AAT3685: Li-Ion/Polymer Battery Charger

DATA SHEET
AAT3685: Li-Ion/Polymer Battery Charger
Applications
Description
 Cellular telephones
The AAT3685 BatteryManager™ is a highly integrated single cell
lithium-ion/polymer battery charger IC designed to operate with
USB port or line adapter inputs. It requires the minimum number
of external components.
 Digital still cameras
 Hand-held PCs
 MP3 players
 Personal Data Assistants (PDAs)
 Other lithium-ion/polymer battery-powered devices
Features
 Adapter or USB charger
 Programmable up to 1 A max.
 4.0 V to 5.5 V input voltage range
 High level of integration with internal:
 Charging device
 Reverse blocking diode
 Current sensing
 Automatic recharge sequencing
 Charge reduction loop
 Battery temperature monitoring
 Full battery charge auto turn-off
 Over-voltage protection
 Emergency thermal protection
 Power on reset and soft start
 Serial interface status reporting
 Pb-free, thermally-enhance TDFN (12-pin, 3 mm  3 mm)
package (MSL1, 260 ºC per JEDEC J-STD-020)
The AAT3685 precisely regulates battery charge voltage and
current for 4.2 V lithium-ion/polymer battery cells. Regardless of
the type of input power source (USB or adapter), the AAT3685 can
be programmed for two separate constant current charge levels
up to 1 A. An optional Charge Reduction Loop is built in to allow
users to charge the battery with available current from the charge
supply, while keeping the port voltage regulated.
Battery temperature and charge state are fully monitored for fault
conditions. In the event of an over-voltage or over-temperature
failure, the device will automatically shut down, thus protecting
the charging device, control system, and the battery under
charge. Status monitor output pins are provided to indicate the
battery charge status by directly driving two external LEDs. A
serial interface output is available to report any one of 14 various
status states to a microcontroller.
The AAT3685 is available in a Pb-free, thermally-enhanced,
space-saving 12-pin 3 × 3mm TDFN package and is rated over
the −40 °C to +85 °C temperature range.
A typical application circuit is shown in Figure 1. The pin
configurations are shown in Figure 2. Signal pin assignments and
functional pin descriptions are provided in Table 1.
Skyworks Green™ products are compliant with
all applicable legislation and are halogen-free.
For additional information, refer to Skyworks
Definition of Green™, document number
SQ04-0074.
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1
DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
Enable
EN
Adapter or USB Input
ADP/USB
CHR
Input Hi/Lo Select
PWRSEL
BAT
BATT+
SETH
AAT3685
RSETH
SETL
C2
10 μF
BATT−
TS
GND
RSETL
DATA
STAT1
TEMP
STAT2
Battery Pack
Serial Data
tc424
Figure 1. AAT3685 Typical Application Circuit
ADP/USB
1
12
SETH
BAT
2
11
SETL
GND
3
10
PWRSEL
CHR
4
9
STAT1
EN
5
8
STAT2
TS
6
7
DATA
tc425
Figure 2. AAT3685 Pinout – 12-Pin, 3 mm  3 mm TDFN
(Top View)
Table 1. AAT3685 Signal Descriptions
Pin
Name
Type
Description
1
ADP/USB
In
Line adapter or USB power supply input.
2
BAT
In/Out
Battery charging and sensing.
3
GND
Ground
Ground connection.
4
CHR
In/Out
Resistor divider to set USB voltage regulation for charge reduction mode. Leave this pin open for default 4.5 V USB
regulation point. Tie to ADP/USB pin to disable this function.
5
EN
In
Enable pin. Logic high enables the IC.
6
TS
In/Out
Connect to 10 k NTC thermistor.
7
DATA
In/Out
Status report to microcontroller via serial interface, open-drain.
8
STAT2
Out
Battery charge status indicator pin to drive an LED: active low, open-drain.
9
STAT1
Out
Battery charge status indicator pin to drive an LED: active low, open-drain.
10
PWRSEL
In
When ADP/USB is present, use this pin to toggle between SETH and SETL charging levels.
11
SETL
In/Out
Connect resistor here to set charge current for low-current port.
12
SETH
In/Out
Connect resistor here to set charge current for high-current port.
EP
Exposed paddle (bottom); connect to GND directly beneath package.
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DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
Electrical and Mechanical Specifications
Typical performance characteristics of the AAT3685 are illustrated
in Figures 3 through 21.
Table 2 shows the AAT3685 feature options. The absolute
maximum ratings of the AAT3685 are provided in Table 3, the
thermal information is listed in Table 4, and electrical
specifications are provided in Table 5.
Table 2. AAT3685 Feature Options
Part Number
Internal Pull-up Resistor on EN Pin
Can Leave TS Pin Open
AAT3685
No
No
AAT3685-1
Yes
Yes
Table 3. AAT3685 Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 1)
Parameter
Symbol
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Units
VADP
0.3
7.0
V
ADP/USB input voltage, continuous
VADP
0.3
6.0
V
BAT, PWRSEL, SETH, SETL, STAT1, STAT2, DATA, TS, CHR, EN
VN
0.3
6.0
V
Operating junction temperature range
TJ
40
+85
ºC
Maximum soldering temperature (at leads)
TLEAD
300
ºC
ADP/USB input voltage, <30 ms, duty cycle <10%
Note 1: Exposure to maximum rating conditions for extended periods may reduce device reliability. There is no damage to device with only one parameter set at the limit and all other
parameters set at or below their nominal value. Exceeding any of the limits listed may result in permanent damage to the device.
