CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook

CoreFIR v8.6
Handbook
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Table of Contents
Introduction ....................................................................................................................5
Core Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 5
Key Features ................................................................................................................................................. 6
Supported Families ........................................................................................................................................ 6
Core Version .................................................................................................................................................. 6
Utilization and Performance .......................................................................................................................... 7
Filter Types .................................................................................................................................................. 11
Fully Enumerated Filter ............................................................................................... 15
Filter Description .......................................................................................................................................... 15
Fully Enumerated Interface Description ...................................................................................................... 18
Fully Enumerated Filter Implementation Details .......................................................................................... 22
Folded Filter ................................................................................................................. 27
Folded Filter Description .............................................................................................................................. 27
Folded Filter Interface .................................................................................................................................. 27
Folded Filter Implementation Details ........................................................................................................... 32
Polyphase Interpolation Filter..................................................................................... 39
Description ................................................................................................................................................... 39
Interface ....................................................................................................................................................... 39
Data Path Bit Width ..................................................................................................................................... 44
Polyphase Decimation Filter ....................................................................................... 49
Description ................................................................................................................................................... 49
Interface ....................................................................................................................................................... 49
Data Path Bit Width ..................................................................................................................................... 53
Coefficient Modes ........................................................................................................................................ 53
Filter Latency ............................................................................................................................................... 55
Coefficient Specification ............................................................................................. 57
Tool Flows .................................................................................................................... 61
License ........................................................................................................................................................ 61
SmartDesign ................................................................................................................................................ 61
Simulation Flows.......................................................................................................................................... 62
Synthesis in Libero SoC .............................................................................................................................. 63
Place-and-Route in Libero SoC ................................................................................................................... 63
List of Changes ............................................................................................................ 65
Product Support........................................................................................................... 67
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
3
Table of Contents
Customer Service ........................................................................................................................................ 67
Customer Technical Support Center ........................................................................................................... 67
Technical Support ........................................................................................................................................ 67
Website ........................................................................................................................................................ 67
Contacting the Customer Technical Support Center ................................................................................... 67
ITAR Technical Support .............................................................................................................................. 68
4
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Introduction
Core Overview
The finite impulse response (FIR) filter is one of the most essential building blocks in digital signal
processing (DSP) systems. Digital filters have been used in many systems to remove unwanted noise,
improve signal quality, or shape signal spectrum.
CoreFIR provides a configurable high performance multiplier-accumulator (MAC)-based FIR filter. The core
is available as a register transfer level (RTL) code of the filter, both in Verilog and VHDL languages.
The core implements a range of filter types:
• Single-rate
• Fully enumerated (parallel)
• Folded (semi-parallel)
• Multi-rate
• Polyphase interpolation
• Polyphase decimation
The N-tap single rate FIR filter computes its sum-of-products output y(k) as explained in EQ 1:
−1
() = � ( − )() = ()(0) + ( − 1)(1) + ⋯ + ( −  + 1)( − 1)
=0
EQ 1
A series of coefficients c(0), c(1), c(2), …, c(N-1) are the filter impulse response. The coefficient values
define whether the filter is a low-pass, band-pass, or high-pass filter. The fully enumerated filter type has as
many physical MACs as filter taps. Such architecture provides the fastest input sample rate. The folded filter
utilizes fewer physical MACs, taking advantage of a ratio between high clock rate and a slower input sample
rate. It reuses the MACs over vacant clock intervals to process the input samples.
Figure 1 shows the single rate filter functional block diagram. The figure presents only a general notion of a
digital filter computational component. An actual realization can be quite different. This handbook contains
chapters dedicated to every filter type. Refer to the specific chapter for more information on each particular
type.
x(i)
c(0)
z-1
z-1
z-1
z-1
c(1)
c(2)
c(3)
c(N-1)
y(k)
Figure 1 · Single-Rate FIR Filter Functional Block Diagram
CoreFIR supports the following three filter coefficient modes:
• Constant coefficient
• Multiple constant coefficient sets
• Reloadable coefficient
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
5
Introduction
In Constant Coefficient mode, a single coefficient set can be programmed into field programmable gate
array (FPGA) fabric. In Multiple Constant Coefficient mode, the multiple constant coefficient sets can be
programmed, and the FPGA stores all of them. It is possible to switch between the pre-loaded sets at any
moment during runtime, thus changing the filter impulse response. In Reloadable Coefficient mode, the
coefficients can be reloaded at the runtime.
Internal filter processing takes place at full precision to reduce truncation or rounding noise and to avoid a
risk of overflow. The filtered results are presented in full precision as well.
Figure 2 shows an example of using a FIR filter. Digital samples to be filtered enter the filter input and
filtered samples appear at the filter output.
CoreFIR
Data to Be Filtered
Filtered Data
Figure 2 · CoreFIR Example Application
Key Features
CoreFIR supports various filter types: Fully Enumerated, folded, and polyphase interpolator. The key
features for each type are listed in Table 1.
Table 1 Key Feature Support
Feature
Fully Enumerated
Folded
Interpolation
2 to 2N, where N is a number of
physically available MAC’s
4 to 1024
2 – 1,024
Input data bit width
2 – 18
2 – 18
2 – 18
Coefficient bit width
2 – 18
2 – 18
2 – 18
Signed and unsigned data coefficients
Yes
Yes
Yes
Full precision output
Yes
Yes
Yes
Coefficient symmetry optimization
Yes
No
No
Constant coefficients and constant coefficient sets
Yes
Yes
Yes
Run-time reloadable coefficients
Yes
Yes
Yes
RAM-based coefficient storage
No
Yes
Yes
RAM-based data storage
No
Yes
Yes
Number of filter coefficients
Supported Families
®
®
The core supports RTG4™, SmartFusion 2, and IGLOO 2 FPGA families.
Core Version
This handbook applies to CoreFIR v8.6.
6
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Utilization and Performance
Utilization and Performance
CoreFIR has been implemented in the SmartFusion2 devices using speed grade-1. A summary of the
implementation data is listed in Table 2.
Fully Enumerated Filter
Table 2 · Fully Enumerated CoreFIR M2S050 Device Utilization and Performance
Taps
Resource Usage
Configuration
Sequential
Combinatorial
Total
24
No
Transposed
1
18
18
24
28
168
196
310
32
No
Transposed
1
18
18
32
40
385
425
310
48
No
Transposed
1
18
18
48
56
403
459
310
72
No
Transposed
1
18
18
72
84
637
721
286
16
No
Systolic
1
18
16
35
714
749
423
24
No
Systolic
1
18
18
24
51
1,020
1,071
423
48
No
Systolic
1
18
18
48
103
2,144
2,247
412
72
No
Systolic
1
18
18
72
155
3275
3,430
371
18
Mathblocks
Architecture
Max.
Data
Rate
(Msps)
Symmetry
Bit Width
Coefficient
Data
Note: Data in this table were achieved using typical synthesis settings. Synplify Frequency (MHz) was set to be 400. CoreFIR was
configured for signed coefficients and data, a single set of constant coefficients, and RSTN pin was tied to Vcc
Layout settings were set as follows:
- Block creation enabled
- Timing-driven High Effort Layout
The maximum data rate shown also reflects the maximum clock rate. For example, the rate of 100 Msamples per second corresponds
to the maximum clock rate of 100 MHz.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
7
Introduction
Folded Filter
The filter was realized on M2S150 device.
Table 3 Folded CoreFIR Device Utilization and Performance
Coefficients
Utilization
Number of Taps
Width
Number of Sets
Data Width
Folding Factor
For Coefficients
For Data
Micro RAM Depth
4LUT
DFF
R64X18
RAM1K18
MACC
Maximal
Clock
Rate,
MHz
Type
Use RAM
Constant
29
18
1
18
2
No
No
0
2271
3061
-
-
15
267
Constant
29
18
1
18
3
No
No
0
1776
2392
-
-
10
258
Constant
29
18
1
18
10
No
No
0
1102
1454
-
-
3
254
Constant
60
18
1
18
60
Yes
Yes
64
404
438
2
-
1
250
Constant
60
18
3
18
60
Yes
Yes
64
427
345
1
1
1
250
Reloadable
60
18
1
18
60
Yes
Yes
64
385
382
1
1
1
250
Constant
1024
18
1
18
100
Yes
Yes
0
1733
1778
-
2
11
250
Reloadable
1024
18
1
18
100
Yes
Yes
0
1547
1869
-
3
11
273
Note: Data in this table were achieved using typical synthesis settings. Synplify Frequency (MHz) was set to be 300. CoreFIR was
configured for signed coefficients and data, RSTN pin was tied to Vcc and REF pin was grounded
Layout settings were set as follows:
- Block creation enabled
-Timing-driven High Effort Layout
8
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Utilization and Performance
Interpolation Filter
The filter was realized on M2S150 device
Table 4 Interpolation CoreFIR Device Utilization and Performance
Coefficients
Utilization
Number of Taps
Width
Number of Sets
Data Width
Interpolation Factor
Micro RAM Depth
4LUT
DFF
R64X18
RAM1K18
MACC
Constant
16
18
1
18
4
No
0
359
700
-
-
4
420
Constant
16
18
1
18
8
No
0
305
477
-
-
2
418
Constant
16
18
4
18
4
No
0
600
916
-
-
4
385
Constant
16
18
4
18
8
No
0
529
708
-
2
348
Reloadable
16
18
18
4
No
0
671
1285
4
257
Reloadable
16
18
18
8
No
0
605
1036
2
267
Constant
128
18
4
18
16
Yes
0
863
1205
-
8
8
367
Constant
128
18
4
18
32
Yes
0
574
690
-
4
4
374
Constant
128
18
1
18
16
Yes
64
782
1178
8
8
250
Constant
128
18
4
18
16
Yes
64
863
1205
8
8
250
Reloadable
128
18
18
16
Yes
64
727
1236
8
8
250
Constant
1024
18
1
18
256
Yes
0
684
920
4
4
351
Constant
1024
18
4
18
256
Yes
0
766
935
4
4
321
Reloadable
1024
18
18
256
Yes
0
459
963
4
4
343
Use RAM For
Coefficients
Type
Maximal
Clock
Rate,
MHz
Note: Data in this table were achieved using typical synthesis settings. Synplify Frequency (MHz) was set to be 400. CoreFIR was
configured for signed coefficients and data, RSTN pin was tied to Vcc and REF pin was grounded
Layout settings were set as follows:
- Block creation enabled
-Timing-driven High Effort Layout
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
9
Introduction
Decimation Filter
The filter was realized on M2S150 device
Table 5 Decimation CoreFIR Device Utilization and Performance
Coefficients
Utilization
Data Width
Decimation Factor
For Coefficients
For Data
Micro RAM Depth
4LUT
DFF
18
1
18
4
No
No
0
388
977
5
425
16
18
4
18
4
No
No
0
591
1186
5
413
Reloadable
16
18
18
4
No
No
0
694
1524
5
294
Constant
128
18
1
18
16
Yes
Yes
64
1058
1390
15
9
250
Constant
128
18
4
18
16
Yes
Yes
64
1077
1404
15
9
250
Reloadable
128
18
18
16
Yes
Yes
64
1036
1440
15
9
250
Constant
1024
18
1
16
256
Yes
Yes
0
727
12936
4
5
319
Constant
1024
18
4
16
256
Yes
Yes
0
729
12942
4
5
319
Reloadable
1024
18
16
64
Yes
Yes
0
484
12962
4
5
330
Constant
1000
18
1
16
250
Yes
Yes
0
717
12645
4
5
313
Constant
1020
18
2
16
60
Yes
Yes
64
2291
2718
17
18
250
Constant
1024
18
3
16
256
Yes
Yes
0
729
12942
4
5
351
Reloadable
1000
18
16
250
Yes
Yes
0
488
12647
4
5
338
16
MACC
Number of Sets
16
Constant
RAM1K18
Width
Constant
R64X18
Number of Taps
Maximal
Clock
Rate,
MHz
Type
Use RAM
Note: Data in this table were achieved using typical synthesis settings. Synplify Frequency (MHz) was set to be 400. CoreFIR was
configured for signed coefficients and data, RSTN pin was tied to Vcc and REF pin was grounded
Layout settings were set as follows:
- Block creation enabled
-Timing-driven High Effort Layout
10
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Filter Types
Filter Types
Depending on a user configuration, CoreFIR generates one of the supported filter types.
