Electron Multipliers - Hamamatsu Photonics

PRODUCT LINE-UP
Electron multipliers are mainly used as positive/negative ion detectors. They are also useful for detecting and measuring vacuum
UV rays and soft X-rays. Hamamatsu electron multipliers have a high gain (multiplication factor) yet low dark current, allowing
operation in photon counting mode to detect and measure extremely small incoming particles and their energy. This means our
Hamamatsu electron multipliers are ideal for electron spectroscopy and vacuum UV spectroscopy such as ESCA (electron
spectroscopy for chemical analysis) and Auger electron spectroscopy as well as mass spectroscopy and field-ion microscopy.
Dynode
Type No.
R4146-10
R6985-80
R8811
R2362
R5150-10
R474
R515
R596
R595
Number
of
stages
Structure
Linear-focused
Linear-focused
Circular-cage
Coarse mesh
Box-and-line
Box-and-grid
Box-and-grid
Box-and-grid
Box-and-grid
Characteristics
Material
18
19
13
23
17
16
16
16
20
Cu-BeO
Al2O3
Al2O3
Cu-BeO
Cu-BeO
Cu-BeO
Cu-BeO
Cu-BeO
Cu-BeO
Input
aperture
size
(mm)
8×1
11
3
20
8
8×6
8×6
12 × 10
12 × 10
Supply
voltage
Gain
Typ.
(V)
-1800
-1900
-1500
-2700
-2000
-2400
-2400
-2400
-3000
1 × 107
1 × 106
1 × 105
1 × 106
5 × 106
1 × 106
1 × 106
1 × 106
4 × 107
Rise
time
Dark
current
Typ.
(ns)
3.5
4.5
1.6
3.5
1.7
9.3
9.3
10
12
Typ.
(pA)
1
1
1
5
5
5
5
5
5
Anode to
Detection all other
Total
ion
resistance polarity electrode
capacitance
(pF)
(MΩ)
21
4.0
Positive
17.15 Positive/negative 2
1.8
13
Positive
0.8
23
Positive
23
Positive
19.5
4.0
16 1
Positive
5.0
Positive
4.0
16 1
Positive
9.0
16
Positive
9.0
20
1One megohm resistor is connected between Dynode 1 and Dynode 2.
2Supply a negative potential to the conversion dynode when detecting positive ions. Supply a positive potential when detecting negative ions.
12.0 ± 0.2
19.0 ± 0.2
6.0 ± 0.2
35.0 ± 0.5
1.1 ± 0.1
Mounting plate potential
Front plate: -HV
Rear plate: GND
■Features
Conversion dynode
INPUT APERTURE (8 × 1)
3.0 ± 0.1
■Features
Thin configuration
Can be stacked side-by-side
R6985-80
21.0 ± 0.2
58 ± 1
11.0 ± 0.2
R4146-10
INPUT APERTURE
Mounting plate potential
Rear plate: GND
2- 2.2
FRONT PLATE
CONVERSION DYNODE
FRONT PLATE
ELECTRON
MULTIPLYING
SECTION
93 ± 1
(Unit: mm)
(Unit: mm)
OUTPUT PIN
TPMHA0588EB
R8811
2- 3.1
TPMHA0587EB
R2362
19.5 ± 0.5
50 ± 1
44.0 ± 0.5
Mounting plate potential
Front plate: -HV
20.0 ± 0.2
3 ± 0.2
■Features
Wide detection area
INPUT APERTURE
10
10
20.0 ± 0.5
■Features
Small, lightweight
Includes Faraday cup
Mounting plate potential
Front plate (case): GND
CONVERSION
DYNODE PIN
50.0 ± 0.5
2- 2.2
GND PIN
20.0 ± 0.5
30.0 ± 0.5
REAR PLATE
19.0 ± 0.2
REAR PLATE
HV PIN
11.0 ± 0.2
12.0 ± 0.2
2- 1
22.0 ± 0.5
12 ± 1
15 ± 1
20.0 ± 0.5
1
2- 1
OUTPUT PIN
30.0 ± 0.5
71.8 ± 1.0
+0
56.9 - 0.2
RESISTORS
2- 3.2
INPUT
APERTURE
FRONT PLATE
60 MAX.
20.0 ± 0.5
FRONT PLATE
RESISTORS
OUTPUT
LEAD
HV LEAD
3- 1.5
REAR PLATE
30 ± 1
GND PIN
20.0 ± 0.5
OUTPUT PIN
HV PIN
(Unit: mm)
(Unit: mm)
FARADAY CUP LEAD
TPMHA0608EA
2
TPMHA0609EA
Electron multipliers listed in this catalog are standard products. We
welcome requests for custom products. Please contact us with your needs.
