(TVS Diode) Applications Overview

Application Note:
Transient Voltage Suppressors
(TVS Diode) Applications Overview
Transient Threats - What are Transients?
100%
90%
Current (I) %
Voltage Transients are defined as short duration surges of
electrical energy and are the result of the sudden release of
energy previously stored or induced by other means, such as
heavy inductive loads or lightning. In electrical or electronic
circuits, this energy can be released in a predictable manner
via controlled switching actions, or randomly induced into a
circuit from external sources.
VOLTAGE
CURRENT
25kV
20kA
10 µs
1ms
30n
60n
tr = 0.7 to 1.0ns
Switching
500ms
Figure 2: ESD Test Waveform
The exponential rise time of lightning is in the range 1.2µsec
to 10µsec (essentially 10% to 90%) and the duration is in the
range of 50µsec to 1000µsec (50% of peak values). ESD on
the other hand, is a much shorter duration event. The rise time
has been characterized at less than 1.0ns. The overall duration
is approximately 100ns.
Why are Transients of Increasing Concern?
Component miniaturization has resulted in increased sensitivity
to electrical stresses. Microprocessors for example, have
structures and conductive paths which are unable to handle
high currents from ESD transients. Such components
operate at very low voltages, so voltage disturbances must
be controlled to prevent device interruption and latent or
catastrophic failures.
RISE-TIME DURATION
600V
500A
50µs
EMP
1kV
10A
20ns
1ms
ESD
15kV
30A
<1ns
100ns
Table 1: Examples of transient sources and magnitude
Sensitive microprocessors are prevelant today in a wide
range of devices. Everything from home appliances, such
as dishwashers, to industrial controls and even toys use
microprocessors to improve functionality and efficiency.
Characteristics of Transient Voltage Spikes
Transient voltage spikes generally exhibit a “double
exponential” wave, as shown below for lightning and ESD.
Most vehicles now also employ multiple electronic systems
to control the engine, climate, braking and, in some cases,
steering, traction and safety systems.
lpp
lpp/2
t1
Many of the sub- or supporting components (such as electric
motors or accessories) within appliances and automobiles
present transient threats to the entire system.
t
t2
Careful circuit design should not only factor environmental
scenarios but also the potential effects of these related
components. Table 2 below shows the vulnerability of various
component technologies.
Figure 1: Lightning Transient Waveform
Littelfuse.com
I60
10%
Repeatable transients are frequently caused by the operation
of motors, generators, or the switching of reactive circuit
components. Random transients, on the other hand, are
often caused by Lightning and Electrostatic Discharge (ESD).
Lightning and ESD generally occur unpredictably, and may
require elaborate monitoring to be accurately measured,
especially if induced at the circuit board level. Numerous
electronics standards groups have analyzed transient voltage
occurrences using accepted monitoring or testing methods.
The key characteristics of several transients are shown in the
table below.
Lighting
I30
1
© 2015 Littelfuse, Inc.
Outdoor LED Lighting
Vulnerability (volts)
VMOS
30-1800
MOSFET
100-200
GaAsFET
100-300
EPROM
100
JFET
140-7000
CMOS
250-3000
Schottky Diodes
300-2500
Bipolar Transistors
380-7000
SCR
680-1000
In a cloud-to-ground strike (as
shown at right) the transientgenerating effect is far greater.
This diagram shows a typical
current waveform for induced
lightning disturbances.
100
90
50
10
O1
TIME
t
t1
t2
Inductive Load Switchinge
The switching of inductive loads generates high energy
transients which increase in magnitude with increasingly heavy
loads. When the inductive load is switched off, the collapsing
magnetic field is converted into electrical energy which takes
the form of a double exponential transient. Depending on
the source, these transients can be as large as hundreds
of volts and hundreds of Amps, with duration times of 400
milliseconds.
TVS Diode Transient Voltage Scenarios
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)e
Electrostatic discharge is characterized by very fast rise times
and very high peak voltages and currents. This energy is
the result of an imbalance of positive and negative charges
between objects.
Typical sources of inductive transients include:
ESD that is generated by everyday activities can far surpass
the vulnerability threshold of standard semiconductor
technologies. Following are a few examples:
• Generator• Motor
• Relay• Transformer
• Walking across a carpet:
35kV @ RH = 20%;1.5kV @ RH = 65%
These examples are common in electrical and electronic
systems. Because the sizes of the loads vary according to the
application, the wave shape, duration, peak current and peak
voltage are all variables which exist in real world transients.