Fully Enumerated Filter
The single rate parallel FIR filter provides the highest input sampling rate processing. The performance of
the parallel filter expressed as the maximum input sample frequency equals the maximum clock rate, that is,
the filter can process a sample per clock interval. Figure 1 on page 5 shows an accurate functional model of
the fully enumerated filter. The filter utilizes as many MAC blocks as the number of coefficients also called
the number of taps. The largest filter (in terms of number of coefficients) a particular FPGA device can carry
is limited by the number of available MAC blocks.
Folded Filter
This one is a single-rate semi-parallel filter. In many practical cases, the filter input sample rate equals only a
fraction of the FPGA clock rate. Then the processing power of the MAC block can be re-used to process
more than a single filter tap. At every clock interval, the semi-parallel filter computes and accumulates
several products of EQ 1 on page 5. In a few clocks before a next input sample comes in, all N products are
accumulated.
The number PHY_TAPS of the products the filter engine computes at every clock interval is determined
based on required number of taps N, input sample frequency, and the FPGA clock frequency as follows:
 ≥ N ∗
Sample frequency
Clock frequency
EQ 2
Figure 3 on page 14 shows the folded filter simplified functional block diagram. Input data samples come to
a Data FIFO that collects a number of samples sufficient to compute PHY_TAPS products each clock
interval. The Coefficient ROM stores N coefficients. The MAC engine has PHY_TAPS MACs, a delay line
-1
comprised of Z blocks, and an output multiplexer. After filling in a delay line with necessary input samples,
the MAC engine reads N data samples simultaneously with N coefficients to compute PHY_TAPS filtered
results. After the computation is over, the PHY_TAPS results are collected in PHY_TAPS accumulators. The
multiplexer (MUX) puts them out one by one.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
11
Introduction
MAC Engine
x(i)
Z-1
Z-1
Data FIFO
Coefficient
ROM
ACC
ACC
ACC
Output
Figure 3 · Semi-Parallel FIR Filter Functional Block Diagram
Maximum sample frequency = Clock frequency ∗ (PHY_TAPS)/N
EQ 3
There is no need to indicate whether the single rate filter is to be fully enumerated or folded. It is only
required to indicate the clock, and input sample frequencies. If the clock to sample rate ratio is not less than
2, CoreFIR automatically generates the folded type. If the fully enumerated type is needed, the same value
for the clock and sample frequencies must be entered.
Polyphase Interpolation Filter
The primary reason for interpolation is to increase the sampling rate at the output of one system so that
another system operating at a higher sampling rate can input the signal.
Through calculations on existing data, interpolation fills in missing information between the samples of a
signal. Interpolation increases a sample rate by an integer factor L.
The architecture calculates output using N/L multipliers, where N is a number of filter coefficients and L is an
Interpolation factor, to get an overall computational saving of (N - N/L) compared to the straightforward
implementation.
At every clock interval the architecture computes and accumulates several products, as shown in EQ 4.
() = ∑
 ( − ) ∗ ℎ(),
EQ 4
Where, P = 0 to (L-1) and j = P, P+ (L-1), P+ 2*L – 1, 3*L – 1,…N
Figure 4 on page 13 provides an example of the polyphase interpolation filter architecture for a TAP of 16
and Interpolation factor of 4. The interpolator contains distributed coefficient ROM, one storage per physical
filter tap. In Figure 4 on page 13, the first storage keeps coefficients h0 to h3, the second storage keeps
coefficients h4 to h7, and so on.
12
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Filter Types
z-2
x(i)
h0
h1
h2
h3
h4
h5
h6
h7
z-1
z-2
z-2
h8
h9
h10
h11
h12
h13
h14
h15
z-1
z-1
y(i)
Figure 4 · 16-Tap Polyphase Interpolation Filter, L = 4
Polyphase Decimation Filter
The motivation for decimation is to reduce the cost of processing: the calculation to implement a DSP
system, generally is proportional to the sampling rate, so the use of a lower sampling rate usually results in a
cheaper implementation.
The decimation factor is simply the ratio of the input rate to the output rate. It is usually symbolized by "M",
so input rate/output rate = M.
If a signal is defined by N samples, M:1 decimation is achieved by throwing away M – 1 samples after every
sample kept In an M:1 decimator, the output data rate is 1/M times the input data rate, and M is the
decimation factor.
The output Y is given by EQ 5.
() = ∑
 () ∗ ℎ[ − ]
EQ 5
Y (n) is discarded for n != 0, M, 2*M, 3*M etc.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
13
Introduction
x(i)
z-1
z-M
z-1
z-1
z-1
z-1
z-M
h12
h13
h14
h15
h8
h9
h10
h11
h4
h5
h6
h7
h0
h1
h2
h3
z-M
z-1
Accumulator
y(i)
Figure 5 · 16 TAP Polyphase Decimation Filter, M = 4
Figure 5 shows an example of the polyphase decimation filter structure for a number of taps TAPS = 16 and
a decimation factor M = 4. A decimated output sample is obtained at the accumulator. A valid output is
th
available only at every M clock. The decimator contains distributed coefficient ROM, one storage per
physical filter tap. In Figure 5, the first storage keeps coefficients h0 to h3, the second storage keeps
coefficients h4 to h7, and so on.
14
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Fully Enumerated Filter
Filter Description
This section describes how the fully enumerated CoreFIR filter implements hardware (HW) architectures. All
the architectures realize EQ 1 on page 5.
Transposed Architecture
Figure 6 depicts the transposed HW structure. The architecture is functionally equivalent to the structure
shown in Figure 1, but eliminates the need for a multi-input adder. Instead, it uses the pipelined two-input
adder chain, which makes it highly beneficial for the HW implementation. It also offers low latency
implementation.
x(n)
C(3)
C(N-1)
z-1
C(2)
C(1)
C(0)
z-1
z-1
z-1
y(n)
Figure 6 · Transposed FIR Filter Architecture
Systolic Architecture
The systolic architecture adds more pipelines to the Direct Form I structure of Figure 1. Depending on
particular filter parameters, the systolic structure can offer better performance due to extensive pipelining.
The structure is always used to implement FIR filters with symmetric impulse response. The systolic
architecture is shown in Figure 7.
x(n)
z-1
C(0)
z-1
z-1
C(1)
z-1
z-1
z-1
z-1
C(2)
C(3)
z-1
z-1
z-1
z-1
C(N-1)
z-1
y(n)
Figure 7 · Systolic FIR Filter Architecture
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
15
Fully Enumerated Filter
Fully Enumerated Filter Symmetry
Many FIR filters are symmetric. The fully enumerated filter exploits the filter symmetry to minimize the
number of physical MACs required for the implementation. Figure 8 shows the impulse response for a 9-tap
symmetric filter. In this filter c(0) = c(8), c(1) = c(7), c(2) = c(6), and c(3) = c(5). When exploited, the
symmetry can substantially reduce the number of multipliers. The symmetric FIR filter implementation first
adds together the data samples that engage equal coefficients. Figure 9 shows the corresponding functional
block diagram.
c(1)
c(0)
c(7)
c(2)
c(3)
c(4)
c(5)
c(6)
c(8)
Figure 8 · Symmetric FIR Filter Impulse Response
z-1
z-1
z-1
z-1
z-1
z-1
z-1
c(1)
c(2)
c(3)
c(4)
x(i)
c(0)
z-1
y(k)
Figure 9 · Symmetric FIR Filter
There are a few types of symmetry. Figure 8 shows an example of an odd symmetry, where the number of
taps is odd, and a central tap is unique. Even symmetry is applied to a filter with an even number of taps.
The even symmetric filter does not have a unique center tap.
Figure 10 shows an 8-tap anti-symmetric filter impulse response. In this filter c(0) = -c(7),
c(1) = -c(6), c(2) = -c(5), and c(3) = -c(4). Similarly, odd anti-symmetric filters exist. The core exploits all four
symmetry types to nearly double the tap number, given the same number of mathblocks utilized.
c(1)
c(0)
c(4)
c(2)
c(3)
c(5)
c(7)
c(6)
Figure 10 · Even Anti-Symmetric FIR Filter Impulse Response
All symmetric/anti-symmetric filters utilize the systolic architecture in Figure 7.
16
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Filter Description
Reloadable Coefficient Mode
Figure 11 shows a functional block diagram for Reloadable Coefficient mode. This mode uses two memory
pages: active and auxiliary. The active page comprises Storage registers connected to the multiplier
coefficient inputs. The auxiliary page implements a multi-bit Shift register. Once a new coefficient vector is
loaded in the auxiliary page, it can be copied in the active page within a single clock period. Then the
auxiliary page is ready to accept another coefficient vector. Thus, the filter operation is not disturbed during
coefficient reload.
New loadable coefficients arrive at COEFI input to be shifted in the multi-bit Shift register. Every new
coefficient shifts the register contents one step to the left. The coefficients come in natural order, c(0),
c(1),…,c(N-1). After the last coefficient arrives, the coefficients in the auxiliary page are distributed, as
shown in Figure 11. On the COEF_ON signal the recently entered coefficients are loaded into the active
page. From this time on, they are used as the filter coefficients.
c(0)
c(1)
c(2)
c(3)
c(N-1)
Shift
Register
COEFI
x(i)
z-1
z-1
z-1
z-1
COEF_ON
y(k)
Figure 11 · Reloadable Coefficient Mode.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
17
Fully Enumerated Filter
Fully Enumerated Interface Description
Parameters/Generics
The parallel fully enumerated CoreFIR RTL has parameters (Verilog) or generics (VHDL), described in
Table 6. All the parameters and generics are positive integer types. The table shows the superset of the
parameters used by all FIR filter types, while indicating which parameters the fully enumerated type does not
utilize.
Table 6 · Fully Enumerated Filter Parameter/Generic Descriptions
Parameter Name
CFG_ARCH
Valid
Range
Default
1-4
1
Description
Filter type:
1: Fully Enumerated
2: Folded
3: Polyphase Interpolator
4: Polyphase Decimator
TAPS
COEF_TYPE
1
2-2N
16
Number of taps. For a symmetric filter the valid range is 2 to 2*N (2 to 2*N1 for odd symmetry filters), for the other filters the range is 2 to N.
0-1
0
0: Constant coefficients (including multiple coefficient sets)
1: Reloadable coefficients
COEF_SETS
1-16
1
1: Single coefficient set
2-16: Multiple coefficient sets
Valid when constant coefficient type is selected (COEF_TYPE==0)
COEF_SYMM
0-2
0
0: Not symmetric coefficients
1: Symmetric coefficients
2: Anti-symmetric coefficients
COEF_UNSIGN
0-1
0
0: Signed coefficients
1: Unsigned coefficients
COEF_WIDTH
2-18
12
Coefficient bit width. Signed coefficient width ranges from 2 to 18 bits;
unsigned from 2 to 17 bits.
DATA_UNSIGN
0-1
0
0: Signed input data
1: Unsigned input data
DATA_WIDTH
2-18
12
Data bit width. Signed data width ranges from 2 to 18 bits; unsigned from 2
to 17 bits.
SYSTOLIC
0-1
0
• 0: Transposed architecture
• 1: Systolic architecture
Valid when non-symmetric filter is being implemented (COEF_SYMM==1).
Otherwise the Systolic architecture is enforced.
INP_REG
FPGA_FAMILY
0-1
1
Disable (0) or enable (1) input registers. Enabling the registers helps
improving the filter speed.
19, 24,
25
19
The target FPGA family: SmartFusion2 (19), IGLOO2 (24) or RTG4 (25)
20
Die size. The parameter is automatically derived from FPGA device name
®
set through the Libero project settings dialog. If the Libero device
selection changes, the core configuration interface must be invoked and
the core needs to be regenerated.
DIE_SIZE
5 - 50
18
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Fully Enumerated Interface Description
1.
N is a number of physically available MAC’s.
Parameter Name
Valid
Range
Default
COEF_RAM
0-1
0
Fully enumerated filter does not use the parameter
DATA_RAM
0-1
0
Fully enumerated filter does not use the parameter
SAMPLEID
0-1
0
Fully enumerated filter does not use the parameter
ID_WIDTH
1-10
5
Fully enumerated filter does not use the parameter
4, 8, 16,
32, 64,
128,
256,
512
0
Fully enumerated filter does not use the parameter
L
2-512
2
Fully enumerated filter does not use the parameter
M
2-512
2
Fully enumerated filter does not use the parameter
URAM_MAXDEPTH
Description
Ports
The parallel FIR filter symbol is shown in Figure 12.
