Data Sheet

ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
AK4353
96kHz 24Bit ∆Σ DAC with DIT
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The AK4353 is a stereo CMOS D/A Converter and Digital Audio Interface Transmitter. The DAC signal
outputs are single-ended and are analog filtered to remove out of band noise. Therefore no external filters
are required. The AK4353 can operate at the power supply from 2.7V to 5.5V and the digital I/F can
correspond to both TTL and CMOS levels.
FEATURES
o Stereo ∆Σ DAC
o S/(N+D): [email protected]
o DR:
[email protected]
o S/N:
[email protected]
o Sampling Speed: 16kHz∼96kHz
o Multiple Master Clock Frequencies:
256fs/384fs/512fs/768fs/1024fs/1536fs
for Half speed
(16kHz∼24kHz)
256fs/384fs/512fs/768fs
for Normal speed (32kHz∼48kHz)
128fs/192fs/256fs/384fs
for Double speed (64kHz∼96kHz)
o Data Input Formats:
LSB justified / MSB justified / I2S selectable
o Selectable Function:
Soft Mute
Digital Attenuator (256 Steps)
Digital De-emphasis (44.1kHz/48kHz/32kHz)
o Output Mode: Stereo, Mono, Reverse, Mute
o On-Chip Digital Audio Interface Transmitter:
Compatible with S/PDIF, IEC958, AES/EBU
& EIAJ CP1201 consumer mode
o Input Level: TTL/CMOS Selectable
o Output Level: [email protected]
o Control mode: 3-wire Serial / I2C Bus
o Low Power Dissipation: [email protected]
o Small 24pin VSOP Package
o Power Supply: 2.7∼5.5V
o Ta: -40∼85°C
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
-1-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
n Block Diagram
CSN CCLK CDTI
CAD1 CAD0 I2C
TX
MCKI
MCKO
DIT
AVDD
LRCK
BICK
SDTI
AVSS
Serial Input
Interface
Clock Generator
VCOM
TTL
DVDD
ATT
8X
Interpolator
∆Σ
Modulator
LPF
AOUTL
ATT
8X
Interpolator
∆Σ
Modulator
LPF
AOUTR
Mixer
DVSS
DZF
PDN
Figure 1. 3-wire Serial Control Mode (I2C = “L”)
CSN
CAD1 CAD0 I2C
TX
SCL
SDA
MCKI
MCKO
DIT
AVDD
LRCK
BICK
SDTI
AVSS
Serial Input
Interface
Clock Generator
VCOM
TTL
DVDD
ATT
8X
Interpolator
∆Σ
Modulator
LPF
AOUTL
ATT
8X
Interpolator
∆Σ
Modulator
LPF
AOUTR
Mixer
DVSS
DZF
PDN
Figure 2. I2C Bus Control Mode (I2C = “H”)
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
-2-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
n Ordering Guide
AK4353VF
AKD4353
-40∼+85°C
Evaluation Board
24pin VSOP
n Pin Layout
MCKO
1
24
DZF
TX
2
23
NC
DVDD
3
22
AVDD
DVSS
4
21
AVSS
MCKI
5
20
VCOM
BICK
6
19
AOUTL
SDTI
7
18
AOUTR
LRCK
8
17
CAD1
PDN
9
16
CAD0
CSN
10
15
I2C
SCL/CCLK
11
14
TTL
SDA/CDTI
12
13
TST
Top
View
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
-3-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
PIN/FUNCTION
No.
1
Pin Name
MCKO
I/O
O
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
TX
DVDD
DVSS
MCKI
BICK
SDTI
LRCK
PDN
O
I
I
I
I
I
10
CSN
I
11
13
SCL
CCLK
SDA
CDTI
TST
14
TTL
I
15
I2C
I
16
17
18
19
20
CAD0
CAD1
AOUTR
AOUTL
VCOM
I
I
O
O
O
21
22
23
AVSS
AVDD
NC
-
24
DZF
O
12
I
I
I/O
I
I
Description
Master Clock Output Pin
Same frequency as MCKI is output
Transmit Channel Output Pin
Digital Power Supply Pin, +2.7∼+5.5V
Digital Ground Pin, 0V
Master Clock Input Pin
Serial Data Clock Pin
Serial Data Input Pin
Serial Input Channel Clock Pin
Power-Down Pin
When “L”, the circuit is in power-down mode.
The AK4353 should always be reset upon power-up.
Chip Select Pin at 3-wire Serial control mode
This pin should be connected to DVDD at I2C Bus control mode.
Control Clock Pin at I2C bus control mode
Control Clock Pin at 3-wire serial control mode
Control Data Input/Output Pin at I2C Bus control mode
Control Data Input Pin at 3-wire serial control mode
Test pin
This pin should be connected to DVDD.
Digital Input Level Select Pin
“L”: CMOS, “H”: TTL
Control Mode Select Pin
“L”: 3-wire Serial, “H”: I2C Bus
Chip Address Select 0 Pin
Chip Address Select 1 Pin
Rch Analog Output Pin
Lch Analog Output Pin
Common Voltage Output Pin, AVDD/2
Used for analog common voltage.
Large external capacitor is used to reduce power supply noise.
Analog Ground Pin
Analog Power Supply Pin
No Connect
Nothing should be connected externally to this pin.
Zero Input Detect Pin
When SDTI follows a total 8192 LRCK cycles with “0” input data
or RSTN = “0”, this pin goes to “H”.
Note: No input pins should be left floating.
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
-4-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
(AVSS, DVSS=0V; Note 1)
Parameter
Symbol
min
Power Supplies
Analog
AVDD
-0.3
Digital
DVDD
-0.3
|AVSS-DVSS|
(Note 2)
∆GND
Input Current (any pins except for supplies)
IIN
Analog Input Voltage
VINA
-0.3
Digital Input Voltage
VIND
-0.3
Ambient Temperature
Ta
-40
Storage Temperature
Tstg
-65
max
6.0
6.0
0.3
±10
AVDD+0.3
DVDD+0.3
85
150
Units
V
V
V
mA
V
V
°C
°C
Note:1. All voltages with respect to ground.