Table 4. AAT3685 Thermal Information
Parameter
Symbol
Value
Units
Maximum thermal resistance (Note 1)
JA
50
ºC/W
Maximum power dissipation
PD
2
W
Note 1: Mounted on an FR4 board.
CAUTION: Although this device is designed to be as robust as possible, electrostatic discharge (ESD) can damage this device. This device
must be protected at all times from ESD. Static charges may easily produce potentials of several kilovolts on the human body
or equipment, which can discharge without detection. Industry-standard ESD precautions should be used at all times.
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DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
Table 5. AAT3685 Electrical Specifications (1 of 2) (Note 1)
(VADP = 5 V, TA = –40 C to +85 C. Unless Otherwise Noted, Typical Values are TA = 25 C)
Parameter
Symbol
Test Condition
Min
Typical
Max
Units
5.5
V
Operation
Input voltage range
ADP/USB
Under-voltage lockout
4.0
Rising edge
3.0
V
VUVLO
Under-voltage lockout hysteresis
150
mV
Operating current
IOP
CC charge current = 500 mA
0.75
1.5
mA
Sleep mode current
ISLEEP
VBAT = 4.25 V
0.3
1.0
A
Reverse leakage current from BAT pin
ILEAKAGE
VBAT = 4 V, ADP/USB pin open
End of charge voltage accuracy (Note 2)
VBAT_EOC
EOC voltage tolerance
VBAT/VBAT
Preconditioning voltage threshold
VMIN
Battery recharge voltage threshold
VRCH
A
1.0
4.158
4.2
4.242
0.5
2.8
3.0
%
3.15
VBAT_EOC − 0.1
No connection on CHR pin
V
V
V
Charge reduction regulation
VADP/USB_CHR
4.3
4.5
4.64
V
CHR pin voltage accuracy
VCHR
1.9
2.0
2.1
V
Charge current
ICH
50
1000
mA
Charge current regulation tolerance
ICH/ICH
10
%
SETH pin voltage
VSETH
CC Mode
2.0
V
SETL pin voltage
VSETL
CC Mode
2.0
V
Current set factor: ICHARGE/ISETH
KIUH
2000
Current set factor: ICHARGE/ISETL
KIUL
2000
Current Regulation
Charging Devices
Charge MOSFET transistor on resistance
RDS(ON)U
VIN = 5.5 V
0.4
0.5
0.65
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
DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
Table 5. AAT3685 Electrical Specifications (2 of 2) (Note 1)
(VADP = 5 V, TA = –40 C to +85C. Unless Otherwise Noted, Typical Values are TA = 25 C)
Logic Control/Protection
Input high threshold
VPWRSEL(H)
Input low threshold
VPWRSEL(L)
1.6
V
0.4
V
Input high threshold
VEN(H)
Input low threshold
VEN(L)
1.6
V
Output low voltage
VSTAT
STAT pin current sink capability
ISTAT
8.0
mA
Over-voltage protection threshold
VOVP
4.4
V
Pre-charge current
ITK/ICHG
0.4
STAT pin sinks 4 mA
V
0.4
V
For SETH Mode
10
%
For SETL Mode
50
%
7.5
%
Charge termination threshold current
ITERM/ICHG
For SETH Mode
Charge termination threshold current
ITERM/ICHG
For SETL Mode
Current source from TS pin
ITS
TS hot temperature fault
TS1
Threshold
35
80
90
310
330
350
Hysteresis
Threshold
%
70
15
2.2
2.3
A
mV
mV
2.4
V
TS cold temperature fault
TS2
DATA pin sink current
IDATA
Input high threshold
VDATA(H)
Input low threshold
VDATA(L)
Status request pulse width
SQPULSE
System clock period
tPERIOD
50
s
Data output frequency
fDATA
20
kHz
Over-temperature shutdown threshold
TOVSD
145
°C
Hysteresis
DATA pin is active low state
10
mV
3.0
mA
1.6
V
0.4
Status request
V
200
ns
Note 1: Performance is guaranteed only under the conditions listed in this table.
Note 2: The AAT3685 output charge voltage is specified over the 0 to 70 °C ambient temperature range; operation over the −40 °C to +85 °C temperature range is guaranteed by design.