CoreFIR
DATAI
DATAI_VALID
FIRO
DATAO_VALID
COEFI
COEFI_VALID
COEF_ON
COEF_SEL
CLK
RSTN
NGRST
Figure 12 · Fully Enumerated Filter I/O Posts
The pinout of Figure 12 is a superset of all possible ports. In every configuration only a subset of these is
used.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
19
Fully Enumerated Filter
Table 7 Fully Enumerated Filter In/Out Signals
Signal
In/Out
Port Width Bits
DATAI
In
Input data width,
DATA_WIDTH
Description
DATAI_VALID
In
1
Input data valid. Active high. When the signal is active, the input data sample
is loaded into the FIR Filter.
COEFI
In
Coefficient bit
width,
COEF_WIDTH
Coefficient input. The coefficients are to be loaded sequentially, one by one.
The coefficients are loaded in a temporary storage. They replace the current
coefficients all at once on COEF_ON signal. This port is enabled only when
reloadable coefficient mode is selected.
COEFI_VALID
In
1
Coefficient valid. Active high. When the signal is active, a coefficient is
loaded into the MAC FIR filter. This port is enabled only when reloadable
coefficient mode is selected.
COEF_ON
In
1
Coefficients on. Active high. Updates the filter coefficients. In Constant
Coefficient mode (COEF_TYPE = 0), the signal replaces the existing filter
coefficients with the new set of coefficients pointed by the input COEF_SEL.
Input data to be filtered.
In Reloadable Coefficient mode (COEF_TYPE = 1), the signal makes the
filter start using coefficients recently loaded in the auxiliary page.
COEF_SEL
In
4
Coefficient set selector. Identifies the pre-programmed fixed coefficient set to
be activated and used as the filter coefficients. This port is enabled only
when Multiple Coefficients mode is selected.
CLK
In
1
Clock. Rising edge active. The core master clock.
NGRST
In
1
Asynchronous reset. Active low. Resets all internal registers. The signal is
expected to follow the FPGA power-on.
RSTN
In
1
Optional synchronous reset. Active low. Resets all internal registers.
FIRO
Out
DATA_WIDTH +
COEF_WIDTH +
ceiling(log2TAPS)
DATAO_VALID
Out
1
Data output. The filtered data appear on this port. It is a full precision output.
For example, at 12-bit data, 15-bit coefficients, and 150 taps, the output
width = 12 + 15 + ceil(log2150) = 12 + 15 + 8 = 35 bits.
Output data valid. Active high. Indicates that a new output data sample is
present at the FIRO port
Figure 13 and Figure 14 show examples of the core in Constant and Reloadable Coefficient modes.
Figure 15 shows Multiple Coefficients mode.
CoreFIR
input data
input data valid
DATAI
DATAI_VALID
FIRO
DATAO_VALID
output data
output data valid
COEFI
COEFI_VALID
COEF_ON
COEF_SEL
clock
synch reset
asynch reset
CLK
RSTN
NGRST
Figure 13 · Parallel Filter Constant Coefficient Configuration
20
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Fully Enumerated Interface Description
CoreFIR
input data
input data valid
DATAI
coefficient
COEFI
coefficient valid
switch to loaded coefficients
FIRO
DATAI_VALID
DATAO_VALID
output data
output data valid
COEFI_VALID
COEF_ON
COEF_SEL
clock
synch reset
asynch reset
CLK
RSTN
NGRST
Figure 14 · Parallel Filter Reloadable Coefficient Configuration
CoreFIR
input data
input data valid
DATAI
DATAI_VALID
FIRO
DATAO_VALID
output data
output data valid
COEFI
COEFI_VALID
select coefficient set
switch to selected set
COEF_SEL
COEF_ON
clock
synch reset
CLK
RSTN
asynch reset
NGRST
Figure 15 · Parallel Filter Multiple Coefficients Configuration
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
21
Fully Enumerated Filter
Fully Enumerated Filter Implementation Details
Data Path Bit Width
The core supports signed and unsigned data and coefficients. The core can be configured accordingly. The
output data is unsigned if both input data and coefficients are unsigned. Otherwise the output data is signed.
Input and output data, as well as the coefficients are integers in two’s complement format.
The core supports signed data and coefficients of 2 to 18 bits. For the unsigned data and coefficients, the
width is limited to 17 bits. With symmetric filter implementation, the maximum data width is reduced to
17 bits for signed data, and to 16 bits for unsigned data.
Internal filter processing takes place at full precision to reduce truncation/rounding noise and avoid risk of
overflow. The filter output data are presented in full precision as well. If the data and coefficient bit widths
are DATA_WIDTH and COEF_WIDTH, and the number of filter taps = TAPS, the full precision output bit
width is given by EQ 6:
Output Bit Width = DATA_WIDTH + COEF_WIDTH + ceiling (log2TAPS)
EQ 6
Maximum Number of Taps
As the fully enumerated filter utilizes as many MACs as the number of taps, the maximum number of taps
depends on the number of available mathblocks, which in turn is defined by your selection of a particular
FPGA device. Symmetric and anti-symmetric filters can implement twice as many taps as the number of
physically available MACs. Note, in the odd-symmetry filters, the maximum number of taps is one less. The
core configuration window automatically limits the number of taps depending on the device selection.
Multiple Coefficients Mode
In this mode, the filter can switch between k pre-configured coefficient sets. Figure 16 shows a single filter
tap in this mode. Other taps are organized and behave similarly. The COEF_SEL input controls a MUX, that
is, selects one of the coefficient sets, but the coefficients are not propagated to the filter yet. This only takes
place when the COEF_ON signal is issued, which loads the newly selected coefficients in the Pipeline
registers.
To improve switching characteristics, issue the COEF_ON signal at least four clock cycles later after
changing the COEF_SEL signal.
COEF_SEL
c(i)_set_1
z-1
Tap i
c(i)_set_2
c(i)_set_3
...
c(i)_set_k
COEF_ON
Figure 16 · A Parallel Filter Tap in Multiple Coefficients Mode
22
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Fully Enumerated Filter Implementation Details
Input Registers
The core inputs that present extensive load for the input signal sources are optionally registered, so that the
user circuitry does not face extensive fan-out. When the parameter INP_REG is set as 1, the core infers a
pair of registers on the following inputs: DATAI, DATAI_VALID, COEFI, COEFI_VALID, COEF_SEL, and
COEF_ON. Figure 17 shows an example of the input register inference. The pairs of registers are used to
enable the synthesis tool (Synplify) to infer replicated register instances and to contain the user input fanout
within the optimal limit. To achieve the best timing results, the global syn_replicate attribute of Synplify
should be used.
User Input
To CoreFIR Input
Figure 17 · Optional Input Registers
Inter-Column/Row Pipelines
CoreFIR implements several HW architectures, depending on the user configuration. All of them utilize the
transposed architecture shown in Figure 6.
The hard MACs on a chip are organized into physical columns or rows. Within a column or row, the adder
chain runs on a dedicated resource thus providing excellent performance characteristics. When a filter
utilizes more than one hard MAC physical column or row, the long data path between the columns
introduces an extended propagation delay. To eliminate this critical path, CoreFIR automatically infers
optimal number of fabric pipeline registers in the inter-column or row sections of the adder chain.
Simultaneously, it infers fabric registers in other data paths, which are necessary to preserve the correct
functionality of the filter.
Figure 18 on page 23 presents an example of the two fabric inter-column or row registers in the adder chain
balanced by a pair of the data bus registers. The added registers are shaded in Figure 18.
Physical column k
C(i+4)
C(i+3)
C(i+2)
Physical column k+1
C(i+1)
C(i)
Figure 18 · Transposed Architecture with Inter-Column Fabric Registers
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
23
Fully Enumerated Filter
Fully Enumerated Filter Latencies
The filter imposes the following two latency types:
• Pipeline Latency
• Transition Latency, which is proportionate to the number of filter taps
The overall latency is a sum of these two latency types.
Pipeline Latency
This latency accounts for a time period between a valid input and valid output samples. Figure 19 shows the
latency when the input registers are disabled. If these are enabled, the pipeline latency adds up to two clock
cycles. The DATAO_VALID flag marks the valid output samples.
Clock
DATAI_VALID
DATAO_VALID
Pipeline
Latency
Figure 19 · Pipeline Latency
The flag is not of particular use, when the valid data to be filtered are coming at every clock period
(Figure 20). It quickly becomes permanently active.
Clock
DATAI_VALID
DATAO_VALID
Pipeline
Latency
Figure 20 · Pipeline Latency with No Breaks in the Input Data
24
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Fully Enumerated Filter Implementation Details
Transition Latency
The FIR filter starts producing valid output samples after its delay line is filled with input data samples. Until
then, there is not enough data to be entered in EQ 1. In other words, after reset, when the filter delay line
becomes empty, the first valid output will be available only when the filter receives N data samples. After
that, every subsequent input sample will cause the filter to generate a fresh output sample. The reset is not
the only event causing the transitional delay. The same applies to the filter coefficient modification or update
that takes place on the COEF_ON signal.
Figure 21 shows an example of a 20-tap transposed filter. This filter must collect 20 input samples to satisfy
EQ 1. The transition latency depends on the number of taps (TAPS), filter architecture, and symmetry.
Event
clock
DATAI_VALID
Valid input count
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
...
16
17
18
19
20
Transition latency
Figure 21 · Transition Latency of a 20-Tap Filter
CoreFIR generates the DATAO_VALID flag that accounts for the pipeline and transition latencies.
In many cases there is no need for the filtered sample recipient to know precisely when the valid filtered data
starts. It is sufficient to know that after some initial warm-up time the filter generates the valid data. Table 8
reflects the maximum transition latency values expressed in number of valid input samples required to fill in
the filter delay line.
Table 8 Maximum Transition Latency Values
Transposed
TAPS + 12
Systolic
Symmetric
2 * TAPS + 12
ceiling(1.5 * TAPS) + 12
If the precise transition latency is not of concern, it it might be convenient to let the filter run for the time
indicated in Table 8 plus the pipeline latency. Every DATAO_VALID flag marks the valid filtered data
sample.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
25
Folded Filter
Folded Filter Description
The folded (semi-parallel) single rate CoreFIR type implements the general FIR filter EQ 1. The folded filter
utilizes a minimal number of MAC blocks that are sufficient to keep up with an average input sample rate.
CoreFIR automatically generates the semi-parallel filter type, if the FPGA clock frequency is at least two
times bigger than the input sample frequency. Figure 3 shows the simplified block diagram of the folded
filter.
If the clock to sample rate ratio is equal or more than the number N of filter coefficients, the folded filter
utilizes a single MAC block.
Folded Filter Interface
Parameters or Generics
Folded CoreFIR RTL has parameters (Verilog) or generics (VHDL), described in Table 9. All the parameters
and generics are positive integer types. The table shows a superset of the parameters used by all FIR filter
types while indicating which parameters the folded type utilizes.
Table 9 · Semi-Parallel CoreFIR Parameter or Generic Descriptions
Parameter Name
CFG_ARCH
Valid
Range
Default
1-4
1
Description
Filter type:
1: Fully Enumerated
2: Folded
3: Polyphase Interpolator
4 : Polyphase Decimator
TAPS
COEF_TYPE
2-1024
16
Number of taps
0-1
0
0: Constant coefficients (including multiple coefficient sets).
1: Reloadable coefficients.
COEF_SETS
1-16
1
1: Single coefficient set.
2-16: Multiple coefficient sets.
Valid when constant coefficient type is selected (COEF_TYPE==0).
COEF_SYMM
0-2
0
Folded filter does not use the parameter.
COEF_UNSIGN
0-1
0
0: Signed coefficients.
1: Unsigned coefficients.
COEF_WIDTH
2-18
12
Coefficient bit width. Signed coefficient width ranges from 2 to 18 bits;
unsigned from 2 to 17 bits.
DATA_UNSIGN
0-1
0
0: Signed input data.
1: Unsigned input data.
DATA_WIDTH
2-18
12
Data bit width. Signed data width ranges from 2 to 18 bits; unsigned from
2 to 17 bits.
SYSTOLIC
0-1
0
Folded filter does not use the parameter.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
27
Folded Filter
Parameter Name
INP_REG
FPGA_FAMILY
Valid
Range
Default
0-1
1
Folded filter does not use the parameter.
19, 24, 25
25
The target FPGA family: RTG4 (25), SmartFusion2 (19) or IGLOO2 (24).
The parameter is set through the Libero SoC project settings dialog and
automatically transfers to the core.
20
Die size. The parameter is automatically derived from FPGA device
name set through Libero project settings dialog. If the Libero device
selection changes, you must invoke the core configuration interface and
regenerate RTL.
0
0: Build Coefficient ROM out of fabric resources.