2. AVSS and DVSS must be connected to the same analog ground plane.
WARNING: Operation at or beyond these limits may results in permanent damage to the device.
Normal operation is not guaranteed at these extremes.
RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS
(AVSS, DVSS=0V; Note 1)
Parameter
Symbol
min
typ
Power Supplies
3V operation (TTL = “L”)
(Note 3)
Analog
AVDD
2.7
3.0
Digital
DVDD
2.7
3.0
5V operation (TTL = “H”)
Analog
AVDD
4.5
5.0
Digital
DVDD
4.5
5.0
max
Units
5.5
3.6 or AVDD
V
V
5.5
AVDD
V
V
Note:1. All voltages with respect to ground.
3. The power up sequence between AVDD and DVDD is not critical.
*AKM assumes no responsibility for the usage beyond the conditions in this datasheet.
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
-5-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
ANALOG CHARACTERISTICS (fs=44.1kHz)
(Ta=25°C; AVDD, DVDD=5V; fs=44.1kHz; DFS1-0 = “00”; CKS2-0 = “000”; DIF2-0 = “101”;
Signal Frequency =1kHz; Measurement frequency=20Hz∼20kHz; unless otherwise specified)
Parameter
min
typ
Dynamic Characteristics
Resolution
S/(N+D)
AVDD=5V
84
90
AVDD=3V
80
86
DR
(-60dB input, A-weighted)
AVDD=5V
94
102
AVDD=3V
90
97
S/N
(A-weighted)
AVDD=5V
94
102
AVDD=3V
90
97
Interchannel Isolation
90
110
DC Accuracy
Interchannel Gain Mismatch
0.2
Gain Drift
20
Output Voltage
AOUT=0.6x(AVDD-AVSS)
AVDD=5V
2.8
3.0
AVDD=3V
1.66
1.8
Load Resistance
(Note 4)
10
Load Capacitance
Power Supplies
Power Supply Current
Normal Operation (PDN = “H”)
AVDD
8
DVDD
(Note 5)
8
Power-Down-Mode (PDN = “L”)
AVDD+DVDD
10
max
Units
24
Bits
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
0.5
3.2
1.94
25
dB
ppm/°C
Vpp
Vpp
kΩ
pF
12
16
mA
mA
100
µA
Note:4. AC load.
5. DVDD drops to 4mA at DVDD=3V.
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
-6-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
ANALOG CHARACTERISTICS (fs=96kHz)
(Ta=25°C; AVDD, DVDD=5V; fs=96kHz; DFS1-0 = “01”; CKS2-0 = “001”; DIF2-0 = “101”;
Signal Frequency =1kHz; Measurement frequency=20Hz∼40kHz; unless otherwise specified)
Parameter
min
typ
Dynamic Characteristics
Resolution
S/(N+D)
AVDD=5V
80
86
AVDD=3V
78
84
DR
(-60dB input)
AVDD=5V
88
96
AVDD=3V
84
92
S/N
AVDD=5V
88
96
AVDD=3V
84
92
Interchannel Isolation
90
110
DC Accuracy
Interchannel Gain Mismatch
0.2
Gain Drift
20
Output Voltage
AOUT=0.6x(AVDD-AVSS)
AVDD=5V
2.8
3.0
AVDD=3V
1.66
1.8
Load Resistance
(Note 4)
10
Load Capacitance
Power Supplies
Power Supply Current
Normal Operation (PDN = “H”)
AVDD
8
DVDD
(Note 6)
13
Power-Down-Mode (PDN = “L”)
AVDD+DVDD
10
max
Units
24
Bits
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
0.5
3.2
1.94
25
dB
ppm/°C
Vpp
Vpp
kΩ
pF
12
26
mA
mA
100
µA
Note:4. AC load.
6. DVDD drops to 7mA at DVDD=3V.
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
-7-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
FILTER CHARACTERISTICS (fs=44.1kHz)
(Ta=25°C; AVDD, DVDD=2.7∼5.5V; fs=44.1kHz; DEM=OFF)
Parameter
Symbol
min
typ
Digital Filter
Passband
(Note 7)
-0.02dB
PB
0
-6.0dB
22.05
Stopband
(Note 7)
SB
24.1
Passband Ripple
PR
Stopband Attenuation
SA
54
Group Delay
(Note 8)
GD
20.1
Digital Filter + Analog Filter
FR
Frequency Response:
0∼20.0kHz
±0.2
max
Units
20.0
-
-
kHz
kHz
kHz
dB
dB
1/fs
-
dB
±0.02
Note:7. The passband and stopband frequencies scale with fs.
For example, PB=0.4535*fs(@±0.02dB), SB=0.546*fs.
8. The calculating delay time which occurred by digital filtering. This time is from setting the 24bit data
of both channels on the input register to the output of analog signal.
FILTER CHARACTERISTICS (fs=96kHz)
(Ta=25°C; AVDD, DVDD=2.7∼5.5V; fs=96kHz; DEM=OFF)
Parameter
Symbol
min
typ
Digital Filter
Passband
(Note 7)
-0.02dB
PB
0
-6.0dB
48.0
Stopband
(Note 7)
SB
52.5
Passband Ripple
PR
Stopband Attenuation
SA
54
Group Delay
(Note 8)
GD
20.1
Digital Filter + Analog Filter
FR
Frequency Response:
0∼20.0kHz
±0.2
40.0kHz
±0.2
max
Units
43.5
-
-
kHz
kHz
kHz
dB
dB
1/fs
-
dB
dB
±0.02
Note:7. The passband and stopband frequencies scale with fs.
For example, PB=0.4535*fs(@±0.02dB), SB=0.546*fs.
8. The calculating delay time which occurred by digital filtering. This time is from setting the 24bit data of both
channels on the input register to the output of analog signal.
