions cannot be detected because
the output driver will be active all the time preventing polling of the PDI_DATA line. However,
within a single frame the two stop bits should always be transmitted as ones, enabling collision
detection at least once per frame.
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22.3.6
Serial Reception
When a start bit is detected, the receiver starts to collect the eight data bits and shift them into
the shift register. If the parity bit does not correspond to the parity of the data bits, a parity error
has occurred. If one or both of the stop bits are low, a frame error has occurred. If the parity bit is
correct, and no frame error detected, the received data bits are parallelized and made available
for the PDI controller.
22.3.6.1
22.3.7
BREAK detector
When the PDI is in TX-mode, a BREAK character signalized by the programmer will not be interpreted as a BREAK, but cause a generic data collision. When the PDI is in RX-mode, a BREAK
character will be recognized as a BREAK. By transmitting two successive BREAK characters
(must be separated by one or more high bits), the last BREAK character will always be recognized as a BREAK, regardless of whether the PDI was in TX- or RX-mode initially.
Direction Change
In order to ensure correct timing of the half-duplex operation, a simple Guard Time mechanism
is added to the PDI physical interface during direction change. When the PDI changes from
operating in RX-mode to operate in TX-mode, a configurable number of additional IDLE bits are
inserted before the start bit is transmitted. The minimum transition time between RX- and TXmode is two IDLE cycles, and these are always inserted. Writing the Guard Time bits in the PDI
Controller’s Control Register specifies the additional Guard Time. The default Guard Time value
is +128 bits.
Figure 22-9. PDI direction change by inserting IDLE bits
1 DATA character
St
d2W DATA Receive (RX)
Data from
Emulator to d2W
interface
Dir. change
P
Sp1 Sp2
IDLE bits
1 DATA character
St
Guard time
# IDLE bits
inserted
d2W DATA Transmit (TX)
V
Sp1 Sp2
Data from
d2W interface
to Emulator
The programmer will loose control of the PDI_DATA line at the point where the PDI target
changes from RX- to TX-mode. The Guard Time relaxes this critical phase of the communication. When the programmer changes from RX-mode to TX-mode, minimum a single IDLE bit
should be inserted before the start bit is transmitted.
22.4
PDI Controller
The PDI Controller includes data transmission/reception on a byte level, command decoding,
high-level direction control, control and status register access, exception handling, and clock
switching (PDI_CLK or TCK). The interaction between a programmer and the PDI Controller is
based on a scheme where the programmer transmits various types of requests to the PDI Controller, which in turn responds in a way according to the specific request. A programmer request
comes in the form of an instruction, which may be followed by one or more byte operands. The
PDI Controller response may be silent (e.g. a data byte is stored to a location within the target),
or it may involve data to be returned back to the programmer (e.g. a data byte is read from a
location within the target).
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22.4.1
Accessing Internal Interfaces
After an external programmer has established communication with the PDI, the internal interfaces are not accessible by default. To get access to the NVM Controller and the NVM
memories for programming, a unique key must be signalized by using the KEY instruction. The
internal interfaces is accessed as one linear address space using a dedicated bus (PDIBUS)
between the PDI and the internal interfaces.
22.4.2
NVM Programming Key
The key that must be sent using the KEY instruction is 64 bits long. The key that will enable
NVM Programming is:
0x1289AB45CDD888FF
22.4.3
Exception handling
There are several situations that are considered exceptions from normal operation. The exceptions depends on whether the PDI is in RX - or TX mode.
While the PDI is in RX mode, these exceptions are defined as:
• PDI:
– The physical layer detects a parity error.
– The physical layer detects a frame error.
– The physical layer recognizes a BREAK character (also detected as a frame error).
While the PDI is in TX mode, these exceptions are defined:
• PDI:
– The physical layer detects a data collision.
All exceptions are signalized to the PDI Controller. All on-going operations are then aborted and
the PDI is put in the ERROR state. The PDI will remain in this state until a BREAK is sent from
the External Programmer, and this will bring the PDI back to its default RX state.
Due to this mechanism the programmer can always synchronize the protocol by transmitting two
successive BREAK characters.
22.4.4
Reset signalling
Through the Reset Register, the programmer can issue a reset and force the device into reset.
After clearing the Reset Register, reset is released unless some other reset source is active.
22.4.5
Instruction Set
The PDI has a small instructions set that is used for all access to the PDI itself and to the internal
interfaces.All instructions are byte instructions. Most of the instructions require a number of byte
operands following the instruction. The instructions allow to external programmer to access the
PDI Controller, the NVM Controller and the NVM memories.
22.4.5.1
LDS - Load data from PDIBUS Data Space using direct addressing
The LDS instruction is used to load data from the PDIBUS Data Space for serial read-out. The
LDS instruction is based on direct addressing, which means that the address must be given as
an argument to the instruction. Even though the protocol is based on byte-wise communication,
the LDS instruction supports multiple-bytes address - and data access. Four different
address/data sizes are supported; byte, word, 3 bytes, and long (4 bytes). It should be noted that
multiple-bytes access is internally broken down to repeated single-byte accesses. The main
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advantage with the multiple-bytes access is that it gives a way to reduce the protocol overhead.
When using the LDS, the address byte(s) must be transmitted before the data transfer.
22.4.5.2
STS - Store data to PDIBUS Data Space using direct addressing
The ST instruction is used to store data that is serially shifted into the physical layer shift-register
to locations within the PDIBUS Data Space. The STS instruction is based on direct addressing,
which means that the address must be given as an argument to the instruction. Even though the
protocol is based on byte-wise communication, the ST instruction supports multiple-bytes
address - and data access. Four different address/data sizes are supported; byte, word, 3 bytes,
and long (4 bytes). It should be noted that multiple-bytes access is internally broken down to
repeated single-byte accesses. The main advantage with the multiple-bytes access is that it
gives a way to reduce the protocol overhead. When using the STS, the address byte(s) must be
transmitted before the data transfer.
22.4.5.3
LD - Load data from PDIBUS Data Space using indirect addressing
The LD instruction is used to load data from the PDIBUS Data Space to the physical layer shiftregister for serial read-out. The LD instruction is based on indirect addressing (pointer access),
which means that the address must be stored into the Pointer register prior to the data access.
Indirect addressing can be combined with pointer increment. In addition to read data from the
PDIBUS Data Space, the Pointer register can be read by the LD instruction. Even though the
protocol is based on byte-wise communication, the LD instruction supports multiple-bytes
address - and data access. Four different address/data sizes are supported; byte, word, 3 bytes,
and long (4 bytes). It should be noted that multiple-bytes access is internally broken down to
repeated single-byte accesses. The main advantage with the multiple-bytes access is that it
gives a way to reduce the protocol overhead.
22.4.5.4
ST - Store data to PDIBUS Data Space using indirect addressing
The ST instruction is used to store data that is serially shifted into the physical layer shift-register
to locations within the PDIBUS Data Space. The ST instruction is based on indirect addressing
(pointer access), which means that the address must be stored into the Pointer register prior to
the data access. Indirect addressing can be combined with pointer increment. In addition to write
data to the PDIBUS Data Space, the Pointer register can be written by the ST instruction. Even
though the protocol is based on byte-wise communication, the ST instruction supports multiplebytes address - and data access. Four different address/data sizes are supported; byte, word, 3
bytes, and long (4 bytes). It should be noted that multiple-bytes access is internally broken down
to repeated single-byte accesses. The main advantage with the multiple-bytes access is that it
gives a way to reduce the protocol overhead.
22.4.5.5
LDCS - Load data from PDI Control and Status Register Space
The LDCS instruction is used to load data from the PDI Control and Status Registers to the
physical layer shift-register for serial read-out. The LDCS instruction supports only direct
addressing and single-byte access.
22.4.5.6
STCS - Store data to PDI Control and Status Register Space
The STCS instruction is used to store data that is serially shifted into the physical layer shift-register to locations within the PDI Control and Status Registers. The STCS instruction supports
only direct addressing and single-byte access.
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22.4.5.7
KEY - Set Activation Key
The KEY instruction is used to communicate the activation key bytes that is required for activating the NVM interfaces.
22.4.5.8
REPEAT - Set Instruction Repeat Counter
The REPEAT instruction is used to store count values that are serially shifted into the physical
layer shift-register to the Repeat Counter Register. The instruction that is loaded directly after
the REPEAT instruction operand(s) will be repeated a number of times according to the specified Repeat Counter Register value. Hence, the initial Repeat Counter Value plus one, gives the
total number of times the instruction will be executed. Setting the Repeat Counter Register to
zero makes the following instruction run once without being repeated.
The REPEAT cannot be repeated. The KEY instruction cannot be repeated, and will override the
current value of the REPEAT counter register
22.4.6
Instruction Set Summary
The PDI Instruction set summary is shown in Figure 22-10 on page 267.
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Figure 22-10. PDI instruction set summary
Cmd
Size A
LDS
0
0
0
0
STS
0
1
0
0
Cmd
Ptr
LD
0
0
1
0
ST
0
1
1
0
Size B
Size A/B
1
0
0
0
STCS
1
1
0
0
Ptr - Pointer access (indirect access)
0 0 *(ptr)
0 1 *(ptr++)
1 0 ptr
1 1 ptr++ - Reserved
Size B
REPEAT
KEY
22.5
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
LDS
LD
STS
ST
LDCS (LDS Control/Status)
REPEAT
STCS (STS Control/Status)
KEY
Size A - Address size (direct access)
0 0 Byte
0 1 Word (2 Bytes)
1 0 3 Bytes
1 1 Long (4 Bytes)
CS Address
LDCS
Cmd
0 0 0
0 0 1
0 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 0
1 0 1
1 1 0
1 1 1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Size B - Data size
0 0 Byte
0 1 Word (2 Bytes)
1 0 3 Bytes
1 1 Long (4 Bytes)
CS Address (CS - Control/Status reg.)
0 0 0 0 Register 0
0 0 0 1 Register 1
0 0 1 0 Register 2
0 0 1 1 Reserved
......
1 1 1 1 Reserved
Register Description - PDI Instruction and Addressing Registers
These registers are all internal registers that are involved in instruction decoding or PDIBUS
addressing. None of these registers are accessible as register in a register space.
22.5.1
Instruction Register
When an instruction is successfully shifted into the physical layer shift-register, it is copied into
the Instruction Register. The instruction is retained until another instruction is loaded. The reason for this is that the REPEAT command may force the same instruction to be run repeatedly
requiring command decoding to be performed several times on the same instruction.
22.5.2
Pointer Register
The Pointer Register is used to store an address value specifying locations within the PDIBUS
address space. During direct data access, the Pointer Register is updated by the specified number of address bytes given as operand bytes to the instruction. During indirect data access,
addressing is based on an address already stored in the Pointer Register prior to the access
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itself. Indirect data access can be optionally combined with pointer register post-increment. The
indirect access mode has an option that makes it possible to load or read the pointer register
without accessing any other registers. Any register update is performed in a little-endian fashion.
Hence, loading a single byte of the address register will always update the LSB byte while the
MSB bytes are left unchanged.
The Pointer Register is not involved in addressing registers in the PDI Control and Status Register Space (CSRS space).
