aat3123/23a/24 data sheet - Skyworks Solutions, Inc.

DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
General Description
Features
The AAT3123/23A/24 is a low noise, constant frequency
charge pump DC/DC converter that uses a dual mode
load switch (1X) and fractional (1.5X) conversion to
maximize efficiency for white LED applications. The
device can be used to produce current levels up to 20mA
to drive up to six LEDs from a 2.7V to 5.5V input.
Outputs may be operated individually or paralleled for
driving higher-current LEDs. A low external parts count
(two 1μF flying capacitors and two small 1μF capacitors
at VIN and OUT) make the AAT3123/23A/24 ideally suited
for small battery-powered applications.
• VIN Range: 2.7V to 5.5V
• Dual Mode 1X and 1.5X Charge Pump for Maximum
Efficiency
• Drives Low-VF and High-VF Type LEDs
• Up to Six 20mA Outputs (AAT3124)
• Up to Four 20mA Outputs (AAT3123/23A)
• 32-Position Logarithmic Scale with Digital Control
• Simple Serial Control (S2Cwire) Interface
• Low Noise Constant Frequency Operation
• 1MHz Switching Frequency
• Small Application Circuit
• Regulated Output Current
• Automatic Soft Start
• No Inductors
• IQ <1μA in Shutdown
• Temperature Range: -40°C to +85°C
• 12-Pin TSOPJW Package (AAT3123/23A)
• 16-Pin 4x4mm QFN and 14-Pin TSOPJW Packages
(AAT3124)
Skyworks' Simple Serial Control (S2Cwire™) interface is
used to enable, disable, and set the LED drive current
with a 32-level logarithmic scale LED brightness control.
The AAT3123/23A/24 has a thermal management system to protect the device in the event of a short-circuit
condition at the output pin. Built-in soft-start circuitry
prevents excessive inrush current during start-up. A high
charge pump switching frequency enables the use of
very small external capacitors. A low-current shutdown
feature disconnects the load from VIN and reduces quiescent current to less than 1μA. The device also integrates
a test current/auto-disable feature for each channel. The
AAT3123/23A is available in a very small, Pb-free 12-pin
TSOPJW package. The six output AAT3124 is available in
the Pb-free 16-pin 4x4mm QFN and 14-pin TSOPJW
packages.
Applications
•
•
•
•
Color (RGB) Lighting
Programmable Current Source
White LED Backlighting
White Photo Flash for DSCs
Typical Application
VIN
VIN
C1+
C1+
C1
1μF
C1
1μF
VBATTERY
C1C2+
VOUT
CIN
1μF
C OUT
1μF
AAT3123
AAT3123A
VBATTERY
C2
1μF
CIN
1μF
C OUT
1μF
C1C2+
VOUT
AAT3124
C2-
EN/SET
EN/SET
GND
D1
D2
D3
D4
EN/SET
D4
C2
1μF
C2-
D3
D2
D1
EN/SET
GND
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D6
D5
D4
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
202135B • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • February 26, 2013
D3
D2
D1
1
DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Pin Descriptions
Pin #
AAT3123/23A
(TSOPJW-12)
AAT3124
(QFN44-16)
AAT3124
(TSOPJW-14)
Symbol
1
10
8
C2+
2
9
9
OUT
3
7
10
C1-
4
6
11
C1+
5
6
7
5
4
1
12
13
2
D4
D3
D2
8
16
3
D1
9
15
4
EN/SET
10
14
5
IN
11
12
12
11
6
7
GND
C2-
2
1
D5
3
8, 13
EP
14
D6
N/C
Function
Flying capacitor 2 positive terminal. Connect a 1μF capacitor between C2+ and C2-.
Charge pump output. Requires 1μF capacitor connected between
this pin and ground.
Flying capacitor 1 negative terminal.
Flying capacitor 1 positive terminal. Connect a 1μF capacitor between C1+ and C1-.
Current source output #4. If unused, this pin should be left floating.
Current source output #3. If unused, this pin should be left floating.
Current source output #2. If unused, this pin should be left floating.
Current source output #1. Required reference current source. Do
not leave this pin floating.
Control pin using S2Cwire serial interface.
Input power supply. Requires 1μF capacitor connected between this
pin and ground.
Ground.
Flying capacitor 2 negative terminal.
Current source output #5. Required reference current source. Do
not leave this pin floating.
Current source output #6. If unused, this pin should be left floating.
No connection.