DIE_SIZE
5-50
COEF_RAM
0-1
Description
1: Build Coefficient ROM using RAM blocks available on a chip.
DATA_RAM
0-1
0
0: Build Data FIFO out of fabric resources.
1: Build Data FIFO using RAM blocks available on a chip.
SAMPLEID
0-1
0
Disable (0) or enable (1) optional support for attaching numerical ID to
input and output samples.
ID_WIDTH
1-10
5
Numerical ID bit width. Valid when the ID support is enabled (SAMPLEID
= 1).
4, 8 ,16,
32, 64,
128, 256,
512
0
Micro RAM depth upper limit. The parameter limits the depth of uRAM to
be taken for data and/or coefficient storage. Once either or both
COEF_RAM or DATA_RAM parameters are set, the core uses on-chip
RAM blocks to implement appropriate storage. If the required storage
depth does not exceed the URAM_MAXDEPTH value, the Micro RAM is
used, otherwise the core utilizes the Large RAM blocks.
L
2-512
2
Folded filter does not use the parameter.
M
2-512
2
Folded filter does not use the parameter.
URAM_MAXDEPTH
Other User Parameters
Table 10 lists two more parameters which must be configured for the core. They are not limited to integer
numbers, as they are not used by the RTL directly. The user interface converts two user parameters, Input
sample frequency and clock frequency, to the single RTL parameter PHY_TAPS.
Table 10 · Other CoreFIR User Parameters
Parameter Name
Valid Range
SAMPLE_RATE
0.001 – 75.0
1.0
Input data sample rate, Msamples/sec. A real number.
CLOCK_RATE
0.01 – 150.0
10.0
Clock frequency, MHz. A real number.
28
Default
Description
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Folded Filter Interface
Ports
The semi-parallel FIR filter symbol is shown in Figure 22. Table 11 provides the port definitions for the core.
CoreFIR
DATAI
DATAI_VALID
FIRO
DATAO_VALID
COEFI
COEFI_VALID
COEF_ON
COEF_SEL
COEF_REF
READY
SAMPLE_ID
CLK
RSTN
NGRST
COEF_REF_DONE
FIRO_ID
COEF_ON_SLOT
Figure 22 · CoreFIR I/O Ports
The pinout of Figure 22 is a superset of all possible folded filter ports. In every configuration, only a subset of
these is used.
Table 11 Folded CoreFIR Filter In/Out Signals
Signal
In/
Out
Port width, bits
Description
DATAI
In
Input data width,
DATA_WIDTH
DATAI_VALID
In
1
COEFI
In
Coefficient bit width,
COEF_WIDTH
COEFI_VALID
In
1
Coefficient valid. Active high. When the signal is active, a coefficient is
loaded into the FIR Filter. This port is enabled only when Reloadable
coefficient mode is selected.
COEF_ON
In
1
Coefficients on. Active high. Swaps Active and Auxiliary pages of the
coefficient memory.
Input data to be filtered.
Input data valid. Active high. When the signal is active, the input data
sample is loaded into the FIR Filter. DATAI_VALID should not be active, if
READY signal is inactive. Input data samples coming while the READY
signal is inactive are ignored.
Coefficient input. The coefficients are to be loaded sequentially, one by one.
The coefficients are loaded on an Auxiliary memory page. They replace the
current coefficients all at once on COEF_ON signal. This port is enabled
only when Reloadable coefficient mode is selected.
In Multiple constant set mode (COEF_TYPE==0, COEF_SETS>1), the
signal replaces the current coefficient set with the one loaded in the auxiliary
page.
In Reloadable coefficient mode (COEF_TYPE == 1), the signal makes the
filter start using coefficients recently loaded in the auxiliary page.
The port is enabled in Multiple set and Reloadable modes. In the Constant
coefficient mode (COEF_TYPE==0, COEF_SETS==0), CoreFIR starts
using the coefficients shortly after FPGA is powered.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
29
Folded Filter
Signal
COEF_REF
In/
Out
Port width, bits
In
1
Description
Refresh coefficients. Active high. When asserted must last at least one
clock interval.
In Constant coefficient mode, the signal initiates refreshing the coefficient
set stored on the active coefficient memory page.
In Reloadable coefficient mode, the signal initiates reloading coefficients
into the auxiliary page of the coefficient storage.
In Multiple constant Set mode, the signal starts loading into the Auxiliary
page another set of coefficients pointed to by the input COEF_SEL.
COEF_REF_
DONE
Out
1
Done refreshing coefficients. Active high.
The flag notifies a user that refreshing the constant coefficient set on the
active memory page, or reloading coefficients or loading another multiple
set into the auxiliary page is completed. Now the auxiliary page is ready to
become the active one.
COEF_SEL
In
4
Coefficient set selector. Identifies the pre-programmed fixed coefficient set
to be loaded on the auxiliary page. This port is enabled only when Multiple
coefficients mode is selected.
CLK
In
1
Clock. Rising edge active. The core master clock.
NGRST
In
1
Asynchronous reset. Active low. Resets the filter and initializes internal
coefficient storage. The signal is expected to follow the FPGA power-on.
RSTN
In
1
Optional synchronous reset. Active low. Being asserted along with CLK
signal, resets all internal fabric registers.
DATAO
Out
DATA_WIDTH +
COEF_WIDTH +
ceiling(log2TAPS)
DATAO_VALID
Out
1
Output data valid. Active high. Indicates that a new output data sample is
present at the FIRO port.
READY
Out
1
Active high. The core is ready to accept a fresh input data sample.
In
Numerical ID width
ID_WIDTH
SAMPLE_ID
Data output. The filtered data appear on this port. It is a full precision output.
For example, at 12-bit data, 15-bit coefficients, and 150 taps, the output
width = 12 + 15 + ceil(log2150) = 12 +15 + 8 = 35 bits.
Optional numerical ID input. The optional ID is provided by user
synchronously with the DATAI and DATAI_VALID signals.
The port is enabled when support for the ID is enabled (SAMPLEID = 1).
FIRO_ID
Out
Numerical ID width
ID_WIDTH
Optional numerical ID output. CoreFIR accompanies an output sample with
the optional numerical ID that matches the corresponding input sample ID.
The output is valid when support for the ID is enabled (SAMPLEID = 1) and
DATAO_VALID signal is asserted.
COEF_ON_
SLOT
Out
1
Optimized time slot for issuing COEF_ON signal. Active high. The core
generates this optional signal at the times when asserting the COEF_ON
signal does not cause any data or result loss. Once user circuitry is ready to
issue the COEF_ON signal, it should wait for the next COEF_ON_SLOT
pulse and loop it back to the core as the COEF_ON.
30
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Folded Filter Interface
Figure 23 and Figure 24 show examples of the semi-parallel filter active ports in Constant and Reloadable
coefficient modes. Figure 25 shows Multiple coefficient set mode.
CoreFIR
DATAI
input data
DATAI_VALID
input data valid
FIRO
DATAO_VALID
output data valid
READY
ready for a new
input data sample
COEFI
COEFI_VALID
output data
COEF_ON
COEF_SEL
optional pulse to
refresh coefficient set
COEF_REF
COEF_REF_DONE
optional flag of set
loading completion
optional sample ID
SAMPLE_ID
FIRO_ID
optional output ID
CLK
RSTN
NGRST
clock
synch reset
asynch reset
COEF_ON_SLOT
Figure 23 · Folded Constant Coefficient Configuration
CoreFIR
DATAI
DATAI_VALID
input data
input data valid
reloadable coefficients
reloadable
coefficient valid
COEFI
FIRO
DATAO_VALID
output data valid
READY
ready for a new
input data sample
output data
COEFI_VALID
swap active and
auxiliary pages
COEF_ON
COEF_SEL
load coefficient set
in auxiliary page
COEF_REF
COEF_REF_DONE
optional flag of set
loading completion
optional sample ID
SAMPLE_ID
FIRO_ID
optional output ID
COEF_ON_SLOT
optional time slot
for COEF_ON
synch reset
CLK
RSTN
asynch reset
NGRST
clock
Figure 24 · Folded Reloadable Coefficient Configuration
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
31
Folded Filter
CoreFIR
input data
input data valid
DATAI
DATAI_VALID
FIRO
DATAO_VALID
output data valid
COEFI
COEFI_VALID
READY
ready for a new
input data sample
output data
swap active and
auxiliary pages
COEF_ON
select coefficient set
COEF_SEL
load coefficient set
in auxiliary page
COEF_REF
COEF_REF_DONE
optional flag of set
loading completion
optional sample ID
SAMPLE_ID
FIRO_ID
optional output ID
COEF_ON_SLOT
optional time slot
for COEF_ON
clock
synch reset
asynch reset
CLK
RSTN
NGRST
Figure 25 · Folded Multiple Coefficient Set Configuration
Folded Filter Implementation Details
Data Path Bit Width
The core supports signed and unsigned data and coefficients. The core can be configured accordingly. The
output data is unsigned if both input data and coefficients are unsigned. Otherwise the output data is signed.
Input and output data, as well as the coefficients, are integers in two’s complement format.
The core supports signed data and coefficient of 2 to 18 bits. For the unsigned data and coefficients, the
width is limited to 17 bits.
Internal filter processing takes place at full precision to reduce truncation or rounding noise and avoid risk of
overflow. The filter output data are presented at full precision as well. If the data and coefficient bit widths
are DATA_WIDTH and COEF_WIDTH, and the number of filter taps = TAPS, then the full precision output
bit width is given by EQ 7:
Output Bit Width = DATA_WIDTH + COEF_WIDTH + ceiling (log2TAPS)
EQ 7
Coefficient Modes
Constant Coefficient Mode
In the single set Constant coefficient mode, the coefficients entered at configuration time are copied into the
coefficient ROM. This normally happens once, on asynchronous reset signal NGRST, which is expected to
follow powering on an FPGA device. A mechanism built into the core runs the process automatically. No
action is required.
If necessary, refreshing the contents of the ROM can be done by asserting and deasserting the COEF_REF
signal. Then the core launches the copying sequence again. The core generates the optional flag,
CORE_REF_DONE, once the initial or secondary copying is completed. The copying takes approximately 4
* TAPS clock intervals. The core keeps the signal DATAO_VALID deasserted while running the copying
sequence.
32
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Folded Filter Implementation Details
Multiple Constant Coefficient Sets
In this mode the filter can switch between k pre-configured coefficient sets. Figure 26 shows the coefficient
ROM in this mode. The core maintains two “cache”-style pages where it is convenient to store the current
set and the set to be used next. Then the switch from a current set to the next one takes a single clock
interval. After the switch, the page that is used to store the former current set gets vacant. This can be used
to fill-in with the yet next coefficient set.
CoreFIR automatically configures a coefficient ROM to use dual-page memory in Multiple set or Reloadable
mode. The COEF_SEL input controls a MUX that selects one of the constant coefficient sets. On asserting
and deasserting the COEF_REF signal, the core starts copying the selected set on the auxiliary page of the
ROM. In the meantime, the filter engine keeps using the current coefficient set stored on the active page.
Once the copying is completed, the core issues the optional signal COEF_REF_DONE, but the coefficients
are not propagated to the filter engine yet. This only takes place when the COEF_ON signal is issued, which
swaps active and auxiliary pages.
After initial power-up, the active page does not contain any coefficient set. Therefore, the core does not
produce a meaningful result until the auxiliary page is filled with a valid set and becomes the active page
after the COEF_ON signal comes in.
When the signal COEF_ON swaps the active and auxiliary pages, generally the PHY_TAPS filtered results
immediately following the COEF_ON, are incorrect and required to be discarded. If this is of concern, loop
back the COEF_ON_SLOT signal as the COEF_ON.
Coefficient ROM
COEF_ON
swap pages
Active Page
MAC Engine
COEF_SEL
c(i)_set_0
Auxiliary Page
c(i)_set_1
c(i)_set_2
...
c(i)_set_k
COEF_REF
COEF_REF_DONE
Figure 26 · Two-Page Coefficient Storage in Multiple Set Mode
Reloadable Coefficients
Similar to ultiple constant set mode, the coefficient ROM contains two pages, Active and Auxiliary. While the
filter engine keeps using coefficients stored in the active page, a new reloadable set of coefficients can be
downloaded by the user circuitry on the auxiliary page. To do so, assert and deassert the COEF_REF signal
and supply the new reloadable coefficients and validity bits to the COEFI and COEFI_VALID ports. The
coefficients must be supplied in reverse order: the coefficient c(N-1) first, followed by c(N-2), and so on until
the last coefficient c(0) is supplied. Once TAPS number of coefficients is loaded, the core issues the optional
signal COEF_REF_DONE. For the filter MAC engine to switch to the just loaded coefficients, assert the
COEF_ON signal, which swaps the pages.