●Gain characteristics
108
TPMHB0929EA
Maximum ratings
4 Anode
Anode
to last Conversion Faraday Average Bake-out Operating
to
first
Operating
anode temperature vacuum
cup
dynode voltage
dynode
gain
voltage current
level
1×10-4 Pa
voltage voltage
(V)
(V)
(kV)
(V)
(µA)
(°C)
(Pa)
1 × 108
2500
350
—
—
10
350
1 × 10-2
3000
150
±10 2
—
10
—3
1 × 108
1 × 10-2
2000
150
10
5 × 106
—
-200
350
1 × 10-2
8
4000
350
10
—
—
350
1 × 10
1 × 10-2
8
3500
350
—
—
10
350
1 × 10
1 × 10-2
4000
350
—
-100
10
350
1 × 108
1 × 10-2
4000
350
10
—
-100
350
1 × 108
1 × 10-2
4000
400
—
10
—
350
1 × 108
1 × 10-2
5000
400
—
—
10
350
1 × 108
1 × 10-2
107
4
106
GAIN
105
104
102
101
1000
3Do not perform baking on the R6985-80.
4Use a supply voltage that does not cause the operating gain to exceed its maximum rating.
2- 3.2
10.0 ± 0.5
3- 1.2
12.0 ± 0.5
1
OUTPUT PIN
OUTPUT PIN
REAR PLATE
3- 0.3
21.0 ± 0.5
DY2
2- 3.2
34.0 ± 0.5
39 MAX.
(Unit: mm)
TPMHA0611EA
R596
HV (DY1)
(Unit: mm)
TPMHA0612EA
R595
6.5
Mounting plate potential
Front plate: -HV
Rear plate: GND
2- 4.2
6.5
RESISTORS
7- 1.5
10.0 ± 0.5
10.0 ± 0.5
RESISTORS
1
REAR PLATE
7- 1.5
GND PIN
GND PIN
50 ± 1
44.0 ± 0.5
30.0 ± 0.5
INPUT APERTURE
FRONT PLATE
150 MAX.
140 MAX.
131 ± 2
FRONT PLATE
130 MAX.
120 MAX.
111 ± 2
2- 4.2
10.0 ± 0.2
42.0 ± 0.5
12.0 ± 0.2
■Features
High gain
Wide detection area
INPUT APERTURE
42.0 ± 0.5
12.0 ± 0.2
10.0 ± 0.2
OUTPUT PIN
3- 3.5
HV PIN (DY1)
(Unit: mm)
TPMHA0613EA
50 ± 1
44.0 ± 0.5
30.0 ± 0.5
11.0 ± 0.5
FRONT PLATE
SEMIFLEXIBLE
LEAD
2- 1
OUTPUT
(Unit: mm)
4
RESISTORS
HV PIN
TPMHA0610EA
Mounting plate potential
Front plate: -HV
Rear plate: GND
8.0 ± 0.2
2- 3.2
HV PIN (DY1)
GND PIN
20.0 ± 0.5 INPUT
APERTURE
6.0 ± 0.2
26.0 ± 0.5
Mounting plate
potential
Front plate: -HV
Rear plate: GND
DY2 PIN
■Features
Wide detection area
4000
79 ± 2
4
RESISTORS
90 MAX.
66.0 ± 0.5
INPUT
APERTURE
FRONT PLATE
HAMAMATSU
73 MAX.
SHIELD CASE
6.0 ± 0.2
■Features
First dynode usable
as Faraday cup
82 MAX.
Mounting plate
potential
Front plate: -HV
INPUT APERTURE
20.0 ± 0.5
LEAD LENGTH 90 MIN.
