Conductive Polymer Hybrid Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors Notices matter ■ Law and regulation which are applied ● This product complies with the RoHS Directive (Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (DIRECTIVE 2011/65/EU). ● No Ozone Depleting Chemicals(ODC's), controlled under the Montreal Protocol Agreement, are used in producing this product. ● We do not PBBs or PBDEs as brominated flame retardants. ● Export procedure which followed export related regulations, such as foreign exchange and a foreign trade method, on the occasion of export of this product Thank you for your consideration. ■ Usage limitation ● This product is designed to be used for electronics circuits such as audio/visual equipment, home appliances, computers and other office equipment, optical equipment, measuring equipment. ● When using for purposes which requires high reliability and safety, in cases such as when incorrect operation of this product may do harm to human life or property, delivery specifications suitable for such uses must be exchanged separately. Items to be observed ● This specification guarantees the quality and performance of the product as individual components. Before use, check and evaluate their compatibility with installed in your products. ● Do not use the products beyond the specifications described in this document. ■ When using this capacitor in a product where safety is critical ● Install the following systems for a failsafe design to ensure safety if these products are to be used in equipment where a defect in these products may cause the loss of human life or other signification damage, such as damage to vehicles (automobile, train, vessel), traffic lights, medical equipment, aerospace equipment, electric heating appliances, combustion/ gas equipment, rotating rotating equipment, and disaster/crime prevention equipment. ・ The system is equipped with a protection circuit and protection device. ・ The system is equipped with a redundant circuit or other system to prevent an unsafe status in the event of a single fault. ■ Conditions of use ● Before using the products, carefully check the effects on their quality and performance, and determined whether or not they can be used. These products are designed and manufactured for general-purpose and standard use in general electronic equipment. These products are not intended for use in the following special conditions. 1) In liquid, such as Water, Oil, Chemicals, or Organic solvent. 2) In direct sunlight, outdoors, or in dust. 3) In vapor, such as dew condensation water of resistive element, or water leakage, salty air, or air with a high concentration corrosive gas, such as Cl2, H2S, NH3, SO2, or NOX. 4) In an environment where strong static electricity or electromagnetic waves exist. 5) Using in the atmosphere which strays Acid or alkaline. 6) Using in the atmosphere which there are excessive vibration and shock. 7) Mounting or placing heat-generating components or inflammables, such as vinyl-coated wires, near these products. 8) Sealing or coating of these products or a printed circuit board on which these products are mounted, with resin and other material. 9) Using resolvent, water or water-soluble cleaner for flux cleaning agent after soldering. (In particular, when using water or a water-soluble cleaning agent, be careful not to leave water residues) ● Please arrange circuit design for preventing impulse or transitional voltage. Do not apply voltage, which exceeds the full rated voltage when the capacitors receive impulse voltage, instantaneous high voltage, high pulse voltage etc. ● Electrolyte is used in the products. Therefore, misuse can result in rapid deterioration of characteristics and functions of each product. Electrolyte leakage damages printed circuit and affects performance, characteristics, and functions of customer system. Design and specifications are each subject to change without notice. Ask factory for the current technical specifications before purchase and/or use. Should a safety concern arise regarding this product, please be sure to contact us immediately. Conductive Polymer Hybrid Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors ！ Application Guidelines 1. Circuit Design 1.1 Operating Temperature and Frequency Electrical parameters for electrolytic capacitors are normally specified at 20 °C temperature and 120 Hz frequency. These parameters vary with changes in temperature and frequency. Circuit designers should take these changes into consideration. 1) Effects of operating temperature on electrical parameters (a) At higher temperatures, leakage current and capacitance increase while equivalent series resistance (ESR) decreases. (b) At lower temperatures, leakage current and capacitance decrease while equivalent series resistance (ESR) increases. 2) Effects of frequency on electrical parameters (a) At higher frequencies, capacitance and impedance decrease while tanδ increases. (b) At lower frequencies, heat generated by ripple current will rise due to an increase in equivalent series resistance (ESR). 