Once these variables can be approximated, a suitable
suppressor technology can be selected.
• Walking across a vinyl floor:
12kV @ RH = 20%;250V @ RH = 65%
• Worker at a bench:
6kV @ RH = 20%;100V @ RH = 65%
• Vinyl envelopes:
7kV @ RH = 20%;600V @ RH = 65%
The diagram at right
shows a transient
which is the result of
stored energy within
the alternator of an
automobile charging
system.
• Poly bag picked up from desk:
20kV @ RH = 20%;1.2kV @ RH = 65%
Lightning Induced Transientse
Even though a direct strike is clearly destructive, transients
induced by lightning are not the result of a direct strike.
T
V
T1
90%
VS
10%
VB
V = 25V to 125V
t
T1 = 5ms to 10ms
S
A similar transient can
VB = 14V
R = 0.5Ω to 4Ω
T= 40ms to 400ms
also be caused by other
DC motors in a vehicle.
For example, DC motors power amenities such as power locks,
seats and windows. These various applications of a DC motor
can produce transients that are just as harmful to the sensitive
electronic components as transients created in the external
environment.
When a lightning strike occurs, the event creates a magnetic
field which can induce
transients of large magnitude in
nearby electrical cables.
A cloud-to-cloud strike will
effect not only overhead cables,
but also buried cables. Even a
strike 1 mile distant (1.6km) can
generate 70 volts in electrical
cables.
Littelfuse.com
PERCENT OF PEAK VALUE
Device Type
Application Note:
Transient Voltage Suppressors
(TVS Diode) Applications Overview
2
© 2015 Littelfuse, Inc.
Outdoor LED Lighting
Application Note:
Transient Voltage Suppressors
(TVS Diode) Applications Overview
TVS Diode Device Typical Applications
DC Supply Protection
DC Load Protection
DC Supply
Protection
DC Supply
Protection
Circuit
Circuit
DC
Supply
Protection
Breaker
DC Load
Protection
Breaker
+
Options
+
DC input
AC input
+
DC Load
Protection
DC Load
Protection
DC Supply Protection
DC Load Protection
R
R
Options
Circuit
Breaker
R
Options
DC input
Rectifier
Network
DC input
TVS
TVS
TVS
To Load
TVS
TVS
TVS
DC output
DC output
LoadTVS
TVS
Load
Load
Load
-
DC motor
DC motor
-
DC motor
DC motor
Operational
Amplifier
Operational
Amplifier
Operational
Amplifier
Operational Amplifier
Protection
+I
C
+
TVS
DC Input
TVS
-
R-
To Load
Load
+
DC output DC output
TVS
DC Input
-
TVS
To Load
A.C. Supply
Protection
A.C. Supply
Protection
Elector-Magnetic
Interference
Limiting
EMI
Limiting
A.C. Supply Protection
EMI Limiting
EMI Limiting
+ Supply
A.C.
Protection
+EMI Limiting
DC Input
R
To
Load
TVS
Rectifier
Network
TVS
AC input
DC input
Load
TVS
+
AC input
Load
AC Supply Protection
DC Input
+
AC input
Load
Circuit
Breaker
Options
Rectifier
TVS
Rectifier
Network
Network
TVS
RL
+I
I
+TVS
C
RL
- OR RL
Operational Amplifier
+
- OR -
+
+
- OR -
C
(A) TVS (A)TVS
(B)
RL
- OR -
C
TVS
TVS
TVS
(B)
(A)
(B)
I
+
TVS
(A)
(B)
Combined MOV Varistor and TVS Diode Protection Scenarios
MOV + TVS Combination:
MOV + Choke + TVS Combination:
24VDC
Choke
Inductor
MOV
TVS
MOV
GND
MOV Varistor
High Energy
Withstand
Littelfuse.com
TVS Diode
Low Clamping
Voltage
Capacitor
Choke
MOV Varistor
V33ZA70PX
Special low voltage
20mm diameter MOV
[email protected]/20µs (1 time)
3
TVS
TVS Diode
SMBJ28A/SMBJ30A
SMCJ28A/SMCJ30A
© 2015 Littelfuse, Inc.