Mounting plate
potential
Shield case: GND
8.0 ± 0.2
8.0 ± 0.2
17.0 ± 0.5
■Features
First dynode usable
as Faraday cup
34.0 ± 0.5
3000
R515
70 ± 2
■Features
Easy handling
(contained in a case)
2000
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
R474
26.0 ± 0.5
R5150-10
R4146-10
R6985-80
R8811
R2362
R5150-10
R474, R515, R596
R595
103
1
REAR PLATE
OUTPUT PIN
3- 3.5
HV PIN (DY1)
(Unit: mm)
TPMHA0614EA
3
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATING PRINCIPLE
An electron multiplier mainly consists of a input aperture, an
electron multiplying section (dynode section), an anode, and
voltage-divider resistors.
Electron multipliers operate in a vacuum and guide the particles
or rays (positive/negative ions, vacuum UV rays, soft X-rays,
etc.) so as to enter the first dynode. The first dynode is excited
by such particles or rays and emits secondary electrons from its
surface. These electrons are multiplied in cascade by the
second and following dynodes and a cluster of secondary
electrons finally reaches the anode and is output as a signal.
ELECTRON MULTIPLYING SECTION
Electron multipliers operate with a high S/N ratio since they have low
noise and high gain. This low noise and high gain is achieved by an
electron multiplying section made up of 13 to 23 stages of electrodes
called dynodes. Before using an electron multiplier, it is first exposed
to air once and then installed in equipment. The dynode therefore
uses materials that exhibit stable characteristics and less
deterioration even when exposed to air. Hamamatsu electron
multipliers are designed and produced based on our advanced
technology for photomultiplier tubes and so have high performance.
The dynode structures in the electron multiplying section are
described below.
1) Box-and-grid type
This type consists of a train of quarter cylindrical dynodes and
offers good electron collection efficiency and excellent
uniformity. This type is likely to resist voltage breakdown even
4) Box-and-line type
The structure of this type consists of a
combination of box-and-grid and
linear-focus dynodes. This type offers
better time response than the boxand-grid type and higher ion collection
efficiency than the linear-focused type.
TPMHC0256EA
5) Coarse mesh type
This type has a structure of wire
dynodes with a triangle cross section
stacked in the form of a mesh. This
structure ensures excellent linearity
and is less affected by magnetic fields.
Compared to other dynode structures
this type makes it easier to design a
detector with a wider effective area.
DYNODE 17
TPMHC0254EA
SENSITIVITY RATIO
ANODE: GND
DYNODE 18
2) Circular-cage type
The circular-cage type features a compact design and fast time response.
Sample: Per fluore tri-buthyl amine
TPMHB0934EA
Sensitivity of electron multiplier with conversion dynode
Sensitivity ratio =
Sensitivity of electron multiplier
ION
DYNODE 2
TPMHC0257EA
The acceleration of ions differs according to their mass. The
speed at which ions enter the first dynode affects the secondary
electron emission efficiency, so the higher the speed, the better
the efficiency. When detecting ions with a large mass (for
example, polymer compounds), the ions must be accelerated by
a high potential to obtain a speed great enough to maintain a
sufficient secondary electron emission efficiency. Conversion
dynodes (CD) are usually used to give a high potential to such
ions with a large mass.
4
DYNODE 3
1 mm
CONVERSION DYNODE (CD)
GND
DYNODE 1: -HV
ION
3
2
1
GND
0
150
FARADAY CUP
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
MASS/CHARGE RATIO (m/z)
SENSITIVITY
TPMHC0255EA
3) Linear-focused type
The linear-focused type exhibits fast
time response and has a thin
configuration that is easy to design
and use.
TPMHC0265EA
Because of these advantages the linear-focused type is
frequently used in magnetic field deflection mass spectrometers
where multiple detectors need to be installed side-by-side.
