### Application Note AN-7004 Driver Calculation

```Application Note AN-7004
Revision:
00
Key Words: IGBT driver, calculation, gate charge, power, gate current
Issue Date:
2007-10-31
www.Semikron.com/Application/DriverCalculation
Prepared by:
Markus Hermwille
IGBT Driver Calculation
Introduction.............................................................................................................................................................................1
Gate Charge Curve ................................................................................................................................................................1
Measuring the Gate Charge ...................................................................................................................................................3
Determining the Gate Charge.................................................................................................................................................3
Driver Output Power ...............................................................................................................................................................5
Gate Current...........................................................................................................................................................................5
Peak Gate Current..................................................................................................................................................................6
Selection Suitable IGBT Driver...............................................................................................................................................6
DriverSel – The Easy IGBT Driver Calculation Method ..........................................................................................................6
Symbols and Terms used.......................................................................................................................................................7
References .............................................................................................................................................................................8
This application note provides information on the
determination of driver output performance for switching
IGBTs. The information given in this application note
contains tips only and does not constitute complete
design rules; the information is not exhaustive. The
responsibility for proper design remains with the user.
resistances.
requirements
parameter is
characterised
and CGE.
When calculating the output power
for an IGBT driver circuit, the key
the gate charge. This gate charge is
by the equivalent input capacitances CGC
IGBT Capacitances
Introduction
One key component of every power electronic system is
– besides the power modules themselves – the IGBT
driver, which forms the vital interface between the power
transistor and the controller. For this reason, the choice
of driver and thus the calculation of the right driver output
power are closely linked with the degree of reliability of a
converter solution. Insufficient driver power or the wrong
choice of driver may result in module and driver
malfunction.
Gate Charge Curve
The switching behaviour (turn-on and turn-off) of an IGBT
module is determined by its structural, internal
capacitances (charges) and the internal and outer
The following table explains the designation of the
capacitances. In IGBT data sheets these capacitances
are
specified
as
voltage-dependent
low-signal
capacitances of IGBTs in the “off” state. The
capacitances are independent of temperature, but
dependent on the collector-emitter voltage, as shown in
the following curve. This dependency is substantially
higher at a very low collector-emitter voltage.
2007-10-31 – Rev00
1/8
Application Note AN-7004
Parasitic and Low-Signal Capacitances
Cies, Coes, Cres = f(VCE)
Capacitances
Designation
CGE
Gate-emitter capacitance
CCE
Collector-emitter capacitance
CGC
Gate-collector capacitance
(Miller capacitance)
Low-Signal
Capacitances
Designation
Cies = CGE + CGC
Input capacitance
Cres = CGC
Reverse transfer capacitance
Coes = CGC + CCE
Output capacitance
VGE = 0V
f = 1MHz
The following table shows simplified the gate charge
waveforms VGE= f(t), IG=f(t), VCE=f(t), and IC=f(t) during
turn-on of the IGBT. The turn-on process can be divided
into three stages. These are charging of the gate-emitter
capacitance, charging of the gate-collector capacitance
and charging of the gate-emitter capacitance until full
IGBT saturation.
To calculate the switching behaviour and the driver, the
input capacitances may only be applied to a certain
extent. A more practical way of determining the driver
output power is to use the gate charge characteristic
given in the IGBT data sheets. This characteristic shows
the gate-emitter voltage VGE over the gate charge QG.
The gate charge increases in line with the current rating
of IGBT modules. The gate charge is also dependent on
the DC-Link voltage, albeit to a lesser extent. At higher
operation voltages the gate charge increases due to the
larger influence of the Miller capacitance. In most
applications this effect is negligible.
Simplified Gate Charge Waveforms
Gate Charge Characteristic
VGE(on)
VGE(off)
QGE
QGC
QGE
t0 switching interval: The gate current IG charges the input capacitance CGE and the gate-emitter voltage VGE rises to
VGE(th). Depending on the gate resistor, several amperes may be running in this state. As VGE is still
below VGE(th), no collector current flows during this period and VCE is maintained at VCC level.
2/8
2007-10-31 – Rev00
Application Note AN-7004
t1 switching interval: As soon as VGE passes VGE(th), the IGBT turn-on process starts. IC begins to increase to reach the full
load current IC(load), which is valid for an ideal free-wheeling diode (shown in the simplified waveform).
For a real free-wheeling diode, IC exceeds IC(load). This is because a reverse recovery current, which
flows in reverse direction, is added to IC(load). Since the free-wheeling diode is still conducting current
at the beginning of section t2, the collector-emitter voltage VCE will not drop. VGE reaches the plateau
voltage VGE(pl).
t2 switching interval: VGE maintains VGE(pl). When the free-wheeling diode is turned-off, VCE starts to drop rapidly and
dvCE/dt is high.
t3 switching interval: While VCE is decreasing to reach on-state value VCEsat, the Miller capacitance CGC increases as the
voltage decreases and is charged by IG. VGE still remains on a plateau, which is VGE(pl) level.
t4 switching interval: At the beginning of section t4, the IGBT is fully turned-on. The charge conducted to CGE induces an
exponential increase in VGE up to the gate control voltage VGE(on). IG ends with an exponential fade out
and VCE reaches VCEsat level.