AC
Outdoor LED Lighting
Application Note:
Transient Voltage Suppressors
(TVS Diode) Applications Overview
Telecom DC/DC Protection Circuit
Telecom DC/DC Protection
48VDC
AC 220V
AC/DC
Nano Fuse
461 Series
Power Fuse
30A - 50A
LVSP
Fuse
TVS Diode
SMCJ or
AK3 Series
DC/DC
AK6
TVS
Diode
For 48vdc Lightning Protection:
TVS Diode: AK6-66CL
Lightning Fuse: LVSP15-R
Power fuse: TLS035L/456020
For 5vdc Lightning Protection:
Fuse: 461 Series
TVS:AK3-7.5CL, 5.0SMDJ
Circuit Protection of 24VDC with high surge capability
Circuit Protection of 24VDC with High Surge Capatbility
Outside World
Primary
Protection:
AK10-030
TVS Diode
SMDJ28A
TVS for PWM
(Pulse Width Modulate
TVS Diode
driver protection
Fuse
0451001
Cx
Cx
400VDC
Fuse
Secondary
TVS
0451001
CM Choke
Cy
NM Choke
PWM
Shield Ground
TVS for PWM (Pulse Width Modulated)
Power Over
EthernetEthernet
(PoE) ProtectionPoE protection
Power
Over
driver protection
Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Driver Protection
400VDC
TVS
+Vin
Secondary
-Vin
TVS Diode
SMBJ58A
PWM
Driver and
Feedback
Control
Vout
Ethernet and PD controller
PWM
Littelfuse.com
PSE
Power
Sourcing
Equipment
4
© 2015 Littelfuse, Inc.
Outdoor LED Lighting
Application Note:
Transient Voltage Suppressors
(TVS Diode) Applications Overview
LED Driver
LED Driver Protection
BR1
MB6S
600 V
L
L1
1.2 mH
L2
1.2 mH
CONTROL
R3
3.3 kΩ
D1
DFL5160-7
D
C5
1 μF
16 V
FP
C4
1 μF
16 V
R3
2.2 Ω
1%
R4
3.3 kΩ
S
C3
C1
100 nF 33 nF
500 V 630 V
L3 3
EE10
330 μH
1
C2
68 nF
250 V
VR2
SMAJ350A
RTN
D2
DFLS1200-7
R5
85 - 135 RV1
VAC 140 VAC
N
R1
3.3 kΩ
LinkSwitch-PL
BP
U1
LNK458KG
C6
10 nF
50 V
F1
5A
C7
22 μF
50 V
VR1
1N4756A
47 V
35 V, 130 mA
RS485 Interface protection
PI-6539-051411
RS485 Interface Protection
TVS
FUSE
3
2
1
VDD5V
CHOKE
0461.600
8
GDT
SL1421A090
7
6
5
FUSE
0461.600
VCC
RO
B
RE
A
DE
GND
DI
1
RXD
2
SEN
3
4
TXD
TVS
SMBJ6.0CA
RS232 interface protection with high surge requiremen
VDD5V
RS232 Interface Protection with High Surge Requirement
FUSE
RS232 TX
04611.25ER
GDT
SL1411A075SM
TVS
SMDJ15CA
TVS
SMDJ15CA
GDT
SL1411A075SM
TVS
SMDJ15CA
PGND
PGND
GDT
SL1411A075SM
TVS
SMDJ15CA
1
6
2
7
3
8
4
9
5
FUSE
RS232RX
04611.25ER
GDT
SL1411A075SM
TVS
SMDJ15CA
RS232GND
GDT
SL1411A075SM
FUSE
04611.25ER
TVS
SMDJ15CA
Littelfuse.com
5
GDT
SL1411A075SM
© 2015 Littelfuse, Inc.
Outdoor LED Lighting
Application Note:
Transient Voltage Suppressors
(TVS Diode) Applications Overview
Inverter
/ VFD protection
in IGBT Module
Inverter
/ VFD protection
inProtection
IGBT Module
TVS Diode AK3-430
L1
L2
L3
IGBT Gate Protection
IGBT Gate
Motor
protection
IGBT
Rg
TVS Diode
SMBJ16CA
Rge
Littelfuse.com
6
© 2015 Littelfuse, Inc.