### Band Pass Filters with Linear Phase Response

```Mini-Circuits
Band Pass Filters with Linear Phase Response
®
Filters with linear phase response are desirable, due to their ﬂat group delay, in many applications, for example in
image processing and digital data transmission. Such ﬁlters maximally preserve the wave shape of the pasing signal,
since they delay all frequency components of the signal by the same amount (i.e. do not cause phase distortion).
Deﬁnitions
Phase response φ(ω) (also “Phase Shift” or “Insertion Phase”) of a ﬁlter is deﬁned as the phase (or complex angle) of the
frequency response.
Group delay Tg is the amount of time it takes for a signal having ﬁnite time duration, such as a pulse, to pass through the
ﬁlter. Group delay is deﬁned as the derivative of the phase shift through the ﬁlter with respect to frequency:
Tg = –
dφ
1
= –
dω
2p
dφ
df
Linear phase is a property of a ﬁlter, where the phase response is a linear function of frequency and, consequently the
group delay is constant at all frequencies (ﬂat time delay). This enables the transmission of various frequency components
contained in a modulated waveform to be delayed by the same amount while traveling through the ﬁlter thus preserving the
modulation wave shape and avoiding phase distortion.
Linear phase response can be presented at ﬁlter speciﬁcation either by mean of “Group Delay Variation” or by mean of
“Deviation From Linear Phase”. The “Deviation From Linear Phase” is deﬁned as a distance of each point of a real ﬁlter
Insertion Phase from the ideal ﬁlter Insertion Phase (straight line), as presented at Figure 1 below.
Figure 1: Phase Deviation From Linear Phase of a Real Filter
Phase
(deg)
Ideal filter
Real filter
Frequency
Phase deviation
from linear phase
The coefﬁcients of the ideal ﬁlter (straight line y=ax+b) are calculated according to following formulas (“Least square” method):
n
a=
i=1
n
n
i=1
2
n
i=1
2
n∑xi – (∑xi)
i=1
Where
n
n∑xiyi – ∑xi ∑yi
n
,
b=
n
∑ y i – a∑ x i
i=1
i=1
n
i=1
x is Frequency point, y is Insertion Phase (normalized to 360o) and n is the number of frequency points.
Retrieving Deviation From Linear Phase of a Filter
Deviation From Linear Phase is received by subtracting the calculated Ideal Insertion Phase from the measured Insertion
Phase (S21).
Mini-Circuits
®
EW
ALL N
minicircuits.com
ISO 9001 ISO 14001 CERTIFIED
P.O. Box 350166, Brooklyn, New York 11235-0003 (718) 934-4500 Fax (718) 332-4661 For detailed performance specs & shopping online see Mini-Circuits web site
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RF/IF MICROWAVE COMPONENTS
This document and its contents are the property of Mini-Circuits.
REV. OR
M113292
AN-75-004
070830
Page 1 of 3
Mini-Circuits
®
Test results of Mini-Circuits BPF model RBP-263
Mini-Circuits offers several Band Pass Filters with linear phase response (currently available RBP-220+, RBP-263+ and
RBP-275+). Figures 2 - 4 show the typical data, graphs and outline drawing RBP-263+, for which the deviation from linear
phase is deﬁned as ±8º typ. at Center Frequency ± 43MHz. Visit Mini Circuits website for detailed speciﬁcations.
Figure 2: Typical Performance Data of RBP-263+
Frequency
(MHz)
Insertion Loss
(dB)
VSWR
(:1)
Frequency
(MHz)
Deviation from
Linear Phase (deg)
1.0
10.0
80.0
120.0
140.0
200.0
99.02
75.88
41.13
31.89
27.77
9.98
579.06
289.53
96.51
59.91
43.44
3.48
220.5
224.0
230.0
235.0
240.0
246.0
6.30
2.83
0.21
-2.20
-2.87
-2.87
220.5
230.0
263.5
297.0
306.5
2.35
1.47
1.12
1.63
2.66
2.04
1.40
1.17
1.12
1.81
251.0
255.0
263.5
266.0
271.0
-2.26
-1.43
0.27
0.96
1.82
325.0
350.0
360.0
400.0
500.0
1000.0
9.58
23.83
30.23
40.61
41.00
56.91
7.94
27.59
34.75
54.29
72.39
82.73
275.0
284.0
291.0
297.0
302.0
306.5
2.49
3.06
2.26
-0.32
-3.47
-8.02
Figure 3: Measured Insertion Phase and Phase Deviation of RBP-263+
Band Pass Filter RBP-263+
Insertion Phase and Phase Deviation from Linear Phase
15
A
Insertion Phase (deg)
50
10
B
0
5
-50
0
C
-100
-150
-200
220
-5
-10
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
Phase Deviation from Linear
(deg)
100
-15
310
Frequency (MHz)
Measured Insertion Phase
Calculated Linear Phase
Phase Deviation from Linear
Points A, B, C indicate places where the phase of a real ﬁlter equals to the phase of ideal ﬁlter (i.e. phase deviation is 0).
Mini-Circuits
®
EW
ALL N
minicircuits.com
ISO 9001 ISO 14001 CERTIFIED
P.O. Box 350166, Brooklyn, New York 11235-0003 (718) 934-4500 Fax (718) 332-4661 For detailed performance specs & shopping online see Mini-Circuits web site
The Design Engineers Search Engine Provides ACTUAL Data Instantly From MINI-CIRCUITS At: www.minicircuits.com
RF/IF MICROWAVE COMPONENTS
Page 2 of 3
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®
Figure 4: Outline drawing of Mini-Circuits RBP family of ﬁlters
Outline Drawing
TOP SIDE
SIDE VIEW
PCB Land Pattern
BOTTOM SIDE
METALLIZATION
SOLDER RESIST
Outline Dimensions ( inch
mm )
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N
P
Q
R
wt.
.350 .350 .100 .175 .075 .100 .090 .040 .080 .050 .040 .195 .390 .120 .390 .070 grams
8.89 8.89 2.54 4.45 1.93 2.54 2.29 1.02 2.03 1.27 1.02 4.95 9.91 3.05 9.91 1.78 0.25
Mini-Circuits
®
EW
ALL N
minicircuits.com
ISO 9001 ISO 14001 CERTIFIED
P.O. Box 350166, Brooklyn, New York 11235-0003 (718) 934-4500 Fax (718) 332-4661 For detailed performance specs & shopping online see Mini-Circuits web site
The Design Engineers Search Engine Provides ACTUAL Data Instantly From MINI-CIRCUITS At: www.minicircuits.com
RF/IF MICROWAVE COMPONENTS
Page 3 of 3
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