1.2 Operating Temperature and Life Expectancy 1) Expected life is affected by operating temperature. Generally, each 10 °C reduction in temperature will double the expected life. Use capacitors at the lowest possible temperature below the upper category temperature. 2) If operating temperatures exceed the upper category limit, rapid deterioration of electrical parameter will occur and irreversible damage will result. Check for the maximum capacitor operating temperatures including ambient temperature, internal capacitor temperature rise due to ripple current, and the effects of radiated heat from power transistors, IC's or resistors. Avoid placing components, which could conduct heat to the capacitor from the back side of the circuit board. 3) The formula for calculating expected life at lower operating temperatures is as follows ; L2 = L1×2 T1–T2 10 L1： Guaranteed life (h) at temperature, T1 °C L2： Expected life (h) at temperature, T2 °C T1： Upper category temperature + temperature rise due to rated ripple current (°C) T2： Actual operating temperature, ambient temperature + temperature rise due to ripple current (°C) 4) Please use according to the lifetime as noted in this specification. Using products beyond end of the lifetime may change characteristics rapidly, short-circuit, operate pressure relief vent, or leak electrolyte. 1.3 Common Application Conditions to Avoid The following misapplication load conditions will cause rapid deterioration of a capacitor’s electrical parameters. In addition, rapid heating and gas generation within the capacitor can occur, causing the pressure relief vent to operate and resultant leakage of electrolyte. Under extreme conditions, explosion and fire ignition could result. The leaked electrolyte is combustible and electrically conductive. 1) Reverse Voltage DC capacitors have polarity. Therefore, please do not apply the reverse voltage. Verify correct polarity before insertion. 2) Charge / Discharge Applications Standard capacitors are not suitable for use in repeating charge/discharge applications. For charge/ discharge applications, consult us with your actual application condition. For rush current, please to nor exceed 100 A. 3) ON-OFF circuit Do not use capacitors in circuit where ON-OFF switching is repeated more than 10000 times/per day. In case of applying to the theses ON-OFF circuit, consult with us about circuit condition and so on. 4) Over voltage Do not apply voltages exceeding the maximum specified rated voltage. Voltages up to the surge voltage rating are acceptable for short periods of time. Ensure that the sum of the DC voltage and the superimposed AC ripple voltage does not exceed the rated voltage 5) Ripple Current Do not apply ripple currents exceeding the maximum specified value. For high ripple current applications, use a capacitor designed for high ripple currents. In addition, consult us if the applied ripple current is to be higher than the maximum specified value. Ensure that rated ripple currents that superimposed on low DC bias voltages do not cause reverse voltage conditions. Even if it is within a rated ripple current, in case the practical use is over the pre described endurance life time, it causes the increase of deterioration of ESR characteristic and the internal generation heat by ripple current. Due to this, there is some possibility of vent open, bulging of sleeve and rubber, electrolyte leakage, and shot circuit, explosion and ignition in the worst case. Design and specifications are each subject to change without notice. Ask factory for the current technical specifications before purchase and/or use. Should a safety concern arise regarding this product, please be sure to contact us immediately. Conductive Polymer Hybrid Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors 1.4 Using Two or More Capacitors in Parallel The circuit resistance can closely approximate the series resistance of the capacitor, causing an imbalance of ripple current loads within the capacitors. Careful wiring methods can minimize the possible application of an excessive ripple current to a capacitor. Moreover, please do not use it in series. 1.5 Capacitor Mounting Considerations 1) Double-Sided Circuit Boards Avoid wiring pattern runs, which pass between the mounted capacitor and the circuit board. 2) Clearance for Case Mounted Pressure Relief (≧ Dia. 10 mm) Capacitors with case mounted pressure relief require sufficient clearance to allow for proper pressure relief operation. The minimum clearance are dependent on capacitor diameters as follows. ・ ≧ Dia. 10 mm : 2mm minimum 3) Wiring Near the Pressure Relief (≧ Dia. 10 mm) Avoid locating high voltage or high current wiring or circuit board paths above the pressure relief . Flammable, high temperature gas that exceeds 100 °C may be released which could dissolve the wire insulation and ignite. 4) Circuit Board Patterns Under the Capacitor Avoid circuit board runs under the capacitor, as an electrical short can occur due to an electrolyte leakage. 1.6 Electrical Isolation of the Capacitor Completely isolate the capacitor as follows. ・ Between the cathode and the case and between the anode terminal and other circuit paths. 1.7 Capacitor Coating The laminate coating is intended for marking and identification purposes and is not meant to electrically insulate the capacitor. 