Designing Practical High Performance Class D Audio Amplifier

Designing Practical High Performance
Class D Audio Amplifier
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Contents
Chapter 1
•
Class D Amplifier Introduction
Theory of class D operation, Points of design
Chapter 2
•
The latest Digital Audio MOSFET,
DirectFET® MOSFET
Importance of layout and packaging
Optimized MOSFET for no-heat sinking
Chapter 3
•
Designing Dead-time and Overload
Protection with Digital Audio Gate
Driver IC
Designing with built-in dead-time generation
How to design OCP. Tj estimation.
Chapter 4
•
Design Example
No-heat sink 100W x 6ch compact Class D amplifier
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Chapter 1 Class D Audio Overview
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Review: Traditional Class AB Amplifier
• Class AB amplifier uses
linear regulating transistors
to modulate output voltage.
Feed back
+Vcc
+
-
Error amp
• A loss in the regulating
transistor in Class AB
amplifier is proportional to
the product of the voltage
across the device and the
current flowing through it.
Bias
+
-Vcc
η = 30% at temp rise test condition.
PC = VCE ⋅ I C
Î Independent of device
parameter
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Class D Amplifier
Feed back
Triangle
+VCC
Nch
Level Shift
+
-
COMP
Dead Time
Nch
Error Amp
+
-VCC
•Class D amplifier employs MOSFETs which are either
ON or OFF state. Therefore ideally 100% efficiency can
be achieved.
•PWM technique is used to express analog audio signals
with ON or OFF states in output devices.
•A loss in the switching device caused by 1)finite
transition speed, 2)ON state resistance and 3)gate
charge. P
= Psw + Pcond + Pgd
TOTAL
Î dependent of device parameter Î can be improved further!
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Basic PWM Operation
The output signal of comparator
goes high when the sine wave is
higher than the sawtooth.
COMP
Class D
switching stage
LPF
Using fPWM=400kHz to modulate 25kHz sinusoidal waveform
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Major Causes of Imperfection
Perturbation
Zo
Bus Pumping
Pulse width error
Quantization error
Audio source
+VCC
Gate Driver
PWM
-VCC
Dead time
Delay time
An ideal Class D amplifying
stage has no distortion and no
noise generation in the audible
band, along with providing
100% efficiency. However, as
shown, practical Class D
amplifiers have imperfections
that generate distortions and
noise.
Nonlinear inductance /
Capacitance
DC Resistance
Finite Rds(on)
Vth and Qg
Body diode recovery
Stray inductances
RDS(ON)
ON delay
OFF delay
0.01% of non-linearity
corresponds to
10mV out of 100V DC bus
Finite dV/dt
or 0.25ns out of 400kHz.
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Three Difficulties in Class D Design
•
PCB Layout
•
Dead-time Generation
Direct-FET, Half-bridge MOSFET
can eliminate influences from stray
inductances.
Integrated Gate Driver IC
can make things easier
•
Overload Protection
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Chapter 2 DIGITAL AUDIO MOSFET
The right power switch for Class-D audio amplifiers
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Digital Audio MOSFET introduction
• Digital Audio MOSFET is specifically designed for
Class-D audio amplifier applications
• Key parameters such as RDS(on), Qg, and Qrr are
optimised for maximizing efficiency, THD and EMI
amplifier performance
• Low internal RG distribution guaranteed for better
dead time control
• New and innovative packages offer greater
flexibility and performance
• These features make IR Digital Audio MOSFETs the
right power switches for Class-D audio amplifiers!!
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IRF6665 DirectFET®
The best MOSFET for Mid-Power
Class-D amplifier applications
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IRF6665 Digital Audio MOSFET
• IRF6665 Digital Audio MOSFET combines the latest
IR medium voltage trench silicon with the advanced
DirectFET® package
• Key parameters, such as RDS(on), Qg, Qsw, and Qrr are
optimized for mid-power Class-D audio amplifier
applications
• IRF6665, has all the characteristics to be the best
power switch for mid-power amplifiers!!