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DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
Typical Performance Characteristics
(VADP = 5 V, TA = –40 C to +85C. Unless Otherwise Noted, Typical Values are TA = 25 C)
4.242
10000
VBAT (V)
SETL
SETH
4.179
10
1
4.200
10
100
tc437
100
tc436
IFASTCHARGE (mA)
4.221
1000
4.158
4.5
1000
4.75
5
RSET (kΩ
Ω)
5.25
5.5
Supply Voltage (V)
Figure 4. Battery Voltage vs Supply Voltage
Figure 3. IFASTCHARGE vs RSET
4.242
4.140
4.130
4.120
4.221
4.100
VEOC (V)
VRCH (V)
4.110
4.090
4.080
4.070
4.200
4.179
4.040
-50
tc438
4.050
-25
0
25
50
75
4.158
-50
100
tc439
4.060
-25
0
25
50
75
100
Temperature (°°C)
Temperature (°°C)
Figure 6. End of Charge Voltage vs Temperature
Figure 5. Recharge Voltage vs Temperature
120
3.05
3.04
3.03
110
3.01
ICH (mA)
VMIN (V)
3.02
3.00
2.99
2.98
100
90
2.95
-50
tc440
2.96
-25
0
25
50
75
100
Temperature (°°C)
Figure 7. Preconditioning Threshold Voltage vs Temperature
80
-50
tc441
2.97
-25
0
25
50
75
Temperature (ºC)
Figure 8. Preconditioning Charge Current vs Temperature
(SETH; RSETH = 3.83 k)
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DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
1200
1100
1080
1000
1060
800
1020
ICH (mA)
1000
980
600
400
960
940
200
900
-50
tc442
920
-25
0
25
50
75
tc443
ICH (mA)
1040
0
2.5
100
3
3.5
4
4.5
Battery Voltage (V)
Temperature (ºC)
Figure 10. Charge Current vs Battery Voltage
(SETH; RSETH = 3.83 k)
Figure 9. Fast Charge Current vs Temperature
(SETH; RSETH = 3.83 k)
120
1200
100
1000
80
800
600
40
400
20
200
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
VBAT = 3.9 V
VBAT = 3.5 V
tc445
ICH (mA)
60
tc444
ICH (mA)
VBAT = 3.3 V
0
4.5
4
4.25
4.5
4.75
5.25
5.5
5.75
6
Supply Voltage (V)
Battery Voltage (V)
Figure 12. Fast Charge Current vs Supply Voltage
(SETH; RSETH = 3.83 k)
Figure 11. Charge Current vs Battery Voltage
(SETL; RSETL = 40.2 k)
1200
120
0 ºC
VBAT = 3.5 V
1000
100
VBAT = 3.9 V
70 ºC
800
VBAT = 3.3 V
25 ºC
600
400
20
200
tc446
40
0
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
Supply Voltage (V)
Figure 13. Fast Charge Current vs Supply Voltage
(SETL; RSETL = 40.2 k)
6.5
0
4.40
tc447
60
ICH (mA)
80
ICH (mA)
5
4.50
4.60
4.70
4.80
4.90
5.00
Supply Voltage (V)
Figure 14. Fast Charge Current vs Supply Voltage
(SETH; RSETH = 3.83 k)
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DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
–40 ºC
1.1
1.1
+25 ºC
VIL (V)
0.9
–40 ºC
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
+85 ºC
0.6
0.6
0.4
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.8
5
5.2
5.4
5.6
5.8
+85 ºC
0.5
tc448
0.5
0.4
4.2
6
4.4
4.6
4.8
5
5.2
5.4
5.6
5.8
6
Supply Voltage (V)
Supply Voltage (V)
Figure 16. VIL vs Supply Voltage (EN Pin Falling)
Figure 15. VIH vs Supply Voltage (EN Pin Rising)
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
–40 ºC
+25 ºC
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.0
VIL (V)
0.9
–40 ºC
+25 °C
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
+85 ºC
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.4
4.2
tc450
0.6
4.4
4.6
4.8
5
5.2
5.4
5.6
5.8
6
+85 °C
tc451
VIH (V)
+25 ºC
1.0
tc449
VIH (V)
1.0
0.4
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.8
5
5.2
5.4
5.6
5.8
6
Supply Voltage (V)
Supply Voltage (V)
Figure 18. VIL vs Supply Voltage (PWRSEL Pin Falling)
Figure 17. VIH vs Supply Voltage (PWRSEL Pin Rising)
USB VBUS
(200 mV/div)
0.80
0.70
USB Charge
Current
(200 mA/div)
0.60
Constant Current
IQ (mA)
0.50
Charge Reduction
Mode Activated
0.40
0.30
tc452
0.10
0.00
1
10
100
SETH Resistor (kΩ
Ω)
Figure 19. Supply Current vs SETH Resistor
1000
tc453
USB Peripheral
Current
Consumption
(200 mA/div)
Pre-Conditioning
0.20
0
2
4
6
8
Time (s)
Figure 20. Charge Current vs Time (SETH; RSETH = 8.06 k)
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DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
88
TS Pin CUrrent (m
mA)
86
84
82
80
78
76
72
-50
tc454
74
-25
0
25
50
75
100
Temperature (ºC)
Figure 21. Temperature Sense Output Current vs Temperature
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DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
Reverse Blocking
ADP/USB
PWRSEL
SETH
SETL
CHR
BAT
Current
Compare
Charge
Reduction
Loop
Constant
Current
CV/
Precharge
Charge
Control
UVLO
OverTemperature
Protect
STAT1
Charge
Status
STAT2
80 A
TS
Serial
Data
DATA
Window
Comparator
IC enable
EN
GND
tc425
Figure 22. AAT3685 Functional Block Diagram
Functional Description
A functional block diagram is shown in Figure 22.
The AAT3685 is a highly integrated single cell li-ion/polymer
battery charger IC designed to operate from adapter or USB port
VBUS supplies, while requiring a minimum number of external
components. The device precisely regulates battery charge
voltage and current for 4.2 V li-ion/polymer battery cells.
The AAT3685 is specifically designed for being powered from a
USB port VBUS supply, but it can also be powered from any input
voltage source capable supplying 4.5 V to 5.5 V for loads up to
1 A. The AAT3685 constant charge current can be externally
programmed for two levels, SETH and SETL, for maximum
constant current charge levels up to 1 A. The SETH/L mode has
an automatic Charge Reduction Loop control to allow users to
charge the battery with limited available current from a port
while maintaining the regulated port voltage. This system
assures the battery charge function will not overload the port
while charging if other system demands also share power with
the respective port supply.
interface output is available to report 14 various charge states
to a system microcontroller.