Exposed paddle (bottom); connect to GND directly beneath package.
Pin Configuration
TSOPJW-12
(Top View)
9
5
8
6
7
D2
1
12
GND
D5
2
11
C2-
D6
3
D3
4
AAT3124
10
C2+
9
OUT
D5
D2
D1
EN/SET
IN
GND
C2-
1
14
2
13
3
4
12
AAT3124
11
5
10
6
9
7
8
8
7
6
5
N/C
C1-
C1+
D4
2
13
10
14
4
AAT3123
AAT3123A
TSOPJW-14
(Top View)
N/C
IN
3
11
15
2
C2GND
IN
EN/SET
D1
D2
EN/SET
12
16
1
D1
C2+
OUT
C1C1+
D4
D3
QFN44-16
(Top View)
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
202135B • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • February 26, 2013
D6
D3
D4
C1+
C1OUT
C2+
DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Absolute Maximum Ratings1
Symbol
Description
VIN
VOUT
FB, VEN/SET
VEN/SET(MAX)
IOUT2
TJ
Input Voltage
Charge Pump Output
FB or EN/SET to GND Voltage
Maximum EN/SET to Input Voltage
Maximum DC Output Current
Operating Junction Temperature Range
Value
Units
-0.3 to 6
-0.3 to 6
-0.3 to 6
0.3
150
-40 to 150
V
V
V
V
mA
°C
Value
Units
Thermal Information3
Symbol
Description
JA
Thermal Resistance
PD
Maximum Power Dissipation
QFN44-16
TSOPJW-12
QFN44-164
TSOPJW-125
50
160
2.0
0.625
°C/W
W
1. Stresses above those listed in Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. Functional operation at conditions other than the operating conditions
specified is not implied. Only one Absolute Maximum Rating should be applied at any one time.
2. Based on long-term current density limitation.
3. Mounted on an FR4 board.
4. Derate 20mW/°C above 25°C.
5. Derate 6.25mW/°C above 25°C.
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
202135B • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • February 26, 2013
3
DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Electrical Characteristics1
CIN = COUT = C1 = C2 = 1.0μF; TA = -40°C to +85°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are TA = 25°C, VIN = 3.5V.
Symbol
Description
Input Power Supply
Operation Range
VIN
Icc
Operating Current
ISHDN(MAX)
Shutdown Current
IDX
Output Current
I(D-Match)
CP
Current Matching Between Any Two Outputs
Charge Pump Section Efficiency
Charge Pump Section
tSS
Soft-Start Time
FCLK
Clock Frequency
EN/SET
Enable Threshold Low
VEN(L)
VEN(H)
Enable Threshold High
tEN/SET_LO
EN/SET Low Time
tEN/SET_HI
Minimum EN/SET High Time
tOFF
EN/SET Off Timeout
Input
EN/SET Input Leakage
Current
Conditions
Min
Typ
2.7
3.0 ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5, Active, No Load Current
EN = 0
VIN  3.5V, Code = 32, TA = 25°C
VD1:D4 = 3.6V, VIN = 3.5V
VD5:VD6 = 3.6V, VIN = 3.5V
VIN = 3.5V, IOUT(TOTAL) = 120mA, Measured
from IN to OUT
VIN = 2.7V to 5.5V
VIN = 2.7V to 5.5V
1.8
18
20
0.5
0.5
Max
Units
5.5
3.5
1
22
V
mA
μA
mA
%
93
%
200
1000
μs
kHz
0.5
500
V
V
μs
ns
μs
1
μA
1.4
0.3
75
50
-1
1. The AAT3123/4 is guaranteed to meet performance specifications over the -40°C to +85°C operating temperature range and is assured by design, characterization, and correlation with statistical process controls.
4
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
202135B • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • February 26, 2013
DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Typical Characteristics
Unless otherwise noted, VIN = 3.5V, CIN = COUT = C1 = C2 = 1μF, TA = 25°C.