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DirectFET® device technology
Multiple gold
wirebonds
SO-8
copper drain
leads
DirectFET®
passivated die
die attach
copper ‘drain’
material
clip
gate
connection
copper
source leads
• Drain/source
leads
and
wirebonds contribute to both
package
resistance
and
inductance
• Majority of heat transferred
through leads to PCB board
copper track
on board
source
connection
• Remove wirebonds from package
and replace with large area solder
contacts
• Reduced package inductance and
resistance
• Copper can enables dual sided
cooling
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®
DirectFET : low inductance package for audio
• Lower inductance at frequency than SO-8, D-Pak, MLP and D-Pak
• TO-220 inductance package is ~ 12nH
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Advantages of DirectFET®: Reduce ringing
•
•
•
Inductance related ringing reduced compared to SO-8
Example below for DirectFET® and SO-8 switching 30A at 500kHz
Silicon of the near identical active area, voltage and generation
used in both packages
DirectFET® waveform
SO-8 waveform
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IRF6665 for class-D audio applications
Key Parameters
Parameter
Min
Typ
V(BR)DSS
100
RDS(ON) @ VGS = 10V
53
Qg
8.4
Qgd
2.8
Qsw
3.4
RG (int)
1.9
VGS(TH)
3
-
•
Max
62
13.0
2.9
5
Units
V
mOhms
nC
nC
nC
Ohms
V
Refer to IRF6665 datasheet for further details
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IRF6665 DirectFET® Evaluation Board
Spec:
Power Supply ±35.0V
Output Power 150W+150W, 4Ω
MOSFET
Gate Driver
IRF6665
IR2011S
DirectFET® IRF6665
IR2011S
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Efficiency Data
Test Conditions: Half-Bridge Configuration, Vbus = +/- 35V, fswitching = 395kHz,
finput = 1kHz, Rload = 4 and 8 Ohms
Rload = 8Ω
Rload = 4Ω
Rload (Ω)
Efficiency @ 1%THD
4
94.8
8
96.0
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THD+N Data
Test Conditions: Half-Bridge Configuration, Vbus = +/- 35V, fswitching = 395KHz,
finput = 1KHz, Rload = 4 and 8 Ohms
Rload (Ω) THD + N @ 1/8 Pout
4
0.0057
8
0.0031
Rload = 8Ω
Rload = 4Ω
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•
•
VDS Switching Waveforms
DirectFET® package shows cleanest and fastest (approx. three times faster)
switching waveforms than amplifier with TO-220 package.
Same IRF6665 MOSFET die is tested in both packages
DirectFET®
Package
Blue : VGS
Pink : VDS
TO-220
package
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EMI Data @ 1/8 Pout Condition (12.5W)
•
•
•
•
•
DirectFET® and TO-220 with the same IRF6665 silicon die
MosFET devices with no heatsink
No shielded room
Over 2MHz, DirectFET® amplifier shows approximately 9dB lower noise
than TO-220 amplifier
Under 2MHz, background noise is dominant
DirectFET®
Frequency (MHz)
TO-220
Frequency (MHz)
CISPR13
CISPR13
Quasi-Peak Limits
Quasi-Peak Limits
Average Limits
Average Limits
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Thermal Performance
No Heatsink
Typical Case Scenario
After 10 minutes IRF6665 case
temperature = 80.1°C @ 100W/8Ω
without heatsink (ΔTc = 55.1°C)
120
C a s e T e m p e ra tu re (°C )
Test Conditions:
100W/8Ω, 1% THD, +/- 45Vbus,
fsw=400KHz, TAMBIENT ~ 25°C
Worst Case Scenario
Amplifier specs: 100W/8Ω
100
80
full power
Estimated Plosses=1.6W
60
40
20
1/8 power
Estimated Plosses=0.6W
0 T
AMBIENT ~ 20 °C
0
100
200
300
400
500
Time (s)
Full Power: TC=104°C @ 5min (ΔTC=83°C)
1/8 Power: TC=58°C @ 5min (ΔTC=39°C)
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Assembling IRF6665 in audio Class-D circuits
•
•
•
Stencil on solder paste
Pick and place devices onto pads
Re-flow devices
If additional heatsink is needed for higher power,
•
•
•
•
•
Place thermal interface material over devices
Place heatsink over device/thermal interface stack
Secure heatsink in place with screws
PCM burned in to wet out interface between can and heatsink
Screw torques reset when assembly has cooled
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Thermal Performance
with Heatsink
• Individual DirectFET® MOSFET audio reference boards
assembled with 3 different phase change materials
• Heatsink applied to assembly
– Fischer SK04, 3.8”X0.6”, 0.6” extrusion, black anodised, 3°CW-1
• Constant power applied to device junctions to simulate
100W amplifier operation:
– Normal operation conditions (1/8 full output power) into 4Ω and 8Ω
– Full output power into 4Ω and 8Ω
• Case temperature was monitored before and during
application of power to the junctions with