22.5.3
Repeat Counter Register
The REPEAT instruction will always be accompanied by one or more operand bytes that define
the number of times the next instruction should be repeated. These operand bytes are copied
into the Repeat Counter register upon reception. During the repeated executions of the instruction following immediately after the REPEAT instruction and its operands, the Repeat Counter
register is decremented until it reaches zero, indicating that all repetitions are completed. The
repeat counter is also involved in key reception.
22.5.4
Operand Count Register
Immediately after and instruction (except the LDCS and the STCS instructions) a specified number of operands or data bytes (given by the size parts of the instruction) are expected. The
operand count register is used to keep track of how many bytes that have been transferred.
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22.6
Register Description - PDI Control and Status Register
These register are registers that are accessible in the PDI Control and Status Register Space
(CSRS) using the instructions LDCS and STCS. The CSRS is allocated for registers directly
involved in configuration and status monitoring of the PDI itself.
22.6.1
STATUS - Program and Debug Interface Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
2
1
0
–
–
NVMEN
–
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
+0x00
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
3
STATUS
• Bit 7:2 - Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices,
always write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 1- NVMEN: Non-Volatile Memory Enable
This status bit is set when the key signalling enables the NVM programming interface. The
External Programmer can poll this bit to verify successful enabling. Writing the NVMEN bit disables the NVM interface
• Bit 0 - Reserved
This bit is reserved and will always be read as zero. For compatibility with future devices, always
write this bit to zero when this register is written.
22.6.2
RESET - Program and Debug Interface Reset register
Bit
7
6
5
4
+0x01
3
2
1
0
RESET[7:0]
CTRLB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 - RESET[7:0]: Reset Signature
When the Reset Signature - 0x59 - is written to RESET, the device is forced into reset. The
device is kept in reset until RESET is written with a data value different from the Reset Signature
(0x00 is recommended). Reading the least LSB bit the will return the status of the RESET. The 7
MSB bits will always return the value 0x00 regardless of whether the device is in reset or not.
22.6.3
CTRL - Program and Debug Interface Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
+0x02
–
–
–
–
–
2
1
0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GUARDTIME[2:0]
CTRL
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• Bit 7:3 - Reserved
These bits are unused and reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, always
write these bits to zero when this register is written.
• Bit 2:0 - GUARDTIME[2:0]: Guard Time
These bits specify the number of additional IDLE bits of Guard Time that are inserted in between
PDI reception and - transmission direction change. The default Guard Time is 128 IDLE bits,
and the available settings is shown in Table 22-1 on page 270. In order to speed up the communication, the Guard Time should be set to the lowest safe configuration accepted. It should be
noted that no Guard Time is inserted when switching from TX - to RX mode.
Table 22-1.
Guard Time settings
GUARDTIME
Number of IDLE bits
000
+128
001
+64
010
+32
011
+16
100
+8
101
+4
110
+2
111
+0
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22.7
Register Summary
Address
Name
Address
–
Name
–
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
–
–
–
–
NVMEN
–
269
+0x00
STATUS
+0x01
RESET
+0x02
CTRL
–
–
–
–
–
+0x03
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x04
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x05
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x06
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x07
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x08
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x09
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0A
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0B
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0C
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0D
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0E
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x0F
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+0x10
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
RESET[7:0]
269
GUARDTIME[2:0]
269
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23. Memory Programming
23.1
Features
• Read and Write access to all memory spaces from
•
•
•
•
•
•
23.2
– External programmers
– Application Software
Self-Programming and Boot Loader Support
– Real Read-While-Write Self-Programming
– The CPU can run and execute code while Flash is being programmed
– Any communication interface can be used for program upload/download
External Programming
– Support for in-system and production programming
– Programming through serial PDI interface
– Fast and reliable interfaces.
High Security with Separate Boot Lock Bits for
– External programming access
– Boot Loader Section access
– Application Section access
– Application Table access
Reset Fuse to Select Reset Vector address to the start of the
– Application Section, or
– Boot Loader Section
Code Efficient Algorithm
Efficient Read-Modify-Write Support
Overview
This section describes how to program the Non Volatile Memory (NVM) in XMEGA, and covers
both self-programming and external programming. The NVM consist of the Flash Program Memory, User Signature and Calibration rows, Fuses and Lock Bits, and EEPROM data memory. For
details on the actual memories, how they are organized and the register description for the NVM
Controller used to access the memories, refer to ”Memories” on page 18.
The NVM can be accessed for read and write both from application software through self-programming and from an external programmer. For both external programming and selfprogramming access to the NVM is done through the common NVM Controller, and the two
methods of programming are very similar. Memory access is done by loading address and/or
data into the NVM, and a set of commands and triggers that make the NVM Controller perform
specific tasks on the NVM.
From external programming all memory spaces can be read and written, expect for the Calibration Row which can only be read. The device can be programmed in-system and is accessed
through the PDI using the PDI interface, ”External Programming” on page 288 describes PDI in
detail.
Self-programming and Boot Loader support allows application software in the device to read and
write the Flash, User Signature Row and EEPROM, write the Lock Bits to a more secure setting,
and read the Calibration Row and Fuses. The Flash allows Read-While-Write self-programming
meaning that the CPU can continue to operate and execute code while the Flash is being programmed. ”Self-Programming and Boot Loader Support” on page 276 describes this in detail.
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For both self-programming and external programming it is possible to run a CRC check on the
Flash or a section of the Flash to verify its content.
The device can be locked to prevent read and/or write of the NVM. There are separate lock bits
for external programming access, and self-programming access to the Boot Loader Section,
Application Section and Application Table Section.
23.3
NVM Controller
All access to the Non Volatile Memories is done through the NVM Controller. This controls all
NVM timing and access privileges, and hold the status of the NVM. This is the common NVM
interface for both the external programming and self-programming. For more details on the NVM
Controller refer to ”Register Description” on page 294.
23.4
NVM Commands
The NVM Controller has a set of commands that decide the task to perform on the NVM. This is
issued to the NVM Controller by writing the selected command to the NVM Command Register.
In addition data and addresses must be read/written from/to the NVM Data and Address registers for memory read/write operations.
When a selected command is loaded and address and data is setup for the operation, each
command has a trigger that will start the operation. Bases on the triggers, there are three main
types of commands.
23.4.1
Action Triggered Commands
Action triggered commands are triggered when the Command Execute (CMDEX) bit in the NVM
Control Register A (CTRLA) is written. Action triggered commands typically are used for operations which do not read or write the NVM such as the CRC check.
23.4.2
NVM Read Triggered commands
NVM read triggered commands are triggered when the NVM memory is read, and this is typically
used for NVM read operations.
23.4.3
NVM Write Triggered Commands
NVM Write Triggered commands are triggered when the NVN is written, and this is typically
used for NVM write operations.
23.4.4
CCP Write/Execute Protection
Most command triggers are protected from accidental modification/execution during self-programming. This is done using the Configuration Change Protection (CCP) feature which
requires a special write or execute sequence in order to change a bit or execute an instruction.
For details on the CCP, refer to ”Configuration Change Protection” on page 12
23.5
NVM Controller Busy
When the NVM Controller is busy performing an operation, the Busy flag in the NVM Status
Register is set and the following registers are blocked for write access:
• NVM Command Register
• NVM Control A Register
• NVM Control B Register
• NVM Address registers
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• NVM Data registers
This ensures that the given command is executed and the operation finished before a new can
start. The External programmer or application software must ensure that the NVM is not
addressed while busy with a programming operation.
Programming any part of the NVM will automatically block:
• All programming to other parts of the NVM.
• All loading/erasing of the Flash and EEPROM Page Buffers.
• All NVM read from external programmers.
• All NVM read from the Application Section.
During Self-Programming interrupts must be disabled, or the Interrupt Vector table should be
moved to the Boot Loader Sections as described in ”Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level
Interrupt Controller” on page 117.
23.6
Flash and EEPROM Page Buffers
The Flash memory is updated in a page-by-page fashion. The EEPROM can be updated both in
a byte-by-byte and page-by-page fashion. Flash and EEPROM page programming is done by
first filling the associated page buffer, and then writing the entire page buffer to a selected page
in Flash or EEPROM.
The size of the page buffers depend on the Flash and EEPROM size in each device, and details
on page size and page number is described in each device datasheet.
23.6.1
Flash Page Buffer
The Flash page buffer is filled one word at a time, and it must be erased before it can be loaded.
If an already loaded location is written again, this will corrupt the content of that Flash page buffer location.
Flash page buffer Locations that are not loaded will have the value 0xFFFF, and this value will
then be programmed into the flash page locations.
The Flash Page Buffer is automatically erased after:
• A system reset.
• Executing the Write Flash Page command.
• Executing the Erase and Write Flash Page command.
• Executing the Signature Row write command.
• Executing the Write Lock Bit command.
23.6.2
EEPROM Page Buffer
The EEPROM page buffer is filled one byte at a time and it must be erased before it can be
loaded. If an already loaded location is written twice, this will corrupt the content of that
EEPROM page buffer location.
EEPROM page buffer locations that are loaded will get tagged by the NVM Controller. During a
page write or page erase, only target locations will be written or erased. Locations that are not
target, will not be written or erased, and the corresponding EEPROM location will remain
unchanged. This means that also before an EEPROM page erase, data must be loaded to the
selected page buffer location to tag them. If the data in the page buffer is not going to be written
afterword, the actual values in the buffer does matter.
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The EEPROM Page Buffer is automatically erased after:
• A system reset.
• Executing the Write EEPROM Page command.
• Executing the Erase and Write EEPROM Page command.
• Executing the Write Lock Bit and Write Fuse commands
23.7
Flash and EEPROM Programming Sequences
For Flash and EEPROM page programming, filling the page buffers and writing the page buffer
into Flash or EEPROM is two separate operations. The sequence of this is the same for both
self-programming and external programming.
23.7.1
Flash Programming Sequence
Before programming a Flash page with the data in the Flash page buffer, the Flash page must
be erased. Programming an un-erased flash Page will corrupt the content in the flash Page.
The flash page buffer can be filled either before the Erase Flash Page operation or between a
Erase Flash Page and a Write Flash Page operation:
Alternative 1, fill the buffer before a split Page Erase and Page Write:
• Fill the Flash Page Buffer.
• Perform a Flash Page Erase.
• Perform a Flash Page Write.
Alternative 2, fill the page buffer before an atomic Page Erase and Write:
• Fill the Flash Page Buffer.
• Perform a Page Erase and Write.
Alternative 3, fill the buffer after a Page Erase:
• Perform a Flash Page Erase.
• Fill the Flash Page Buffer.
• Perform a Flash Page Write.
The NVM command set supports both atomic erase and write operations, and split page erase
and page write commands. This split commands enables shorter programming time for each
command and the erase operations can be done during non-time-critical programming execution. When using alternative 1 or 2 above for self-programming, the Boot Loader provides an
effective Read-Modify-Write feature, which allows the software to first read the page, do the necessary changes, and then write back the modified data. If alternative 3 is used, it is not possible
to read the old data while loading, since the page is already erased. The page address must be
the same for both Page Erase and Page Write operations when using alternative 1 or 3.