Efficiency vs. Input Voltage
Efficiency vs. Input Voltage
(4x20mA)
(4x10mA)
100
100
95
VDIODE = 3.4V
VDIODE = 3.2V
90
85
VDIODE = 3.0V
80
75
70
65
85
VDIODE = 3.0V
80
75
70
65
60
60
55
55
50
VDIODE = 3.4V
VDIODE = 3.2V
90
Efficiency (%)
Efficiency (%)
95
50
2.7
2.9
3.1
3.3
3.5
3.7
3.9
4.1
4.3
4.5
4.7
4.9
5.1
2.7
2.9
3.1
3.3
3.5
Input Voltage (V)
4.1
4.3
4.5
4.7
4.9
5.1
4.7
4.9
5.1
IDIODE vs. Input Voltage
(4x20mA)
(4x10mA)
45
VDIODE = 3.4V
VDIODE = 3.2V
3.9
Input Voltage (V)
IDIODE vs. Input Voltage
85
3.7
75
VDIODE = 3.0V
IDIODE (mA)
IDIODE (mA)
80
70
VDIODE = 3.0V
65
60
2.7
2.9
3.1
3.3
3.5
3.7
3.9
4.1
4.3
4.5
4.7
4.9
35
5.1
2.7
2.9
3.1
3.3
3.5
Input Voltage (V)
Quiescent Current (mA)
3.7
3.9
4.1
4.3
4.5
Input Voltage (V)
Quiescent Current vs. Input Voltage
2.6
2.4
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6 VDIODE = 3.0V
0.4
0.2
0.0
2.7 2.9 3.1 3.3
VDIODE = 3.4V
VDIODE = 3.2V
40
VIH and VIL vs. VIN
0.850
0.825
0.800
0.775
VIH
0.750
0.725
VDIODE = 3.4V
VIL
0.700
0.675
VDIODE = 3.2V
0.650
0.625
3.5
3.7
3.9
4.1
4.3
Input Voltage (V)
4.5
4.7
4.9
5.1
0.600
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
Input Voltage (V)
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
202135B • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • February 26, 2013
5
DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Typical Characteristics
Unless otherwise noted, VIN = 3.5V, CIN = COUT = C1 = C2 = 1μF, TA = 25°C.
Turn-On to Full-Scale Charge Pump
Turn-On to Full-Scale Load Switch
EN/SET
(1V/div)
EN/SET
(1V/div)
OUT
(2V/div)
OUT
(2V/div)
VDIODE
(1V/div)
VDIODE
(2V/div)
IIN
(200mA/div)
IIN
(100mA/div)
Time (50µs/div)
Time (50µs/div)
Charge Pump to Load Switch
Load Switch to Charge Pump
(80mA)
(80mA)
VIN
(10mV/div)
VIN
(20mV/div)
OUT
(2V/div)
OUT
(1V/div)
VDIODE
(2V/div)
VDIODE
(1V/div)
IIN
(100mA/div)
IIN
(200mV/div)
Time (50µs/div)
Time (50µs/div)
80mA Load Characteristics
Turn-Off
VIN
20mV/div
EN/SET
(1V/div)
VDIODE
(2V/div)
OUT
IIN
(100mA/div)
VDIODE
Time (200µs/div)
6
Time (1µs/div)
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
202135B • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • February 26, 2013
DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Functional Block Diagram
VIN
Soft-Start
Control
C1+
1x/1.5x
Charge
Pump
1MHz
Oscillator
Voltage
Reference
C1C2+
C2OUT
D1
Current
Current
Reference
Quad
Output
DAC
D2
D3
D4
EN/SET
S2Cwire
Interface
Dual
Output
DAC
32 x 8 bit
ROM
D5*
D6*
*AAT3124 only
GND
Functional Description
The AAT3123/23A/24 is a dual mode load switch (1X)
and high efficiency (1.5X) fractional charge pump device
intended for white LED backlight applications. The fractional charge pump consists of a low dropout linear voltage regulator followed by a 1.5X charge pump with
multiple current-source outputs. To maximize power
conversion efficiency, an internal feedback control sensing circuit monitors the voltage required on the constant
current source outputs. This control circuit then sets the
load switch and charge pump functions based upon the
input voltage level versus the output voltage level needed. This function significantly enhances overall device
efficiency when the input voltage level is greater than
the voltage required at the constant current source outputs. For the AAT3123/23A, the 1X load switch/1.5X
charge pump mode is decided on the voltage sensed on
the output D1. The AAT3124 bases the 1X load switch/1.5X
charge pump mode decision on the voltage levels sensed
on either the D1-D4 output group or the D5-D6 output
group, whichever is greater. Switchover between the
1.5X (charge-pump) operating mode and the 1X (load
switch) mode occurs automatically (as a function of
input and output voltages) and does not require user
intervention to maintain maximum efficiency.