ELECTRON MULTIPLIER
(R4146-10)
HEAVY
ION
MAGNET
SIGNAL
IO
N
SIGNAL
LIGHT
ION
THICKNESS: 6 mm
1) Ions
When one ion enters and strikes the first dynode, multiple electrons
are emitted from the first dynode. The number of the emitted
electrons depends on the mass of the ion and the acceleration
voltage. The figure below shows how the electron emission ratio
depends on the acceleration voltage when detecting nitrogen ions.
10
9
8
7
TPMHB0927EA
6
5
4
3
2
1
102
ION SOURCE
TPMHC0249EA
4
Electron multipliers can be used to detect and measure ions,
vacuum UV rays, soft X-rays, and other rays by selecting a
particular material for the first dynode.
ELECTRON EMISSION RATIO
-1500 V
103
ION ACCELERATION VOLTAGE (V)
104
2) Light
Hamamatsu electron multipliers use beryllium copper oxide
(Cu-BeO) or aluminum oxide (Al2O3) for the first dynode.
Beryllium copper oxide is sensitive to soft X-rays to UV light
at around 300 nm.
Depending on the wavelength incident on the first dynode or
the usage, the first dynode can be replaced with a dynode on
which an alkali-halide material is deposited. This gives the
first dynode spectral response characteristics starting from
just a few nanometers.
3) Electrons
The material used for the first dynode also has sensitivity to
electrons having an energy level exhibited by Auger
electrons, secondary electrons, and reflection electrons. The
figure below shows the relation between the primary-electron
acceleration voltage for beryllium copper oxide and aluminum
oxide and the secondary electron emission ratio. The
secondary electron emission ratio is at a maximum when the
primary-electron acceleration voltage is about 400 V to 500 V.
SECONDARY ELECTRON EMISSION RATIO
6
TPMHB0928EA
ALUMINUM OXIDE (Al2O3)
5
4
2
ELECTRON
MULTIPLIER
PREAMP
HIGH VOLTAGE
POWER SUPPLY
AMMETER
0
200
400
600
800
1000 1200 1400
PRIMARY-ELECTRON ACCELERATION VOLTAGE (V)
GAIN
The gain of an electron multiplier is given by the following equation:
Gain (µ) = A × Ebbkn
A : constant
Ebb: supply voltage
k : value determined by electrode structure and material
n : number of dynode stages
This equation reveals that the gain (µ) is proportional to the
supply voltage. The figure below shows how the gain of typical
electron multipliers varies with the supply voltage.
TPMHC0258EA
If an oscilloscope is used, the gain can be calculated by the
"area of output pulse waveform (charge amount) divided by
the elementary charge." When using an electron multiplier
equipped with a Faraday cup, the gain can also be expressed
as the ratio of the anode output current after multiplication by
dynode to the input current to the Faraday cup.
DARK CURRENT AND NOISE
The beryllium copper oxide and aluminum oxide used for the
secondary emissive surface of dynodes have a high work
function and so exhibit exceptionally low dark current and
noise. Dark current and noise may be generated by the
following three factors:
ION SOURCE NOISE
In some mass spectrometers, an ion source, analyzer, and ion
detector are arrayed in a straight line. The ion source ionizes a
sample but at the same time generates UV light and X-rays.
These UV light and X-rays will cause noise if they pass through
the analyzer and enter the electron multiplier. This noise is referred to as "ion source noise". To reduce this noise component, the
first dynode or conversion dynode is arranged at a position slightly offset from the ion input aperture and an electric field lens created by a special electrode is used to allow only the sample ions
to enter the first dynode or conversion dynode. This is called an
"off-axis structure". The figure below shows the ion detection
mechanism of an off-axis electron multiplier.
TPMHB0929EA
GND
107
106
GAIN
PULSE HEIGHT
ANALYZER
Hamamatsu electron multipliers have dark current of about 1 pA
when supply voltage providing a gain of 106.
1
108
ION
1Thermionic electrons are emitted from secondary electron
emissive surface of dynode
2Leakage current from dynode support materials
3Field emission electron current of dynode
BERYLLIUM COPPER OXIDE
(Cu-BeO)
3
0
Block diagram for gain measurement
Q-POLE
NOISE SOURCE
(UV light, X-rays etc.)