23.7.2
EEPROM programming sequence
Before programming an EEPROM page with the selected number of data bytes stored in the
EEPROM page buffer, the selected locations in the EEPROM page must be erased. Programming an un-erased EEPROM page will corrupt the content in the EEPROM page. The EEPROM
page buffer must be loaded before any Page Erase or Page Write operations:
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Alternative 1, fill the page buffer before a Page Erase:
• Fill the EEPROM page buffer with the selected number of bytes.
• Perform a EEPROM Page Erase.
• Perform a EEPROM Page Write.
Alternative 2, fill the buffer before a Page Erase and Write:
• Fill the EEPROM page buffer with the selected number of bytes.
• Perform an EEPROM Page Erase and Write.
23.8
Protection of NVM
To protect the Flash and EEPROM memories from write and/or read, Lock Bits can be set to
restrict access from external programmers and the Application Software. Refer to ”LOCKBITS Non-Volatile Memory Lock Bit Register” on page 29 for details on the available Lock Bit settings
and how to use them.
23.9
Preventing NVM Corruption
During periods when the VCC voltage is below the minimum operating voltage for the device, the
result from a Flash memory read or write can be corrupt as supply voltage is too low for the CPU
and the Flash to operate properly.
23.9.1
Write Corruption
To ensure that the voltage is correct during a complete write sequence to the Flash memory, the
BOD is automatically enabled by hardware when the write sequence starts. If a BOD reset
occurs, the programming sequence will be aborted immediately. If this happens, the NVM programming should be restarted when the power is sufficient again in case the write sequence
failed or only partly succeeded.
23.9.2
Read Corruption
The NVM can be read incorrectly if the supply voltage is too low so the CPU execute instructions
incorrectly. To ensure that this does not happen the BOD can be enabled.
23.10 Self-Programming and Boot Loader Support
Both the EEPROM and the Flash memory can be read and written from the application software
in the device. This is referred to as self-programming. A Boot Loader (Application code located
in the Boot Loader Section of the Flash) can both read and write the Flash Program Memory,
User Signature Row and EEPROM, and write the Lock Bits to a more secure setting. Application
code in both the Application Section can read from the Flash, User Signature Row, Calibration
Row and Fuses, and read and write the EEPROM.
23.10.1
Flash Programming
The Boot Loader support provides a real Read-While-Write self-programming mechanism for
downloading and uploading program code by the device itself. This feature allows flexible application software updates controlled by the device using a Boot Loader application that reside in
the Boot Loader Section in the Flash. The Boot Loader can use any available communication
interface and associated protocol to read code and write (program) that code into the Flash
memory, or read out the program memory code. It has the capability to write into the entire
Flash, including the Boot Loader Section. The Boot Loader can thus modify itself, and it can also
erase itself from the code if the feature is not needed anymore.
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23.10.1.1
Application and Boot Loader sections
The Application and Boot Loader sections are different when it comes to self-programming. The
Application Section is Read-While-Write (RWW) while the Boot Loader Section is No ReadWhile-Write (NRWW). Here “Read-While-Write” refers to the section being programmed (erased
or written), not the section being read during a Boot Loader software update. Whether the CPU
can continue to run and execute code or is halted to stop program execution during a Boot
Loader software update is depending on the Flash address being programmed:
• When erasing or writing a page located inside the Application Section (RWW), the Boot
Loader Section (NRWW) can be read during the operation, thus the CPU can run and
execute code from the Boot Loader Section (NRWW).
• When erasing or writing a page located inside the Boot Loader Section (NRWW), the CPU is
halted during the entire operation and code cannot execute.
The User Signature Row section is NRWW, hence erasing or writing this section has the same
properties as for the Boot Loader Section.
During an on-going programming, the software must ensure that the Application Section is not
accessed. Doing this will halt the program execution from the CPU. The user software can not
read data located in the Application Section during a Boot Loader software operation.
Table 23-1.
Summary of RWW and NRWW functionality
Section being addressed by Z-pointer
during the programming?
Section that can be read during
programming
CPU Halted
Read-While-Write
Supported
Application Section (RWW)
Boot Loader Section (NRWW)
No
Yes
Boot Loader Section (NRWW)
None
Yes
No
User Signature Row section (NRWW)
None
Yes
No
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Figure 23-1. Read-While-Write vs. No Read-While-Write
Application Section Read-While-Write
(RWW)
Z-pointer
Adresses RWW
Section
Code Located in
NRWW Section Can
be Read During the
Operation
23.10.1.2
Boot Loader Section No Read-While-Write
(NRWW)
Z-pointer
Adresses NRWW
Section
CPU is Halted
During the Operation
Addressing the Flash
The Z-pointer is used to hold the Flash memory address for read and write access. The Z pointer
consists of the ZL and ZH registers in the register file, and RAMPZ Register for devices with
more than 64K bytes for Flash memory. For more details on the Z-pointer refer to ”The X-, Yand Z- Registers” on page 10.
Since the Flash is word accessed and organized in pages, the Z-pointer can be treated as having two sections. The least significant bits address the words within a page, while the most
significant bits address the page within the Flash. This is shown in Figure 23-2 on page 279. The
word address in the page (FWORD) is held by the bits [WORDMSB:1] in the Z-pointer. The
remaining bits [PAGEMSB:WORDMSB+1] in the Z-pointer holds the Flash page address
(FPAGE). Together FWORD and FPAGE holds an absolute address to a word in the Flash.
For Flash read operations (ELPM and LMP), one byte is read at a time. For this the Least Significant Bit (bit 0) in the Z-pointer is used to select the low byte or high byte in the word address. If
this bit is 0, the low byte is read, and if this bit is 1 the high byte is read.
The size of FWORD and FPAGE will depend on the page and flash size in the device, refer to
each device datasheet for details on this.
Once a programming operation is initiated, the address is latched and the Z-pointer can be
updated and used for other operations.
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Figure 23-2. Flash addressing for self-programming
BIT
PAGEMSB
Z-Pointer
WORDMSB
FPAGE
1
FWORD
0
0/1
Low/High Byte select for (E)LPM
PAGE ADDRESS
WITHIN THE FLASH
FPAGE
00
WORD ADDRESS
WITHIN A PAGE
PROGRAM MEMORY
PAGE
PAGE
INSTRUCTION WORD
FWORD
00
01
01
02
02
PAGEEND
FLASHEND
23.10.2
NVM Flash Commands
The NVM commands that can be used for accessing the Flash Program Memory, Signature
Row and Calibration Row are listed in Table 23-2.
For self-programming of the Flash, the Trigger for Action Triggered Commands is to set the
CMDEX bit in the NVM CTRLA register (CMDEX). The Read Triggered Commands are triggered by executing the (E)LPM instruction (LPM). The Write Triggered Commands is triggered
by a executing the SPM instruction (SPM).
The Change Protected column indicate if the trigger is protected by the Configuration Change
Protection (CCP). This is a special sequence to write/execute the trigger during self-programming, for more details refer to ”CCP - Configuration Change Protection Register” on page 13.
CCP is not required for external programming. The two last columns shows the address pointer
used for addressing, and the source/destination data register.
Section 23.10.1.1 on page 277 through Section 23.10.2.12 on page 283 explain in details the
algorithm for each NVM operation.
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Table 23-2.
Flash Self-Programming Commands
CMD[6:0]
Group Configuration
Description
Trigger
CPU
Halted
NVM
Busy
Change
Protected
0x00
NO_OPERATION
No Operation / Read Flash
-/(E)LPM
-/N
N
-/N
Address
pointer
-/ Z-pointer
Data
register
-/Rd
Flash Page Buffer
0x23
LOAD_FLASH_BUFFER
Load Flash Page Buffer
SPM
N
N
N
Z-pointer
R1:R0
0x26
ERASE_FLASH_BUFFER
Erase Flash Page Buffer
CMDEX
N
Y
Y
Z-pointer
-
ERASE_FLASH_PAGE
Erase Flash Page
SPM
N/Y(2)
Y
Y
Z-pointer
-
SPM
(2)
Y
Y
Z-pointer
-
(2)
Flash
0x2B
0x02E
WRITE_FLASH_PAGE
0x2F
Write Flash Page
ERASE_WRITE_FLASH_PAGE
N/Y
Erase & Write Flash Page
SPM
N/Y
Y
Y
Z-pointer
-
Application Section
0x20
ERASE_APP
Erase Application Section
SPM
Y
Y
Y
Z-pointer
-
0x22
ERASE_APP_PAGE
Erase Application Section Page
SPM
N
Y
Y
Z-pointer
-
0x24
WRITE_APP_PAGE
Write Application Section Page
SPM
N
Y
Y
Z-pointer
-
0x25
ERASE_WRITE_APP_PAGE
Erase & Write Application Section Page
SPM
N
Y
Y
Z-pointer
-
Erase Boot Loader Section Page
SPM
Y
Y
Y
Z-pointer
-
Boot Loader Section
0x2A
ERASE_BOOT_PAGE
0x2C
WRITE_BOOT_PAGE
Write Boot Loader Section Page
SPM
Y
Y
Y
Z-pointer
-
0x2D
ERASE_WRITE_BOOT_PAGE
Erase & Write Boot Loader Section Page
SPM
Y
Y
Y
Z-pointer
-
READ_USER_SIG_ROW
Read User Signature Row
LPM
N
N
N
Z-pointer
Rd
0x18
ERASE_USER_SIG_ROW
Erase User Signature Row
SPM
Y
Y
Y
-
-
0x1A
WRITE_USER_SIG_ROW
Write User Signature Row
SPM
Y
Y
Y
-
-
Read Calibration Row
LPM
N
N
N
User Signature Row
0x01
Calibration Row
0x02
Notes:
READ_CALIB_ROW
Z-pointer
Rd
1. The Flash Range CRC command used byte addressing of the Flash.
2. Will depend on the flash section (Application or Boot Loader) that is actually addressed.
23.10.2.1
Read Flash
The (E)LPM instruction is used to read one byte from the Flash memory.
1. Load the Z-pointer with the byte address to read.
2. Load the NVM Command register (NVM CMD) with the No Operation command.
3. Execute the LPM instruction.
The destination register will be loaded during the execution of the LPM instruction.
23.10.2.2
Erase Flash Page Buffer
The Erase Flash Page Buffer command is used to erase the Flash Page Buffer.
1. Load the NVM CMD with the Erase Flash Page Buffer command.
2. Set the Command Execute bit (NVMEX) in the NVM Control Register A (NVM CTRLA).
This requires the timed CCP sequence during self-programming.
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The NVM Busy (BUSY) flag in the NVM Status Register (NVM STATUS) will be set until the
Page Buffer is erased.
23.10.2.3
Load Flash Page Buffer
The Load Flash Page Buffer command is used to load one word of data into the Flash Page
Buffer.
1. Load the NVM CMD register with the Load Flash Page Buffer command.
2. Load the Z-pointer with the word address to write.
3. Load the data word to be written into the R1:R0 registers.
4. Execute the SPM instruction. The SPM instruction is not protected when performing a
Flash Page Buffer Load.
Repeat step 2-4 until the complete Flash Page Buffer is loaded. Unloaded locations will have the
value 0xFFFF, and this is not a valid AVR CPU opcode/instruction.
23.10.2.4
Erase Flash Page
The Erase Flash Page command is used to erase one page in the Flash.