The AAT3123/23A/24 requires only four external components: two 1μF ceramic capacitors for the charge pump
flying capacitors (C1 and C2), one 1μF ceramic input
capacitor (CIN), and one 0.33μF to 1μF ceramic output
capacitor (COUT). The LDO/1.5X charge pump output is
converted into four (D1 to D4) or six (D1 to D4 and D5 to
D6) constant current outputs to drive four or six individual LEDs with a maximum current of 20mA each. The
current source output magnitude is controlled by the EN/
SET serial data S2Cwire interface. The interface records
rising edges of the EN/SET pin and decodes them into 32
individual current level settings each 1dB apart (see Table
1, Current Level Settings). Code 32 is full scale, and Code
1 is full scale attenuated by 31dB. The modulo 32 interface wraps states back to State 1 after the 32nd clock.
With each EN/SET pulse, the output current increases by
1dB. To decrease the output current by 1dB, 31 EN/SET
clock pulses are required. The counter can be clocked at
speeds up to 1MHz, so intermediate states are not visible. The first rising edge of EN/SET enables the IC and
initially sets the output LED current to -31dB, the lowest
setting equal to 525μA. Once the final clock cycle is input
for the desired brightness level, the EN/SET pin is held
high to maintain the device output current at the programmed level. The device is disabled 500μs after the
EN/SET pin transitions to a logic low state.
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
202135B • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • February 26, 2013
7
DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Applications Information
Constant Current Output Level Settings
The constant current source output amplitude for outputs D1 to D6 are set via the serial interface according
to a logarithmic scale where each code is 1dB greater
than the previous code. In this manner, LED brightness
appears linear with each increasing code count. Because
the outputs D1 to D6 are true independent constant current sources, the voltage observed on any single given
output will be determined by the actual forward voltage
(VF) for the LED being driven.
Since the output current of the AAT3123/23A/24 is programmable through its single-wire serial interface, no
PWM (pulse width modulation) or additional control circuitry is needed to control LED brightness. This feature
greatly reduces the burden on a microcontroller or system IC to manage LED or display brightness, allowing
the user to “set it and forget it.” Furthermore, with its
high-speed serial interface (1MHz data rate), the output
current of the AAT3123/23A/24 can changed successively to brighten or dim LEDs in smooth transitions
(e.g., to fade-out) or in abrupt steps, giving the user
complete programmability and real-time control of LED
brightness.
Code
IOUT
(mA)
Code
IOUT
(mA)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
0.549
0.627
0.706
0.784
0.863
1.020
1.098
1.255
1.412
1.569
1.804
1.961
2.275
2.510
2.824
3.137
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
3.529
4.000
4.471
5.020
5.647
6.353
7.059
7.922
8.941
10.039
11.216
12.627
14.118
15.843
17.804
20.000
Table 1: Constant Current Source Output
Programming Levels (mA).
Normalized Output Current Settings
1.0
Normalized I OUT (D1 to D6)
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
Code
8
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
202135B • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • February 26, 2013
DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
EN/SET Serial Interface
The current source output magnitude is controlled by the
EN/SET pin, using Skyworks' Simple Serial Control
(S2Cwire) interface. The interface records rising edges of
the EN/SET pin, and decodes them into 32 individual current level settings each 1dB apart. Code 32 is full scale,
and Code 1 is full scale attenuated by 31dB. The modulo
32 interface wraps states back to State 1 after the 32nd
clock, so 1dB of attenuation is achieved by clocking the
EN/SET pin 31 times. The counter can be clocked at
speeds up to 1MHz, so intermediate states are not visible.
The first rising edge of EN/SET enables the IC and initially sets the output LED current to -31dB, the lowest
setting equal to 525μA. Once the final clock cycle is input
for the desired brightness level, the EN/SET pin is held
high to maintain the device output current at the programmed level. The device is disabled 500μs after the EN/
SET pin transitions to a logic low state. The EN/SET timing
is designed to accommodate a wide range of data rates.
After the first rising edge of EN/SET, the charge pump is
enabled and reaches full capacity after the soft-start time
(tSS). During the soft-start time, multiple clock pulses may
be entered on the EN/SET pin to set the final output current level with a single burst of clocks. Alternatively, the
EN/SET clock pulses may be entered one at a time to
gradually increase LED brightness over any desired time
period. A constant current is sourced as long as EN/SET
remains in a logic high state. The current source outputs
are switched off after EN/SET has remained in a low state
for at least the tOFF timeout period.