2. Capacitor Handling Techniques 2.1 Considerations Before Using 1) Capacitors have a finite life. Do not reuse or recycle capacitors from used equipment. 2) Transient recovery voltage may be generated in the capacitor due to dielectric absorption. If required, this voltage can be discharged with a resistor with a value of about 1 kΩ. 3) Capacitors stored for a long period of time may exhibit an increase in leakage current. This can be corrected by gradually applying rated voltage in series with a resistor of approximately 1 kΩ. 4) If capacitors are dropped, they can be damaged mechanically or electrically. Avoid using dropped capacitors. 5) Dented or crushed capacitors should not be used. The seal integrity can be damaged and loss of electrolyte/ shortened life can result. 2.2 Capacitor Insertion 1) 2) 3) 4) Verify the correct capacitance and rated voltage of the capacitor. Verify the correct polarity of the capacitor before insertion. Verify the correct hole spacing and land pattern size before insertion to avoid stress on the terminals. Excessive mounting pressure can cause high leakage current, short circuit, or disconnection. 2.3 Reflow Soldering 1) Surface-mount type capacitor are exclusively for reflow soldering. When reflow solder is used an ambient heat condition system such as the simultaneous use of infrared and hot-air is recommended. 2) Observe proper soldering conditions (temperature, time, etc.). Do not exceed the specified limits. ✽ The Temperature on Capacitor top shall be measured by using thermal couple that is fixed firmly by epoxy glue. 3) In case of use in 2 times reflow, 2nd reflow must be done when the capacitor’s temperature return back to normal level. 4) In our recommended reflow condition , the case discoloration and the case swelling might be slightly generated. But please acknowledge that these two phenomena do not influence the reliability of the product. 5) The crack on top marking might be occurred by reflow heat stress. But please acknowledge that it does not influence the reliability of the product. 6) VPS (Vapor Phase Soldering) reflow can cause significant characteristics change and/ or mounting failure due to deformation by acute temperature rise. VPS is acceptable provided that the process does not exceed recommended reflow profile and temperature rise is less than 3 degC/sec. Please contact Panasonic for detailed conditions. Design and specifications are each subject to change without notice. Ask factory for the current technical specifications before purchase and/or use. Should a safety concern arise regarding this product, please be sure to contact us immediately. Conductive Polymer Hybrid Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors 2.4 Manual Soldering 1) Observe temperature and time soldering specifications or do not exceed temperature of 350 °C for 3 seconds or less. 2) If a soldered capacitor must be removed and reinserted, avoid excessive stress on the capacitor leads. 3) Avoid physical contacts between the tip of the soldering iron and capacitors to prevent or capacitor failure. 2.5 Capacitor Handling after Soldering 1) Avoid moving the capacitor after soldering to prevent excessive stress on the lead wires where they enter the seal. 2) Do not use the capacitor as a handle when moving the circuit board assembly. 3) Avoid striking the capacitor after assembly to prevent failure due to excessive shock. 2.6 Circuit Board Cleaning 1) Circuit boards can be immersed or ultrasonically cleaned using suitable cleaning solvents for up to 5 minutes and up to 60 °C maximum temperatures. The boards should be thoroughly rinsed and dried. The use of ozone depleting cleaning agents is not recommended for the purpose of protecting our environment. 2) Avoid using the following solvent groups unless specifically allowed in the specification ; (a) Halogenated cleaning solvents : except for solvent resistant capacitor types, halogenated solvents can permeate the seal and cause internal capacitor corrosion and failure. For solvent resistant capacitors, carefully follow the temperature and time requirements based on the specification. 1,1,1-trichloroethane should never be used on any aluminum electrolytic capacitor. (b) Alkaline solvents : could react and dissolve the aluminum case. (c) Petroleum based solvents : deterioration of the rubber seal could result. (d) Xylene : deterioration of the rubber seal could result. (e) Acetone : removal of the ink markings on the vinyl sleeve could result. 3) A thorough drying after cleaning is required to remove residual cleaning solvents that may be trapped between the capacitor and the circuit board. Avoid drying temperatures, which exceed the Upper category temperature of the capacitor. 4) Monitor the contamination levels of the cleaning solvents during use in terms of electrical conductivity, pH, specific gravity, or water content. Chlorine levels can rise with contamination and adversely affect the performance of the capacitor. 5) Depending on the cleaning method, the marking on a capacitor may be erased or blurred. Please consult us if you are not certain about acceptable cleaning solvents or cleaning methods. 