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
-8-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
DIGITAL CHARACTERISTICS (CMOS level input)
(Ta=25°C; AVDD=2.7∼5.5V; DVDD=2.7∼3.6V; TTL = “L”)
Parameter
Symbol
min
typ
High-Level Input Voltage
VIH
0.7xDVDD
Low-Level Input Voltage
VIL
High-Level Output Voltage
(TX, MCKO pins:
Iout=-100µA)
VOH
DVDD-0.5
(DZF pin:
Iout=-100µA)
VOH
AVDD-0.5
Low-Level Output Voltage
(TX, MCKO, DZF pins:
Iout= 100µA)
VOL
(SDA pin:
Iout= 3mA)
VOL
Input Leakage Current
Iin
-
max
0.3xDVDD
Units
V
V
-
V
V
0.5
0.4
±10
V
V
µA
DIGITAL CHARACTERISTICS (TTL level input; except for TTL pin)
(Ta=25°C; AVDD, DVDD=4.5∼5.5V; TTL = “H”)
Parameter
Symbol
min
typ
max
Units
High-Level Input Voltage
(TTL pin)
VIH
0.7xDVDD
V
(All pins except for TTL pin) VIH
2.2
V
Low-Level Input Voltage
(TTL pin)
VIL
0.3xDVDD
V
(All pins except for TTL pin) VIL
0.8
V
High-Level Output Voltage
(TX, MCKO pins:
Iout=-100µA)
VOH
DVDD-0.5
V
(DZF pin:
Iout=-100µA)
VOH
AVDD-0.5
V
Low-Level Output Voltage
(TX, MCKO, DZF pins:
Iout= 100µA)
VOL
0.5
V
(SDA pin:
Iout= 3mA)
VOL
0.4
V
Input Leakage Current
Iin
±10
µA
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
-9-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS
(Ta=25°C; AVDD, DVDD=2.7∼5.5V; CL=20pF)
Parameter
Symbol
min
Master Clock Input:
Frequency
128fs/256fs/512fs/1024fs
fCLK
4.096
192fs/384fs/768fs/1536fs
fCLK
6.144
Duty Cycle
dCLK
40
LRCK:
(Note 9)
Frequency
fsh
16
Half Speed Mode
(DFS1-0 = “11”)
fsn
32
Normal Speed Mode (DFS1-0 = “00”)
fsd
64
Double Speed Mode (DFS1-0 = “01”)
Duty
45
Duty Cycle
Serial Interface Timing:
BICK Period
Half Speed Mode
tBCK
1/128fs
Normal Speed Mode
tBCK
1/128fs
Double Speed Mode
tBCK
1/64fs
BICK Pulse Width Low
tBCKL
70
BICK Pulse Width High
tBCKH
70
tBLR
40
BICK “↑” to LRCK Edge
(Note 10)
tLRB
40
LRCK Edge to BICK “↑”
(Note 10)
tSDH
40
SDTI Hold Time
tSDS
40
SDTI Setup Time
Power-down & Reset Timing
PDN Pulse Width
(Note 11)
tPDW
150
typ
max
Units
24.576
36.864
60
MHz
MHz
%
24
48
96
55
kHz
kHz
kHz
%
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
Note: 9. If sampling speed mode (DFS0-1) changes, please reset by PDN pin or RSTN bit.
10. BICK rising edge must not occur at the same time as LRCK edge.
11. The AK4353 can be reset by PDN pin “L” upon power up.
If CKS0-2 or DFS0-1 changes, the AK4353 should be reset by PDN pin or RSTN bit.
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 10 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
Parameter
Control Interface Timing (3-wire Serial mode):
CCLK Period
CCLK Pulse Width Low
Pulse Width High
CDTI Setup Time
CDTI Hold Time
CSN “H” Time
CSN “↓” to CCLK “↑”
CCLK “↑” to CSN “↑”
Control Interface Timing (I2C Bus mode):
SCL Clock Frequency
Bus Free Time Between Transmissions
Start Condition Hold Time (prior to first clock pulse)
Clock Low Time
Clock High Time
Setup Time for Repeated Start Condition
SDA Hold Time from SCL Falling
(Note 12)
SDA Setup Time from SCL Rising
Rise Time of Both SDA and SCL Lines
Fall Time of Both SDA and SCL Lines
Setup Time for Stop Condition
Pulse Width of Spike Noise Suppressed by Input Filter
Symbol
min
tCCK
tCCKL
tCCKH
tCDS
tCDH
tCSW
tCSS
tCSH
200
80
80
40
40
150
50
50
fSCL
tBUF
tHD:STA
tLOW
tHIGH
tSU:STA
tHD:DAT
tSU:DAT
tR
tF
tSU:STO
tSP
4.7
4.0
4.7
4.0
4.7
0
0.25
4.0
0
typ
max
Units
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
100
1.0
0.3
50
kHz
µs
µs
µs
µs
µs
µs
µs
µs
µs
µs
ns
Note:12. Data must be held for sufficient time to bridge the 300 ns transition time of SCL.
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 11 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
n Timing Diagram
1/fCLK
VIH
MCKI
VIL
tCLKH
tCLKL
dCLK=tCLKH*fCLK*100
=tCLKL*fCLK*100
1/fs
VIH
LRCK
VIL
1/fBCK
VIH
BICK
VIL
tBCKH
tBCKL
Clock Timing
VIH
LRCK
VIL
tBLR
tLRB
VIH
BICK
VIL
tSDS
tSDH
VIH
SDTI
VIL
Serial Interface Timing
tPDW
PDN
VIL
Power-down & Reset Timing
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 12 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
VIH
CSN
VIL
tCSS
tCCKL tCCKH
VIH
CCLK
VIL
tCDS
CDTI
C1
tCDH
C0
R/W
VIH
A4
VIL
WRITE Command Input Timing (3-wire Serial mode)
tCSW
VIH
CSN
VIL
tCSH
VIH
CCLK
VIL
CDTI
D3
D2
D1
VIH
D0
VIL
WRITE Data Input Timing (3-wire Serial mode)
VIH
SDA
VIL
tLOW
tBUF
tR
tHIGH
tF
tSP
VIH
SCL
VIL
tHD:STA
Stop
Start
tHD:DAT
tSU:DAT
tSU:STA
tSU:STO
Start
Stop
I2C Bus mode Timing
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 13 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
OPERATION OVERVIEW
n System Clock Input
The external clocks which are required to operate the AK4353 are MCKI, LRCK and BICK. The master clock (MCKI)
should be synchronized with sampling clock (LRCK) but the phase is not critical. MCKI is used to operate the digital
interpolation filter and the delta-sigma modulator. The frequency of MCKI can be set by CKS2-0, and can be selected to
half, normal or double speed mode by DFS1-0 (See Table 1).