LED Selection
The AAT3123/23A/24 is specifically intended for driving
white LEDs. However, the device design will allow the
AAT3123/23A/24 to drive most types of LEDs with forward voltage specifications ranging from 2.0V to 4.3V.
LED applications may include main and sub-LCD display
backlighting, camera photo-flash applications, color
(RGB) LEDs, infrared (IR) diodes for remotes, and other
loads benefiting from a controlled output current generated from a varying input voltage. Since the D1 to D6
output current sources are matched with negligible voltage dependence, LED brightness will be matched regardless of the specific LED forward voltage (VF) levels.
In some instances (e.g., in high luminous output applications such as photo flash), it may be necessary to drive
high-VF type LEDs. The low-dropout current sources in
the AAT3123/23A/24 make it capable of driving LEDs
with forward voltages as high as 4.3V at full current from
an input supply as low as 3.0V. Outputs can be paralleled
to drive high-current LEDs without complication.
Device Switching Noise Performance
The AAT3123/23A/24 operates at a fixed frequency of
approximately 1MHz to control noise and limit harmonics
that can interfere with the RF operation of cellular telephone handsets or other communication devices. Backinjected noise appearing on the input pin of the charge
pump is 20mV peak-to-peak, typically ten times less than
inductor-based DC/DC boost converter white LED backlight solutions. The AAT3123/23A/24 soft-start feature
prevents noise transient effects associated with inrush
currents during start-up of the charge pump circuit.
Power Efficiency and Device Evaluation
The charge pump efficiency discussion in the following
sections only accounts for efficiency of the charge pump
section itself. Due to the unique circuit architecture and
design of the AAT3123/23A/24, it is very difficult to
measure efficiency in terms of a percent value comparing input power over output power.
EN/SET Timing
tLO
tHI
tOFF
EN/SET
Code
OFF
1
2
3
OFF
Skyworks Solutions, Inc. • Phone [781] 376-3000 • Fax [781] 376-3100 • sales@skyworksinc.com • www.skyworksinc.com
202135B • Skyworks Proprietary Information • Products and Product Information are Subject to Change Without Notice. • February 26, 2013
9
DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Since the AAT3123/23A/24 outputs are pure constant
current sources and typically drive individual loads, it is
difficult to measure the output voltage for a given output
(D1 to D6) to derive an overall output power measurement. For any given application, white LED forward voltage levels can differ, yet the output drive current will be
maintained as a constant.
This makes quantifying output power a difficult task
when taken in the context of comparing to other white
LED driver circuit topologies. A better way to quantify
total device efficiency is to observe the total input power
to the device for a given LED current drive level. The
best white LED driver for a given application should be
based on trade-offs of size, external component count,
reliability, operating range, and total energy usage...not
just % efficiency.
The AAT3123/23A/24 efficiency may be quantified under
very specific conditions and is dependent upon the input
voltage versus the output voltage seen across the loads
applied to outputs D1 through D4 or D6 for a given constant current setting. Depending upon the case of VIN
being greater than the specific voltage seen across the
load on D1 (or D5 when the AAT3124 is used) the device
will operate in load switch mode. If the voltage seen on
the constant current source output is less than VIN, then
the device will operate in 1.5X charge pump mode. Each
of these two modes will yield different efficiency values.
Refer to the following two sections for explanations of
each operational mode.
Load Switch Mode Efficiency
The AAT3123/23A/24 load switch mode is operational at
all times and functions alone to enhance device power
conversion efficiency when the condition exists where VIN
is greater than voltage across the load connected to the
constant current source outputs. When in load switch
mode, the voltage conversion efficiency is defined as
output power divided by input power:
η=
POUT
PIN
The expression to define the ideal efficiency () can be
rewritten as:
P
V
∙I
V
η = OUT = OUT OUT = OUT
VIN ∙ IOUT
VIN
PIN
10
-or-
η(%) = 100
⎛ VOUT ⎞
⎝ VIN ⎠
Charge Pump Section Efficiency
The AAT3123/23A/24 contains a fractional charge pump
which will boost the input supply voltage in the event
where VIN is less than the voltage required on the constant current source outputs. The efficiency () can be
simply defined as a linear voltage regulator with an
effective output voltage that is equal to one and one half
times the input voltage. Efficiency () for an ideal 1.5X
charge pump can typically be expressed as the output
power divided by the input power:
η=
POUT
PIN
In addition, with an ideal 1.5X charge pump, the output
current may be expressed as 2/3 of the input current.