Battery temperature and charge state are fully monitored for
fault conditions. In the event of an over-voltage or overtemperature failure, the device will automatically shut down,
thus protecting the charging device, control system, and the
battery under charge. In addition to internal charge controller
thermal protection, the AAT3685 also provides a temperature
sense feedback function (TS pin) from the battery to shut down
the device in the event the battery exceeds its own thermal limit
during charging. All fault events are reported to the user either
by the simple status LEDs or via the DATA pin function.
Charging Operation
The AAT3685 has four basic modes for the battery charge cycle
and is powered from the input: pre-conditioning/trickle charge;
constant current/fast charge; constant voltage; and end of
charge. For reference, Figure 23 shows the current versus
voltage profile during charging phases.
Status monitor output pins are provided to indicate the battery
charge status by directly driving two external LEDs. A serial
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DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
Battery Preconditioning
Constant Voltage Charging
Before the start of charging, the AAT3685 checks several
conditions in order to assure a safe charging environment. The
input supply must be above the minimum operating voltage, or
under-voltage lockout threshold (VUVLO), for the charging
sequence to begin. In addition, the cell temperature, as reported
by a thermistor connected to the TS pin from the battery, must
be within the proper window for safe charging. When these
conditions have been met and a battery is connected to the BAT
pin, the AAT3685 checks the state of the battery. If the cell
voltage is below the Preconditioning Voltage Threshold (VMIN),
the AAT3685 begins preconditioning the cell.
The system transitions to a constant voltage charging mode
when the battery voltage reaches output charge regulation
threshold (VBAT) during the constant current, fast charge phase.
The regulation voltage level is factory programmed to 4.2 V
(1%). The charge current in the constant voltage mode drops as
the battery cell under charge reaches its maximum capacity.
End of Charge Cycle Termination and Recharge Sequence
When the charge current drops to 7.5% of the programmed fast
charge current level in the constant voltage mode, the device
terminates charging and goes into a sleep state. The charger
will remain in a sleep state until the battery voltage decreases
to a level below the battery recharge voltage threshold (VRCH).
The battery preconditioning trickle charge current is equal to
the fast charge constant current divided by 10. For example, if
the programmed fast charge current is 500 mA, then the
preconditioning mode (trickle charge) current will be 50 mA.
Cell preconditioning is a safety precaution for a deeply
discharged battery and also aids in limiting power dissipation in
the pass transistor when the voltage across the device is at the
greatest potential.
When the input supply is disconnected, the charger will also
automatically enter power-saving sleep mode. Only consuming
an ultra-low 0.3 A in sleep mode, the AAT3685 minimizes
battery drain when it is not charging. This feature is particularly
useful in applications where the input supply level may fall
below the battery charge or under-voltage lockout level. In such
cases where the AAT3685 input voltage drops, the device will
enter the sleep mode and automatically resume charging once
the input supply has recovered from its fault condition.
Fast Charge/Constant Current Charging
Battery cell preconditioning continues until the voltage on the
BAT pin exceeds the Preconditioning Voltage Threshold (VMIN).
At this point, the AAT3685 begins the constant current fast
charging phase. The fast charge constant current (ICC)
amplitude is determined by the selected charge mode SETH or
SETL and is programmed by the user via the RSETH and RSETL
resistors. The AAT3685 remains in constant current charge
mode until the battery reaches the voltage regulation point,
VBAT.
Charge Complete Voltage
Regulated Current
Preconditioning
Trickle Charge
Phase
System Operation Flow Chart
Figure 24 illustrates the system operation flow chart for the
battery charger.
Constant Current
Charge Phase
Constant Voltage
Charge Phase
I = Max CC
Constant Current Mode
Voltage Threshold
Trickle Charge and
Termination Threshold
I = CC/10
tc427
Figure 23 . Current vs Voltage Profile during Charging Phases
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11
DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
Switch
On
UVLO
VADP > VUVLO
No
Sleep
Mode
Yes
Input Power
SETL
Current Loop
0
SETH
Current Loop
1
Power On
Reset
Fault
Conditions Monitor
OV, OT
Yes
No
Yes
Battery
Temperature Monitor
VTS1 < VTS < VTS2
Input Detect
PWRSEL= ?
Shut Down
Mode
No
Battery
Temp. Fault
Input Voltage
Regulation
Enable
No
No
Recharge Test
VRCH > VBAT
Yes
Preconditioning Test
VMIN > VBAT
Yes
Low Current
Conditioning
Charge
Port Voltage Test
VADP/USB < VADP/USB_CHR
Yes
No
Current Phase Test
VEOC > VBAT
Yes
Current
Charging
Mode
Yes
Voltage
Charging
Mode
Charge
Current
Reduction
No
Voltage Phase Test
IBAT > ITERM
No
Charge
Completed
tc428
Figure 24. System Operation Flowchart for the Battery Charger
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DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
Application Information
Table 6. Constant Charging Current vs RSET
USB System Power Charging
Constant Charging Current (mA)
RSETH (k)
RSETL (k)
50
86.6
86.6
The USB charge mode provides two programmable fast charge
levels up to 1 A for each, SETH and SETL. The SETH or SETL
modes may be externally selected by the select pin (PWRSEL).
When the PWRSEL pin is connected to a logic high level, the
SETH level will be active. Conversely, when PWRSEL is pulled to
a logic low level (ground), the SETL level will be used for fast
charging. These two charge levels may be user programmed to
any level between 50 mA and 1 A by selecting the appropriate
resistor values for RSETH and RSETL. Refer to Table 6 for
recommended RSETH and RSETL values for the desired input
constant current charge levels.