1. Load the Z-pointer with the flash page address to erase. The page address must be
written to PCPAGE. Other bits in the Z-pointer will be ignored during this operation.
2. Load the NVM CMD register with the Erase Flash Page command.
3. Execute the SPM instruction. This requires the timed CCP sequence during selfprogramming.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the erase operation is finished. The
Flash Section Busy (FBUSY) flag is set as long the Flash is Busy, and the Application section
cannot be accessed.
23.10.2.5
Write Flash Page
The Write Flash Page command is used to write the Flash Page Buffer into one flash page in the
Flash.
1. Load the Z-pointer with the flash page to write. The page address must be written to
PCPAGE. Other bits in the Z-pointer will be ignored during this operation.
2. Load the NVM CMD register with the Write Flash Page command.
3. Execute the SPM instruction. This requires the timed CCP sequence during selfprogramming.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the write operation is finished. The
FBUSY flag is set as long the Flash is Busy, and the Application section cannot be accessed.
23.10.2.6
Erase Application Section
The Erase Application command is used to erase the complete Application Section.
1. Load the Z-pointer to point anywhere in the Application Section.
2. Load the NVM CMD register with the Erase Application Section command
3. Execute the SPM instruction. This requires the timed CCP sequence during selfprogramming.
The BUSY flag in the STATUS register will be set until the operation is finished. The CPU will be
halted during the complete execution of the command.
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23.10.2.7
Erase Application Section / Boot Loader Section Page
The Erase Application Section Page Erase and Erase Boot Loader Section Page commands are
used to erase one page in the Application Section or Boot Loader Section.
1. Load the Z-pointer with the flash page address to erase. The page address must be
written to ZPAGE. Other bits in the Z-pointer will be ignored during this operation.
2. Load the NVM CMD register with the Erase Application/Boot Section Page command.
3. Execute the SPM instruction. This requires the timed CCP sequence during selfprogramming.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the erase operation is finished. The
FBUSY flag is set as long the Flash is Busy, and the Application section cannot be accessed.
23.10.2.8
Application Section / Boot Loader Section Page Write
The Write Application Section Page and Write Boot Loader Section Page commands are used to
write the Flash Page Buffer into one flash page in the Application Section or Boot Loader
Section.
1. Load the Z-pointer with the flash page to write. The page address must be written to
PCPAGE. Other bits in the Z-pointer will be ignored during this operation.
2. Load the NVM CMD register with the Write Application Section/Boot Loader Section
Page command.
3. Execute the SPM instruction. This requires the timed CCP sequence during selfprogramming.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the write operation is finished. The
FBUSY flag is set as long the Flash is Busy, and the Application section cannot be accessed.
An invalid page address in the Z-pointer will abort the NVM command. The Erase Application
Section Page command requires that the Z-pointer addresses the Application section, and the
Erase Boot Section Page command requires that the Z-pointer addresses the Boot Loader
Section.
23.10.2.9
Erase & Write Application Section / Boot Loader Section Page
The Erase & Write Application Section Page and Erase & Write Boot Loader Section Page commands are used to erase one flash page and then write the Flash Page Buffer into that flash
page in the Application Section or Boot Loader Section, in one atomic operation.
1. Load the Z-pointer with the flash page to write. The page address must be written to
PCPAGE. Other bits in the Z-pointer will be ignored during this operation.
2. Load the NVM CMD register with the Erase & Write Application Section/Boot Loader
Section Page command.
3. Execute the SPM instruction. This requires the timed CCP sequence during selfprogramming.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the operation is finished. The
FBUSY flag is set as long the Flash is Busy, and the Application section cannot be accessed.
An invalid page address in the Z-pointer will abort the NVM command. The Erase & Write Application Section command requires that the Z-pointer addresses the Application section, and the
Erase & Write Boot Section Page command requires that the Z-pointer addresses the Boot
Loader Section.
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23.10.2.10
Erase User Signature Row
The Erase User Signature Row command is used to erase the User Signature Row.
1. Load the NVM CMD register with the Erase User Signature Row command.
2. Execute the SPM instruction. This requires the timed CCP sequence during selfprogramming.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set, and the CPU will be halted until the
erase operation is finished. The User Signature Row is NRWW.
23.10.2.11
Write User Signature Row
The Write Signature Row command is used to write the Flash Page Buffer into the User Signature Row.
1. Set up the NVM CMD register to Write User Signature Row command.
2. Execute the SPM instruction. This requires the timed CCP sequence during selfprogramming.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the operation is finished, and the
CPU will be halted during the write operation. The Flash Page Buffer will be cleared during the
command execution after the write operation, but the CPU is not halted during this stage.
23.10.2.12
Read User Signature Row / Calibration Row
The Read User Signature Row and Red Calibration Row commands are used to read one byte
from the User Signature Row or Calibration Row.
1. Load the Z-pointer with the byte address to read.
2. Load the NVM CMD register with the Read User Signature Row / Calibration Row
command
3. Execute the LPM instruction.
The destination register will be loaded during the execution of the LPM instruction.
23.10.3
NVM Fuse and Lock Bit Commands
The NVM Flash commands that can be used for accessing the Fuses and Lock Bits are listed in
Table 23-3.
For self-programming of the Fuses and Lock Bits, the Trigger for Action Triggered Commands is
to set the CMDEX bit in the NVM CTRLA register (CMDEX). The Read Triggered Commands
are triggered by executing the (E)LPM instruction (LPM). The Write Triggered Commands is triggered by a executing the SPM instruction (SPM).
The Change Protected column indicate if the trigger is protected by the Configuration Change
Protection (CCP) during self-programming. The two last columns shows the address pointer
used for addressing, and the source/destination data register.
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Section 23.10.3.1 on page 284 through Section 23.10.3.2 on page 284 explain in details the
algorithm for each NVM operation.
Table 23-3.
Fuse and Lock Bit Commands
CMD[6:0]
Group Configuration
Description
0x00
NO_OPERATION
No Operation
Trigger
—
CPU
Halted
Change
Protected
—
—
Address
pointer
Data
register
—
—
NVM
Busy
—
Fuses and Lock Bits
0x07
READ_FUSES
Read Fuses
CMDEX
N
N
ADDR
DATA
Y
0x08
WRITE_LOCK_BITS
Write Lock Bits
CMDEX
N
Y
ADDR
—
Y
23.10.3.1
Write Lock Bits Write
The Write Lock Bits command is used to program the Boot Lock Bits to a more secure settings
from software.
1.
Load the NVM DATA0 register with the new Lock bit value.
2.
Load the NVM CMD register with the Write Lock Bit command.
3.
Set the CMDEX bit in the NVM CTRLA register. This requires the timed CCP sequence
during self-programming.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the command is finished. The CPU
is halted during the complete execution of the command.
This command can be executed from both the Boot Loader Section and the Application Section.
The EEPROM and Flash Page Buffer is automatically erased when the Lock Bits are written.
23.10.3.2
Read Fuses
The Read Fuses command is used to read the Fuses from software.
1.
Load the NVM ADDR registers with the address to the fuse byte to read.
2.
Load the NVM CMD register with the Read Fuses command.
3.
Set the CMDEX bit in the NVM CTRLA register. This requires the timed CCP sequence
during self-programming.
The result will be available in the NVM DATA0 register. The CPU is halted during the complete
execution of the command.
23.10.4
23.10.4.1
EEPROM Programming
The EEPROM can be read and written from application code in any part of the Flash. Its is both
byte and page accessible. This means that either one byte or one page can be written to the
EEPROM at once. One byte is read from the EEPROM during read.
Addressing the EEPROM
The EEPROM can be accessed through the NVM controller (I/O mapped), similar to the Flash
Program memory, or it can be memory mapped into the Data Memory space to be accessed
similar to SRAM.
When accessing the EEPROM through the NVM Controller, the NVM Address (ADDR) register
is used to address the EEPROM, while the NVM Data (DATA) register is used to store or load
EEPROM data.
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For EEPROM page programming the ADDR register can be treated as having two section. The
least significant bits address the bytes within a page, while the most significant bits address the
page within the EEPROM. This is shown in Figure 23-3 on page 285. The byte address in the
page (E2BYTE) is held by the bits [1:BYTEMSB] in the ADDR register. The remaining bits
[PAGEMSB:BYTEMSB+1] in the ADDR register holds the EEPROM page address (E2PAGE).
Together E2BYTE and E2PAGE holds an absolute address to a byte in the EEPROM. The size
of E2WORD and E2PAGE will depend on the page and flash size in the device, refer to the
device datasheet for details on this.
Figure 23-3. I/O mapped EEPROM addressing
BIT
PAGEMSB
NVM ADDR
BYTEMSB
E2PAGE
PAGE ADDRESS
WITHIN THE EEPROM
E2PAGE
00
DATA MEMORY
PAGE
0
E2BYTE
BYTE ADDRESS
WITHIN A PAGE
PAGE
DATA BYTE
E2BYTE
00
01
01
02
02
E2END
E2PAGEEND
When EEPROM memory mapping is enabled, loading a data byte into the EEPROM page buffer
can be performed through direct or indirect store instructions. Only the least significant bits of
the EEPROM address are used to determine locations within the page buffer, but the complete
memory mapped EEPROM address is always required to ensure correct address mapping.
Reading from the EEPROM can be done directly using direct or indirect load instructions. When
a memory mapped EEPROM page buffer load operation is performed, the CPU is halted for 3
cycles before the next instruction is executed.
When the EEPROM is memory mapped, the EEPROM page buffer load and EEPROM read
functionality from the NVM controller is disabled.
23.10.5
NVM EEPROM Commands
The NVM Flash commands that can be used for accessing the EEPROM through the NVM Controller are listed in Table 23-4.
For self-programming of the EEPROM the Trigger for Action Triggered Commands is to set the
CMDEX bit in the NVM CTRLA register (CMDEX). The Read Triggered Command is triggered
reading the NVM DATA0 register (DATA0).
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The Change Protected column indicate if the trigger is protected by the Configuration Change
Protection (CCP) during self-programming. CCP is not required for external programming. The
two last columns shows the address pointer used for addressing, and the source/destination
data register.
Section 23.10.5.1 on page 286 through Section 23.10.5.7 on page 287 explains in details the
algorithm for each EEPROM operation.
Table 23-4.
CMD[6:0]
0x00
EEPROM Self-Programming Commands
Group Configuration
Description
NO_OPERATION
No Operation
Trigger
CPU
Halted
Change
Protected
—
—
—
Address
pointer
Data
register
—
NVM
Busy
—
—
DATA0
N
—
Y
EEPROM Page buffer
0x33
LOAD_EEPROM_BUFFER
Load EEPROM Page Buffer
DATA0
N
Y
0x36
ERASE_EEPROM _BUFFER
Erase EEPROM Page Buffer
CMDEX
N
Y
ADDR
—
EEPROM
Y
0x32
ERASE_EEPROM_PAGE
Erase EEPROM Page
CMDEX
N
Y
ADDR
—
Y
0x34
WRITE_EEPROM_PAGE
Write EEPROM Page
CMDEX
N
Y
ADDR
—
Y
0x35
ERASE_WRITE_EEPROM_PAGE
Erase & Write EEPROM Page
CMDEX
N
Y
ADDR
—
Y
0x30
ERASE_EEPROM
Erase EEPROM
CMDEX
N
Y
—
Y
0x06
READ_EEPROM
Read EEPROM
CMDEX
N
Y
DATA0
N
23.10.5.1
—
ADDR
Load EEPROM Page Buffer
The Load EEPROM Page Buffer command is used to load one byte into the EEPROM page
buffer.