All external clocks (MCKI,BICK,LRCK) should always be present whenever the AK4353 is in the normal operation
mode (PDN = “H”). If these clock are not provided, the AK4353 may draw excess current and may not possibly operate
properly because the device utilizes dynamic refreshed logic internally. If the external clocks are not present, the AK4353
should be in the power-down mode (PDN = “L”) or in the reset mode (RSTN = “0”). After exiting reset at power-up etc.,
the AK4353 is in the power-down mode until MCKI and LRCK are input.
When the register data of CKS2-0 or DFS1-0 is changed during normal operation, the AK4353 should be reset by PDN
pin “L” or RSTN bit “0”.
CKS2
CKS1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
fs [kHz]
16
32
64
22.05
44.1
88.2
24
48
96
Mode
Half
Normal
Double
Half
Normal
Double
Half
Normal
Double
DFS1-0
“11”
“00”
“01”
(Half speed)
(Normal speed) (Double speed)
0
512fs
128fs
256fs
1
256fs
256fs
256fs
0
768fs
384fs
192fs
1
384fs
384fs
384fs
0
1024fs
512fs
256fs
1
512fs
512fs
N/A
0
1536fs
768fs
384fs
1
768fs
768fs
N/A
Table 1. System Clock (DFS1-0=”10”: reserved)
CKS0
128fs
8.1920
11.2896
12.2880
192fs
256fs
384fs
512fs
4.0960
6.1440
8.1920
8.1920
12.2880
16.3840
12.2880
16.3840
24.5760
5.6448
8.4672
11.2896
11.2896
16.9344
22.5792
16.9344
22.5792
33.8688
6.1440
9.2160
12.2880
12.2880
18.4320
24.5760
18.4320
24.5760
36.8640
Table 2. Example of System Clock [MHz]
MS0016-E-02
768fs
12.2880
24.5760
16.9344
33.8688
18.4320
36.8640
-
default (DFS1-0 = “00”)
1024fs
16.3840
22.5792
24.5760
-
1536fs
24.5760
33.8688
36.8640
-
2001/05
- 14 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
n Audio Serial Interface Format
Data is shifted in via the SDTI pin using BICK and LRCK inputs. 6 serial data modes are supported and selected by
register data of DIF2-0 as shown in Table 3. In all modes the serial data is MSB-first, 2’s compliment format and is
latched on the rising edge of BICK. Mode 4 can be used for 20, 18 and 16 MSB justified formats by zeroing the unused
LSBs.
Mode
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
DIF2
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
DIF1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
DIF0
SDTI
0
16bit, LSB justified
1
18bit, LSB justified
0
20bit, LSB justified
1
24bit, LSB justified
0
24bit, MSB justified
1
I2 S
0
Reserved
1
Reserved
Table 3. Audio Data Format
L/R
H/L
H/L
H/L
H/L
H/L
L/H
BICK
≥32fs
≥36fs
≥40fs
≥48fs
≥48fs
≥48fs
default
LRCK
0
1
10
11
12
13
14
15
0
1
10
11
12
13
14
15
0
1
BICK
(32fs)
SDTI
Mode 0
15
14
6
1
0
5
14
4
15
3
16
2
17
1
0
31
15
0
14
6
5
14
1
4
15
3
16
2
17
1
0
31
15
0
14
1
BICK
(64fs)
SDTI
Mode 0
Don’t care
15
14
0
Don’t care
15
14
0
Don’t care
15
14
0
15
14
0
15:MSB, 0:LSB
SDTI
Mode 1
Don’t care
17
16
17
16
17:MSB, 0:LSB
0
1
7
8
11
12
31
0
1
7
8
11
12
31
0
1
BICK
(64fs)
SDTI
Mode 2
Don’t care
SDTI
Mode 3
Don’t care
19
0
Don’t care
19
0
Don’t care
19
0
19
0
19:MSB, 0:LSB
23
20
23
20
23:MSB, 0:LSB
Lch Data
Rch Data
Figure 3. Mode 0-3 Timing
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
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ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
LRCK
0
1
2
22
23
24
30
31
0
1
2
22
23
24
30
31
0
1
BICK
(64fs)
SDTI
23
22
1
0
Don’t care
23
22
0
1
Don’t care
23
22
23:MSB, 0:LSB
Lch Data
Rch Data
Figure 4. Mode 4 Timing
LRCK
0
1
2
3
23
24
25
31
0
1
2
3
23
24
25
31
0
1
BICK
(64fs)
SDTI
23
0
1
22
Don’t care
23
22
0
1
Don’t care
23
23:MSB, 0:LSB
Lch Data
Rch Data
Figure 5. Mode 5 Timing
n Data Transmission Format
Data input via SDTI pin is formatted in digital interface format and output via TX pin. Data transmitted on the TX output
is formatted in blocks as shown in figure 6. Each block consists of 192 frames. A frame of data contains two sub-frames.
A sub-frame consists of 32 bits of information. Each data bit received is coded using a bi-phase mark encoding as a two
binary state symbol. The preambles violate bi-phase encoding so they may be differentiated from data. In bi-phase
encoding, the first state of an input symbol is always the inverse of the last state of the previous data symbol. For a logic
0, the second state of the symbol is the same as the first state. For a 1, the second state is the opposite of the first. Figure
7 illustrates a sample stream of 8 data bits encoded in 16 symbol states.