75
57.6
57.6
100
42.2
42.2
200
21.0
20.5
300
13.7
13.7
400
10.2
10.2
500
8.06
8.06
600
6.65
6.65
700
5.62
5.62
800
4.87
4.87
Charge Reduction
900
4.32
4.32
In many instances, product system designers do not know the
real properties of a potential port to be used to supply power to
the battery charger. Typical powered USB ports commonly
found on desktop and notebook PCs should supply up to
500 mA. In the event a port being used to supply the charger is
unable to provide the programmed fast charge current, or if the
system under charge must also share supply current with other
functions, the AAT3685 will automatically reduce USB fast
charge current to maintain port integrity and protect the host
system.
1000
3.83
3.83
The charge reduction system becomes active when the voltage
on the input falls below the charge reduction threshold
(VADP/USB_CHR), which is typically 4.5 V. Regardless of which
charge function is selected (SETH or SETL), the charge
reduction system will reduce the fast charge current level in a
linear fashion until the voltage sensed on the input recovers
above the charge reduction threshold voltage. The charge
reduction threshold (VADP/USB_CHR) may be externally set to a
value lower than 4.5 V by placing a resistor divider network
between VADP/USB and ground with the center connected to the
CHR pin. The charge reduction feature may be disabled by
connecting a 10 k resistor from the CHR pin directly to the
ADP/USB input pin.
The following equation may be used to approximate a USB
charge reduction threshold below 4.5 V:
V ADP/USB  2.0V 
R12  R11
R12
where, R11/R12 << 1 M.
Figure 25 gives the internal equivalent circuit for the CHR pin.
VADP/USB
ADP/USB
1.025 M
R11
CHR
VCHR = 2.0 V
R12
825 k
tc429
Figure 25. Internal Equivalent Circuit for the CHR Pin
Input Charge Inhibit and Resume
The AAT3685 UVLO and power on reset feature will function
when the input pin voltage level drops below the UVLO
threshold. At this point, the charger will suspend charging and
shut down. When power is re-applied to the ADP/USB pin or the
UVLO condition recovers, the system charge control will assess
the state of charge on the battery cell and will automatically
resume charging in the appropriate mode for the condition of
the battery.
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DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
In order to fully utilize the power capacity from a line adapter or
USB port supply, program the SETH charge rate according to
the highest charging current capacity of the two possible
sources, providing that neither supply exceeds 1 A. A lower
charge level may be set with the SETL charge rate and selection
of the higher or lower charge rate is controlled via the PWRSEL
function. If the programmed charge rate is greater than the
current source capacity, there is little danger of system failure
because the AAT3685 charge reduction loop will activate to
automatically reduce the charging current and maintain a
supply voltage set by the CHR threshold. If the input supply is
incapable of maintaining an input voltage greater than the
under-voltage lockout level of the AAT3685, the charge control
will suspend charging until the source supply is capable of
supplying the minimum input current to charge. At this point,
the AAT3685 will automatically resume charging in the
appropriate mode based on the battery cell voltage. In case of
an over-temperature condition with a high charge current and
large input-to-battery voltage difference, the device will cycle
from charging to thermal shutdown and re-charge after
temperature drops sufficiently, until the battery is charged to
4.2 V.
Enable/Disable
The AAT3685 provides an enable function to control the charger
IC on and off. The enable (EN) pin is an active high. When pulled
to a logic low level, the AAT3685 will be shut down and forced
into the sleep state. Charging will be halted regardless of the
battery voltage or charging state. When the device is reenabled, the charge control circuit will automatically reset and
resume charging functions with the appropriate charging mode
based on the battery charge state and measured cell voltage.
Programming Charge Current
The fast charge constant current charge level for the ADP/USB
input is programmed with set resistors placed between the
SETH and SETL pins and ground. The accuracy of the fast
charge, as well as the preconditioning trickle charge current, is
dominated by the tolerance of the set resistors used. For this
reason, 1% tolerance metal film resistors are recommended for
programming the desired constant current level.
10000
1000
SETL
100
SETH
tc430
Most USB charging applications limit charging current to 500
mA due to the limitations of a USB port as a power source. The
AAT3685 is capable of, and may be programmed for, constant
current charge levels up to 1 A. Thus, charging operation is not
just restricted to use with USB port supplies. Any power source
may be used within the operating voltage limits as specified in
the Electrical Characteristics section of this datasheet. This
makes the AAT3685 perfect for applications that only have one
input path, but may access either a line adapter source or a
USB port supply.
The fast charge constant current charge control provides for
two current set levels, SETH and SETL. The PWRSEL pin is used
to select the high or low charge current levels. When the
PWRSEL pin is pulled to a voltage level above the VPWRSEL(H)
threshold, the SETH current level will be selected. Conversely,
this pin should be pulled below the VPWRSEL(L) to enable the
SETL charge level. These two charge levels may be set to any
level between 50 mA and 1 A, depending upon the system
design requirements for a given charge application. Refer to
Table 6 and Figure 26 for recommended RSETH and RSETL
values.
