Design techniques using ADS tools – mmW LNA

Millimeter-wave building blocks
design methodology in CMOS 65nm
process using Agilent tools
Baudouin Martineau
STMicroelectronics – Crolles/Minatec
Innovation & External partnership design group
ADS users’ group meeting
June 16th ,2009
Outline
• Introduction
– Millimeter Wave Wireless Market
– Technology Requirements
• The 65nm CMOS Technology for mm-wave
frequencies
– Active components from Design Kit available in ADS
– Passive components from Design Kit available in ADS
– Custom passive components using Momentum
• 60GHz Low Noise Amplifier design methodology in
CMOS 65nm using ADS
– Specifications
– Topology and MOSFET choices
– Design techniques using ADS tools
• Conclusion
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
1
Millimeter wave Wireless Market
• Major markets:
– 60GHz: Wireless HD/WLAN/WPAN/Fast file transfer
www.itrs.net – 2007 report
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
2
Millimeter wave Wireless Market
• Major markets:
– 60GHz: Wireless HD/WLAN/WPAN/Fast file transfer
– 77GHz: Automotive radar
www.itrs.net – 2007 report
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
3
Millimeter wave Wireless Market
• Major markets:
– 60GHz: Wireless HD/WLAN/WPAN/Fast file transfer
– 77GHz: Automotive radar
– Potential long term 94GHz mm-wave imaging
www.itrs.net – 2007 report
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
4
Mm-wave applications: Technology
requirements (1)
• Today MOSFET have demonstrated performances required for
mm-wave applications
CMOS 65nm LP: fT and fmax of 160GHz and 200GHz respectively
ITRS roadmap 2006
700
450
CMOS SOI PD 130 IBM
400
600
CMOS SOI PD DTMOS 130
Fujitsu
CMOS SOI LP PD 130 ST
500
fT [G Hz]
fm a x [G H z ]
350
400
300
300
250
CMOS SOI HP 90 IBM
200
CMOS SOI HP 65 IBM
150
200
100
100
50
0
0
0
20
40
60
Physical Gate Length (nm)
80
100
CMOS 65 Intel
CMOS SOI LP 65 ST
0
20
40
60
80
Physical Gate Length (nm)
100
CMOS LP 65 ST
CMOS SOI HP 65 IBM
CMOS LP 45 ST
CMOS 45 IBM
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
5
Mm-wave applications: Technology
requirements (2)
Capping
• The vertical shrink of the Back-End Of Line
(BEOL) from one CMOS node to the next one
penalizes performances:
– The small metal pitch and the thin dielectrics degrade
ohmic losses in inductors and microstrip transmission
lines
Aluminum
M6
Copper
Tungsten
– The bulk upper section low resistivity increases
attenuation constant in coplanar transmission lines
•
M5
V4
Solution:
– Increasing the BEOL
M4
V3
• Dedicated technology : BiCMOS9MW
M3
V2
M2
V1
M1
• 7 or more metal layer BEOL : CMOS (32/45/65nm)
– Increasing the substrate resistivity
(CMOS SOI)
V5
CT
CMOS65
65nm
node
BiCMOS9MW
BiCMOS9
130nm
node mmW
dedicated BEOL
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
6
Outline
• Introduction
– Millimeter Wave Wireless Market
– Technology Requirements
• The 65nm CMOS Technology for mm-wave
frequencies
– Active components from Design Kit available in ADS
– Passive components from Design Kit available in ADS
– Custom passive components using Momentum
• 60GHz Low Noise Amplifier design methodology in
CMOS 65nm using ADS
– Specifications
– Topology and MOSFET choices
– Design techniques using ADS tools
• Conclusion
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
7
The 65nm CMOS Technology for mm-wave
frequencies
Active components from CMOS 65nm Design Kit :
– 2 Families : Low Power (LP) and General Purpose (GP)
Dedicated to analog/RF
applications
Dedicated to digital
applications
RF MOSFET available for Agilent ADS in Design Kit:
•
NLVTLP_RF NMOS, Low Vt, Low Power (Thin gate oxide Vdd=1.2V)
•
SVTLP_RF NMOS, Standard Vt, Low Power (Thin gate oxide Vdd=1.2V and double
gate oxide Vdd=1.8V or Vdd=2.5V)
•
HVTLP_RF NMOS, High Vt, Low Power (Thin gate oxide Vdd=1.2V)
NLVTLP offers the best RF performance (fT,fmax,NFmin)
HVTLP offers the best “low power” performance (low leakage)
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
8
The 65nm CMOS Technology for mm-wave
frequencies
• Design Kit parametric cell and associated RF model offers :
B
B
S
G
D
G
Active zone
Vth implant
Poly-Silicon
N++ implant
P++ implant
Contacts
First metal layer
S
G
D
-Auto generation:
1 or 2 gate contact
1 or 2 Source and drain contact
Bulk contact
-All these parameters are take into account in Agilent ADS RF model
-RF model can be BSIM or PSP
-RF model include Process deviation, Temperature dependency, Mismatch and
Process statistic
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
9
The 65nm CMOS Technology for mm-wave
frequencies
• Design Kit parametric cell and associated Agilent Ads RF
model offers :
Meta-Oxide-Metal
(MOM) capacitance
Metal-Insulator-Metal
(MIM) capacitance
Poly capacitances
Complete inductor
geometry offer:
All models are good up to
the resonance frequency
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
10
The 65nm CMOS Technology for mm-wave
frequencies
• MOSFET RF models are validate up to mm-wave frequencies
and considerate good until the fT of the transistor
• Passive models are good up to their self resonance
• But the question is : How to consider an element ?