M Channel 1 W Channel 2 B Channel 1 W Channel 2 M Channel 1 W Channel 2
Sub-frame
Frame 191
Sub-frame
Frame 0
Frame 1
Figure 6. Block format
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
Figure 7. A biphase-encoded bit stream
The sub-frame is defined in the figure below:
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
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ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
- Bits 0-3 of the sub-frame represent a preamble for synchronization. There are three preambles:
The block preamble, B, is contained in the first sub-frame of Frame 0.
The channel 1 preamble, M, is contained in the first sub-frame of all other frames.
The channel 2 preamble, W, is contained in all of the second sub-frames.
Table 4 defines the symbol encoding for each of the preambles.
- Bits 4-27 of the sub-frame contain the 24 bit audio sample in 2’s complement format with bit 27 as the most
significant bit (MSB). For 16 bit mode, Bits 4-11 are all 0.
- Bit 28 is the validity flag. This is equal to V bit in the register.
- Bit 29 is a user data bit. This is always “0” in the AK4353.
- Bit 30 is a channel status bit. Frame 0 contains the first bit of the 192 bit word with the last bit in frame 191.
- Bit 31 is an even parity bit for bits 4-31 of the sub-frame.
0
3 4
L
S
Sync
B
27 28 29 30 31
M
S V U C P
B
Audio sample
Figure 8. Sub-frame format
The block of data contains consecutive frames transmitted at a bit rate of 64 times the sample frequency, fs.
Preamble
B
M
W
Preceding state = 0
11101000
11100010
11100100
Preceding state = 1
00010111
00011101
00011011
Table 4. Sub-frame preamble encoding
Figure 9 shows the relation between input data to SDTI pin and audio data on sub-frame.
4
L
Sub-frame S
B
Audio sample
27
M
S
B
Mode 0
0
15
Mode 1
0 1 2
17
Mode 2
0 1 2 3 4
19
Mode 3,4,5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
23
Figure 9. Relation between input data to SDTI pin and audio data on sub-frame
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
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ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
n De-emphasis filter
A digital de-emphasis filter is available for 32, 44.1 or 48kHz sampling speed (tc=50/15µs). It is enabled or disabled with
the control register data of DEM1-0 and DFS1-0. The de-emphasis filter is disabled at half/double sampling mode.
DEM1 DEM0 De-emphasis
0
0
44.1kHz
0
1
OFF
default
1
0
48kHz
1
1
32kHz
Table 5. De-emphasis filter control with DEM1-0 (DFS1-0=”00”)
DFS1 DFS0
De-emphasis
0
0
See Table 5.
default
0
1
OFF
1
0
OFF
1
1
OFF
Table 6. De-emphasis filter control with DFS1-0
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 18 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
n Zero detection
When the input data at both channels is continuously zeros for 8192 LRCK cycles, DZF pin goes to “H”. DZF pin
immediately goes to “L” if input data is not zero after going DZF “H”. If RSTN bit becomes “0”, DZF pin goes to “H”.
DZF pin goes to “L” at 4∼5/fs after RSTN bit returns to “1”.
n Soft mute operation
Soft mute operation is performed at digital domain. When the serial control register data of SMUTE goes “1”, the output
signal is attenuated by -∞ during 1024 LRCK cycles. When SMUTE is returned to “0”, the mute is cancelled and the
output attenuation gradually changes to 0dB during 1024 LRCK cycles. If the soft mute is cancelled within 1024 LRCK
cycles after starting the operation, the attenuation is discontinued and returned to 0dB. The soft mute is effective for
changing the signal source without stopping the signal transmission.
SMUTE bit
1024/fs
0dB
1024/fs
(1)
(3)
Attenuation
-∞
GD
(2)
GD
AOUT
DZF pin
(4)
8192/fs
Notes:
(1) The output signal is attenuated by -∞ during 1024 LRCK cycles (1024/fs).
(2) Analog output corresponding to digital input have the group delay (GD).
(3) If the soft mute is cancelled within 1024 LRCK cycles, the attenuation is discontinued and returned to 0dB.
(4) When the input data at both channels are continuously zeros for 8192 LRCK cycles, DZF pin goes to “H”.
DZF pin immediately goes to “L” if input data are not zero after going DZF “H”.
Figure 10. Soft mute and zero detection
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
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ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
n Power-down
The DAC is placed in the power-down mode by bringing PDN pin “L” and the digital filter is also reset at the same time.
The internal register values are initialized by PDN “L”. This reset should always be done after power-up. Because some
click noise occurs at the edge of PDN, the analog output should be muted externally if the click noise influences system
application.
PDN
Internal
State
Normal Operation
Power-down
D/A In
(Digital)
Normal Operation
“0” data
GD
D/A Out
(Analog)
(1)
GD
(3)
(2)
(3)
(1)
(4)
Clock In
Don’t care
MCKI, LRCK, BICK
DZF
External
MUTE
(6)
(5)
Mute ON
Notes:
(1) The analog output corresponding to digital input has the group delay (GD).
(2) Analog outputs are floating (Hi -Z) at the power-down mode.
(3) Click noise occurs at the edge of PDN signal. This noise is output even if “0” data is input.
(4) The external clocks (MCKI, BICK and LRCK) can be stopped in the power-down mode (PDN = “L”).
(5) Please mute the analog output externally if the click noise (3) influences system application.
The timing example is shown in this figure.
(6) DZF pin is “L” in the power-down mode (PDN = “L”).
Figure 11. Power-down/up sequence example
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
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ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
n Reset function
When RSTN = “0”, the DAC is powered down but the internal register values are not initialized. The analog outputs go
to VCOM voltage and DZF pin goes to “H”. Figure 12 shows the sequence of reset by RSTN bit.
RSTN bit
2~3/fs (6)
Internal
RSTN bit
Internal
State
Normal Operation
D/A In
(Digital)
“0” data
(1)
D/A Out
(Analog)
Normal Operation
Digital Block Power-down
GD
GD
(2)
(3)
(3)
(1)
(4)
Clock In
Don’t care
MCKI,LRCK,BICK
2/fs(5)
DZF
Notes:
(1) The analog output corresponding to digital input has the group delay (GD).