1.
Load the NVM CMD register with the Load EEPROM Page Buffer command
2.
Load the NVM ADDR0 register with the address to write.
3.
Load the NVM DATA0 register with the data to write. This will trigger the command.
Repeat 2-3 until for the arbitrary number of bytes to be loaded into the page buffer.
23.10.5.2
Erase EEPROM Page Buffer
The Erase EEPROM Buffer command is used to erase the EEPROM page buffer.
1. Load the NVM CMD register with the Erase EEPROM Buffer command.
2. Set the CMDEX bit in the NVM CTRLA register. This requires the timed CCP sequence
during self-programming.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the operation is finished.
23.10.5.3
EPPROM Page Erase
The Erase EEPROM Erase command is used to erase one EEPROM page.
1.
Set up the NVM CMD register to Erase EEPROM Page command.
2.
Load the NVM ADDRESS register with the EEPROM page to erase.
3.
Set the CMDEX bit in the NVM CTRLA register. This requires the timed CCP sequence
during self-programming.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the operation is finished.
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The Page Erase commands will only erase the locations that correspond with the loaded and
tagged locations in the EEPROM page buffer.
23.10.5.4
Write EEPROM Page
The Write EEPROM Page command is used to write all locations that is loaded in the EEPROM
page buffer into one page in EEPROM. Only the locations that are loaded and tagged in the
EEPROM page buffer will be written.
1.
Load the NVM CMD register with the Write EEPROM Page command.
2.
Load the NVM ADDR register with the address for EEPROM page to write.
3.
Set the CMDEX bit in NVM CTRLA register. This requires the timed CCP sequence during
self-programming.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the operation is finished.
23.10.5.5
Erase & Write EEPROM Page
The Erase & Write EEPROM Page command is used to first erase an EEPROM page and write
the EEPROM page buffer into that page in EEPROM, in one atomic operation.
1.
Load the NVM CMD register with the Erase & Write EEPROM Page command.
2.
Load the NVM ADDR register with the address for EEPROM page to write.
3.
Set the CMDEX bit in NVM CTRLA register. This requires the timed CCP sequence during
self-programming.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the operation is finished.
23.10.5.6
Erase EEPROM
The Erase EEPROM command is used to erase all the locations in all EEPROM pages that corresponds the loaded and tagged locations in the EEPROM page buffer.
1.
Set up the NVM CMD register to Erase EPPROM command.
2.
Set the CMDEX bit in NVM CTRLA register. This requires the timed CCP sequence during
self-programming.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the operation is finished.
23.10.5.7
Read EPPROM
The Read EEPROM command is used to read one byte from the EEPROM,
1.
Load the NVM CMD register with the Read EPPROM command.
2.
Load the NVM ADDR register with the address to read.
3.
Set the CMDEX bit in NVM CTRLA register. This requires the timed CCP sequence during
self-programming.
The data byte read will be available in the NVM DATA0.
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23.11 External Programming
External Programming is the method for programming non volatile code and data into the device
from an external programmer or debugger. This can be done both in-system (In-System Programming) or in mass production programming. The only restrictions on clock speed and voltage
is the maximum and minimum operating conditions for the device. Refer to the device datasheet
for details on this.
For external programming the device is accessed through the PDI and PDI Controller, using the
PDI physical connection. For details on PDI and how to enable and use the physical interface,
refer to ”Program and Debug Interface” on page 352. The remainder of this section assumes
that the correct physical connection to the PDI is enabled.
Through the PDI, the external programmer access all NVM memories and NVM Controller using
the PDI Bus. Doing this all data and program memory spaces are mapped into the linear PDI
memory space. Figure 23-4 on page 289 shows the PDI memory space and the base address
for each memory space in the device.
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Figure 23-4. Memory map for PDI accessing the data and program memories.
TOP=0x1FFFFFF
DATAMEM
(mapped IO/SRAM)
16 MB
FLASH_BASE
EPPROM_BASE
FUSE_BASE
DATAMEM_BASE
= 0x0800000
= 0x08C0000
= 0x08F0020
= 0x1000000
APP_BASE
= FLASH_BASE
BOOT_BASE
= FLASH_BASE + SIZE_APPL
PROD_SIGNATURE_BASE = 0x008E0200
USER_SIGNATURE_BASE = 0x008E0400
0x1000000
0x08F0020
0x08E0200
0x08C1000
0x08C0000
FUSES
SROW
EEPROM
BOOT SECTION
APPLICATION
SECTION
0x0800000
16 MB
0x0000000
1 BYTE
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23.11.1
Enabling External Programming Interface
NVM programming from the PDI requires enabling, and this is one the following fashion.
1. Load the RESET register in the PDI with 0x59 - the Reset Signature.
2. Load the correct NVM key in the PDI.
3. Poll NVMEN in the PDI Status Register (PDI STATUS) until NVMEN is set.
When the NVMEN bit in the PDI STATUS register is set the NVM interface is active from the
PDI.
23.11.2
NVM Programming
23.11.2.1
Addressing the NVM
When the PDI NVM interface is enabled, all the memories in the device is memory-mapped in
the PDI address space. For the reminder of this section all references to reading and writing
data or program memory addresses from PDI, refer to the memory map as shown in Figure 23-4
on page 289. The PDI is always using byte addressing, hence all memory addresses must be
byte addresses. When filling the Flash or EEPROM page buffers, only the least significant bits of
the address are used to determine locations within the page buffer. Still, the complete memory
mapped address for the Flash or EEPROM page is required to ensure correct address mapping.
23.11.2.2
NVM Busy
During programming (page erase and page write) when the NVM is busy, the complete NVM is
blocked for reading.
23.11.3
NVM Commands
The NVM commands that can be used for accessing the NVM memories from external programming are listed in Table 23-5. This is a super-set of the commands available for selfprogramming.
For external programming, the Trigger for Action Triggered Commands is to set the CMDEX bit
in the NVM CTRLA register (CMDEX). The Read Triggered Commands are triggered by a direct
or indirect Load instruction (LDS or LD) from the PDI (PDI Read). The Write Triggered Commands is triggered by a direct or indirect Store instruction (STS or ST) from the PDI (PDI Write).
Section 23.11.3.1 on page 292 through Section 23.11.3.9 on page 293 explains in detail the
algorithm for each NVM operation. The commands are protected by the Lock Bits, and if Read
and Write Lock is set, only the Chip Erase and Flash CRC commands are available.
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Table 23-5.
CMD[6:0]
NVM commands available for external programming
Commands / Operation
Trigger
Change
Protected
NVM Busy
0x00
No Operation
-
-
-
0x40
Chip Erase(1)
CMDEX
Y
Y
0x43
Read NVM
PDI Read
N
N
Flash Page Buffer
0x23
Load Flash Page Buffer
PDI Write
N
N
0x26
Erase Flash Page Buffer
CMDEX
Y
Y
0x2B
Erase Flash Page
PDI Write
N
Y
0x02E
Flash Page Write
PDI Write
N
Y
Erase & Write Flash Page
PDI Write
N
Y
Flash
0x2F
Application Section
0x20
Erase Application Section
PDI Write
N
Y
0x22
Erase Application Section Page
PDI Write
N
Y
0x24
Write Application Section Page
PDI Write
N
Y
0x25
Erase & Write Application Section Page
PDI Write
N
Y
Boot Loader Section
0x68
Erase Boot Section
PDI Write
N
Y
0x2A
Erase Boot Loader Section Page
PDI Write
N
Y
0x2C
Write Boot Loader Section Page
PDI Write
N
Y
0x2D
Erase & Write Boot Loader Section Page
PDI Write
N
Y
Calibration and User Signature sections
0x03
Read User Signature Row
PDI Read
N
N
0x18
Erase User Signature Row
PDI Write
N
Y
0x1A
Write User Signature Row
PDI Write
N
Y
0x02
Read Calibration Row
PDI Read
N
N
Fuses and Lock Bits
0x07
Read Fuse
PDI Read
N
N
0x4C
Write Fuse
PDI Write
N
Y
0x08
Write Lock Bits
CMDEX
Y
Y
EEPROM Page Buffer
0x33
Load EEPROM Page Buffer
PDI Write
N
N
0x36
Erase EEPROM Page Buffer
CMDEX
Y
Y
0x30
Erase EEPROM
CMDEX
Y
Y
0x32
Erase EEPROM Page
PDI Write
N
Y
0x34
Write EEPROM Page
PDI Write
N
Y
0x35
Erase & Write EEPROM Page
PDI Write
N
Y
0x06
Read EEPROM
PDI Read
N
N
EEPROM
Notes:
1. If the EESAVE fuse is programmed the EEPROM is preserved during chip erase.
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23.11.3.1
Chip Erase
The Chip Erase command is used to erase the Flash Program Memory, EEPROM and Lock
Bits. Erasing of the EEPROM depend EESAVE fuse setting, refer to ”FUSEBYTE5 - Non-Volatile Memory Fuse Byte 5” on page 32 for details. The User Signature Row, Calibration Row and
Fuses are not effected.
1. Load the NVM CMD register with Chip Erase command.
2. Set the CMDEX bit in NVM CTRLA register. This requires the timed CCP sequence
during self-programming.
Once this operation starts the PDIBUS between the PDI controller and the NVM is disabled, and
the NVMEN bit in the PDI STATUS register is cleared until the operation is finished. Poll the
NVMEN bit until this is set again, indicting the PDIBUS is enabled.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the operation is finished.
23.11.3.2
Read NVM
The Read NVM command is used to read the Flash, EEPROM, Fuses, and Signature and Calibration row sections.
1. Load the NVM CMD register with the Read NVM command.
2. Read the selected memory address by doing a PDI Read operation.
Dedicated Read EEPROM, Read Fuse and Read Signature Row and Read Calibration Row
commands are also available for the various memory sections. The algorithm for these commands are the same as for the NVM Read command.
23.11.3.3
Erase Page Buffer
The Erase Flash Page Buffer and Erase EEPROM Page Buffer commands are used to erase
the Flash and EEPROM page buffers.
1. Load the NVM CMD register with the Erase Flash/EEPROM Page Buffer command.
2. Set the CMDEX bit in the NVM CTRLA register. This requires the timed CCP sequence
during self-programming.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the operation is completed.
23.11.3.4
Load Page Buffer
The Load Flash Page Buffer and Load EEPROM Page Buffer commands are used to load one
byte of data into the Flash and EEPROM page buffers.
1. Load the NVM CMD register with the Load Flash/EEPROM Page Buffer command.
2. Write the selected memory address by doing a PDI Write operation.
Since the Flash page buffer is word accessing and the PDI uses byte addressing, the PDI must
write the Flash Page Buffer in correct order. For the write operation, the low-byte of the word
location must be written before the high-byte. The low-byte is then written into the temporary
register. The PDI then writes the high-byte of the word location, and the low-byte is then written
into the word location page buffer in the same clock cycle.