After initial power-up, the active page does not contain any meaningful coefficients. Therefore, the core does
not produce a valid result until the auxiliary page is filled with a valid set of reloadable coefficients and
becomes the active page after the COEF_ON signal comes in.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
33
Folded Filter
When the signal COEF_ON swaps the active and auxiliary pages, generally the PHY_TAPS filtered results
immediately following the COEF_ON are incorrect and need to be discarded. If this is of concern, loop back
the COEF_ON_SLOT signal as COEF_ON.
Data Control and Timing
Input Rate Limitations
Semi-parallel architecture expects the filter input sample rate to be a fraction of the clock rate (EQ 2). Once
the number of physical MACs PHY_TAPS is defined, the filter can handle the input data rates up to the
maximum sample frequency of EQ 3. This does not mean that every sample interval needs to satisfy EQ 3.
The core accepts non-periodic input samples coming with instantaneous frequency up to the clock
frequency.
To relax requirements for the input sample periodicity, the core features the Data FIFO and the READY
signal. A data source can supply data at any frequency as long as the average rate does not exceed the
maximum sample frequency. The FIFO collects PHY_TAPS new input samples, which is sufficient to
1
compute PHY_TAPS filtered results . Then it deasserts the READY signal and waits for the MAC engine to
start processing to collect data. Depending on the actual input rate the waiting period may vary from a
fraction of the input sample interval to several intervals. For example, if the actual input rate never exceeds
the sample frequency, the waiting period is less than the input sample period. In this case the READY signal
is always active by the time a fresh input sample comes in. In case the data source attempts to supply data,
for example at clock frequency, the READY signal is deasserted for significant interval. The data source
should only assert DATAI_VALID when the READY signal is asserted.
Consider a 12-tap FIR filter with the clock to sample frequency ratio of 4. According to EQ 2, the semiparallel filter has PHY_TAPS = 12/4 = 3 physical MACs. Figure 27 shows a case where the input samples
are periodic at the fixed timing interval of 4 clocks that satisfies the EQ 3.
Note: The READY signal is always active by the time a fresh input sample comes in and thus, can be
neglected in such a case.
CLK
DATAI_VALID
READY
Figure 27 · Fixed Timing Interval Between Input Samples
For the same filter, Figure 28 shows the input samples coming at an instantaneous frequency equal to the
clock frequency. The data comes in bursts of PHY_TAPS = 3 samples each. The data source supplies the
samples only when the READY signal is Active.
1
This does not refer to initial warm-up time, which takes more input samples to compute PHY results. Refer
to the Warm-Up Time section on page 39 for details.
34
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Folded Filter Implementation Details
CLK
DATAI_VALID
READY
Figure 28 · Bursts of the Input Samples
Input and Output Time Domains
The core accepts input samples synchronized with the core CLK signal. The average data input rate must
satisfy EQ 3. The filtered results come out of the FIRO port in bursts of PHY_TAPS samples each, one
output sample per clock interval. The signal DATAO_VALID accompanies the valid output samples.
Figure 29 shows the filter output bursts for the filter example described in the section “Input Rate
Limitations”.
CLK
DATAO_VALID
FIRO
Figure 29 · Filtered Results
Filter Latency
Once the FIFO collected PHY_TAPS new input samples and the MAC engine is ready for processing, the
FIFO bursts out all the samples necessary to compute PHY_TAPS filtered results. It takes the MAC engine
N + 7 clock intervals of processing time for the filter to start generating PHY_TAPS results, one per clock
interval. Refer to the “Input Rate Limitations” section on page 34 as an example of a fixed input rate. The
rising edge of the COEF_ON_SLOT output signal marks the beginning of the processing time (Figure 30),
and the falling edge of the READY signal marks the moment when FIFO finishes collecting PHY_TAPS
fresh data samples. The MAC engine is ready to process fresh PHY_TAPS input samples as soon as the
Data FIFO finishes collecting them. The overall latency from the moment when FIFO started collecting the
fresh PHY_TAPS data samples to the first result of the output burst is shown in EQ 8.
PHY_TAPS
N+7
+
Sample frequency Clock frequency
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
EQ 8
35
Folded Filter
CLK
DATAI_VALID
READY
FIFO finishes collecting PHY new input
samples
FIFO starts collecting PHY new input samples
COEF_ON_SLOT
MAC Engine starts processing new samples
Processing Delay = N+7 clock intervals
DATAO_VALID
FIRO
Figure 30 · Filter Latency Example at Fixed Input Rate
Latency calculation for the case when momentary input rate may exceed maximum sample frequency of
EQ 3 is more complicated; as by the time the FIFO is filled with new samples, the MAC engine can still be
busy processing the previous burst (Figure 31). Therefore, processing starts on the rising edge of a
COEF_ON_SLOT pulse, following a FIFO collecting period.
CLK
DATAI_VALID
READY
COEF_ON_SLOT
FIFO is collecting PHY
new input samples
MAC Engine starts processing new samples
Processing Delay = N+7 clock intervals
DATAO_VALID
FIRO
Figure 31 · Filter Latency Example at High Momentary Input Rate
Optional Numeric ID
The core provides a mechanism for attaching numerical IDs to the input and output samples to know which
filtered sample corresponds to certain portion of the input data. From EQ 1, it is seen that every filtered
output y(k) is a result of convolution between the filter coefficients c(0) to c(N-1) and a range of data
samples from x(k-N+1) to x(k). The ID helps to associate output index with the input data samples from kN+1 to k. The output ID carries the input ID attached to the first input sample of the range, namely k-N+1 (to
make output indices match the formula of the EQ 1, N-1 must be added to the actual output index). A user is
required to supply the ID to the SAMPLE_ID port simultaneously with the DATAI_VALID and DATAI signals
(Figure 32).
36
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Folded Filter Implementation Details
CLK
DATAI_VALID
DATAI
SAMPLE_ID
Figure 32 · SAMPLE_ID Timing Diagram
The ID must be generated by a regular incremental binary counter. The bit width of the ID is configurable.
With the 5-bit ID, consider the example in the Input Rate Limitations section on page 34. Figure 33 shows
the SAMPLE_ID attached to the input data and the output FIRO_ID. The IDs are shown in decimal format
for convenience. The output sample with the ID 16 is the filtered result produced by the input samples from
16 to 27; the output ID 17 is the filtered input sequence from 17 to 28, etc. Due to the limited bit width, the ID
rolls over to 0 when the ID counter overflows. The FIRO_ID 22 marks the filtered output of the input samples
22-31 and 0-1, as shown in Figure 33 on page 37.
3
2
1
0
31
30
29
28
27
26
18
17
SAMPLE_ID
16
DATAI_VALID
DATAO_VALID
Filtered data
samples from
17 to 28
Filtered data
samples from
18 to 29
22
23
24
Filtered data
samples from
16 to 27
19
20
21
FIRO_ID
16
17
18
FIRO
Filtered data
samples from 22
to 31 to 0 to 1
Filtered data
samples from 23
to 31 to 0 to 2
Filtered data
samples from 24
to 31 to 0 to 3
Figure 33 · Numeric ID Use Example
Warm-Up Time
In addition to initial coefficient copying time described in the “Coefficient Modes” section on page 32, the
filter takes certain warm-up time. Theoretically, an FIR filter starts producing valid output samples after it
collects enough data to be entered in EQ 1 on page 5, N data samples. After initial reset when the filter
delay line is empty, the first valid output can possibly be available only after the filter receives N data
samples. CoreFIR requires PHY_TAPS more input samples to start generating valid results. It also discards
the first result as it is not accurate. The core deasserts the DATAO_VALID signal while initial inaccurate
results are generated.
After the warm-up, every subsequent PHY_TAPS input samples causes the filter to generate PHY_TAPS
valid output samples.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
37
Folded Filter
Data and Coefficient Storages
The core can implement data or coefficient storages, or both using on-chip RAM blocks. Check RAM for
coefficients and/or RAM for data boxes on the folded filter UI to direct the core accordingly. Otherwise the
core utilizes fabric flip-flops to build the storage.
SmartFusion2 devices provide two types of the on-chip RAM blocks: Micro RAM and Large RAM. The core
enables the user to influence selection of a particular RAM type by using the Max micro RAM drop-down
menu. CoreFIR will utilize micro RAM if the coefficient or data storage depth does not exceed a value
selected form the menu. Otherwise it uses the Large RAM blocks. This happens only if RAM for coefficients
and/or RAM for data are checked. A recommendation on setting the Max micro RAM (parameter
URAM_MAXDEPTH) value is as follows: if Micro RAM is expected to be a scarce resource in overall design,
set a lower value. If the Large RAM is taken by other FPGA design components, select a larger value on the
Max micro RAM (uRAM) menu.
38
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Polyphase Interpolation Filter
Description
Polyphase interpolation combines up sampling and subsequent filtering. The result is similar to the common
meaning of the interpolation that creates additional output samples in between the original ones. The output
sample rate is always an integer multiple of the input rate. The interpolated samples are calculated using the
hardware structure depicted in Figure 4 on page 13.
Interface
Parameters or Generics
Interpolation CoreFIR RTL has parameters (Verilog) or generics (VHDL), as described in Table 12. All the
parameters and generics are positive integer types. The table shows the superset of parameters used by all
FIR filter types while indicating which parameters the polyphase interpolation type does not utilize.
Table 12 Semi-Parallel CoreFIR Parameter or Generic Descriptions
Parameter Name
CFG_ARCH
Valid
Range
Default
1-4
1
Description
Filter type:
1: Fully Enumerated
2: Folded
3: Polyphase Interpolator
4: Polyphase Decimator.
TAPS
COEF_TYPE
2-1024
16
Number of taps.
0-1
0
0: Constant coefficients (including multiple coefficient sets).
1:Reloadable coefficients.
COEF_SETS
1-16
1
1: Single coefficient set.
2: 16 - Multiple coefficient sets.
Valid when constant coefficient type is selected (COEF_TYPE==0).
COEF_SYMM
0-2
0
Interpolation filter does not use the parameter.
COEF_UNSIGN
0-1
0
0: Signed coefficients.
1: Unsigned coefficients.
COEF_WIDTH
2-18
12
Coefficient bit width. Signed coefficient width ranges from 2 to 18 bits;
unsigned from 2 to 17 bits.
DATA_UNSIGN
0-1
0
0: Signed input data.
1: Unsigned input data.
DATA_WIDTH
2-18
12
Data bit width. Signed data width ranges from 2 to 18 bits; unsigned from 2
to 17 bits.
SYSTOLIC
0-1
0
Interpolation filter does not use the parameter.
INP_REG
0-1
1
Interpolation filter does not use the parameter.
19, 24,
25
19
The target FPGA family: SmartFusion2 (19), IGLOO2 (24) or RTG4 (25).
The parameter is set through the Libero SoC project settings dialog and
FPGA_FAMILY
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
39
Polyphase Interpolation Filter
Parameter Name
Valid
Range
Default
Description
automatically transfers to the core.
DIE_SIZE
20
Die size. The parameter is automatically derived from FPGA device name
set through the Libero SoC project settings dialog. If the Libero device
selection changes, the core configuration interface must be invoked and
the core needs to be regenerated.
0
0: Build Coefficient ROM out of fabric resources.
5-50
COEF_RAM
0-1
1: Build Coefficient ROM using RAM blocks available on a chip.
DATA_RAM
0-1
0
Interpolation filter does not use the parameter.
SAMPLEID
0-1
0
Interpolation filter does not use the parameter.
ID_WIDTH
1-10
5
Interpolation filter does not use the parameter.
4, 8,
16, 32,
64, 128,
256,
512
0
Micro RAM upper limit. Limits the depth of uRAM to be taken for data
and/or coefficient storage. Once either one or both COEF_RAM or /and
DATA_RAM parameters are set, the core uses on-chip RAM blocks to
implement appropriate storage. If the required storage depth does not
exceed the URAM_MAXDEPTH value, the uRAM should be used,
otherwise the core utilizes LRAM blocks.
L
2-512
2
Interpolation factor L.
M
2-512
2
Interpolation filter does not use the parameter.
URAM_MAXDEPTH
Ports
The interpolation FIR filter symbol is shown on Figure 34. Table 13 provides the port definitions for the core.