thermocouples applied between can and heatsink
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ΔTCASE versus time
100
100W into 4Ω
Power/device* = 2.4W
Temperature difference (°C)
90
80
70
100W into 8Ω
Power/device* = 1.6W
60
50
40
30
12.5W into 4Ω & 8Ω
(1/8 of 100W)
Power/device* = 0.6W
20
No significant difference between
the PCM materials used
10
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
Time (s)
Amplifier Conditions
Plosses*
per
device
Temperature rise (°C) after 5 min
Material A
0.6
22.1
-
Material C
12.5W (1/8) into 4 & 8Ω
-
Material B
24.8
23.4
100W into 8Ω
1.6
52.7
58.2
55.1
2.4
77.1
100W into 4Ω
(*) Estimated Plosses @ worst case scenario
82.8
76.4
-
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Half-Bridge Full-Pak
Another Innovative Package for Class D Audio
Amplifier Application
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Half-Bridge Full-Pak
D1
G1
D2/S1
G2
S2
⇒
TO-220 Full-Pak
5 PIN
• 55V, 100V, 150V and 200V devices to be released on Q3 ‘06
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
55V: IRFI4024H-117
100V: IRFI4212H-117
150V: IRFI4019H-117
200V: IRFI4020H-117
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Half-Bridge Full-Pak Features
•
•
•
•
•
Integrated Half-Bridge Package
Reduces the part count by half
Reduced package inductance improves EMI performance
Facilitates better PCB layout
Enables single layer PCB layout in combination with
IR2011S
• Low RG(int) distribution for better dead time control
• Lead-Free package
Reduce devices number,
stray inductance and
facilitates layout and
assembly
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IRFI4024H-117
+ IR2011S
Disturbance Power
Half-Bridge Full-Pak vs. TO-220 (single die)
•
Half-Bridge Full-Pak amplifier shows better performance than TO-220 amplifier.
Approximately 10dB lower disturbance power level.
180VAC @ 50Hz, Speaker Output
Half-Bridge Full-Pak
TO-220
Same MOSFET silicon die in both
packages
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Summary
• DirectFET® devices are ideal candidates for use in ClassD audio amplifier applications
• Evaluations of IRF6665 in Class-D audio amplifier
demonstrated improved efficiency, THD, and EMI
• Utilising DirectFET® technology reduces EMI compared
to TO-220 packages
• Thermal evaluations demonstrated that IRF6665 can
deliver up to 100W per channel into 8Ω with no heatsink
• Half-Bridge Full-Pak features make this device an
excellent option for Class-D audio amplifier applications
— Integrated half-bridge package reduces the part count by half
— Low package inductance improves EMI performance
• Digital Audio MOSFET is the right switch for Class-D
audio amplifiers!!
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Conclusion 1
• With IR’s DirectFET® technology, Class D
amplifier reaches the point where 100W amplifier
can be built without heat sink
• Optimum package provides the best audio
performance along with minimum EMI emissions
• Optimum silicon design provides the best
efficiency over 95%
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Chapter 3 DIGITAL AUDIO Gate Driver
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Protected DIGITAL AUDIO Gate Driver IC
IRS20124
•Programmable Discrete Deadtime (PAT.Pending)
•Programmable Bi-directional
Over Current Sensing
(PAT.Pending)
VSUPPLY 200V max
IO +/-1.0A / 1.2A
Selectable Dead-time 15/25/35/45nS
Prop Delay time
70ns
•200V high voltage ratings to deliver up to
1000W output power in Class D audio
amplifier applications
•Simplifies design due to integrated deadtime generation and bi-directional over
current sensing
•Optimized and compensated preset deadtime selections for improved THD
performances over temperature and noise
•Shutdown function to protect devices from
overloaded conditions
14pin SOIC
•Operates up to 1MHz
•3.3V/5V logic compatible input
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VB
OCSET1
High
Voltage
Level
Shifter
OCSET2
UVLO
UV
S
Q
R
HO
OC
Current
Sensing
DT/SD
VS
High Side Floating Well
Vcc
Comparator
UVLO
IN
Dead-time
Gen
Shutdown
Logic
Matching
Delay
LO
COM
IRS20124
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Discrete Dead-time
IRS20124
The discrete dead-time
method sets a dead-time by
selecting one of the preset
values from outside of the
IC. Comparing with previous
program method, the
discrete dead-time can
provide a precise dead-time
insertion, regardless of noise
injection in DT pin. Thus, the
dead-time setting value can
be set tighter, which is highly
beneficial for the THD
performance in Class D
applications.