(2) Analog outputs go to VCOM voltage.
(3) Click noise occurs at the edges(“↑ ↓”) of the internal timing of RSTN bit. This noise is output even if “0” data
is input.
(4) The external clocks (MCKI, BICK and LRCK) can be stopped in the reset mode (RSTN = “L”).
(5) DZF pin goes to “H” when the RSTN bit becomes “0”, and goes to “L” at 4~5/fs after RSTN bit becomes “1”.
(6) There is a delay, 2~3/fs from RSTN bit “1” to the internal RSTN “1”.
Figure 12. Reset sequence example
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 21 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
n Serial Control Interface
The AK4353 can control its functions via registers. Internal registers may be written by 2 types of control mode. The chip
address is determined by the state of the CAD0 and CAD1 inputs. PDN = “L” initializes the registers to their default
values. Writing “0” to the RSTN bit can initialize the internal timing circuit. But in this case, the register data is not be
initialized.
(1) 3-wire Serial Control Mode (I2C = “L”)
Internal registers may be written to the 3 wire µP interface pins (CSN,CCLK and CDTI). The data on this interface
consists of Chip address (2bits, CAD0/1), Read/Write (1bit, Fixed to “1”; Write only), Register address (MSB first,
5bits) and Control data (MSB first, 8bits). Address and data is clocked in on the rising edge of CCLK and data is
clocked out on the falling edge. For write operations, data is latched after a low-to-high transition of CSN. The clock
speed of CCLK is 5MHz(max). The CSN and CCLK pins should be held to “H” except for access.
CSN
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
CCLK
CDTI
C1 C0 R/W A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
C1-C0: Chip Address (C1=CAD1, C0=CAD0)
R/W:
Read/Write (Fixed to “1” : Write only)
A4-A0: Register Address
D7-D0: Control Data
(2) I2C Bus Control Mode (I2C = “H”)
Internal registers may be written to I 2C Bus interface pins: SCL & SDA. The data on this interface consists of Chip
address (2bits, CAD0/1), Read/Write (1bit, Fixed to “0”; Write only), Register address (MSB first, 5bits) and
Control data (MSB first, 8bits). Address and data is clocked in on the rising edge of SCL and data is clocked out on
the falling edge. Data can be written after a high-to-low transition of SDA when SCL is “H”(start condition), and is
latched after a low-to-high transition of SDA when SCL is “H”(stop condition). The clock speed of SCL is
100kHz(max). The CSN pin should be connected to DVDD at I 2C Bus control mode. The AK4353 does not have a
register address auto increment capability.
R/W ACK
SDA
0
0
1
0
0 C1 C0
ACK
0
0
0 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0
ACK
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
SCL
Stop
Start
C1-C0: Chip Address (C1=CAD1, C0=CAD0)
R/W:
Read/Write (Fixed to “0” : Write only)
A4-A0: Register Address
D7-D0: Control Data
ACK:
Acknowledge
* When the AK4353 is in the power down mode (PDN = “L”) or the MCLK is not provided, writing into the control
register is inhibited.
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 22 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
n Mapping of Program Registers
Addr
00H
01H
02H
03H
04H
05H
06H
07H
Register Name
Control 1
Control 2
Control 3
Lch ATT
Rch ATT
TX
Channel Status 1
Channel Status 2
D7
0
0
PL3
ATT7
ATT7
0
0
CS15
D6
0
0
PL2
ATT6
ATT6
0
CS29
CS14
D5
0
DFS1
PL1
ATT5
ATT5
0
CS28
CS13
D4
0
DFS0
PL0
ATT4
ATT4
0
CS25
CS12
D3
DIF2
CKS2
DEM1
ATT3
ATT3
0
CS24
CS11
D2
DIF1
CKS1
DEM0
ATT2
ATT2
0
CS3
CS10
D1
DIF0
CKS0
ATC
ATT1
ATT1
V
CS2
CS9
D0
RSTN
RSTN
SMUTE
ATT0
ATT0
TXE
CS1
CS8
Note: For addresses from 08H to 1FH, data should not be written.
When PDN goes to “L”, the registers are initialized to their default values.
When RSTN bit goes to “0”, the internal timing is reset, DZF pin goes to “H” and registers are not initialized to
their default values.
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 23 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
n Register Definitions
Addr
00H
Register Name
Control 1
Default
D7
0
0
D6
0
0
D5
0
0
D4
0
0
D3
DIF2
1
D2
DIF1
0
D1
DIF0
1
D0
RSTN
1
RSTN: Internal timing reset
0: Reset. DZF pin goes to “H” and registers are not initialized.
1: Normal operation
When the states of DIF2-0,CKS2-0 or DFS1-0 changes, the AK4353 should be reset
by PDN pin or RSTN bit. Some click noise may occur at that timing.
DIF2-0: Audio data interface modes (See Table 3.)
Initial: “101”, Mode 5
Addr
01H
Register Name
Control 2
Default
D7
0
0
D6
0
0
D5
DFS1
0
D4
DFS0
0
D3
CKS2
0
D2
CKS1
0
D1
CKS0
0
D0
RSTN
1
RSTN: Internal timing reset
0: Reset. DZF pin goes to “H” and registers are not initialized.
1: Normal operation
When the states of DIF2-0,CKS2-0 or DFS1-0 changes, the AK4353 should be reset
by PDN pin or RSTN bit. Some click noise may occur at that timing.
CKS2-0: Clock select (See Table 1.)
Initial: “000”
DFS1-0: Half/Normal/Double sampling modes (See Table 1), De-emphasis response (See Table 6.)
Initial: “00”
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 24 -
ASAHI KASEI
Addr
02H
[AK4353]
Register Name
Control 3
Default
D7
PL3
1
D6
PL2
0
D5
PL1
0
D4
PL0
1
D3
DEM1
0
D2
DEM0
1
D1
ATC
0
D0
SMUTE
0
SMUTE: Soft Mute Enable
0: Normal operation
1: DAC outputs soft-muted
ATC: Attenuation Control
0: The attenuation data for each register is applied separately to left and right channels.