CoreFIR
DATAI
DATAI_VALID
FIRO
FIRO_VALID
COEFI
COEFI_VALID
COEF_SEL
COEF_REF
COEF_ON
RCLK
COEF_REF_DONE
READY
CLK
RSTN
NGRST
Figure 34 · CoreFIR I/O Ports
40
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Interface
The pinout of Figure 34 is a superset of all possible ports. In every configuration only a subset of these is
used.
Table 13 FIR In/Out Signals
Signal
In/Out
Port Width, Bits
Description
DATAI
In
Input data width,
DATA_WIDTH
DATAI_VALID
In
1
Input data valid. Active high. When the signal is active, the input
data sample is loaded into the FIR filter. DATAI_VALID should not
be active, if READY signal is inactive. Input data samples coming
while the READY signal is inactive are ignored.
COEFI
In
Coefficient bit width,
COEF_WIDTH
Coefficient input. The coefficients are to be loaded sequentially,
one by one. This port is enabled only when reloadable coefficient
mode is selected.
COEFI_VALID
In
1
Coefficient valid. Active high. When the signal is active, a
coefficient is loaded into the FIR filter. This port is enabled only
when reloadable coefficient mode is selected.
COEF_REF
In
1
Refresh coefficients. Active high.
Input data to be filtered.
In Reloadable coefficient mode, the signal initiates reloading
coefficients into auxiliary page of the coefficient storage.
In Multiple constant set mode, the signal starts loading into the
auxiliary page another set of coefficients pointed to by the input
COEF_SEL.
COEF_REF_
DONE
Out
1
Done refreshing coefficients. Active high.
Notifies that reloading coefficients or loading another Multiple set
into the auxiliary page is completed. Now the auxiliary page is
ready to become the active one.
COEF_SEL
In
4
Coefficient set selector. Identifies the pre-programmed fixed
coefficient set to be loaded on the auxiliary page. This port is
enabled only when Multiple coefficients mode is selected.
COEF_ON
In
1
Coefficients on. Active high. Swaps active and auxiliary pages of
the coefficient memory.
In Multiple constant set mode (COEF_TYPE==0, COEF_SETS>1),
the signal replaces the current coefficient set with the one loaded in
the auxiliary page.
In Reloadable coefficient mode (COEF_TYPE == 1), the signal
makes the filter start using coefficients recently loaded in the
auxiliary page.
The port is enabled in Multiple set and Reloadable modes. In
Constant coefficient mode (COEF_TYPE==0, COEF_SETS==0),
CoreFIR starts using the coefficients shortly after FPGA is
powered.
CLK
In
1
Clock. Rising edge active. The core master clock.
NGRST
In
1
Asynchronous reset. Active low. Resets the filter and initializes
internal coefficient storage. The signal is expected to follow the
FPGA power-on.
RSTN
In
1
Optional synchronous reset. Active low. Being asserted along with
CLK signal, resets all internal fabric registers.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
41
Polyphase Interpolation Filter
Signal
In/Out
Port Width, Bits
Description
FIRO
Out
DATA_WIDTH +
COEF_WIDTH +
ceiling(log2(TAPS/INTRP_F
ACTOR))
Interpolated data output. The filtered data appears on this port. It is
a full precision output. For example, at 12-bit data, 15-bit
coefficients, and 150 taps, L = 10 the output width = 12 + 15 +
ceil(log215) = 12 + 15 + 4 = 31 bits.
DATAO_VALID
Out
1
Output data valid. Active high. Indicates that a new output data
sample is present at the FIRO port.
READY
Out
1
Active high. The core is ready to accept a fresh input data sample.
Can optionally be used to simplify interface between a data source
and the filter.
In
1
A downstream device is ready to accept another interpolated
sample from the filter. The optional signal helps to lower CoreFIR
output rate to match the interpolated sample recipient throughput.
In case the recipient is not ready to accept another filtered sample,
it deactivates the RCLK signal until it is ready. If the recipient is
always ready to accept the filter output sample rate, the signal must
be activated. This happens automatically if the RCLK pin is not
connected to user circuitry.
RCLK
Figure 35 and Figure 36 show examples of the core pinout in Constant and Reloadable coefficient modes
and Figure 37 shows Multiple coefficient set mode.
CoreFIR
input data
input data valid
DATAI
DATAI_VALID
FIRO
FIRO_VALID
output data
output data valid
COEFI
COEFI_VALID
Optional
refresh coefficient set
COEF_SEL
COEF_REF
COEF_ON
Optional confirmation
a recipient is ready
RCLK
clock
synch reset
asynch reset
COEF_REF_DONE
READY
Optional flag of set
loading completion
Optional ready for a new
input data sample
CLK
RSTN
NGRST
Figure 35 · Constant Coefficient Configuration
42
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Interface
CoreFIR
DATAI
input data
input data valid
DATAI_VALID
reloadable coefficients
reloadable
coefficient valid
COEFI
COEFI_VALID
Optional
refresh coefficient set
COEF_SEL
COEF_REF
Enable newly loaded
coefficient set
COEF_ON
Optional confirmation
a recipient is ready
RCLK
FIRO
FIRO_VALID
COEF_REF_DONE
READY
output data
output data valid
Optional flag of set
loading completion
Optional ready for a new
input data sample
CLK
RSTN
NGRST
clock
synch reset
asynch reset
CoreFIR
DATAI
input data
input data valid
DATAI_VALID
reloadable coefficients
reloadable
coefficient valid
COEFI
COEFI_VALID
Optional
refresh coefficient set
COEF_SEL
COEF_REF
Optional confirmation
a recipient is ready
RCLK
FIRO
FIRO_VALID
COEF_REF_DONE
READY
clock
synch reset
asynch reset
output data
output data valid
Optional flag of set
loading completion
Optional ready for a new
input data sample
CLK
RSTN
NGRST
Figure 36 · Reloadable Coefficient Configuration
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
43
Polyphase Interpolation Filter
CoreFIR
input data
input data valid
DATAI
DATAI_VALID
FIRO
FIRO_VALID
output data
output data valid
COEFI
COEFI_VALID
select coefficient set
Optional
refresh coefficient set
Optional confirmation
a recipient is ready
COEF_SEL
COEF_REF
COEF_REF_DONE
RCLK
READY
clock
synch reset
asynch reset
Optional flag of set
loading completion
Optional ready for a new
input data sample
CLK
RSTN
NGRST
CoreFIR
input data
input data valid
DATAI
DATAI_VALID
FIRO
FIRO_VALID
output data
output data valid
COEFI
COEFI_VALID
select coefficient set
Optional
refresh coefficient set
COEF_SEL
COEF_REF
Enable newly loaded
coefficient set
COEF_ON
COEF_REF_DONE
READY
Optional confirmation
a recipient is ready
clock
synch reset
asynch reset
Optional flag of set
loading completion
Optional ready for a new
input data sample
RCLK
CLK
RSTN
NGRST
Figure 37 · Multiple Coefficient Set Configuration
Data Path Bit Width
The core supports signed and unsigned data and coefficients. The core can be configured accordingly. The
output data is unsigned, if both input data and coefficients are unsigned. Otherwise the output data is
signed. Input and output data, as well as the coefficients, are integers in two’s complement format.
The core supports signed data and coefficient of 2 to 18 bits. For the unsigned data and coefficients, the bit
width is limited to 17 bits.
Internal filter processing takes place at full precision to reduce truncation or rounding noise and avoid risk of
overflow. The filter output data are presented in full precision as well. If the data and coefficient bit widths
are DATA_WIDTH and COEF_WIDTH, and the number of filter taps = TAPS, then the full precision output
bit width is given by EQ 9.
Output Bit Width = DATA_WIDTH + COEF_WIDTH + ceiling(log2(TAPS/L))
44
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Data Path Bit Width
Coefficient Modes
Constant Coefficient Mode
In the single set Constant coefficient mode, the coefficients entered at the configuration time are copied onto
the coefficient ROM. This initial copying happens once, on asynchronous reset signal NGRST that is
normally asserted upon powering-on the FPGA device. A mechanism built into the core runs the process
automatically. No action is required.
It is possible to refresh the ROM contents by asserting the clock-wide COEF_REF signal, if required. Then
the core runs the copying sequence again. The core generates the optional flag CORE_REF_DONE, once
the initial or subsequent copying is completed. The copying takes approximately 8*TAPS clock intervals.
The core keeps the signal DATAO_VALID deasserted until copying is completed.
Multiple Constant Coefficient Sets
In this mode, the filter can switch between k pre-configured coefficient sets. Figure 38 shows the coefficient
ROM in this mode. The core maintains two cache style pages where it is convenient to store the current set
and the set the filter is expected to use next. Then the switch from a current set to the next one takes a few
clock intervals. After the switch, the page that used to store the active set is vacant. It can be used for the
next coefficient set.
CoreFIR automatically configures a coefficient ROM to use dual-page memory in Multiple set or Reloadable
mode. The COEF_SEL 4-bit input controls a MUX that selects one of the constant coefficient sets. On
asserting and deasserting the COEF_REF signal, the core starts copying the selected set on the auxiliary
page of the ROM. In the meantime, the filter engine keeps using current coefficient set stored on the active
page. Once the copying is completed, the core issues the optional signal COEF_REF_DONE but the
coefficients are not propagated to the filtered engine yet. This only takes place when the COEF_ON signal is
issued, which swaps active and auxiliary pages. The swapping takes up to four clock intervals. The input
data samples coming after that time will be properly processed.
After initial power-up, the Active page does not contain any coefficient set. Therefore the core does not
produce a meaningful result until the auxiliary page gets filled with a valid set and becomes the active page
after the COEF_ON signal comes in. The core downloads the coefficient set 0 (COEF_SEL = 0) on poweron. As a result, the interpolation filter uses the coefficient set 0 upon power-on.
Coefficient ROM
COEF_ON
swap pages
Active Page
MAC Engine
COEF_SEL
c(i)_set_0
Auxiliary Page
c(i)_set_1
c(i)_set_2
...
c(i)_set_k
COEF_REF
COEF_REF_DONE
Figure 38 · Two-Page Coefficient Storage in Multiple Set Mode
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
45
Polyphase Interpolation Filter
Reloadable Coefficients
Similarly to Multiple constant set mode, the coefficient ROM contains two pages, Active and Auxiliary. While
the filter engine keeps using coefficients stored in the Active page, user circuitry can download a new
reloadable set of coefficients on the auxiliary page. To do so, assert and deassert COEF_REF signal and
supply the new reloadable coefficients and validity bits to the ports COEFI and COEFI_VALID, respectively.
The coefficients must be supplied in the natural order: h0, h1, and so on. Once TAPS number of coefficients
is loaded, the core issues the optional signal COEF_REF_DONE. For the filter MAC engine to switch to the
just loaded coefficients, pulse the COEF_ON signal that swaps the pages. The swapping takes up to four
clock intervals. The input data samples coming after that time will be properly processed.
After initial power-up, the active page does not contain any meaningful coefficients. Therefore, the core does
not produce a valid result until the auxiliary page gets filled with a valid set of reloadable coefficients and
becomes the active page after the COEF_ON signal comes in Timing and Controls.
Data Rate Control
By definition, the input sample rate of the interpolation filter is lower than its output rate. Often the output rate
equals the FPGA clock rate used. Provided Fclk is the clock frequency, the input sample frequency is Fclk/L.
The relation between input and output samples is simple: upon receiving an input sample, the filter
generates L output samples. These appear at the filter FIRO output after certain latency discussed below.
Once the filter receives another input sample, it lowers the READY signal to let a signal source know it is
going to be busy computing interpolation samples. In L-1 clock cycles, the filter asserts the READY signal
back to let the data source know it is ready to receive the next input sample. Figure 39 and Figure 40 show
the examples of the READY signal for a filter with interpolation factor L = 3. The filter requires L = 3 clock
intervals to output the interpolated samples. In other words, the interpolation cycle here equals three clock
cycles.
The data source issues a fresh sample once per four clock intervals that is the data interval is larger than the
interpolation cycle factor L, as shown in Figure 39. The signal READY goes low at the next clock cycle after
the active DATAI_VALID signal and stays Low for two clock cycles marked busy. Then it goes High,
signaling to the data source it is ready to accept another valid data sample. The data source can take as
much time as it needs to generate the fresh data sample.
CLK
DATAI_VALID
READY
busy
busy
DATAI
Valid data
Figure 39 · Input Sample Interval Exceeds Interpolation Cycle
Figure 40 shows an example where the data source is permanently ready after initialization. Once the
DATAI_VALID goes High, the READY signal lets the first data sample to get in, and goes low on the front
edge of the next clock pulse. It stays low for two clock cycles marked busy and then goes High for one clock
interval. In such a simple case, the DATAI_VALID can be connected to VCC, and the data source only
needs to refresh data simultaneously with the negative edge of the READY signal.