105
ION
104
R4146-10
R6985-80
R8811
R2362
R5150-10
R474, R515, R596
R595
103
102
101
1000
FARADAY CUP
Q-POLE
ELECTRODE
-1000 V
TPMHC0259EA
2000
3000
4000
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
The circuit system shown in the following block diagram can
be used to measure the gain of an electron multiplier operating under single ion input conditions. The pulse height analyzer measures the total number of counts per second; and
the ammeter measures the output current value under the
same conditions. The gain is then calculated by "output current/elementary charge/number of counts per second."
VACUUM LEVEL AND NOISE
The vacuum level affects the generation of noise in an electron
multiplier. The noise is usually low at a vacuum level for example
of 10-5 Pa, but increases as the vacuum level drops for example
to 0.1 Pa. We recommend operating the electron multiplier at a
vacuum level higher than about 10-2 Pa although the level may
depend on the operating gain and the type of detector.
5
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Electron multipliers are shipped with a voltage-divider circuit
assembled inside. The current that will flow in the voltage-divider
circuit can be calculated by the total resistance of the voltagedivider circuit divided by the supply voltage. The relation between
the input ion energy and the average anode current maintains an
ideal linearity in a certain energy range. However, as the input
energy increases or the amount of input ions increases, the output
current also increases and becomes saturated near the value of the
current flowing in the voltage-divider circuit. To maintain the ideal
linearity, we recommend regulating the average anode current to
1/20th or less of the current flowing in the voltage-divider circuit.
To achieve a high counting efficiency, it is necessary to choose
a linear-focused-dynode electron multiplier that has fast time
response and a voltage-divider circuit with lower total resistance.
However, please note that the voltage-divider circuit is likely to
generate more heat as the resistance is lowered.
+HV1 and +HV2 creates a difference in potential. The last
dynode is connected to the anode via resistor, and a coupling
capacitor is connected to the anode to prevent the positive
high voltage from being input to the externally connected
measuring device. This means that DC signals cannot be
extracted by this measurement method.
INPUT APERTURE
ANODE
NEGATIVE ION
COUPLING CAPACITOR
DC LINEARITY
DY
+HV1
LIFE CHARACTERISTICS
The lifetime of electron multipliers is usually affected by the
operating gain, output current and the operating vacuum level.
The following three factors are the main limits on the lifetime.
1Deterioration in the first dynode or conversion dynode by
incident ions
2Deterioration in the secondary electron emission capability of
dynodes near the last stage, which is caused by collision of
large amounts of electrons
3Contamination adhering to the secondary emissive surface
We conducted in-house testing by operating our electron
multipliers under conditions where residual gases (carbon) are
present and analyzed the results. Larger amounts of carbon
deposits were detected on the latter dynode stages where the
electron density was high, so we think that the contamination
(residual gases, etc.) inside the analyzer (especially the vacuum
chamber) has a significant effect on the lifetime.
Also, unlike photomultiplier tubes, electron multipliers are not
completely sealed and so may possibly be exposed to
surrounding gases, moisture, oil or grease and other items
during storage, causing deterioration in the characteristics.
CONNECTION METHODS
The inter-electrode voltage is supplied through a voltage-divider
circuit made up of resistors connected in series.
The connection methods are described below according to the
polarity of the ions to detect.
1Positive ion detection
As shown in the figure below, the input aperture and the last
dynode are grounded and a negative high voltage is supplied
to the first dynode during operation.
+HV2
TPMHC0261EA
3Positive ion detection using electron multiplier with conversion
dynode
When measuring positive ions, a negative high voltage (about
-10 kV) is supplied to the conversion dynode, another
negative high voltage is applied to the first dynode, and the
last dynode is grounded. Positive ions are converted into
electrons by the conversion dynode.
CONVERSION DYNODE: -10 kV
ELECTRON
POSITIVE ION
DY1: -HV
LAST STAGE: GND
TPMHC0262EA
4Negative ion detection using electron multiplier with conversion dynode
When measuring negative ions, a positive high voltage (about
+10 kV) is supplied to the conversion dynode, a negative high
voltage is applied to the first dynode, and the last dynode is
grounded. Negative ions are converted into positive ions by
the conversion dynode and the positive ions are then
converted into electrons by the first dynode.