1: The attenuation data loaded in addr=03H is used for both left and right channels.
DEM1-0: De-emphases response (See Table 5,6.)
Initial: “01”, OFF
PL3-0: Mixing mode
PL3 PL2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
STEREO:
REVERSE:
MONO:
MUTE:
PL1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
PL0 Lch Output
Rch Output
Note
0
MUTE
MUTE
MUTE
1
MUTE
R
0
MUTE
L
1
MUTE
(L+R)/2
0
R
MUTE
1
R
R
0
R
L
REVERSE
1
R
(L+R)/2
0
L
MUTE
1
L
R
STEREO
0
L
L
1
L
(L+R)/2
0
(L+R)/2
MUTE
1
(L+R)/2
R
0
(L+R)/2
L
1
(L+R)/2
(L+R)/2
MONO
Table 7. Programmable Output Format
default
Normal stereo output
L/R Reverse output
Monaural output
Soft mute operation
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 25 -
ASAHI KASEI
Addr
03H
04H
Register Name
Lch ATT
Rch ATT
Default
[AK4353]
D7
ATT7
ATT7
1
D6
ATT6
ATT6
1
D5
ATT5
ATT5
1
D4
ATT4
ATT4
1
D3
ATT3
ATT3
1
D2
ATT2
ATT2
1
D1
ATT1
ATT1
1
D0
ATT0
ATT0
1
Equation of attenuation level: ATT = 20 x Log10 (Binary level / 255) [dB]
FFH: 0dB
:
01H: -48.1dB
00H: Mute
The transition between ATT values is same as soft mute operation. When current value is ATT1 and new
value is set as ATT2, ATT1 gradually becomes ATT2 with same operation as soft mute. If new value is set as
ATT3 before reaching ATT2, ATT value gradually becomes ATT3 from the way of transition.
Cycle time of soft mute: Ts=1024/fs
When PDN pin goes to “L”, the ATT values are set to 00H. The ATT values fade to FFH(0dB) during Ts after
PDN pin returns to “H”. When RSTN bit goes to “0”, the ATT values are set to 00H. The ATT values fade to their
current values after RSTN bit returns to “1”. Digital attenuator is independent of soft mute function.
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 26 -
ASAHI KASEI
Addr
05H
Register Name
TX
Default
TXE:
V:
Addr
06H
[AK4353]
D7
0
0
D6
0
0
D5
0
0
D4
0
0
D3
0
0
D2
0
0
D1
V
0
D0
TXE
1
D6
CS29
0
D5
CS28
0
D4
CS25
0
D3
CS24
0
D2
CS3
0
D1
CS2
0
D0
CS1
0
D6
CS14
0
D5
CS13
0
D4
CS12
0
D3
CS11
0
D2
CS10
1
D1
CS9
0
D0
CS8
0
TX output
0: “L”
1: Normal Operation
Validity Flag
0: Valid
1: Invalid
Register Name
Channel Status 1
Default
D7
0
0
CS1
0: Audio
1: Non-Audio
CS2
0: Copyright
1: Non-Copyright
CS3
0: No Pre-emphasis
1: 50/15µsec Pre-emphasis
CS24,25: Sampling Frequency
00: 44.1kHz
01: 48kHz
10: Reserved
11: 32kHz
CS28,29: Clock Accuracy
00: Standard mode
01: Variable pitch mode
10: High accuracy mode
11: Reserved
Addr
07H
Register Name
Channel Status 2
Default
D7
CS15
0
CS8-15: Category code (See the Standard of EIAJ.)
00100000: Digital Audio Broadcast Reception in Japan (default)
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 27 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
n Channel Status Explanation (from the Standard of EIAJ and IEC958)
Byte 0
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Bit 7
CS7
CS15
CS23
CS31
Bit 6
CS6
CS14
CS22
CS30
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
CS5
CS4
CS3
CS2
CS1
CS0
CS13
CS12
CS11
CS10
CS9
CS8
CS21
CS20
CS19
CS18
CS17
CS16
CS29
CS28
CS27
CS26
CS25
CS24
(Bold type: Programmable, Normal type: fixed in this device)
CS0
CS1
0: Consumer (fixed)
0: Audio
1: Non-audio
CS2
0: Copyright
1: Non-copyright
CS3-5
000: No pre-emphasis
100: 50/15µsec pre-emphasis (CS4-5: fixed to 00)
CS6-7: Mode
00: Mode 0 (fixed)
CS8-15: Category code (See the next page. For more detail information, please see the Standard of EIAJ.)
CS16-19: Source number
00: Not regulated (fixed)
CS20-23: Channel (fixed)
1000: Left
0100: Right
CS24-27: Sampling frequency
0000: 44.1kHz
0100: 48kHz
1100: 32kHz
others: Not regulated
CS28-29: Clock accuracy
00: Standard mode
01: Variable pitch mode
10: High accuracy mode
11: Not regulated
CS30- : Reserved (fixed to all 0)
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 28 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
Category code (bit 8-15)
bit15 (L bit): indicates generation of digital audio signal.
General
0: not regulated
1: recorded software issued for business
Optical disc machine (“100 xxxxL”), Broadcast reception (“001 xxxxL” and “011 1xxxL”)
0: recorded software issued for business
1: not regulated
“000 00000”: General (Digital audio reception without copyright information in Japan)
“100 xxxxL”:Optical disc machine
“100 0000L”:Compact disc adapted to IEC908
“100 1000L”:Optical disc not adapted to IEC908
“100 1001L”:Mini disc system
“100 1100L”:Digital video disc
“010 xxxxL” and “011 1xxxL”: Digital/digital converting machine and signal process machine
“010 0000L”:PCM encoder/decoder
“010 0100L”:Digital signal mixer
“010 1100L”:Sampling rate converter
“010 0010L”:Digital sound sampler
“110 xxxxL”:Magnetic tape and magnetic disc machine
“110 0000L”:Digital audio tape
“110 1000L”:Video tape recorder with digital voice
“110 0001L”:Digital compact cassette
“001 xxxxL”:Digital audio broadcast reception
“001 0000L”:in Japan (“001 00000”: default)
“001 1000L”:in Europe
“001 0011L”:in U.S.A
“001 0001L”:Software electronics delivery
“101 xxxxL: Music instrument, microphone and source processing original signal
“101 0000L”:Synthesizer
“101 1000L”:Microphone
“011 00xxx”: A/D converter without copyright information
“011 0000x”: A/D converter
“011 01xxL”:A/D converter with copyright information
“011 0100L”:A/D converter
“000 1xxxL”:Solid memory machine
“000 0001L”:Experimental machine not used for business
“111 xxxxL”:Not regulated
“000 0xxxL”:Not regulated (except for “000 00000” and “000 0001L”)
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
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ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
SYSTEM DESIGN
Figure 13 shows the system connection diagram. An evaluation board is available which demonstrates application
circuits, the optimum layout, power supply arrangements and measurement results.