The core ignores input data samples coming when the READY signal is Low.
46
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Data Path Bit Width
CLK
DATAI_VALID
READY
busy
busy
busy
DATAI
Valid data
Figure 40 · Data Source Is Always Ready
Output Rate Control
As the output sample rate of the Interpolation filter is higher than the data rate, there might be a need for a
slow downstream device to control the filter throughput. You can do this using the RCLK signal by
deasserting it for a number of clock cycles. The core expects the RCLK signal to be active for a full clock
cycle. If a recipient of the interpolated samples asserts the RCLK every other clock cycle, the sample rate
diminishes with a factor of two. The RCLK active every third clock cycle reduces the output sample speed by
three times, etc. The core automatically adjusts the READY signal for the data source to drop rate as well.
Figure 41 presents the case depicted on Figure 40 but the output sample rate equals one third of the
Figure 40 rate due to lowering the RCLK signal for two clock cycles out of every three. It is seen the READY
signal got slower, too.
CLK
RCLK
DATAI_VALID
READY
DATAI
Valid data
Figure 41 · RCLK Used to Reduce the Output Rate by Three Times
If the downstream device can handle interpolated samples at clock rate, the signal RCLK should be
connected to VCC or left unconnected.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
47
Polyphase Interpolation Filter
Interpolator Latency
The latency primarily depends on the filter size; that is number of physical taps equal TAPS/L. The following
formula describes the latency expressed in the number of clock cycles:
Latency = (TAPS/L + 2) clock cycles
EQ 9
If RCLK is used to diminish the output sample rate, the formula stays the same but the latency now is
measured in RCLK cycles:
Latency = (TAPS/L + 2) RCLK cycles
The latency also depends on how many hard MAC rows (columns) the filter implementation takes and a
part-dependent number of pipeline registers used to cross inter-row or column space. For convenience the
core calculates the overall latency and prints it out during simulation. Look for the line “LATENCY = x
CLOCK or RCLK cycles”.
Any FIR filter convolves a series of data samples with a set of filter coefficients. Thus, the filter starts
generating valid results only after getting enough data samples and coefficients. Upon power-on or
swapping coefficient pages, CoreFIR holds the FIRO_VALID signal inactive until it gets TAPS valid data
samples. Here "valid data samples" means the data coming in response to the active READY signal.
48
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Polyphase Decimation Filter
Description
The primary reason for using Polyphase decimation is to decrease the sampling rate at the output so that
another system operating at a lower sampling rate can use the filtered signal. Another reason is reducing the
processing cost. In any case, the decimation filter performs low-pass filtering and down sampling.
Interface
Parameters or Generics
Decimation CoreFIR RTL has parameters (Verilog) or generics (VHDL), which are described in Table 14. All
parameters and generics are positive integer types. The table shows the superset of the parameters used by
all FIR filter types, while indicating which parameters the Polyphase Decimation type does not utilize.
Table 14 · Semi-Parallel CoreFIR Parameter or Generic Descriptions
Parameter Name
CFG_ARCH
Valid
Range
Default
1-4
1
Description
Filter type:
1: Fully Enumerated
2: Folded
3: Polyphase Interpolator
4: Polyphase Decimator
TAPS
COEF_TYPE
2-1024
16
Number of taps.
0-1
0
0: Constant coefficients (including multiple coefficient sets).
1: Reloadable coefficients.
COEF_SETS
1-16
1
1: Single coefficient set.
2-16 : Multiple coefficient sets.
Valid when constant coefficient type is selected (COEF_TYPE==0).
COEF_SYMM
0-2
0
0: Not symmetric coefficients.
1: Symmetric coefficients.
2: Anti-symmetric coefficients.
COEF_UNSIGN
0-1
0
0: Signed coefficients.
1: Unsigned coefficients.
COEF_WIDTH
2-18
12
Coefficient bit width. Signed coefficient width ranges from 2 to 18 bits;
unsigned from 2 to 17 bits.
DATA_UNSIGN
0-1
0
0: Signed input data.
1: Unsigned input data.
DATA_WIDTH
2-18
12
Data bit width. Signed data width ranges from 2 to 18 bits; unsigned from 2
to 17 bits.
SYSTOLIC
0-1
0
Decimation filter does not use the parameter.
INP_REG
0-1
1
Decimation filter does not use the parameter.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
49
Polyphase Decimation Filter
Parameter Name
Valid
Range
Default
FPGA_FAMILY
19, 24,
25
19
The target FPGA family: SmartFusion2 (19), IGLOO2 (24) or RTG4 (25).
The parameter is set through the Libero SoC project settings dialog and
automatically transfers to the core.
20
Die size. The parameter is automatically derived from FPGA device name
set through the Libero SoC project settings dialog and automatically
transfers to the core. If the Libero SoC device selection changes, the core
configuration interface must be invoked and the core regenerated.
0
0: Build Coefficient ROM out of fabric resources.
DIE_SIZE
5 - 50
COEF_RAM
0-1
Description
1: Build Coefficient ROM using RAM blocks available on a chip.
DATA_RAM
0-1
0
0: Build Data RAM out of fabric resources.
1: Build Data RAM using RAM blocks available on a chip.
SAMPLEID
0-1
0
Decimation filter does not use the parameter.
ID_WIDTH
1-10
5
Decimation filter does not use the parameter.
4, 8,
16, 32,
64, 128,
256,
512
0
Micro RAM upper limit. The parameter limits the depth of uRAM to be
taken for data and/or coefficient storage. Once either one or both
COEF_RAM or/and DATA_RAM parameters are set, the core will use onchip RAM blocks to implement appropriate storage. If the required storage
depth does not exceed the URAM_MAXDEPTH value, the uRAM is used,
otherwise the core utilizes Large RAM blocks.
L
2-512
2
Decimation filter does not use the parameter.
M
2-512
2
Decimation Factor.
URAM_MAXDEPTH
Ports
The decimation FIR filter symbol is shown in Figure 42. Table 15 provides the port definitions for the core.
CoreFIR
DATAI
DATAI_VALID
FIRO
FIRO_VALID
COEFI
COEFI_VALID
COEF_SEL
COEF_REF
COEF_REF_DONE
COEF_ON
CLK
RSTN
NGRST
Figure 42 · CoreFIR I/O Ports
50
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Interface
The pinout of Figure 42 is a superset of all possible ports. In every configuration only a subset of these is
used.
Table 15 CoreFIR I/O Signals
Signal
In/Out
Port width
expressed in
Bits
DATAI
In
Input data width,
DATA_WIDTH
DATAI_VALID
In
1
COEFI
In
COEFI_VALID
In
1
Coefficient valid. Active high. When the signal is active, a coefficient is
loaded into the FIR Filter. This port is enabled only when Reloadable
coefficient mode is selected.
COEF_REF
In
1
Refresh coefficients. Active high.
Coefficient bit
width,
COEF_WIDTH
Description
Input data to be filtered.
Input data valid. Active high. When the signal is active, the input data sample
is loaded into the FIR filter. DATAI_VALID should not be active, if READY
signal is inactive. Input data samples coming while the READY signal is
inactive are ignored.
Coefficient input. The coefficients are to be loaded sequentially, one by one.
This port is enabled only when Reloadable coefficient mode is selected.
In Reloadable coefficient mode, the signal initiates reloading coefficients into
Auxiliary page of the coefficient storage.
In Multiple constant set mode, the signal starts loading into the Auxiliary page
another set of coefficients pointed to by the input COEF_SEL.
COEF_REF_
DONE
COEF_SEL
Out
1
Done refreshing coefficients. Active high.
Notifies that reloading coefficients or loading another multiple set into the
auxiliary page is completed. Now the auxiliary page is ready to become the
active one.
In
4
Coefficient set selector. Identifies the pre-programmed fixed coefficient set to
be loaded on the Auxiliary page. This port is enabled only when Multiple
coefficients mode is selected.
CLK
In
1
Clock. Rising edge active. The core master clock.
NGRST
In
1
Asynchronous reset. Active low. Resets all internal fabric registers. The
signal is expected to follow the FPGA power-on.
RSTN
In
1
Optional synchronous reset. Active low. Being asserted along with CLK
signal, resets all internal fabric registers.
FIRO
Out
DATA_WIDTH +
COEF_WIDTH +
ceiling(log2TAPS)
FIRO_VALID
Out
1
Output data valid. Active high. Indicates that a new output data sample is
present at the FIRO port.
In
1
Coefficients on. Active high. Swaps active and auxiliary pages of the
coefficient memory.
COEF_ON
Data output. The filtered data appear on this port. It is a full precision output.
For example, at 12-bit data, 15-bit coefficients, and 150 taps, M = 10 the
output width = 12 + 15 + ceil(log2150) = 12 + 15 + 8 = 31 bits.
In Multiple constant set mode (COEF_TYPE==0, COEF_SETS>1), the signal
replaces the current coefficient set with the one loaded in the Auxiliary page.
In Reloadable coefficient mode (COEF_TYPE == 1) the signal makes the
filter start using coefficients recently loaded in the auxiliary page.
The port is enabled in Multiple set and Reloadable modes. In Constant
coefficient mode (COEF_TYPE==0, COEF_SETS==0), CoreFIR starts using
the coefficients shortly after the FPGA is powered.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
51
Polyphase Decimation Filter
Figure 43 and Figure 44 show examples of the core pinout in Constant and Reloadable coefficient modes
and Figure 45 shows Multiple coefficient set mode.
CoreFIR
DATAI
Input data
FIRO
DATAI_VALID
input data valid
FIRO_VALID
output data
output data valid
COEFI
COEFI_VALID
COEF_SEL
Optional
refresh coefficient set
COEF_REF
COEF_REF_DONE
Optional flag of set
loading completion
COEF_ON
CLK
RSTN
NGRST
Clock
Synch reset
Asynch reset
Figure 43 · Constant Coefficient Configuration
CoreFIR
Input data
Input data valid
Reloadable coefficients
Coefficient valid
DATAI
DATAI_VALID
COEF_SEL
COEF_REF
Enable newly loaded
coefficient set
COEF_ON
Clock
Asynch reset
output data
output data valid
COEFI
COEFI_VALID
Optional
refresh coefficient set
Synch reset
FIRO
FIRO_VALID
COEF_REF_DONE
Optional flag of set
loading completion
CLK
RSTN
NGRST
Figure 44 · Reloadable Coefficient Configuration
52
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Data Path Bit Width
CoreFIR
Input data
Input data valid
DATAI
DATAI_VALID
FIRO
FIRO_VALID
output data
output data valid
COEFI
COEFI_VALID
Select coefficient set
Optional
refresh coefficient set
COEF_SEL
COEF_REF
Enable newly loaded
coefficient set
COEF_ON
Clock
Synch reset
Asynch reset
COEF_REF_DONE
Optional flag of set
loading completion
CLK
RSTN
NGRST
Figure 45 · Multiple Coefficient Set Configuration
Data Path Bit Width
The core supports signed and unsigned data and coefficients. The core can be configured accordingly. The
output data is unsigned, if both input data and coefficients are unsigned. Otherwise the output data is
signed. Input and output data, as well as the coefficients, are integers in two’s complement format.
The core supports signed data and coefficient of 2 to 18 bits. For the unsigned data and coefficients, the
width is limited to 17 bits. With symmetric filter implementation, the maximum data width is reduced to 17
bits for signed data, and 16 bits for unsigned data.
Internal filter processing takes place at full precision to reduce truncation or rounding noise and avoid risk of
overflow. The filter output data are presented in full precision as well. If the data and coefficient bit widths
are DATA_WIDTH and COEF_WIDTH, and the number of filter taps = TAPS, then the full precision output
bit width is given by EQ 10:
Output Bit Width = DATA_WIDTH + COEF_WIDTH + ceiling(log2TAPS)
EQ 10
Coefficient Modes
Constant Coefficient Mode
In single set Constant coefficient mode, the coefficients entered at configuration time are copied into the
coefficient ROM. The initial copying happens once on asynchronous reset signal NGRST, which normally is
asserted upon powering on the FPGA device. A mechanism built into the core runs the process
automatically. No action is required.