The expression to define the ideal efficiency () can be
rewritten as:
η=
POUT
VOUT ∙ IOUT
V
=
= OUT
PIN
VIN ∙ 1.5IOUT 1.5VIN
-or-
η(%) = 100
⎛ VOUT ⎞
⎝ 1.5VIN⎠
For a charge pump with an output of 5V and a nominal
input of 3.5V, the theoretical efficiency is 95%. Due to
internal switching losses and IC quiescent current consumption, the actual efficiency can be measured at 93%.
These figures are in close agreement for output load conditions from 1mA to 100mA. Efficiency will decrease as
load current drops below 0.05mA or when the level of VIN
approaches VOUT. Refer to the Typical Characteristics section of this datasheet for measured plots of efficiency
versus input voltage and output load current for the given
charge pump output voltage options.
Capacitor Selection
Careful selection of the four external capacitors CIN, C1,
C2, and COUT is important because they will affect turn-on
time, output ripple, and transient performance. Optimum
performance will be obtained when low equivalent series
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DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
resistance (ESR) ceramic capacitors are used. In general, low ESR may be defined as less than 100m. A value
of 1μF for all four capacitors is a good starting point
when choosing capacitors. If the LED current sources are
only programmed for light current levels, then the
capacitor size may be decreased.
Capacitor Characteristics
Ceramic composition capacitors are highly recommended over all other types of capacitors for use with the
AAT3123/23A/24. Ceramic capacitors offer many advantages over their tantalum and aluminum electrolytic
counterparts. A ceramic capacitor typically has very low
ESR, is lowest cost, has a smaller PCB footprint, and is
non-polarized. Low ESR ceramic capacitors help to maximize charge pump transient response. Since ceramic
capacitors are non-polarized, they are not prone to
incorrect connection damage.
Equivalent Series Resistance
ESR is an important characteristic to consider when
selecting a capacitor. ESR is a resistance internal to a
capacitor that is caused by the leads, internal connections, size or area, material composition, and ambient
temperature. Capacitor ESR is typically measured in milliohms for ceramic capacitors and can range to more
than several ohms for tantalum or aluminum electrolytic
capacitors.
Ceramic Capacitor Materials
Ceramic capacitors less than 0.1μF are typically made
from NPO or C0G materials. NPO and C0G materials
typically have tight tolerance and are stable over temperature. Large capacitor values are typically composed
of X7R, X5R, Z5U, or Y5V dielectric materials. Large
ceramic capacitors, typically greater than 2.2μF, are
often available in low-cost Y5V and Z5U dielectrics, but
capacitors greater than 1μF are typically not required for
AAT3123/23A/24 applications.
Capacitor area is another contributor to ESR. Capacitors
that are physically large will have a lower ESR when
compared to an equivalent material smaller capacitor.
These larger devices can improve circuit transient
response when compared to an equal value capacitor in
a smaller package size.
Test Current/Channel Disable
Each channel of the output is equipped with test current
function. A small amount of current (~2μA) is injected
into each output current source to detect the presence of
load (LED). Unused channels, except channel 1 of
AAT3123/23A and channel 5 of AAT3124, should be left
open and will be automatically disabled instead of wasting the programmed output current. The test current in
the AAT3123A is higher (~150μA) to accommodate LEDs
with lower impedance in failure mode.
Thermal Protection
The AAT3123/23A/24 has a thermal protection circuit
that will shut down the internal LDO and charge pump if
the die temperature rises above the thermal limit, as is
the case during a short-circuit of the OUT pin.
Driving Multiple LEDs, White LED
Display Module Backlights, and
Individual LEDs Connected in Parallel
The AAT3123/23A/24 D1 to D6 outputs are true constant
current sources capable of driving up to 20mA each over
the operation input voltage range. Since these outputs
are true constant current sources, they may be connected in parallel to drive a single power output. Any
combination of outputs (D1 to D6) may be connected in
parallel. The maximum total output current is a sum of
how many current sources are parallel connected. This
feature is particularly useful to power pre-manufactured
display modules which are pre-wired with white LED
backlights connected in a parallel circuit configuration.
Any combination of outputs may be connected in parallel
to drive groups of LEDs. The AAT3123 internal current
source reference circuit bases feedback from current
sensed on the D1 output. The AAT3124 internal current
source reference circuit bases feedback from current
sensed on the D1 and D5 outputs. For best operation,
the only requirement for this type of application is the
output D1 (and/or D5 for the AAT3124) should always be
connected to the load circuit.