Condition: AVDD=DVDD=5V(TTL mode), I2C mode, Chip Address=”00”
Analog 5V
5
Optical
External
Clock
Decoder
Reset
10u 0.1u
+
DZF
24
NC
23
DVDD
AVDD
22
4
DVSS
AVSS
21
5
MCKI
VCOM
20
6
BICK
AOUTL
19
7
SDTI
AOUTR
18
8
LRCK
1
MCKO
2
TX
3
9
0.1u 10u
AK4353
Top View
PDN
CAD1
17
CAD0
16
10
CSN
I2C
15
11
SCL
TTL
14
12
SDA
TST
13
+
+
0.1u 10u
+
10u
Lch MUTE
Lch
Out
Rch MUTE
Rch
Out
220
27k
+
10u
220
27k
uP
System Ground
Analog Ground
Figure 13. Typical Connection Diagram
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 30 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
Digital Ground
Analog Ground
System
Controller
DZF
24
NC
23
DVDD
AVDD
22
4
DVSS
AVSS
21
5
MCKI
VCOM
20
6
BICK
AOUTL
19
7
SDTI
AOUTR
18
8
LRCK
CAD1
17
9
PDN
CAD0
16
10
CSN
I2C
15
11
SCL
TTL
14
12
SDA
TST
13
1
MCKO
2
TX
3
AK4353
Figure 14. Ground Layout
Note: AVSS and DVSS must be connected to the same analog ground plane.
1. Grounding and Power Supply Decoupling
The AK4353 requires careful attention to power supply and grounding arrangements. AVDD and DVDD are usually
supplied from analog supply in system. Alternatively if AVDD and DVDD are supplied separately, the power up
sequence is not critical. AVSS and DVSS of the AK4353 must be connected to analog ground plane. System analog
ground and digital ground should be connected together near to where the supplies are brought onto the printed circuit
board. Decoupling capacitors should be near to the AK4353 as possible, with the small value ceramic capacitors being the
nearest.
2. Voltage Reference Inputs
The differential voltage between AVDD and AVSS sets the analog output range. VCOM is AVDD/2 and normally
connected to AVDD with a 0.1µF ceramic capacitor. An electrolytic capacitor 10µF parallel with a 0.1µF ceramic
capacitor attached to VCOM pin eliminates the effects of high frequency noise. No load current may be drawn from these
pins. All signals, especially clocks, should be kept away from the VCOM pin in order to avoid unwanted coupling into the
AK4353.
3. Analog Outputs
The analog outputs are single-ended outputs and 0.6x(AVDD-AVSS) Vpp (typ) centered around the VCOM voltage. The
internal switched-capacitor filter and continuous-time filter attenuate the noise generated by the delta-sigma modulator
beyond the audio passband. The input data format is 2’s complement. The output voltage is a positive full scale for
7FFFFF(@24bit) and a negative full scale for 800000H(@24bit). The ideal output is 0V for 000000H(@24bit).
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 31 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
PACKAGE
24pin VSOP (Unit: mm)
1.25±0.2
*7.8±0.15
13
A
7.6±0.2
*5.6±0.2
24
12
1
0.22±0.1
0.65
0.15±0.05
0.1±0.1
0.5±0.2
Detail A
Seating Plane
0.10
NOTE: Dimension "*" does not include mold flash.
0-10°
n Package & Lead frame material
Package molding compound:
Lead frame material:
Lead frame surface treatment:
Epoxy
Cu
Solder plate
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 32 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4353]
MARKING
AKM
AK4353VF
AAXXXX
Contents of AAXXXX
AA:
Lot#
XXXX: Date Code
IMPORTANT NOTICE
• These products and their specifications are subject to change without notice. Before considering
any use or application, consult the Asahi Kasei Microsystems Co., Ltd. (AKM) sales office or
authorized distributor concerning their current status.
• AKM assumes no liability for infringement of any patent, intellectual property, or other right in the
application or use of any information contained herein.
• Any export of these products, or devices or systems containing them, may require an export
license or other official approval under the law and regulations of the country of export pertaining
to customs and tariffs, currency exchange, or strategic materials.
• AKM products are neither intended nor authorized for use as critical components in any safety, life
support, or other hazard related device or system, and AKM assumes no responsibility relating to
any such use, except with the express written consent of the Representative Director of AKM. As
used here:
(a) A hazard related device or system is one designed or intended for life support or maintenance
of safety or for applications in medicine, aerospace, nuclear energy, or other fields, in which its
failure to function or perform may reasonably be expected to result in loss of life or in
significant injury or damage to person or property.
(b) A critical component is one whose failure to function or perform may reasonably be expected
to result, whether directly or indirectly, in the loss of the safety or effectiveness of the device
or system containing it, and which must therefore meet very high standards of performance and
reliability.
• It is the responsibility of the buyer or distributor of an AKM product who distributes, disposes of, or
otherwise places the product with a third party to notify that party in advance of the above content
and conditions, and the buyer or distributor agrees to assume any and all responsibility and liability
for and hold AKM harmless from any and all claims arising from the use of said product in the
absence of such notification.
MS0016-E-02
2001/05
- 33 -