IFASTCHARGE (mA)
Single Path Charging from a Line Adapter or USB Source
10
1
10
100
RSET (kΩ
Ω)
Figure 26. IFASTCHARGE vs RSET
Protection Circuitry
Over-Voltage Protection
An over-voltage event is defined as a condition where the
voltage on the BAT pin exceeds the maximum battery charge
voltage and is set by the over-voltage protection threshold
(VOVP). If an over-voltage condition occurs, the AAT3685 charge
control will shut down the device until voltage on the BAT pin
drops below the over-voltage protection threshold (VOVP). The
AAT3685 will resume normal charging operation after the overvoltage condition is removed. During an over-voltage event, the
STAT LEDs will report a system fault; the actual fault condition
may also be read via the DATA pin signal.
Over-Temperature Shutdown
The AAT3685 has a thermal protection control circuit which will
shut down charging functions should the internal die
temperature exceed the preset thermal limit threshold.
Battery Temperature Fault Monitoring
As shown in Figure 27, in the event of a battery
over-temperature condition, the charge control will turn off the
internal pass device and report a battery temperature fault on
the DATA pin function. The STAT LEDs will also display a
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DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
Battery Charge Status Indication
system fault. After the system recovers from a temperature
fault, the device will resume charging operation.
The AAT3685 checks battery temperature before starting the
charge cycle, as well as during all stages of charging. This is
accomplished by monitoring the voltage at the TS pin. This
system is intended for use negative temperature coefficient
(NTC) thermistors which are typically integrated into the battery
package. Most commonly used NTC thermistors used in battery
packs are approximately 10 k at room temperature (25 °C).
The TS pin has been specifically designed to source 80 A of
current to the thermistor. The voltage on the TS pin that results
from the resistive load should stay within a window from
335 mV to 2.32 V. If the battery becomes too hot during
charging due to an internal fault, the thermistor will heat up and
reduce in value, thus pulling the TS pin voltage lower than the
TS1 threshold, and the AAT3685 will halt charging and signal
the fault condition. If the use of the TS pin function is not
required by the system, it should be terminated to ground using
a 10 k resistor. Alternatively, on the AAT3685-1, the TS pin
may be left open.
VS
AAT3685
The AAT3685 indicates the status of the battery under charge
with two different systems. First, the device has two status LED
driver outputs. These two LEDs can indicate simple functions
such as no battery charge activity, battery charging, charge
complete, and charge fault. The AAT3685 also provides a
bi-directional data reporting function so that a system
microcontroller may interrogate the DATA pin and read any one
of 14 system states.
Status Indicator Display
Simple system charging status may be displayed using one or
two LEDs in conjunction with the STAT1 and STAT2 pins on the
AAT3685. These two pins are simple switches to connect the
display LED cathodes to ground. It is not necessary to use both
display LEDs if a user simply wants to have a single lamp to
show “charging” or “not charging.”
This can be accomplished by just using the STAT1 pin and a
single LED. Using two LEDs and both STAT pins simply gives
the user more information for charging states. Refer to Table 7
for LED display definitions.
Table 7. LED Display Status Conditions
Event Description
RHI
VREF2: 2.3 V
TS
TS COLD (TS2)
Battery Cold Fault
+
–
Battery
Pack
T
RLO
TS HOT (TS1)
Battery Hot Fault
–
tc455
Figure 27. Battery Temperature Sensing Operation
RLO
 1
1 

VS  RCOLD  RHOT  

VCOLD VHOT 




 V
 V
RHOT   S  1   RCOLD   IN  1 
 VHOT
 VCOLD


VS
RHI
STAT2
Charge disabled or low supply
Off
Off
Charge enabled without battery
Flash 1
Flash 1
Battery charging
On
Off
Charge completed
Off
On
Fault
On
On
+
VREF1: 0.33 V
STAT1
1
VCOLD

1
1

RLO RCOLD
The LED anodes should be connected to VADP/USB. The LEDs
should be biased with as little current as necessary to create
reasonable illumination; therefore, a ballast resistor should be
placed between each of the LED cathodes and the STAT1/2
pins. LED current consumption will add to the over-thermal
power budget for the device package, hence it is recommended
to keep the LED drive current to a minimum. 2mA should be
sufficient to drive most low-cost green, red, or multi-color LEDs.
It is not recommended to exceed 8 mA for driving an individual
status LED.
The required ballast resistor value can be estimated using the
following formulas:
RB(STAT1/2) 
Where,
VHOT = 0.33 V
VCOLD= 2.3 V
VS = supply voltage
RHOT = NTC resistance at high temperature
RCOLD = NTC resistance at low temperature
V ADP / USB  VF ( LED )
I LED( STAT1 / 2 )
Example:
RB(STAT1) 
5.0V  2.0V
 1.5 k
2 mA
Note: Red LED forward voltage (VF) is typically 2.0 V @ 2 mA.
Table 7 shows the status LED display conditions.
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15
DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
Digital Charge Status Reporting
The AAT3685 has a comprehensive digital data reporting
system by use of the DATA pin feature. This function can
provide detailed information regarding the state of the charging
system. The DATA pin is a bi-directional port which will read
back a series of data pulses when the system microcontroller
asserts a request pulse. This single strobe request protocol will
invoke one of 14 possible return pulse counts in which the
microcontroller can look up based on the serial report shown in
Table 8.