The PDI interface is automatically halted, before the next PDI instruction can be executed.
23.11.3.5
Erase Page
The Erase Application Section Page, Erase Boot Loader Section Page, Erase User Signature
Row and Erase EEPROM Page commands are used to erase one page in the selected memory
space.
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1. Load the NVM CMD register with Erase Application Section/Boot Loader Section/User
Signature Row/EEPROM Page command.
2. Write the selected page by doing a PDI Write. The page is written by addressing any
byte location within the page.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the operation is finished.
23.11.3.6
Write Page
The Write Application Section Page, Write Boot Loader Section Page, Write User Signature Row
and Write EEPROM Page is used to write a loaded Flash/EEPROM page buffer into the
selected memory space
1. Load the NVM CMD register with Write Application Section/Boot Loader Section/User
Signature Row/EEPROM Page command.
2. Write the selected page by doing a PDI Write. The page is written by addressing any
byte location within the page.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the operation is finished.
23.11.3.7
Erase & Write Page
The Erase & Write Application Section Page, Erase & Write Boot Loader Section Page, and
Erase & Write EEPROM Page is used to erase one page and then write a loaded
Flash/EEPROM page buffer into that page in the selected memory space, in one atomic
operation.
1. Load the NVM CMD register with Erase & Write Application Section/Boot Loader Section/User Signature Row/EEPROM Page command.
2. Write the selected page by doing a PDI Write. The page is written by addressing any
byte location within the page.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the operation is finished.
23.11.3.8
Erase Application/ Boot Loader/ EEPROM Section
The Erase Application Section, Erase Boot Loader Section and Erase EEPROM Section command is used to erase the complete section selected.
1. Load the NVM CMD register with Erase Application/ Boot/ EEPROM Section command
2. Write the selected section by doing a PDI Write. The section is written by addressing
any byte location within the section.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the operation is finished.
23.11.3.9
Write Fuse/ Lock Bit
The Write Fuse and Write Lock Bit command is used to write the fuses and the lock bits to a
more secure setting.
1. Load the NVM CMD register with the Write Fuse/ Lock Bit command.
2. Write the selected fuse or Lock Bits by doing a PDI Write operation.
The BUSY flag in the NVM STATUS register will be set until the command is finished.
For lock bit write the LOCK BIT write command can also be used.
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23.12 Register Description
Refer to ”Register Summary - NVM Controller” on page 46 for complete register description on
the NVM Controller.
Refer to ”Register Description - PDI Control and Status Register” on page 367 for complete register description on the PDI.
23.13 Register Summary
Refer to ”Register Summary - NVM Controller” on page 46 for complete register summary on the
NVM Controller.
Refer to ”Register Summary” on page 369 for complete register summary on the PDI.
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XMEGA D
24. Peripheral Module Address Map
The address maps show the base address for each peripheral and module in XMEGA. All
peripherals and modules are not present in all XMEGA devices, refer to device datasheet for the
peripherals module address map for a specific device.
Table 24-1.
Base Address
0x0000
0x0010
0x0014
0x0018
0x001C
0x0030
0x0040
0x0048
0x0050
0x0060
0x0068
0x0070
0x0078
0x0080
0x0090
0x00A0
0x00B0
0x0180
0x01C0
0x0200
0x0380
0x0400
0x0480
0x0600
0x0620
0x0640
0x0660
0x0680
0x06A0
0x06E0
0x0700
0x0720
0x07C0
0x07E0
0x0800
0x0840
0x0880
0x0890
0x08A0
0x08C0
0x08F8
0x0900
0x09A0
0x09C0
0x0A00
0x0AA0
0x0B00
0x0BA0
Peripheral Module Address Map
Name
Description
Page
GPIO
VPORT0
VPORT1
VPORT2
VPORT3
CPU
CLK
SLEEP
OSC
DFLLRC32M
DFLLRC2M
PR
RST
WDT
MCU
PMIC
PORTCFG
EVSYS
NVM
ADCA
ACA
RTC
TWIC
PORTA
PORTB
PORTC
PORTD
PORTE
PORTF
PORTH
PORTJ
PORTK
PORTQ
PORTR
TCC0
TCC1
AWEXC
HIRESC
USARTC0
SPIC
IRCOM
TCD0
USARTD0
SPID
TCE0
USARTE0
TCF0
USARTF0
General Purpose IO Registers
Virtual Port 0
Virtual Port 1
Virtual Port 2
Virtual Port 3
CPU
Clock Control
Sleep Controller
Oscillator Control
DFLL for the 32 MHz Internal RC Oscillator
DFLL for the 2 MHz RC Oscillator
Power Reduction
Reset Controller
Watch-Dog Timer
MCU Control
Programmable Multilevel Interrupt Controller
Port Configuration
Event System
Non Volatile Memory (NVM) Controller
Analog to Digital Converter on port A
Analog Comparator pair on port A
Real Time Counter
Two Wire Interface on port C
Port A
Port B
Port C
Port D
Port E
Port F
Port H
Port J
Port K
Port Q
Port R
Timer/Counter 0 on port C
Timer/Counter 1 on port C
Advanced Waveform Extension on port C
High Resolution Extension on port C
USART 0 on port C
Serial Peripheral Interface on port C
Infrared Communication Module
Timer/Counter 0 on port D
USART 0 on port D
Serial Peripheral Interface on port D
Timer/Counter 0 on port E
USART 0 on port E
Timer/Counter 0 on port F
USART 0 on port F
48
148
17
94
101
94
94
101
110
116
48
122
148
75
46
315
336
191
243
148
184
187
189
270
249
274
184
270
249
184
270
184
270
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
25. Instruction Set Summary
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
Arithmetic and Logic Instructions
ADD
Rd, Rr
Add without Carry
Rd
←
Rd + Rr
Z,C,N,V,S,H
1
ADC
Rd, Rr
Add with Carry
Rd
←
Rd + Rr + C
Z,C,N,V,S,H
1
ADIW
Rd, K
Add Immediate to Word
Rd
←
Rd + 1:Rd + K
Z,C,N,V,S
2
SUB
Rd, Rr
Subtract without Carry
Rd
←
Rd - Rr
Z,C,N,V,S,H
1
SUBI
Rd, K
Subtract Immediate
Rd
←
Rd - K
Z,C,N,V,S,H
1
SBC
Rd, Rr
Subtract with Carry
Rd
←
Rd - Rr - C
Z,C,N,V,S,H
1
SBCI
Rd, K
Subtract Immediate with Carry
Rd
←
Rd - K - C
Z,C,N,V,S,H
1
SBIW
Rd, K
Subtract Immediate from Word
Rd + 1:Rd
←
Rd + 1:Rd - K
Z,C,N,V,S
2
AND
Rd, Rr
Logical AND
Rd
←
Rd • Rr
Z,N,V,S
1
ANDI
Rd, K
Logical AND with Immediate
Rd
←
Rd • K
Z,N,V,S
1
OR
Rd, Rr
Logical OR
Rd
←
Rd v Rr
Z,N,V,S
1
ORI
Rd, K
Logical OR with Immediate
Rd
←
Rd v K
Z,N,V,S
1
EOR
Rd, Rr
Exclusive OR
Rd
←
Rd ⊕ Rr
Z,N,V,S
1
COM
Rd
One’s Complement
Rd
←
$FF - Rd
Z,C,N,V,S
1
NEG
Rd
Two’s Complement
Rd
←
$00 - Rd
Z,C,N,V,S,H
1
SBR
Rd,K
Set Bit(s) in Register
Rd
←
Rd v K
Z,N,V,S
1
CBR
Rd,K
Clear Bit(s) in Register
Rd
←
Rd • ($FFh - K)
Z,N,V,S
1
INC
Rd
Increment
Rd
←
Rd + 1
Z,N,V,S
1
DEC
Rd
Decrement
Rd
←
Rd - 1
Z,N,V,S
1
TST
Rd
Test for Zero or Minus
Rd
←
Rd • Rd
Z,N,V,S
1
CLR
Rd
Clear Register
Rd
←
Rd ⊕ Rd
Z,N,V,S
1
SER
Rd
Set Register
Rd
←
$FF
None
1
MUL
Rd,Rr
Multiply Unsigned
R1:R0
←
Rd x Rr (UU)
Z,C
2
MULS
Rd,Rr
Multiply Signed
R1:R0
←
Rd x Rr (SS)
Z,C
2
MULSU
Rd,Rr
Multiply Signed with Unsigned
R1:R0
←
Rd x Rr (SU)
Z,C
2
FMUL
Rd,Rr
Fractional Multiply Unsigned
R1:R0
←
Rd x Rr<<1 (UU)
Z,C
2
FMULS
Rd,Rr
Fractional Multiply Signed
R1:R0
←
Rd x Rr<<1 (SS)
Z,C
2
FMULSU
Rd,Rr
Fractional Multiply Signed with Unsigned
R1:R0
←
Rd x Rr<<1 (SU)
Z,C
2
DES
K
Data Encryption
if (H = 0) then R15:R0
else if (H = 1) then R15:R0
←
←
Encrypt(R15:R0, K)
Decrypt(R15:R0, K)
PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
2
1/2
Branch Instructions
RJMP
k
Relative Jump
IJMP
Indirect Jump to (Z)
PC(15:0)
PC(21:16)
←
←
Z,
0
None
2
EIJMP
Extended Indirect Jump to (Z)
PC(15:0)
PC(21:16)
←
←
Z,
EIND
None
2
JMP
k
Jump
PC
←
k
None
3
RCALL
k
Relative Call Subroutine
PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
2 / 3(1)
ICALL
Indirect Call to (Z)
PC(15:0)
PC(21:16)
←
←
Z,
0
None