CONVERSION DYNODE: +10 kV
INPUT APERTURE
ANODE
POSITIVE ION
POSITIVE ION
NEGATIVE ION
DY
ELECTRON
DY1: -HV
-HV
TPMHC0260EA
2Negative ion detection
As the following figure shows, the input opening is grounded,
a positive high voltage (+HV1) is supplied to the first dynode
to draw negative ions, and another positive high voltage
(+HV2) to the last dynode. The difference in voltage between
6
LAST STAGE: GND
TPMHC0263EA
5Faraday cup
Hamamatsu also provides electron multipliers equipped with a
Faraday cup function. The Faraday cup function and electron
multiplying function cannot be used simultaneously. If a high
voltage is supplied to the electron multiplying section while
operating the Faraday cup, the incoming ions shift their
trajectories toward the electron multiplying section and so fail
to reach the Faraday cup.
6Dual-mode electron multiplier
Dual mode allows both the analog output and pulse output to
be measured with just one detector. As the figure below
shows, the analog output is measured at an intermediate
stage of the electron multiplying section while the pulse output
is measured at the last stage.
ANALOG OUTPUT
GATE
PULSED
OUTPUT
DY
-HV
GND
COUPLING
CAPACITOR
+HV
TPMHC0264EA
When the amount of ions is very small, a pulse output function
which provides high gain is used to count the output pulses.
When the amount of ions is large, the analog output with low
gain is used to make measurement. This prevents the detector
from being saturated and allows measurements ranging from
a small to a large quantity of ions. As seen from the figure
below, a wide dynamic range of 9 orders of magnitude can be
obtained.
TPMHB0930EA
10-3
1010
109
10-4
COUNTING SIGNAL
ANALOG SIGNAL
10-5
108
10-6
107
10-7
106
10-8
105
10-9
104
10-10
103
10-11
102
10-12
101
10-13
ANALOG OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
1011
ANODE COUNT RATE (s-1)
High voltage is used to operate an electron multipliers and related
products. When using these products, provide adequate safety
measures by taking precautions to prevent operators and workers
from receiving electrical shocks as well as equipment damage.
HANDLING PRECAUTIONS
INPUT
APERTURE
GND
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
100
10-14
10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 104 105 106
RELATIVE INPUT
We are fully capable of developing and producing dual-mode
electron multipliers to meet special customer requests.
(1) An electron multiplier consists of electrodes and substrates
that are precision-assembled. Applying excessive force or
shock might deform them and cause faulty operation. Handle
the electron multipliers as carefully as possible.
(2) Electron multipliers are shipped in packages filled with
nitrogen (N2) gas. Those packages are intended for use
during shipping and are not suited for long-term storage.
When storing an electron multiplier, keep it in a clean case
under either of the following conditions a) and b), even before
unpacking and also after unpacking.
a) Store in a clean case at a vacuum pressure below 13 Pa
and isolated much as possible from oil or grease.
b) Store in a clean case where dry nitrogen flows constantly
while passed through a 0.45 µm or smaller filter (humidity:
20 % or less).
(3) When using an electron multiplier and its peripheral parts for
the first time or when re-operating after storage, perform
vacuum baking or carry out degassing under high vacuum
conditions (at a pressure below 10-2 Pa) for more than 24
hours before attempting operation.
(4) Vacuum baking cannot be performed on some types of
electron multipliers depending on what materials are used or
how they are processed. Please consult us for detailed
information before attempting vacuum baking. After performing
vacuum baking on an electron multiplier do not attempt to
operate it until its temperature decreases to 50 °C or less.
(5) When installing an electron multiplier in equipment, take the
following precautions:
· Wear clean powder-free nylon or polyethylene gloves and
do not handle with bare hands.
· When wiring to the electron multiplier keep the leads at least
5 mm away from other metallic parts.
· To prevent abnormal discharges, do not bring any pointed
objects close to the electron multiplier.
· Use a shielded cable for the signal cable that connects the
anode output to an amplifier and subsequent device. The
shielded cable should be as short as possible.