The DATA pin function is active low and should normally be
pulled high to VADP/USB. This data line may also be pulled high
to the same level as the high state for the logic I/O port on the
system microcontroller. In order for the DATA pin control circuit
to generate clean sharp edges for the data output and to
maintain the integrity of the data timing for the system, the pullup resistor on the data line should be low enough in value so
that the DATA signal returns to the high state without delay. If
the value of the pull-up resistor used is too high, the strobe
pulse from the system microcontroller may exceed the
maximum pulse time and the DATA output control could issue
false status reports. A 1.5 k resistor is recommended when
pulling the DATA pin high to 5.0 V at the VUSB input. If the data
line is pulled high to a voltage level less than 5.0 V, the pull-up
resistor may be calculated based on a recommended minimum
pull-up current of 3 mA. Use the following formula:
RPULL-UP
V
 PULL-UP
3 mA
Data Timing
The system microcontroller should assert an active low data
request pulse for minimum duration of 200ns; this is specified
by tLO(DATA). Upon sensing the rising edge of the end of the data
request pulse, the AAT3685 status data control will reply the
data word back to the system microcontroller after a delay
specified by the data report time specification tDATA(RPT). The
period of the following group of data pulses will be specified by
the tDATA specification.
Table 8. Serial Data Report Table
N
DATA Report Status
1
Chip over-temperature shutdown
2
Battery temperature fault
3
Over-voltage turn off
4
Not used
5
Not used
6
Not used
7
Not used
8
Not used
9
Not used
10
Not used
11
Not used
12
Not used
13
SETH battery condition mode
14
SETH charge reduction in constant current mode
15
SETH constant current mode
16
SETH constant voltage mode
17
SETH end of charging
18
SETL battery condition mode
19
SETL charge end of charging reduction in constant current
mode
20
SETL constant current mode
21
SETL constant voltage mode
22
SETL end of charging
23
Data report error
1.8 V to 5.0 V
IN
AAT3685
Status
Control
OUT
RPULL-UP
IN
DATA Pin
GPIO
OUT
Figures 28 and 29 depict the data pin application circuit and the
timing diagram.
P GPIO
Port
tc431
Figure 28. Data Pin Application Circuit
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DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
SQPULSE
SQ
PDATA
System Reset
System Start
CK
Data
tOFF
tLAT
tSYNC
tDATA(RPT) = tSYNC + tLAT < 2.5PDATA
tOFF > 2PDATA
N=1
N=2
N=3
tc432
Figure 29. Timing Diagram
Thermal Considerations
The AAT3685 is packaged in a Pb-free, 3  3 mm TDFN
package which can provide up to 2.0 W of power dissipation
when it is properly bonded to a printed circuit board and has a
maximum thermal resistance of 50 °C/W. Many considerations
should be taken into account when designing the printed circuit
board layout, as well as the placement of the charger IC
package in proximity to other heat generating devices in a given
application design. The ambient temperature around the
charger IC will also have an effect on the thermal limits of a
battery charging application. The maximum limits that can be
expected for a given ambient condition can be estimated by the
following discussion.
First, the maximum power dissipation for a given situation
should be calculated:
PD  VIN  VBAT   I CC  VIN  I OP 
(1)
PD = total power dissipation by the device
VIN = input voltage level, VADP/USB
VBAT = battery voltage as seen at the bat pin
ICC = maximum constant fast charge current programmed for
the application
IOP = quiescent current consumed by the charger IC for normal
operation.
Next, the maximum operating ambient temperature for a given
application can be estimated based on the thermal resistance of
the 3  3 mm TDFN package when sufficiently mounted to a
PCB layout and the internal thermal loop temperature threshold.
(2)
Where:
TA = ambient temperature (°C)
TJ = maximum device junction temperature protected by the
thermal limit control (°C)
PD = total power dissipation by the device (W)
JA = package thermal resistance (°C/W)
Given:
VUSB = 5.0 V
VBAT = 3.0 V
ICC = 500 mA
IOP = 0.75 mA
TJ = 140 °C
JA = 50 °C/W
Using Equation 1, calculate the device power dissipation for the
stated condition:
PD  5.0V  3.0V   500 mA  5.0V  0.75 mA  1.00375 W
Where:
TA  TJ   JA  PD 
Example: For an application where the fast charge current is set
to 500 mA, VUSB = 5.0 V and the worst case battery voltage at
3.0 V, what is the maximum ambient temperature at which the
thermal limiting will become active?
The maximum ambient temperature before the AAT3685
thermal limit protection will shut down charging can now be
calculated using Equation 2:
TA  140C  50C / W 1.00375 W   89.91C
Therefore, under the stated conditions for this worst case power
dissipation example, the AAT3685 will suspend charging
operations when the ambient operating temperature rises above
89.81 °C.
Capacitor Selection
Input Capacitor
In general, it is good design practice to place a decoupling
capacitor between the ADP/USB pin and ground. An input
capacitor in the range of 1 F to 22 F is recommended. If the
source supply is unregulated, it may be necessary to increase
the capacitance to keep the input voltage above the
under-voltage lockout threshold during device enable and when
battery charging is initiated.
If the AAT3685 input is to be used in a system with an external
power supply source rather than a USB port VBUS, such as a
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DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
dissipation of the AAT3685 3  3 mm TDFN package, the metal
substrate should be solder bonded to the board. It is also
recommended to maximize the substrate contact to the PCB
ground plane layer to further increase local heat dissipation.
Refer to the AAT3685 evaluation board information for a good
layout example.
typical AC-to-DC wall adapter, then a CIN capacitor in the range
of 10 F should be used. A larger input capacitor in this
application will minimize switching or power bounce effects
when the power supply is “hot plugged” in. Likewise, a 10 F
or greater input capacitor is recommended for the USB input to
help buffer the effects of USB source power switching noise and
input cable impedance.