size versus frequency
ε =4
r
100000
Distributed Element
[um] .
dd[um]
10000
If
1000
d . ε r . freq
> 0,1 then the element can be seen
c
as definitely lumped
100
If
10
Lumped Element
d . ε r . freq
< 0,01 then the element can be seen
c
as definitely distributed
1
0
20
40
60
80
100
Frequency
Fréquence [GHz]
[GHz]
Simulation behavior of an element according to its dimension and the frequency
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
11
Custom passive components using Agilent
Momentum
• Example: Bond wire and bump pad modeling
Virtuoso Layout Export GDS
Import GDS in ADS layout
Momentum simulation
pads
S-parameters results
Pad equivalent
model extraction
bump
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
12
Custom passive components using Agilent
Momentum
• Example: Transformers in CMOS065
Vertical coupled transformer
Horizontal coupled transformer
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
13
Custom passive components using Agilent
Momentum
• Example: Transmission Line in CMOS065 SOI
Coplanar in CMOS
d
w
dielectric
H
AP
AP
AP
M6
M6
M6
M5
M5
E
M4
M3
M4
M3
M2
M1
M2
M1
h
Buried oxide
HR Substrate
Color code:
- Momentum
o Measurement
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
14
Outline
• Introduction
– Millimeter Wave Wireless Market
– Technology Requirements
• The 65nm CMOS Technology for mm-wave
frequencies
– Active components from Design Kit available in ADS
– Passive components from Design Kit available in ADS
– Custom passive components using Momentum
• 60GHz Low Noise Amplifier design methodology in
CMOS 65nm using ADS
– Specifications
– Topology and MOSFET choices
– Design techniques using ADS tools
• Conclusion
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
15
Specifications
• Typical specification for 60GHz applications:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Center frequency: 60GHz
S21 : >15dB
S11,S22 : < -10dB
S12 : < -20dB
NF: <8dB
IIP3: >-15dBm (RF spacing ~5MHz)
Power consumption < 40mW
[email protected] ~8dB 3 stages amplifier
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
16
Topology choices
• 4 common solutions @ mmW frequencies:
Common
Source (CS)
Common Source
Degenerated
(CS D)
out
out
in
Cascode
Degenerated
(CAS D)
Cascode
(CAS )
out
out
in
in
in
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
17
Topology choices
• 4 common solutions @ mmW frequencies:
9
8
7
NFmin [dB]
6
5
4
3
CS
CAS
CAS D
CS_D
2
1
0
0
10
20
30
40
Γopt / 0-110GHz
60
70
80
90
100 110 120
30
28
3 .5
26
24
22
20
3 .0
2 .5
18
16
2 .0
K
MSG & MAG [dB]
50
Frequency [GHz]
14
12
10
8
1 .5
1 .0
6
4
2
0 .5
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
F re q u e n c y [G H z ]
90
100 110 120
0 .0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100 110 120
F r e q u e n c y [G H z ]
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
18
MOSFET choices (1)
8
8
6
6
4
4
2
2
0
0
MSG & MAG [dB] @ 80GHz
NFmin [dB] @ 80GHz
• How to choose NMOS length, width, finger size
and number of gate access ?
Length
Choose minimum
Length to maximize
Gain and minimize
noise
0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.24 0.26
NMOS Length [µm]
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
19
MOSFET choices (2)
9.5
18
9.0
16
8.5
14
8.0
12
7.5
10
7.0
8
6.5
6
6.0
4
20
30
40
50
60
70
Current [mA]
MAG [dB] @ 80GHz
• How to choose NMOS length, width, finger size
and number of gate access ?
Width :
Choose
maximum
width with
respect to
current
consumption
specifications
80
NMOS Width [µm]
Current density 150uA/um, Finger Width=1um
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
20
MOSFET choices (2)
4.0
18
3.5
16
3.0
14
2.5
12
2.0
10
1.5
8
1.0
0.5
6
0.0
4
20
30
40
50
60
70
Current [mA]
NFmin [dB] @ 80GHz
• How to choose NMOS length, width, finger size
and number of gate access ?