During turn-off the processes described are running in reverse direction. The charge has to be removed from the gate.
Measuring the Gate Charge
A simplified test circuit that can be used to measure the
gate charge is shown in the following table. The gate is
supplied by a constant gate current. Furthermore, a pulse
constant collector current is applied. The constant gate
current causes the measured waveform VGE = f(t) to be
equivalent to VGE = f(QG) due to QG = IG × t.
The document IEC 60747-9, Ed.2: Semiconductor
Devices – Discrete Devices – Part 9: Insulated-Gate
Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) describes the gate charge
test method.
Waveform VGE = f(t) ⇔ VGE = f(QG)
Basis Test Circuit for Gate Charge Measurement
Determining the Gate Charge
The gate charge per pulse needed to drive the IGBT can
be determined using the gate charge characteristic
diagram, which shows gate-emitter voltage over gate
charge. The total gate charge can be read out by taking
into account the amplitude of the applied gate voltage,
i.e. from turn-on gate voltage VG(on) to turn-off gate
voltage VG(off). The SEMIKRON IGBT data sheet shows
the gate charge curve in the positive and negative
If the gate charge curve is given in the positive quadrant
only, the gate charge amplitude can be read out by
extrapolation, as shown in the following table. The bright
green represents the area of a diagram given in the IGBT
data sheet. A parallel adjustment of the bright green area
along the gate charge curve into the negative quadrant
up to VG(off) allows for the amplitude of the gate charge to
be determined.
2007-10-31 – Rev00
3/8
Application Note AN-7004
Gate Charge Characteristic (e.g. SKM400GB126D)
Extrapolation Method
VG(on)
VG(off)
QG
Another method for determining the gate charge uses the
input capacitance Cies and a special factor instead of the
gate charge curve. The value for Cies is given in the IGBT
data sheet.
be achieved by using low-impedance, low-inductance
output capacitors at the driver output stage. The size of
the capacitors is indicated by the calculated value QG.
The gate charge is the basic parameter used to
determine driver output power and gate current.
The necessary gate charge or the charging energy per
pulse must be available at the right time. This can only
Gate Charge Calculation with Cies Method
The gate charge can be expressed as
This method is not entirely accurate and should be only
used if no gate charge curve is available.
Q G = C G × ( VG( on ) − VG( off ) )
where C G = k C × C ies
The gate capacitance factor kc can be roughly calculated as
kC =
Q G( ds )
C ies × ( VG( on ) − VG( off ) )
where QG(ds) is the value specified in the IGBT data sheet, and
VG(on) as well as VG(off) are the gate voltages applied to QG(ds).
Thus, the alternative gate charge calculation is as follows:
Q G = k C × C ies × ( VG( on ) − VG( off ) )
4/8
2007-10-31 – Rev00
Application Note AN-7004
Driver Output Power
The individual power of each internal supply needed to
drive the IGBT can be found as a function of the intended
switching frequency and the energy which has to be used
to charge and discharge the IGBT.
Calculation of Driver Output Power per Channel
Power can be expressed as
PGD ( out ) = E × fsw
Rough calculation of driver power using the Cies method:
Substituting E = Q G × ( VG( on ) − VG( off ) ) ,
PGD( out ) = k C × C ies × ( VG( on ) − VG( off ) ) 2 × fsw
the driver output power per channel is:
PGD ( out ) = Q G × ( VG( on ) − VG( off ) ) × fsw
Gate Current
One of the key requirements for IGBT driver circuits is
that enough current be supplied to charge and discharge
the input capacitances of the IGBT and thus to switch the
IGBT on and off. This gate current can be calculated
IGBT Capacitances
using the equations for IGBT input capacitance charging.
The gate current calculated is the minimum average
output current IoutAVG of the driver output stage per
channel.