>0.5mA
Vcc
R1
DT/SD
R2
COM
Operation Mode
15nS
25nS
35nS
45nS
Shutdown
0.23xVcc 0.36xVcc 0.57xVcc 0.89xVcc Vcc
Noise injection
VDT
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IRS20124 THD+N Performance
VCC: ±35.0V
Gate Driver: IRS20124
MOSFET: IRFB4212
fPWM = 400kHz
Note that low THD+N
characteristic shows
quiet noise floor due to
clean and stable
switching timings.
Dead-time Settings:
DT1 = 15ns
DT2 = 25ns
DT3 = 35ns
DT4 = 45ns
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Overload Protection in Class AB
B+
Ov erload
X1
Equivalent circuit
TIP3055
Q1
2.2k
220m
R1
220m
R2
TIP2955
Q2
220m
R6
Q2N3904
Q3
R3
10k
R4
RLOAD
D1
D1N4148
1K
R5
Overload
2.2k
R7
Q2N3904
Q4
D2
D1N4148
RLOAD
8
R8
10k
R9
B-
When a Class AB amplifier has a shorted load,
the load current can ramp up rapidly. The voltage
across the device is fixed to the bus voltage.
ÎThe loss in the device is enormous amount
Î The power devices can not be protected
with over current detection method
Therefore an impedance bridge has been
commonly used, which has following drawback;
• Reactive components in the load impedance,
which is common in realistic loudspeakers,
causes false protection
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Overload Protection in Class D
Load
Over Current Detection
When a Class D amplifier has a shorted load,
there still is a LPF inductor in between the load
and the amplifier. Therefore, the load current
ramps up at a rate of Vo/L.
The loss in the device is determined by the RDS(ON)
and the load current.
ÎOver current detection works very good in
Class D
Benefits from over current detection;
• Trip level is independent of phase shift in the
load current
• The amplifier can sustain any instantaneous
low load impedance until the load current
reaches the trip level
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Load
Load
Load
Why Bi-Directional CS?
Inductor Current
Load current flows through the low-side MOSFET
unless the high duty cycle reaches 100%, where no
conduction period exists in the low-side MOSFET.
Since 100% duty cycle is not allowed due to highside bootstrap power supply operation, the amount
of current sensed from the low side MOSFET covers
full cycle of an audio signal.
High Side ON
Low Side ON
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Benefits of Bi-Directional CS
Conventional Current Sensing
More than just cost savings…
Bi-directional current sensing
provides following technical
benefits.
100n
C2
50
V2
IRF530
Q1
22u
L1
Q4
IRF530
•Minimum stray inductance in power stage
current path due to no additional current
sensing components in the path
•No influences in measured current from gate
charge current and reverse recovery charge
current
•Positive Temp/Co in RDS(ON) reduces the trip
level at high junction temperature in real time
Shunt
Resistors
With IRS20124
5
V1
470n
C1
W=1u
L=1u
Q3
W=1u
L=1u
Q2
8
R2
50
V3
20m
R1
L2
50n
Shunt Resistor
100n
C3
•Adding a shunt resistor causes
ringing by adding stray inductances.
•The current includes gate
charge/discharge current and
reverse recovery charge current.
•Imbalance of effective RDS(ON) in
high and low sides causes distortion.
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What happens in the Short Circuit Event?
5
V1
Vo
V
di
= O
dt
L
L
Zo
100m
18u
R1
L1
C
0.47u
C1
RL
8
R2
Short
VO
ZO
Class D
amplifier
ITRIP
5
V1
100m
18u
R1
L1
IL
0
With
Shutdown
IL
Shutdown
Short Circuit
Now the Class D amplifier is driving an inductor in
the LPF. Note that the audio frequency
components induce quite large volt-second
feeding into the inductor, causing excessive
inductor current in the event of short circuit load.
When short circuit occurs, the load current starts to
ramp up quickly with a gradual rate of Vo/L. Since an
inductor is in between the amplifier and the load,
short current may not exceed the trip level.
Without
Shutdown
Inductor
discharge
A junction temperature at the end of the protection
event can be estimated by using a thermal transient
model in IR’s Digital Audio MOSFET to ensure the
functionality.
After the shutdown, the energy stored in the inductor
discharges to the power supply, only the waveform
of the current contributes the loss in the MOSFET.
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How to Design with OC Function
IRS20124
IRS20124
PWM input
Gate Driver
PWM input
Gate Driver
SD
Vs Sensing
O
C
SD
Ext. Latch
OC
Vs Sensing
With the OC pin connected to DT/SD pin, the output
signal out of OC at the event of over current will be
removed by its output itself when the IRS20124 goes
into shutdown mode. This could cause a hiccup in the
protection sequence.