Width :
Choose
maximum
width with
respect to
current
consumption
specifications
80
NMOS Width [µm]
Current density 150uA/um, Finger Width=1um
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
21
MOSFET choices (2)
• How to choose NMOS length, width, finger size
and number of gate access ?
120
18
16
14
80
12
60
10
8
40
6
20
4
20
30
40
50
60
70
Current [mA]
Rn @ 80GHz
100
Width :
Choose
maximum
width with
respect to
current
consumption
specifications
80
NMOS Width [µm]
Current density 150uA/um, Finger Width=1um
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
22
MOSFET choices (3)
8.5
6
8.0
5
1 gate access
2 gates access
7.5
4
7.0
3
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
NFmin [dB] @ 80GHz
MSG [dB] @ 80GHz
• How to choose NMOS length, width, finger size
and number of gate access ?
Finger size :
Choose
minimum
size to
maximize
Gain and
minimize noise
Number of gate
access:
Choose 2 for
the same
reason
Finger size [µm]
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
23
MOSFET choices (4)
9.0
6
7.5
5
6.0
4
4.5
3
3.0
2
1.5
1
0.0
0
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
NFmin [dB] @ 80GHz
MSG [dB] @ 80GHz
• How to choose the right biasing value ?
Current Density [mA/mm]
Minimize noise
Maximize gain
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
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24
MOSFET choices - synthesis
Gain specification dictate the number of stage for a given MSG
Each stages is optimize for noise (150uA/mm) or gain (300uA/mm)
(see Friss expression : Ftotal = F0 + F0+1 − 1 + F0+ 2 − 1 + ... )
G0
G0 ⋅ G0+1
For a given power consumption, the width of each MOSFET is figured
out. In case of no power specification, the width is chosen taking into
the trade of between good “Rn” (for noise) and good gain (W↑, Cds↑
and Gaas ↓)
Double gate access is selected preferentially and unit finger size is
chosen as small as possible taking into account the current
electromigration
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
25
Design techniques using ADS tools – mmW LNA
• First stage design:
Topology : cascode
Biasing : 150uA/um Vgs=0.6V
Overdrive voltage >150mV IIP3~ 0dBm (for CS)
Choose M2 to reduce RonM2 (i.e. Vds2) and minimize
capacitance to bulk (rule of thumb : WM2=1.5xWM1)
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
26
Design techniques using ADS tools – mmW LNA
• First stage design:
Want to win times ?
Use ADS “optim” tool
S parameter simulation
Discrete value for TLines
“genetic” algorithms in optim
module
Finally set your goals (ex:
S21>6dB, S11<-10dB, K>1, etc)
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
27
Design techniques using ADS tools – mmW LNA
• First stage design: “Optim” example
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
28
Design techniques using ADS tools – mmW LNA
• First stage design: simulation results
– Target S21 >8dB (freq 57GHz to 66GHz)
– Target S11, S22 <-15dB (freq 57GHz to 66GHz)
– Target NF <5 dB (freq 57GHz to 66GHz)
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
29
Design techniques using ADS tools – mmW LNA
• First stage design: simulation results
– Target S21 >8dB (freq 57GHz to 66GHz)
– Target S11, S22 <-15dB (freq 57GHz to 66GHz)
– Target NF <5 dB (freq 57GHz to 66GHz)
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
30
Design techniques using ADS tools – mmW LNA
• Three stages LNA: S-Parameters results
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
31
Design techniques using ADS tools – mmW LNA
• Three stages LNA: HB results
Visual results :
ICP1 = -21dBm
IIP3 = -11dBm
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
32
Design techniques using ADS tools – mmW LNA
• Three stages LNA: HB results (2nd method)
Calculated results :
ICP1 = -22dBm
IIP3 = -13dBm
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
33
Outline
• Introduction
– Millimeter Wave Wireless Market
– Technology Requirements
• The 65nm CMOS Technology for mm-wave
frequencies
– Active components from Design Kit available in ADS
– Passive components from Design Kit available in ADS
– Custom passive components using Momentum
• 60GHz Low Noise Amplifier design methodology in
CMOS 65nm using ADS
– Specifications
– Topology and MOSFET choices
– Design techniques using ADS tools
• Conclusion
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
34
Conclusion
• Today STMicroelectronics CMOS technology has
demonstrated performances required for mm-wave
applications
• Agilent ADS offer the good platform to design at
such high frequency :
– Compatible with STMicroelectronics Design Kit
– System to component frequency simulator
– Allow the design of new specific components for mmW
applications (TLines, transformers, etc..) with Momentum
Contact : [email protected]
Results and assertions contained in this document constitute a commitment of the author not by STMicroelectronics.
Any unauthorized disclosure, use or dissemination, either whole or partial, is prohibited
35