Calculation of Gate Current
Charge can be calculated as follows:
Q G = ∫ idt
Q GE = iGE × t sw , Q GC = iGC × t sw
With
the total gate charge is:
Q G = Q GE + Q GC = (iGE + iGC ) × t sw
Substituting
t=
1
fsw
the average gate current is:
IG = IGE + IGC = Q G × fsw
Roughly calculation of average gate current by using the Cies method::
IG = k C × C ies × ( VG( on ) − VG( off ) ) × fsw
2007-10-31 – Rev00
5/8
Application Note AN-7004
Peak Gate Current
The IGBT switching time is controlled by charging and
discharging the gate of the IGBT. If the gate peak current
is increased, the turn-on and turn-off time will be shorter
and the switching losses reduced. This obviously has an
impact on other switching parameters such as
overvoltage stress, which have to be watched. The gate
charge currents can be controlled by the gate resistors
Peak Gate Current
RG(on) and RG(off). The theoretical peak current value
IGPEAK can be calculated using the equation below. The
IGBT module's internal gate resistor RG(int) must be taken
into account when calculating the peak gate current. In
practice, stray inductance reduces the peak value below
the possible theoretical value.
Calculation
The peak gate current can be calculated as follows:
IGPEAK =
In the data sheet of an IGBT driver, a maximum peak
current is given, as are the minimum values for the gate
resistors. If both these maximum and minimum ratings
VG( on ) − VG( off )
R G + R G(int)
are exceeded, the driver output may be destroyed as a
result.
Selection Suitable IGBT Driver
When selecting the suitable IGBT driver for the individual
application, the following details have to be considered:
The driver must be able to provide the necessary gate
current (output current / output power). The maximum
average output current of the driver must be higher
than the calculated value.
The maximum peak gate current of the driver must be
equal to or higher than maximum calculated peak gate
current.
The output capacitors of the driver must be able to
deliver the gate charge needed to charge and
discharge the gate of the IGBT. In the data sheet of
SEMIKRON drivers the maximum charge per pulse is
given. This value must be duly considered when
selecting a suitable driver.
Other parameters worth mentioning in the context of
IGBT driver selection are insulation voltage and dv/dt
capability.
DriverSel – The Easy IGBT Driver
Calculation Method
DriverSel facilitates IGBT driver calculation and the
selection of a suitable driver, regardless of the
application. This software tool takes into consideration
the aforementioned characteristics and equations, and
calculates suitable IGBT drivers on the basis of the IGBT
module selected, the number of paralleled modules, gate
resistor, switching frequency and collector-emitter
voltage. This tool can be used for driver calculation and
selection for any brand and IGBT package, as well as to
calculate the necessary gate charge and average
current.
Link: DrivelSel is a free software tool and is available on the SEMIKRON homepage at http://semisel.semikron.com/DriverSelectTool.asp.
6/8
2007-10-31 – Rev00
Application Note AN-7004
DriverSel Screenshot
Symbols and Terms used
Letter Symbol
Term
CCE
Collector-emitter capacitance
CG
Effective gate capacitance
CGC
Gate-collector capacitance
CGE
Gate-emitter capacitance
Cies
Input capacitance IGBT
Coes
Output capacitance IGBT
Cres
Reverse transfer capacitance IGBT
dvCE/dt
Rate of rise and fall of collector-emitter voltage
E
Electrical energy
fsw
Switching frequency
IC
Collector current
ICpuls
Pulse constant collector current
IG
Gate current
IGM
Peak gate current
IoutAVG
Average output current of the driver
kC
Gate capacitance factor
PGD(out)
Driver output power
QG
Gate charge
QGC
Gate-collector charge
QGE
Gate-emitter charge
RG
Gate resistor
RG(int)
IGBT module internal gate resistor
2007-10-31 – Rev00
7/8
Application Note AN-7004
RG(off)
Turn-off gate resistor
RG(on)
Turn-on gate resistor
t
Time
tsw
Switching time
VCC
Collector-emitter supply voltage
VCE
Collector-emitter voltage
VCEsat
Collector-emitter saturation voltage
VG
Gate voltage (output driver)
VG(off)
Turn-off gate voltage (output driver)
VG(on)
Turn-on gate voltage (output driver)
VGE
Gate-emitter voltage
VGE(pl)
Plateau gate-emitter during switching
VGE(th)
Gate-emitter threshold voltage
References
[1] www.SEMIKRON.com
[2] Application Manual Power Modules, SEMIKRON
International
[3] M. Hermwille, "Plug and Play IGBT Driver Cores for
Converters", Power Electronics Europe Issue 2, pp.
10-12, 2006
[5] P. Bhosale, M. Hermwille, "Connection of Gate
Drivers to IGBT and Controller", Application Note AN7002, SEMIKRON
[6] IEC 60747-9, Ed.2: Semiconductor Devices –
Discrete Devices – Part 9: Insulated-Gate Bipolar
Transistors (IGBTs)
[4] M. Hermwille, "Gate Resistor – Principle and
Application", Application Note AN-7003, SEMIKRON
DISCLAIMER
SEMIKRON INTERNATIONAL GmbH
P.O. Box 820251 • 90253 Nürnberg • Deutschland • Tel: +49 911-65 59-234 • Fax: +49 911-65 59-262
[email protected] • www.semikron.com
8/8
2007-10-31 – Rev00