(6) Each electron multiplier must be operated at a vacuum level
higher than the maximum operating vacuum level. If operated
at a lower vacuum level the residual gas molecules might
discharge or light emissions might occur, leading to fatal
damage to the electron multiplier.
(7) Do not operate any of the electron multipliers at a gain or
supply voltage higher than specified. Operation at a higher
gain or supply voltage may promote deterioration of the gain,
increase the output drift and noise, and degrade the linearity.
(8) Do not draw a higher output current than necessary.
Excessive output current may impair the signal linearity and
degrade the life characteristics.
OTHERS
(1) We are constantly making every effort to improve product
quality and reliability but this does not guarantee the safety of
electron multipliers. When using an electron multiplier in
equipment where there is a risk of death, injury, or damage to
property, please be sure to provide appropriate safety design
and measures that take potential problems fully into account.
(2) When giving instructions to the end user about how to use
electron multipliers or the equipment used along with an
electron multiplier, please explain the functions, performance,
and correct handling of the electron multiplier and equipment,
as well as appropriate warnings and displays, etc.
7
WARRANTY
As a general rule, Hamamatsu electron multipliers and their related products are warranted for a period of one year from
the date of delivery. The warranty is limited to replacement of defective products.
However, the warranty shall not apply to the following cases and you will be charged for replacement of the product.
(1) Malfunction or damage was caused by incorrect use or modification.
(2) Malfunction or damage was caused by natural or man-made disasters, or other inevitable accidents.
WHEN DISPOSE THE PRODUCT
When disposing of an electron multiplier, take appropriate measures in compliance with applicable regulations regarding
waste disposal and correctly dispose of it yourself, or entrust proper disposal to a licensed industrial waste disposal
company. In any case, be sure to comply with the regulations in your country or state to ensure correct disposal.
Subject to local technical requirements and regulations, availability of products included in this promotional material may vary. Please consult with our sales office.
Information furnished by HAMAMATSU is believed to be reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed for possible inaccuracies or omissions. Specifications are
subject to change without notice. No patent rights are granted to any of the circuits described herein. ©2015 Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K.
www.hamamatsu.com
HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K., Electron Tube Division
314-5, Shimokanzo, Iwata City, Shizuoka Pref., 438-0193, Japan, Telephone: (81)539/62-5248, Fax: (81)539/62-2205
U.S.A.: Hamamatsu Corporation: 360 Foothill Road, Bridgewater. N.J. 08807-0910, U.S.A., Telephone: (1)908-231-0960, Fax: (1)908-231-1218 E-mail: [email protected]
Germany: Hamamatsu Photonics Deutschland GmbH: Arzbergerstr. 10, D-82211 Herrsching am Ammersee, Germany, Telephone: (49)8152-375-0, Fax: (49)8152-2658 E-mail: [email protected]
France: Hamamatsu Photonics France S.A.R.L.: 19, Rue du Saule Trapu, Parc du Moulin de Massy, 91882 Massy Cedex, France, Telephone: (33)1 69 53 71 00, Fax: (33)1 69 53 71 10 E-mail: [email protected]
United Kingdom: Hamamatsu Photonics UK Limited: 2 Howard Court, 10 Tewin Road, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire AL7 1BW, United Kingdom, Telephone: (44)1707-294888, Fax: (44)1707-325777 E-mail: [email protected].co.uk
North Europe: Hamamatsu Photonics Norden AB: Torshamnsgatan 35 SE-164 40 Kista, Sweden, Telephone: (46)8-509-031-00, Fax: (46)8-509-031-01 E-mail: [email protected]
TPMH1354E01
Italy: Hamamatsu Photonics Italia S.r.l.: Strada della Moia, 1 int. 6, 20020 Arese (Milano), Italy, Telephone: (39)02-93581733, Fax: (39)02-93581741 E-mail: [email protected]
JUN. 2015 IP
China: Hamamatsu Photonics (China) Co., Ltd.: B1201 Jiaming Center, No.27 Dongsanhuan Beilu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020, China, Telephone: (86)10-6586-6006, Fax: (86)10-6586-2866 E-mail: [email protected]