Assert the COEF_REF signal to refresh the contents of the ROM, if required. The core runs the copying
sequence again. The core generates the optional flag, CORE_REF_DONE, once the initial or subsequent
copying is completed. The copying takes approximately 8 * TAPS clock intervals. The core keeps the signal
DATAO_VALID deasserted until copying is completed.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
53
Polyphase Decimation Filter
Multiple Constant Coefficient Sets
In this mode, the filter can switch between k pre-configured coefficient sets. Figure 46 shows the coefficient
ROM in this mode. The core maintains two cache-style pages where it is convenient to store the current set
and the set that is expected to be used next. Then the switch from the current to the next set takes a single
clock interval. After the switch, the page that used to store the active set is vacant. It can be used for the yet
next coefficient set.
CoreFIR automatically configures a coefficient ROM to use dual-page memory in Multiple set or Reloadable
mode. The COEF_SEL 4-bit input controls a MUX that selects one of the constant coefficient sets. On
asserting and deasserting the COEF_REF signal, the core starts copying the selected set on the Auxiliary
page of the ROM. In the meantime, the filter engine keeps using current coefficient set stored on the Active
page. Once the copying is completed, the core issues the optional signal COEF_REF_DONE but the
coefficients are not propagated to the filter engine yet. This only takes place when the COEF_ON signal is
issued, which swaps Active and Auxiliary pages. The swapping takes up to four clock intervals. The input
data samples coming after that time will be properly processed.
After initial power-up, the active page does not contain any coefficient set. Therefore, the core does not
produce a meaningful result until the auxiliary page gets filled with a valid set and becomes the active page
after the COEF_ON signal comes in. The core always downloads the coefficient set 0 (COEF_SEL = 0) on
power-on. As a result, the filter uses the coefficient set 0 upon power-on.
Coefficient ROM
COEF_ON
swap pages
Active Page
MAC Engine
COEF_SEL
c(i)_set_0
Auxiliary Page
c(i)_set_1
c(i)_set_2
...
c(i)_set_k
COEF_REF
COEF_REF_DONE
Figure 46 · Coefficient Storage in Multiple Set Mode
Reloadable Coefficients
Similar to Multiple constant set mode, the coefficient ROM contains two pages, Active and Auxiliary. While
the filter engine keeps using coefficients stored in the active page, user circuitry can download a new
reloadable set of coefficients on the auxiliary page. To do so, COEF_REF signal should be asserted and
deasserted and supply the new reloadable coefficients and validity bits to the ports COEFI and
COEFI_VALID, respectively. The coefficients must be supplied in natural order: h0, h1, and so on. Once
TAPS number of coefficients is loaded, the core issues the optional signal COEF_REF_DONE. For the filter
MAC engine to switch to the just loaded coefficients, pulse the COEF_ON signal that swaps the pages.
After initial power-up, the active page does not contain any meaningful coefficients. Therefore, the core does
not produce a valid result until the auxiliary page is filled with a valid set of reloadable coefficients and
becomes the active page after the COEF_ON signal comes in.
54
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Filter Latency
Filter Latency
The input data samples can come at clock or lower rate. Every input sample is accompanied by the
DATAI_VALID signal.
The relation between input data samples and output decimated samples is simple: upon receiving M data
samples, the filter generates an output sample. In other words the filter must obtain M fresh input samples in
order to generate another output sample. The latency is defined here as the delay between the last sample
of the group of M data samples, and the output sample, which was calculated based on the TAPS input
samples including the group. The latency is measured in input data intervals whether those are coming at
clock or lower rate, and in clock cycles:
Latency = (TAPS/M – 1) DATAI_VALID intervals + 9 clock cycles
EQ 11
When the input samples are coming at clock rate, EQ 11 simplifies:
Latency = (TAPS/M + 8) clock cycles
The latency also depends on how many hard MAC rows (columns) the filter implementation takes and a
part-dependent number of pipeline registers used to cross inter-row or column space. For convenience, the
core calculates the overall latency and prints it out during simulation. Look for the line “LATENCY = x
DATAI_VALID intervals + 8 CLK intervals”.
Any FIR filter convolves a series of data samples with a set of filter coefficients. Thus, the filter starts
generating valid results only after getting enough data samples and coefficients. Upon power-on or
swapping coefficient pages, CoreFIR holds the FIRO_VALID signal inactive until it receives TAPS data
samples.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
55
Coefficient Specification
The core enables specification of the FIR filter constant coefficients and constant coefficient sets as an
ASCII text file (* .txt). Create the coefficient file using a text editor. Figure 47 and Figure 48 show the file
formats for the multiple and single constant coefficient sets. N and m signify numbers of filter taps and
coefficient sets, respectively. Coefficient values must be entered as integer numbers. For a symmetric or
anti-symmetric filter, only half of the coefficients must be listed in the file (applies to the Fully Enumerated
type only).
coefficient_set_1
C(1)(0)
C(1)(1)
...
C(1)(N-1)
coefficient_set_2
C(2)(0)
C(2)(1)
...
C(2)(N-1)
...
coefficient_set_m
C(m)(0)
C(m)(1)
...
C(m)(N-1)
Figure 47 · Multiple Coefficient Sets File Format
coefficient_set_1
c(0)
c(1)
...
c(N-1)
Figure 48 Constant Coefficient File Format
The file format is as follows:
1.
The filter coefficients can be presented in decimal, hexadecimal, or binary formats. In decimal format
(radix-10) negative values are accepted; for example, –25. In hexadecimal and binary formats (radix-16,
radix-2), present negative values in two’s complement format; for example, 7-bit –25 = 0 x 67 = 110
0111.
2.
Only one coefficient value per line is permitted.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
57
Coefficient Specification
3.
An extra empty line must be placed after the last coefficient of the last set.
4.
The file must match the core parameters entered through the GUI:
• Coefficient bit width (COEF_WIDTH)
• Number of coefficient sets (COEF_SETS)
• Symmetry of the filter (COEF_SYMM) – applies to the Fully Enumerated type only
• Coefficient radix: decimal, hexadecimal, or binary
A few examples of the filter coefficient file are given in Figure 49, Figure 50, and Figure 54.
coefficient_set_1
5
6
10
25
63
-1
-11
-32
-63
Figure 49 · Coefficient File Example – 9 Taps, 7 Bits, Radix-10
Figure 49 shows a non-symmetric 9-tap 7-bit constant coefficient filter. Coefficients are entered using
decimal (Radix-10) entries.
coefficient_set_1
5
6
A
19
3F
7F
75
60
41
coefficient_set_1
0000101
0000110
0001010
0011001
0111111
1111111
1110101
1100000
1000001
Figure 50 · Coefficient File Examples – 9 Taps, 7 Bits, Radix-16, and Radix-2
Figure 50 shows the same set of constant coefficients in hexadecimal and binary formats. All coefficient files
shown in Figure 49 and Figure 50 will produce the same filter. The filter impulse response is shown in Figure
51.
If the COEF_SYMM core parameter is set to generate a symmetric or anti-symmetric filter, any of the
coefficient files of Figure 49 and Figure 50 can identify such filters. The impulse response examples of the
symmetric 17-tap filter and anti-symmetric 18-tap filter are depicted in Figure 52 and Figure 53, respectively.
This applies to the Fully Enumerated type only.
58
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Filter Latency
63
25
6 10
5
-1
-11
-32
-63
Figure 51 · Constant Coefficient Filter Impulse Response
63
63
25
25
5
10 6
6 10
-1
-11
-11
5
-1
-32
-32
-63
Figure 52 · Symmetric Constant Coefficient Filter Impulse Response (applies to the Fully Enumerated type only)
63
63
32
25
5
6 10
11
-1
1
-10 -6 -5
-11
-25
-32
-63
-63
Figure 53 · Anti-Symmetric Constant Coefficient Filter Impulse Response (applies to the Fully Enumerated type only)
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
59
Coefficient Specification
Figure 54 presents an example of a 2-set, 9-tap, 7-bit FIR filter coefficient file.
The core verifies whether the coefficient file is valid and issues detailed warnings if it is not. The entered
coefficient and validation warnings on the Coefficients page of the core user interface can be viewed. The
page also allows correction of the entry.
coefficient_set_1
5
6
10
25
63
-1
-11
-32
-63
coefficient_set_2
21
12
-10
-25
63
-11
-64
-32
18
Figure 54 Coefficient File Example - 2 Sets, 9 Taps, 7 Bits, Radix-10
60
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Tool Flows
License
CoreFIR requires an RTL license to be used and instantiated. Complete source code and a testbench are
provided for the core.
SmartDesign
CoreFIR is available for download to the Libero SoC IP Catalog through the web repository. Once it is listed
on the catalog, the core can be instantiated using SmartDesign flow. The core can be configured using the
configuration GUI within SmartDesign. An example of the GUI for the SmartFusion2 family is shown in
Figure 55.
Figure 55 · Configuring CoreFIR
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
61
Tool Flows
For information on using SmartDesign to configure, connect and generate cores, refer to the Libero SoC
Online Help.
Note: A full path to a Libero project that instantiates CoreFIR including the project name must not contain
spaces.
Simulation Flows
The User Testbench for CoreFIR is included in the release.
To run simulations, select the User Testbench flow within SmartDesign. The User Testbench is selected
through the Core Configuration GUI.
When SmartDesign generates the core, it will install the user testbench files.
To run the user testbench, set the design root to the CoreFIR instantiation in the Libero design hierarchy
pane and run Pre-Synthesis design simulation.
Note: When simulating the VHDL version of the core you might want to get rid of the IEEE.NUMERIC_STD
library warnings. To do so add the following two lines to the automatically generated run.do file:
• set NumericStdNoWarnings 1
• set StdArithNoWarnings 1
User Testbench
CoreFIR comes with a user testbench, which can be invoked using the core user interface. Figure 56 depicts
the testbench block diagram. The golden behavioral FIR filter directly implements the appropriate filter
equation for a selected filter type. Both the golden behavioral filter and CoreFIR are configured identically
and receive the same test signal. The testbench compares the output signals of the Golden filter and the
UUT.
CoreFIR
User
Configuration
Test Data
Generator
Compare
Golden
Behavioral
FIR Filter
Figure 56 · CoreFIR User Testbench
The testbench provides examples of how to use generated FIR filter. The testbench can be modified as
needed.
Fully Enumerated User Testbench
The testbench for the Fully Enumerated filter in Reloadable coefficient mode uses the constant coefficient
file to configure the golden behavioral Filter and simulate Reloadable coefficients. To run the user testbench
in Reloadable mode, follow the steps listed below.
62
1.
Enter the desired core configuration. Set Constant Coefficient type.
2.
Create and load constant coefficient file matching the core configuration.
3.
Generate design.
4.
Set Reloadable Coefficient type, generate design, and run simulation.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
Synthesis in Libero SoC
Synthesis in Libero SoC
Having set the design root appropriately, run synthesis tool from the Libero SoC Design Flow pane. Set
Synplify to use the Verilog 2001 standard if Verilog is being used.
Place-and-Route in Libero SoC
After the design has been synthesized, run Compile and then Place-and-Route tools. CoreFIR requires no
special place-and-route settings.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
63
List of Changes
The following table shows important changes made in this document for each revision.
Date
Change
Page
March 2015
Updated the document for v8.6.
N/A
January 2014
Updated the document for v8.5.
N/A
May 2013
Updated Supported Families section (SAR 47945).
March 2013
6
Updated Table 12, Table 13, Table 18, Table 20, and Table 22 (SAR 47945).
N/A
Updated Data Path Bit Width section (SAR 47945)
53
Updated the document for v8.3.
N/A
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
65
Product Support
Microsemi SoC Products Group backs its products with various support services, including Customer
Service, Customer Technical Support Center, a website, electronic mail, and worldwide sales offices. This
appendix contains information about contacting Microsemi SoC Products Group and using these support
services.
Customer Service
Contact Customer Service for non-technical product support, such as product pricing, product upgrades,
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From North America, call 800.262.1060
From the rest of the world, call 650.318.4460
Fax, from anywhere in the world 650. 318.8044
Customer Technical Support Center
Microsemi SoC Products Group staffs its Customer Technical Support Center with highly skilled engineers
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Technical Support
For Microsemi SoC Products
support/fpga-soc-support.
Support,
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http://www.microsemi.com/products/fpga-soc/design-
Website
You can browse a variety of technical and non-technical information on the Microsemi SoC Products Group
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Contacting the Customer Technical Support Center
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Email
You can communicate your technical questions to our email address and receive answers back by email,
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The technical support email address is [email protected]
My Cases
Microsemi SoC Products Group customers may submit and track technical cases online by going to My
Cases.
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
67
Product Support
Outside the U.S.
Customers needing assistance outside the US time zones can either contact technical support via email
([email protected]) or contact a local sales office. Sales office listings can be found at
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ITAR Technical Support
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68
CoreFIR v8.6 Handbook
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