The AAT3124 may be used to drive multiple LEDs having
differing forward voltages. Using feedback techniques,
the current in D1 to D4 output current sources are referenced to the current in the LED connected to D1. In the
AAT3124 (six-output version), the D5 and D6 output cur-
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11
DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
rent sources are referenced to the current in D5, not to
D1. If all six LEDs are of similar type, the diodes will be
matched in current, maintaining uniform LED brightness
despite variations in manufacturer, production, etc.
optimally drive each set of LEDs at the programmed current level (see application schematics). The photo flash
can be disabled by an N-channel switch connected in
series with the photo-flash LED.
However, if the diodes are dramatically different in type
comprising a mix of high-VF and low-VF LEDs, the
AAT3124 has the capability to optimally and simultaneously drive up to four LEDs of one type and up to two
LEDs of another type. Such a feature can be useful for
driving different color LEDs; driving both display backlight and photo-flash LEDs; or for driving main-LCD and
sub-LCD display LED backlights from a single charge
pump IC.
The AAT3123/23A/24 has only one programmed value of
current and does not allow for separate on/off or brightness control of each current source output. This limitation can easily be circumvented by introducing grounded
source N-channel MOSFET switches in series with the
LEDs to turn any given LED (or bank of LEDs) on or off.
The various LEDs can be turned on and off independently, simultaneously, or multiplexed to produce any
variety of lighting effects. By reprogramming the current
source (via the serial interface) between switching transitions, the brightness of individual LEDs or banks of
LEDs can also be controlled.
For example, when driving independent RGB LEDs, the
green and blue LEDs typically require a high VF to operate
(e.g., 3.7V), while the red LED needs a low forward voltage (e.g., 2V). By connecting the green and blue diodes
to outputs D1 to D4 and the red diodes to D5 and D6,
good control and uniformity in brightness are maintained
despite the 2V difference in the diode forward voltages.
The AAT3124 determines if the 1.5X charge pump circuit
is needed based on the voltage on D1 and D5, whichever
is higher. If adequate voltage is available to drive the
higher voltage LED (of output D1 or D5) without the
charge pump running, the IC automatically switches into
step-down (1X) mode to maximize efficiency.
Similarly, if a 4V photo-flash LED array is connected to
outputs D1 through D4 (with the outputs shorted together) and two 3.3V sub-LCD-display backlight LEDs are
connected to outputs D5 and D6, then the AAT3124 can
12
Charge Pump Compatibility
The four-output AAT3123 is pin compatible with the
AAT3113 in both QFN and TSOPJW packages. The sixoutput AAT3124 is pin compatible with the AAT3114 in
the QFN package. Compared to the AAT3113/14, the
AAT3123/23A/24 offers an improved overall efficiency,
wider operating range, and the ability to drive high-VF
LEDs (up to 4.3V) at full current from a 3V input condition. The AAT3123/23A/24 is well suited for batterypowered applications using single-cell lithium-ion (li-ion)
batteries (4.2V to 2.8V), lithium-polymer batteries, and
3-series connected dry cells (3.6V).
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DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Additional Application Circuits
VIN
C1+
C1
1μF
C1C2+
VOUT
CIN
1μF
VBATTERY
AAT3123
AAT3123A
C OUT
1μF
C2
1μF
C2D1
D2
D3
D4
EN/SET
EN/SET
Display Module
D1
GND
D2
RB1
D3
RB2
D4
RB3
RB4
Resistor R is optional
AAT3123/23A Driving a Display Module with Four Paralleled White LEDs.
VIN
C1+
C1
1μF
C1C2+
VOUT
VBATTERY
CIN
1μF
C OUT
1μF
AAT3124
C2
1μF
D1
D2
D3
D4
RB1
RB2
RB3
RB4
C2-
EN/SET
EN/SET
GND
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
Resistor R is optional
D5
RB5
D6
RB6
Resistor R is optional
AAT3124 Driving Two Groups of Paralleled White LEDs (e.g., main and sub-LCD backlights).
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DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Additional Application Circuits (continued)
VIN
C1+
C1
1μF
C1C2+
VOUT
CIN
VBATTERY
C OUT
1μF
1μF
C2
1μF
AAT3124
C2-
EN/SET
EN/SET
GND
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
RB1*
RB2*
RB3*
RB4*
RB5*
RB6*
Photo-Flash LED
Resistor R is optional
*In some applications, white LED forward voltages (VF) can vary significantly. Ballast resistors between the LED cathodes and ground are recommended
for balancing the forward voltage differences. The ballast resistor value may be approximated by the following equation:
RB =
VSOURCE - VF
IF
AAT3124 Driving a High-Current Photo-Flash LED.