One simple way to assure shutdown upon an over
current detection is to attach a latch circuitry onto the
OC pin, as shown.
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IRS20124 OC Functionality
In Negative Half Cycle
In Positive Half Cycle
1kHz, 20W
OC pin
Inductor
discharge
Switching node
Inductor current
The bi-directional current sensing can capture
over current conditions at either positive or
negative current direction. In this
demonstration, the threshold for Vs is set to be
±1V by setting OCSET1=1V and OCSET2=3V,
which can be translated into 15A trip level with
70mΩ RDS(ON) .
Short circuit occurred
Shutdown by OC
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Load
IRS20124 OC Functionality - Vs Waveform
Vs
These are close up shots of overload protection with magnified waveform of Vs. At the instance
voltage at Vs reaches trip level, which is ±1V in this setting, OC pin shuts down the switching and
the MOSFET is protected.
Red: Vs node, 1V/div
Red: Vs node, 1V/div
Green: OC pin w/10kΩ pull-up, 5V/div
Green: OC pin w/10kΩ pull-up, 5V/div
10µS/div
10µS/div
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Tj Estimation in Short Circuit Event
All the DIGITAL AUDIO MOSFET have thermal
equivalent circuit on the datasheet for transient
thermal analysis. The junction temperature of the
MOSFET at the end of the over current protection
event can be estimated using this model along with
the waveform from the bench evaluations.
Transient Thermal Impedance
(Excerpt from IRF6665 Datasheet)
current
V(n1)*V(n2)
ARB2
N1 OUT
N2
Duty
V3
0.85
V1
V(n1)*(V(n2)*0.007692+0.808)
ARB1
Shutdown
N1 OUT
N2
Duty
Rds
0.051
V2
V(n1)*V(n2)
ARB3
N1 OUT
N2
Rds
Vs
LO
Vds
N2
N1
Id(av e)
dI/dt
Peak current
IL
Tj
Tj
Duration
Pd
667.6m
1.0462
1.56111
29.2822
25.455
R1
R2
R3
R6
R7
98.9u IC=25 0.856m IC=25
C1
C2
Commuted to the
other side
ARB4
(-1)*V(n1)*V(n1)*V(n2)
2.81m IC=25 23.4m IC=25 1.257 IC=25
C3
C5
C6
An Example of Tj Simulation using a Circuit Simulator
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Tj Estimation Simulation Result
3
2.5
2
TJ=50ºC
V
ID=43A
45
VDS
1.5
1
0.5
40
0
35
Tj
-0.5
0
20
40
60
80
Time/µSecs
25
100
20µSecs/div
20
64mΩ
64
ID
15
62
10
60
5
58
0
10
Time/µSecs
20
30
40
50
100uS
60
70
80
90
10µSecs/div
mV
V
30
RDS(ON)
56
54
52
50
51mΩ
48
0
Time/µSecs
20
40
60
80
100
20µSecs/div
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Chapter 4 Design Example
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100W x 6 Channels Design
Specs:
Supply Voltage: ±35V
Output Power: 6ch x 100W into 8 ohm
Protections: OCP, DC, OTP, OVP
IR devices: IRS20124, IRF6665
Dimensions: 295mm x 95mm x 40mm(H)
CH-2 CH-3
100W+100W MODULE
CH-4 CH-5
100W+100W MODULE
CH-6
100W+100W MODULE
POWER SUPPLY
PROTECTION
CH-1
Single layer board
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Design: 100W+100W Module
IRS20124
•
•
•
•
IR’s latest technology allows
continuous 100W+100W audio
outputs with no heat sink attached.
All the critical current paths are
included in the module so that a single
layer PC board can be used.
All the tricky functions, such as deadtime generation and over current
protection, are included inside the
module.
Over temperature protection
Digital Audio Direct-FET IRF6665 and
Digital Audio gate driver IRS20124
placed back to back are a perfect
combination to obtain minimal stray
inductances.
65mm
30mm
•
IRF6665
Direct-FET
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Design Test Results
Switching Waveforms (10nS/div, 20V/div)
THD+N Performance, ±35.0V, 4 ohm load
120W @THD=1%
170W @THD=10%
fSW=430kHz
[email protected]
Noise=62uVrms (IHF-A)
S/N=110dB
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Conclusion 2
By using IR’s Digital Audio Gate Drivers and MOSFETs,
• Class D audio amplifier design is no longer a
do-it-by-feel trial and error process.
• Class D amplifier is now entering a new age of
do-it-yourself design with superior efficiency,
performance and ruggedness.
Visit IR’s Audio Website for more information:
http://www.irf.com/product-info/audio/
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