2 / 3(1)
EICALL
Extended Indirect Call to (Z)
PC(15:0)
PC(21:16)
←
←
Z,
EIND
None
3(1)
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XMEGA D
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
CALL
k
call Subroutine
PC
←
RET
Subroutine Return
PC
RETI
Interrupt Return
CPSE
Rd,Rr
Compare, Skip if Equal
CP
Rd,Rr
Compare
CPC
Rd,Rr
Compare with Carry
CPI
Rd,K
Compare with Immediate
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
k
None
3 / 4(1)
←
STACK
None
4 / 5(1)
PC
←
STACK
I
4 / 5(1)
if (Rd = Rr) PC
←
PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
Rd - Rr
Z,C,N,V,S,H
1
Rd - Rr - C
Z,C,N,V,S,H
1
Rd - K
Z,C,N,V,S,H
1
SBRC
Rr, b
Skip if Bit in Register Cleared
if (Rr(b) = 0) PC
←
PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBRS
Rr, b
Skip if Bit in Register Set
if (Rr(b) = 1) PC
←
PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBIC
A, b
Skip if Bit in I/O Register Cleared
if (I/O(A,b) = 0) PC
←
PC + 2 or 3
None
2/3/4
SBIS
A, b
Skip if Bit in I/O Register Set
If (I/O(A,b) =1) PC
←
PC + 2 or 3
None
2/3/4
BRBS
s, k
Branch if Status Flag Set
if (SREG(s) = 1) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRBC
s, k
Branch if Status Flag Cleared
if (SREG(s) = 0) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BREQ
k
Branch if Equal
if (Z = 1) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRNE
k
Branch if Not Equal
if (Z = 0) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRCS
k
Branch if Carry Set
if (C = 1) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRCC
k
Branch if Carry Cleared
if (C = 0) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRSH
k
Branch if Same or Higher
if (C = 0) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRLO
k
Branch if Lower
if (C = 1) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRMI
k
Branch if Minus
if (N = 1) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRPL
k
Branch if Plus
if (N = 0) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRGE
k
Branch if Greater or Equal, Signed
if (N ⊕ V= 0) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRLT
k
Branch if Less Than, Signed
if (N ⊕ V= 1) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRHS
k
Branch if Half Carry Flag Set
if (H = 1) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRHC
k
Branch if Half Carry Flag Cleared
if (H = 0) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRTS
k
Branch if T Flag Set
if (T = 1) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRTC
k
Branch if T Flag Cleared
if (T = 0) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRVS
k
Branch if Overflow Flag is Set
if (V = 1) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRVC
k
Branch if Overflow Flag is Cleared
if (V = 0) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRIE
k
Branch if Interrupt Enabled
if (I = 1) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRID
k
Branch if Interrupt Disabled
if (I = 0) then PC
←
PC + k + 1
None
1/2
MOV
Rd, Rr
Copy Register
Rd
←
Rr
None
1
MOVW
Rd, Rr
Copy Register Pair
Rd+1:Rd
←
Rr+1:Rr
None
1
LDI
Rd, K
Load Immediate
Rd
←
K
None
1
LDS
Rd, k
Load Direct from data space
Rd
←
(k)
None
2 / 3(1)(2)
LD
Rd, X
Load Indirect
Rd
←
(X)
None
1 / 2(1)(2)
LD
Rd, X+
Load Indirect and Post-Increment
Rd
X
←
←
(X)
X+1
None
1(1)(2)
LD
Rd, -X
Load Indirect and Pre-Decrement
X ← X - 1,
Rd ← (X)
←
←
X-1
(X)
None
2 / 3(1)(2)
LD
Rd, Y
Load Indirect
Rd ← (Y)
←
(Y)
None
1 / 2(1)(2)
LD
Rd, Y+
Load Indirect and Post-Increment
Rd
Y
←
←
(Y)
Y+1
None
1 / 2(1)(2)
Data Transfer Instructions
297
8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Flags
#Clocks
LD
Rd, -Y
Load Indirect and Pre-Decrement
Y
Rd
←
←
Y-1
(Y)
None
2 / 3(1)(2)
LDD
Rd, Y+q
Load Indirect with Displacement
Rd
←
(Y + q)
None
2 / 3(1)(2)
LD
Rd, Z
Load Indirect
Rd
←
(Z)
None
1 / 2(1)(2)
LD
Rd, Z+
Load Indirect and Post-Increment
Rd
Z
←
←
(Z),
Z+1
None
1 / 2(1)(2)
LD
Rd, -Z
Load Indirect and Pre-Decrement
Z
Rd
←
←
Z - 1,
(Z)
None
2 / 3(1)(2)
LDD
Rd, Z+q
Load Indirect with Displacement
Rd
←
(Z + q)
None
2 / 3(1)(2)
STS
k, Rr
Store Direct to Data Space
(k)
←
Rd
None
2(1)
ST
X, Rr
Store Indirect
(X)
←
Rr
None
1(1)
ST
X+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Increment
(X)
X
←
←
Rr,
X+1
None
1(1)
ST
-X, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Decrement
X
(X)
←
←
X - 1,
Rr
None
2(1)
ST
Y, Rr
Store Indirect
(Y)
←
Rr
None
1(1)
ST
Y+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Increment
(Y)
Y
←
←
Rr,
Y+1
None
1(1)
ST
-Y, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Decrement
Y
(Y)
←
←
Y - 1,
Rr
None
2(1)
STD
Y+q, Rr
Store Indirect with Displacement
(Y + q)
←
Rr
None
2(1)
ST
Z, Rr
Store Indirect
(Z)
←
Rr
None
1(1)
ST
Z+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Increment
(Z)
Z
←
←
Rr
Z+1
None
1(1)
ST
-Z, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Decrement
Z
←
Z-1
None
2(1)
STD
Z+q,Rr
Store Indirect with Displacement
(Z + q)
←
Rr
None
2(1)
Load Program Memory
R0
←
(Z)
None
3
LPM
Operation
LPM
Rd, Z
Load Program Memory
Rd
←
(Z)
None
3
LPM
Rd, Z+
Load Program Memory and Post-Increment
Rd
Z
←
←
(Z),
Z+1
None
3
Extended Load Program Memory
R0
←
(RAMPZ:Z)
None
3
ELPM
ELPM
Rd, Z
Extended Load Program Memory
Rd
←
(RAMPZ:Z)
None
3
ELPM
Rd, Z+
Extended Load Program Memory and PostIncrement
Rd
Z
←
←
(RAMPZ:Z),
Z+1
None
3
Store Program Memory
(RAMPZ:Z)
←
R1:R0
None
-
(RAMPZ:Z)
Z
←
←
R1:R0,
Z+2
None
-
Rd
←
I/O(A)
None
1
I/O(A)
←
Rr
None
1
STACK
←
Rr
None
1(1)
Rd
←
STACK
None
2(1)
Rd(n+1)
Rd(0)
C
←
←
←
Rd(n),
0,
Rd(7)
Z,C,N,V,H
1
Rd(n)
Rd(7)
C
←
←
←
Rd(n+1),
0,
Rd(0)
Z,C,N,V
1
SPM
SPM
Z+
Store Program Memory and Post-Increment
by 2
IN
Rd, A
In From I/O Location
OUT
A, Rr
Out To I/O Location
PUSH
Rr
Push Register on Stack
POP
Rd
Pop Register from Stack
Bit and Bit-test Instructions
LSL
Rd
Logical Shift Left
LSR
Rd
Logical Shift Right
298
8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
ROL
Rd
Rotate Left Through Carry
ROR
Rd
ASR
Rd
Flags
#Clocks
Rd(0)
Rd(n+1)
C
←
←
←
C,
Rd(n),
Rd(7)
Z,C,N,V,H
1
Rotate Right Through Carry
Rd(7)
Rd(n)
C
←
←
←
C,
Rd(n+1),
Rd(0)
Z,C,N,V
1
Arithmetic Shift Right
Rd(n)
←
Rd(n+1), n=0..6
Z,C,N,V
1
SWAP
Rd
Swap Nibbles
Rd(3..0)
↔
Rd(7..4)
None
1
BSET
s
Flag Set
SREG(s)
←
1
SREG(s)
1
BCLR
s
Flag Clear
SREG(s)
←
0
SREG(s)
1
SBI
A, b
Set Bit in I/O Register
I/O(A, b)
←
1
None
1
CBI
A, b
Clear Bit in I/O Register
I/O(A, b)
←
0
None
1
BST
Rr, b
Bit Store from Register to T
T
←
Rr(b)
T
1
BLD
Rd, b
Bit load from T to Register
Rd(b)
←
T
None
1
SEC
Set Carry
C
←
1
C
1
CLC
Clear Carry
C
←
0
C
1
SEN
Set Negative Flag
N
←
1
N
1
CLN
Clear Negative Flag
N
←
0
N
1
SEZ
Set Zero Flag
Z
←
1
Z
1
CLZ
Clear Zero Flag
Z
←
0
Z
1
SEI
Global Interrupt Enable
I
←
1
I
1
CLI
Global Interrupt Disable
I
←
0
I
1
SES
Set Signed Test Flag
S
←
1
S
1
CLS
Clear Signed Test Flag
S
←
0
S
1
SEV
Set Two’s Complement Overflow
V
←
1
V
1
CLV
Clear Two’s Complement Overflow
V
←
0
V
1
SET
Set T in SREG
T
←
1
T
1
CLT
Clear T in SREG
T
←
0
T
1
SEH
Set Half Carry Flag in SREG
H
←
1
H
1
CLH
Clear Half Carry Flag in SREG
H
←
0
H
1
MCU Control Instructions
BREAK
Break
NOP
No Operation
SLEEP
Sleep
WDR
Watchdog Reset
Notes:
(See specific descr. for BREAK)
None
1
None
1
(see specific descr. for Sleep)
None
1
(see specific descr. for WDR)
None
1
1. Cycle times for Data memory accesses assume internal memory accesses, and are not valid
for accesses via the external RAM interface.
2. Extra cycle when accessing Internal SRAM.
299
8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
26. Datasheet Revision History
26.1
26.2
8210B –04/10
1.
Removed Spike Detector section form the Datasheet and updated the book.
2.
Updated ”ADC - Analog to Digital Converter” on page 224.
3.
Editing updates.
1.