2.7 Mounting Adhesives and Coating Agents When using mounting adhesives or coating agents to control humidity, avoid using materials containing halogenated solvents. Also, avoid the use of chloroprene based polymers. Harden on dry adhesive or coating agents well lest the solvent should be left. After applying adhesives or coatings, dry thoroughly to prevent residual solvents from being trapped between the capacitor and the circuit board. 2.8 Fumigation In exporting electronic appliances with aluminum electrolytic capacitors, in some cases fumigation treatment using such halogen compound as methyl bromide is conducted for wooden boxes. If such boxes are not dried well, the halogen left in the box is dispersed while transported and enters in the capacitors inside. This possibly causes electrical corrosion of the capacitors. Therefore, after performing fumigation and drying make sure that no halogen is left. Don’t perform fumigation treatment to the whole electronic appliances packed in a box. 3. Precautions for using capacitors 3.1 Environmental Conditions Capacitors should not be stored or used in the following environments. 1) Exposure to temperatures above the upper category or below the lower category temperature of the capacitor. 2) Direct contact with water, salt water, or oil. 3) High humidity conditions where water could condense on the capacitor. 4) Exposure to toxic gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, chlorine, Chlorine compound, Bromine, Bromine compound or ammonia. 5) Exposure to ozone, radiation, or ultraviolet rays. 6) Vibration and shock conditions exceeding specified requirements. Design and specifications are each subject to change without notice. Ask factory for the current technical specifications before purchase and/or use. Should a safety concern arise regarding this product, please be sure to contact us immediately. Conductive Polymer Hybrid Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors 3.2 Electrical Precautions 1) Avoid touching the terminals of a capacitor as a possible electric shock could result. The exposed aluminum case is not insulated and could also cause electric shock if touched. 2) Avoid short circuiting the area between the capacitor terminals with conductive materials including liquids such as acids or alkaline solutions. 3) A low-molecular-weight-shiroxane which is included in a silicon material shall causes abnormal electrical characteristics. 4. Emergency Procedures 1) If the pressure relief of the capacitor operates, immediately turn off the equipment and disconnect from the power source. This will minimize an additional damage caused by the vaporizing electrolyte. 2) Avoid contact with the escaping electrolyte gas, which can exceed 100 °C temperatures. If electrolyte or gas enters the eye, immediately flush the eye with large amounts of water. If electrolyte or gas is ingested by mouth, gargle with water. If electrolyte contacts the skin, wash with soap and water. 5. Long Term Storage Leakage current of a capacitor increases with long storage times. The aluminum oxide film deteriorates as a function of temperature and time. If used without reconditioning, an abnormally high current will be required to restore the oxide film. This surge current could cause the circuit or the capacitor to fail. Storage period is one year. When storage period is over 12 months, a capacitor should be reconditioned by applying the rated voltage in series with a 1000 Ω current limiting resistor for a time period of 30 minutes. For storage condition, keep room temperature (5 °C to 35 °C) and humidity (45 % to 85 %) where direct sunshine doesn't reach. 5.1 Environmental Conditions 1) 2) 3) 4) Exposure to temperatures above the upper category or below the lower category temperature of the capacitor. Direct contact with water, salt water, or oil. High humidity conditions where water could condense on the capacitor. Exposure to toxic gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, chlorine, Chlorine compound, Bromine, Bromine compound or ammonia. 5) Exposure to ozone, radiation, or ultraviolet rays. 6) Vibration and shock conditions exceeding specified requirements. 6. Capacitor Disposal When disposing capacitors, use one of the following methods. 1) Incinerate after crushing the capacitor or puncturing the can wall (to prevent explosion due to internal pressure rise). 2) Dispose as solid waste. NOTE : Local laws may have specific disposal requirements which must be followed. ✽ Intellectual property right We, Panasonic Group are providing the product and service that customers can use without anxiety, and are working positively on the protection of our products under intellectual property rights. Representative patents relating to Conductive Polymer Hybrid Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors are as follows: US Patent Nos. 7497879 and 7621970 JP Patent No. 5360250 Design and specifications are each subject to change without notice. Ask factory for the current technical specifications before purchase and/or use. Should a safety concern arise regarding this product, please be sure to contact us immediately.