VIN
C1+
C1
1μF
C1C2+
VOUT
VBATTERY
CIN
COUT
1μF
1μF
AAT3124
C2
1μF
C2-
EN/SET
EN/SET
GND
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D1
D5
D2
D3
D4
D6
Enable Display Backlight
Enable Keyboard Backlight
AAT3124 Driving Two Groups of Paralleled White LEDs (with series N-channel switch).
14
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DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Additional Application Circuits (continued)
VIN
C1+
C1
1μF
C1C2+
VOUT
VBATTERY
CIN
C OUT
1μF
1μF
C2
1μF
AAT3124
C2-
EN/SET
EN/SET
GND
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
RED1
RED2
GRN1
GRN2
BLU1
BLU2
Enable Red
Enable Green
Enable Blue
AAT3124 Separately Driving RGB Color LEDs.
VIN
C1+
C1
1μF
C1C2+
VOUT
VBATTERY
CIN
1μF
COUT
1μF
AAT3124
C2
1μF
C2-
EN/SET
EN/SET
GND
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
Common-Anode
RGB Color LED
RED
GRN
BLU
Enable Red
Enable Green
Enable Blue
AAT3124 Driving Common-Anode RGB Color LED.
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15
DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
Ordering Information
Package
Marking1
Part Number (Tape and Reel)2
TSOPJW-12
IRXYY
AAT3123ITP-20-T1
TSOPJW-12
OIXYY
AAT3123AITP-20-T1
QFN44-16
TSOPJW-14
ISXYY
4BXYY
AAT3124ISN-20-T1
AAT3124ITO-20-T1
Description
4-Channel Output
4-Channel Output with Increased Start-Up Current (see
“Test Current/Channel Disable” section on page 11)
6-Channel Output
6-Channel Output
Skyworks Green™ products are compliant with
all applicable legislation and are halogen-free.
For additional information, refer to Skyworks
Definition of Green™, document number
SQ04-0074.
Package Information
TSOPJW-12
2.85 ± 0.20
2.40 ± 0.10
0.20 + 0.10
- 0.05
0.50 BSC 0.50 BSC 0.50 BSC 0.50 BSC 0.50 BSC
7° NOM
0.055 ± 0.045
0.04 REF
0.15 ± 0.05
+ 0.10
1.00 - 0.065
0.9625 ± 0.0375
3.00 ± 0.10
4° ± 4°
0.45 ± 0.15
0.010
2.75 ± 0.25
All dimensions in millimeters.
1. XYY = assembly and date code.
2. Sample stock is generally held on all part numbers listed in BOLD.
16
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DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
QFN44-161
2.400 ± 0.050
16
2.400 ± 0.050
1
C0.3
0.650 BSC
4
8
5
2.280 REF
Top View
0.025 ± 0.025
Bottom View
0.214 ± 0.036
0.900 ± 0.100
4.000 ± 0.050
13
9
4.000 ± 0.050
Pin 1 Identification
0.330 ± 0.075
0.550 ± 0.020
Pin 1 Dot By Marking
Side View
All dimensions in millimeters.
1. The leadless package family, which includes QFN, TQFN, DFN, TDFN and STDFN, has exposed copper (unplated) at the end of the lead terminals due to the manufacturing
process. A solder fillet at the exposed copper edge cannot be guaranteed and is not required to ensure a proper bottom solder connection.
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DATA SHEET
AAT3123/23A/24
High Efficiency 1X/1.5X Fractional Charge Pump for White LED Applications
TSOPJW-14
2.85 ± 0.20
2.40 ± 0.10
0.20 +- 0.10
0.05
0.40 BSC
Top View
0.04 REF
0.05 +- 0.05
0.04
Side View
0.15 ± 0.05
+ 0.05
1.05 - 0.00
+ 0.000
1.00 - 0.075
3.05 +- 0.05
0.10
4° ± 4°
0.45 ± 0.15
2.75 ± 0.25
End View
All dimensions in millimeters.
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Customers are responsible for their products and applications using Skyworks products, which may deviate from published specifications as a result of design defects, errors, or operation of products outside of published parameters or design specifications. Customers should include design and operating safeguards to minimize these and other risks. Skyworks assumes no liability for applications assistance, customer product
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