Evaluation Board Description
Output Capacitor
The AAT3685 Evaluation Board is used to test the performance
of the AAT3685. An Evaluation Board schematic diagram is
provided in Figure 30. Layer details for the Evaluation Board are
shown in Figure 31. The Evaluation Board has additional
components for easy evaluation; the actual bill of materials
required for the system is shown in Table 9.
The AAT3685 only requires a 1 F ceramic capacitor on the
BAT pin to maintain circuit stability. This value should be
increased to 10 F or more if the battery connection is made
any distance from the charger output. If the AAT3685 is to be
used in applications where the battery can be removed from the
charger, such as in the case of desktop charging cradles, an
output capacitor greater than 10 F may be required to prevent
the device from cycling on and off when no battery is present.
Package Information
Package dimensions for the 10-pin TDFN package are shown in
Figure 32. Tape & reel dimensions are shown in Figure 33.
Printed Circuit Board Layout Considerations
For the best results, it is recommended to physically place the
battery pack as close as possible to the AAT3685 BAT pin. To
minimize voltage drops on the PCB, keep the high current
carrying traces adequately wide. For maximum power
ON/OFF
PWRSEL
J1
J2
1 2 3
Mini-B
1 2 3
5
4
3
2
1
GND
ID
D+
DADP/USB
1
2
R3
Open
R2
Open
U1
AAT3685
PWRSEL 10
1
ADP/USB
5
EN
TB2
BAT
TS
GND
LO
GRN
LED D2
C2
10 F
TB1
ADP/USB
GND
HI
2
1
2
3
STAT2
STAT1
BAT
DATA
4
C1
10 F
SETL
CHR
SETH
6
R4
10 k
R1
Open
TS
R5
1.5 k
R6
1.5 k
R9
1.5 k
8
9
7
DATA
11
12
GND
3
RED
LED D1
TDFN33-12
R8
8.06 k
R7
40.2 k
SW1
tc433
Figure 30. AAT3685 Evaluation Board Schematic
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DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
(a) Component Side layout
(b) Solder Side Layout
tc434
Figure 31. AAT3685 Evaluation Board Layer Details
Table 9. AAT3685 Evaluation Board Bill of Materials
Component
DATA
Part Number
6821-0-0001-00-00-08-0
Description
Test pin
Footprint
PAD
Manufacturer
Mill-Max
USB, GND
277-1274-ND
Connecting terminal block, 2.54 mm, 2 Pos
TBLOK2
Phoenix Contact
BAT, GND, TS
277-1273-ND
Connecting terminal block, 2.54 mm, 3 Pos
TBLOK3
Phoenix Contact
USB
H2959CT-ND
USB 2.0 receptacle, 5 Pos
USB-MINI-B
Hirose Electronic Co. Ltd.
C1, C2
490-1717-1-ND
Capacitor, ceramic, 10 F, 6.3 V, 10% X5R 0805
0805
Murata
D1
CMD15-21SRC/TR8
Typical red led, super bright
1206LED
Chicago Miniature Lamp
D2
CMD15-21VGC/TR8
Typical green led
1206LED
Chicago Miniature Lamp
J1, J2
6821-0-0001-00-00-08-0
Header, 3-pin
HEADER2MM-3
Sullins
R4
P10KCFCT-ND
Resistor, 10 k 1/16 W, 5% 0603 SMD
0603
Panasonic/ECG
R5, R6, R9
P1.5KCGCT-ND
Resistor, 1.5k 1/16 W, 1% 0603 SMD
0603
Panasonic/ECG
R7
P40.2KHTR-ND
Resistor, 40.2 k 1/16 W,1% 0603 SMD
0603
Panasonic/ECG
R8
P8.06KHCT-ND
Resistor, 8.06 k 1/16 W, 1% 0603 SMD
0603
Panasonic/ECG
SW1
CKN9012-ND
Switch tact 6 mm SPST H = 5.0 mm
SWITCH
ITT Industries/ C&K Div.
U1
AAT3685IWP
AAT3685 lithium-Ion/polymer battery charger
TDFN33-12
Skyworks
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DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
Detail "A"
0.1 REF
2.40 ± 0.05
3.00 ± 0.05
0.43 ± 0.05
C0.3
0.45 0.05
Index Area
1.70 ± 0.05
Top View
Bottom View
Detail "A"
0.23 ± 0.05
0.75 ± 0.05
3.00 ± 0.05
0.05 ± 0.05
0.23 ± 0.05
Pin 1 Indicator
(optional)
Side View
tc435
Figure 32. AAT3685 12-pin TDFN Package Dimensions
4.00 ± 0.10
2.00 ± 0.05
1.00 ± 0.05
1.50 ± 0.10
3.50 ± 0.05
8.10 ± 0.20
1.75 ± 0.10
2.40 ± 0.05
0.254 ± 0.020
2.40 ± 0.05
4.00 ± 0.10
Pin 1 Location
tc422
All dimensions are in millimeters.
Figure 33. AAT3685 Tape and Reel Dimensions
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DATA SHEET • AAT3685 LI-ION/POLYMER BATTERY CHARGER
Ordering Information
Model Name
AAT3685: li-ion/polymer battery charger
Part Marking (Note 1)
RNXYY
Manufacturing Part Number (Note 2)
AAT3685IWP-4.2-T1
Evaluation Board Part Number
AAT3685IWP-4.2-EVB
Note 1: XYY = assembly and date code.
Note 2: Sample stock is generally held on part numbers listed in BOLD.
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