Initial revision
8210A – 08/09
300
8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
Table of Contents
1
2
About the Manual ..................................................................................... 2
1.1
Reading the Manual ..........................................................................................2
1.2
Resources .........................................................................................................2
1.3
Recommended Reading ....................................................................................2
Overview ................................................................................................... 3
2.1
3
4
Block Diagram ...................................................................................................4
AVR CPU .................................................................................................. 5
3.1
Features ............................................................................................................5
3.2
Overview ............................................................................................................5
3.3
Architectural Overview .......................................................................................5
3.4
ALU - Arithmetic Logic Unit ...............................................................................7
3.5
Program Flow ....................................................................................................7
3.6
Instruction Execution Timing .............................................................................8
3.7
Status Register ..................................................................................................9
3.8
Stack and Stack Pointer ....................................................................................9
3.9
Register File ......................................................................................................9
3.10
RAMP and Extended Indirect Registers ..........................................................11
3.11
Accessing 16-bits Registers ............................................................................12
3.12
Configuration Change Protection ....................................................................12
3.13
Fuse Lock ........................................................................................................13
3.14
Register Description ........................................................................................13
3.15
Register Summary ...........................................................................................17
Memories ................................................................................................ 18
4.1
Features ..........................................................................................................18
4.2
Overview ..........................................................................................................18
4.3
Flash Program Memory ...................................................................................18
4.4
Fuses and Lockbits ..........................................................................................20
4.5
Data Memory ...................................................................................................21
4.6
Internal SRAM .................................................................................................21
4.7
EEPROM .........................................................................................................21
4.8
I/O Memory ......................................................................................................21
4.9
Memory Timing ................................................................................................22
4.10
Device ID .........................................................................................................22
i
8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
5
6
4.11
IO Memory Protection ......................................................................................22
4.12
Register Description - NVM Controller ............................................................22
4.13
Register Description – Fuses and Lockbit .......................................................28
4.14
Register Description - Production Signature Row ...........................................34
4.15
Register Description – General Purpose I/O Memory .....................................38
4.16
Register Description – MCU Control ...............................................................39
4.17
Register Summary - NVM Controller ...............................................................41
4.18
Register Summary - Fuses and Lockbits .........................................................41
4.19
Register Summary - Production Signature Row ..............................................42
4.20
Register Summary - General Purpose I/O Registers ......................................43
4.21
Register Summary - MCU Control ...................................................................43
4.22
Interrupt Vector Summary - NVM Controller ....................................................43
Event System ......................................................................................... 44
5.1
Features ..........................................................................................................44
5.2
Overview ..........................................................................................................44
5.3
Events ..............................................................................................................45
5.4
Event Routing Network ....................................................................................46
5.5
Event Timing ....................................................................................................47
5.6
Filtering ............................................................................................................48
5.7
Quadrature Decoder ........................................................................................48
5.8
Register Description ........................................................................................50
5.9
Register Summary ...........................................................................................54
System Clock and Clock options ......................................................... 55
6.1
Features ..........................................................................................................55
6.2
Overview ..........................................................................................................55
6.3
Clock Distribution .............................................................................................56
6.4
Clock Sources .................................................................................................57
6.5
System Clock Selection and Prescalers ..........................................................59
6.6
PLL with 1-31x Multiplication Factor ................................................................60
6.7
DFLL 2 MHz and DFLL 32 MHz ......................................................................60
6.8
External Clock Source Failure Monitor ............................................................61
6.9
Register Description - Clock ............................................................................63
6.10
Register Description - Oscillator ......................................................................66
6.11
Register Description - DFLL32M/DFLL2M ......................................................71
6.12
Register Summary - Clock ...............................................................................73
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
7
8
9
6.13
Register Summary - Oscillator .........................................................................73
6.14
Register Summary - DFLL32M/DFLL2M .........................................................73
6.15
Crystal Oscillator Failure Interrupt Vector Summary .......................................73
Power Management and Sleep ............................................................. 74
7.1
Features ..........................................................................................................74
7.2
Overview ..........................................................................................................74
7.3
Sleep Modes ....................................................................................................74
7.4
Power Reduction Registers .............................................................................76
7.5
Register Description – Sleep ...........................................................................76
7.6
Register Description – Power Reduction .........................................................77
7.7
Register Summary - Sleep ..............................................................................79
7.8
Register Summary - Power Reduction ............................................................79
Reset System ......................................................................................... 80
8.1
Features ..........................................................................................................80
8.2
Overview ..........................................................................................................80
8.3
Reset Sequence ..............................................................................................82
8.4
Reset Sources .................................................................................................82
8.5
Register Description ........................................................................................87
8.6
Register Summary ...........................................................................................88
WDT – Watchdog Timer ......................................................................... 89
9.1
Features ..........................................................................................................89
9.2
Overview ..........................................................................................................89
9.3
Normal Mode Operation ..................................................................................89
9.4
Window Mode Operation .................................................................................90
9.5
Watchdog Timer clock .....................................................................................90
9.6
Configuration Protection and Lock ..................................................................90
9.7
Registers Description ......................................................................................91
9.8
Register Summary ...........................................................................................94
10 Interrupts and Programmable Multi-level Interrupt Controller .......... 95
10.1
Features ..........................................................................................................95
10.2
Overview ..........................................................................................................95
10.3
Operation .........................................................................................................95
10.4
Interrupts .........................................................................................................96
10.5
Interrupt level ...................................................................................................97
10.6
Interrupt priority ...............................................................................................97
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8210B–AVR–04/10
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10.7
Moving Interrupts Between Application and Boot Section ...............................99
10.8
Register Description ........................................................................................99
10.9
Register Summary .........................................................................................100
11 I/O Ports ................................................................................................ 101
11.1
Features ........................................................................................................101
11.2
Overview ........................................................................................................101
11.3
Using the I/O Pin ...........................................................................................102
11.4
I/O Pin Configuration .....................................................................................103
11.5
Reading the Pin value ...................................................................................105
11.6
Input Sense Configuration .............................................................................106
11.7
Port Interrupt ..................................................................................................107
11.8
Port Event ......................................................................................................108
11.9
Alternate Port Functions ................................................................................108
11.10
Clock and Event Output .................................................................................109
11.11
Multi-configuration .........................................................................................109
11.12
Virtual Registers ............................................................................................110
11.13
Register Description – Ports ..........................................................................110
11.14
Register Description – Multiport Configuration ..............................................115
11.15
Register Description – Virtual Port ................................................................118
11.16
Register Summary – Ports ............................................................................120
11.17
Register Summary – Port Configuration ........................................................120
11.18
Register Summary – Virtual Ports .................................................................120
11.19
Interrupt vector Summary - Ports ..................................................................120
12 TC - 16-bit Timer/Counter .................................................................... 121
12.1
Features ........................................................................................................121
12.2
Overview ........................................................................................................121
12.3
Block Diagram ...............................................................................................123
12.4
Clock and Event Sources ..............................................................................125
12.5
Double Buffering ............................................................................................125
12.6
Counter Operation .........................................................................................127
12.7
Capture Channel ...........................................................................................128
12.8
Compare Channel .........................................................................................131
12.9
Interrupts and events .....................................................................................135
12.10
Timer/Counter Commands ............................................................................136
12.11
Register Description ......................................................................................137
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
12.12
Register Summary .........................................................................................147
12.13
Interrupt Vector Summary .............................................................................147
13 Hi-Res - High Resolution Extension ................................................... 148
13.1
Features ........................................................................................................148
13.2
Overview ........................................................................................................148
13.3
Register Description ......................................................................................149
13.4
Register Summary .........................................................................................149
14 AWeX – Advanced Waveform Extension ........................................... 150
14.1
Features ........................................................................................................150
14.2
Overview ........................................................................................................150
14.3
Port Override .................................................................................................151
14.4
Dead Time Insertion ......................................................................................153
14.5
Pattern Generation ........................................................................................154
14.6
Fault Protection .............................................................................................155
14.7
Register Description ......................................................................................156
14.8
Register Summary .........................................................................................161
15 RTC - Real Time Counter ..................................................................... 162
15.1
Features ........................................................................................................162
15.2
Overview ........................................................................................................162
15.3
Register Description ......................................................................................163
15.4
Register Summary .........................................................................................168
15.5
Interrupt Vector Summary .............................................................................168
16 TWI – Two Wire Interface .................................................................... 169
16.1
Features ........................................................................................................169
16.2
Overview ........................................................................................................169
16.3
General TWI Bus Concepts ...........................................................................170
16.4
TWI Bus State Logic ......................................................................................176
16.5
TWI Master Operation ...................................................................................177
16.6
TWI Slave Operation .....................................................................................179
16.7
Enabling External Driver Interface .................................................................180
16.8
Register Description - TWI ............................................................................181
16.9
Register Description - TWI Master ................................................................181
16.10
Register Description - TWI Slave ..................................................................187
16.11
Register Summary - TWI ...............................................................................192
16.12
Register Summary - TWI Master ...................................................................192
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
16.13
Register Summary - TWI Slave .....................................................................192
16.14
Interrupt Vector Summary .............................................................................192
17 SPI – Serial Peripheral Interface ......................................................... 193
17.1
Features ........................................................................................................193
17.2
Overview ........................................................................................................193
17.3
Master Mode ..................................................................................................194
17.4
Slave Mode ....................................................................................................194
17.5
Data Modes ...................................................................................................195
17.6
Register Description ......................................................................................196
17.7
Register Summary .........................................................................................198
17.8
SPI Interrupt vectors ......................................................................................198
18 USART ................................................................................................... 199
18.1
Features ........................................................................................................199
18.2
Overview ........................................................................................................199
18.3
Clock Generation ...........................................................................................201
18.4
Frame Formats ..............................................................................................204
18.5
USART Initialization .......................................................................................205
18.6
Data Transmission - The USART Transmitter ...............................................205
18.7
Data Reception - The USART Receiver ........................................................206
18.8
Asynchronous Data Reception ......................................................................207
18.9
The Impact of Fractional Baud Rate Generation ...........................................210
18.10
USART in Master SPI Mode ..........................................................................211
18.11
USART SPI vs. SPI .......................................................................................211
18.12
Multi-processor Communication Mode ..........................................................212
18.13
IRCOM Mode of Operation ............................................................................213
18.14
Register Description ......................................................................................213
18.15
Register Summary .........................................................................................219
18.16
Interrupt Vector Summary .............................................................................219
19 IRCOM - IR Communication Module .................................................. 220
19.1
Features ........................................................................................................220
19.2
Overview ........................................................................................................220
19.3
Registers Description ....................................................................................222
19.4
Register Summary .........................................................................................223
20 ADC - Analog to Digital Converter ..................................................... 224
20.1
Features ........................................................................................................224
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XMEGA D
20.2
Overview ........................................................................................................224
20.3
Input sources .................................................................................................225
20.4
Voltage reference selection ...........................................................................229
20.5
Conversion Result .........................................................................................229
20.6
Compare function ..........................................................................................231
20.7
Starting a conversion .....................................................................................231
20.8
ADC Clock and Conversion Timing ...............................................................231
20.9
ADC Input Model ...........................................................................................233
20.10
Interrupts and events .....................................................................................234
20.11
Calibration .....................................................................................................234
20.12
Register Description - ADC ...........................................................................234
20.13
Register Description - ADC Channel .............................................................241
20.14
Register Summary - ADC ..............................................................................247
20.15
Register Summary - ADC Channel ................................................................248
20.16
Interrupt Vector Summary .............................................................................248
21 AC - Analog Comparator ..................................................................... 249
21.1
Features ........................................................................................................249
21.2
Overview ........................................................................................................249
21.3
Input Channels ..............................................................................................251
21.4
Start of Signal Compare ................................................................................251
21.5
Generating Interrupts and Events ..................................................................251
21.6
Window Mode ................................................................................................251
21.7
Input hysteresis .............................................................................................252
21.8
Power consumption vs. propagation delay ....................................................252
21.9
Register Description ......................................................................................252
21.10
Register Summary .........................................................................................257
21.11
Interrupt vector Summary ..............................................................................257
22 Program and Debug Interface ............................................................. 258
22.1
Features ........................................................................................................258
22.2
Overview ........................................................................................................258
22.3
PDI Physical ..................................................................................................259
22.4
PDI Controller ................................................................................................263
22.5
Register Description - PDI Instruction and Addressing Registers .................267
22.6
Register Description - PDI Control and Status Register ................................269
22.7
Register Summary .........................................................................................271
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8210B–AVR–04/10
XMEGA D
23 Memory Programming ......................................................................... 272
23.1
Features ........................................................................................................272
23.2
Overview ........................................................................................................272
23.3
NVM Controller ..............................................................................................273
23.4
NVM Commands ...........................................................................................273
23.5
NVM Controller Busy .....................................................................................273
23.6
Flash and EEPROM Page Buffers ................................................................274
23.7
Flash and EEPROM Programming Sequences .............................................275
23.8
Protection of NVM .........................................................................................276
23.9
Preventing NVM Corruption ...........................................................................276
23.10
Self-Programming and Boot Loader Support ................................................276
23.11
External Programming ...................................................................................288
23.12
Register Description ......................................................................................294
23.13
Register Summary .........................................................................................294
24 Peripheral Module Address Map ........................................................ 295
25 Instruction Set Summary .................................................................... 296
26 Datasheet Revision History ................................................................ 300
26.1
8210B –04/10 ................................................................................................300
26.2
8210A – 08/09 ...............................................................................................300
Table of Contents....................................................................................... i
viii
8210B–AVR–04/10
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8210B–AVR–04/10