Designing with Acriche A4

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Application Note:
Designing with Acriche A4
SAWX4A0X
Introduction
Features
The Acriche series of devices are
designed for ease of implementation
and readily connect to AC sources
emitting very high flux while minimizing
driver requirements.
Acriche products are long-lasting, environmentally
friendly semiconductor light sources that can be attached either
directly to AC voltages, or as with the A4, to a simple diode bridge
(see Fig 6).
• Connect using a simple
diode bridge directly to
AC power
• Power Saving
• Long Life Time
• Simple BOM
• Miniaturization
• Low thermal
resistance
• SMT solderability
• Lead Free product
• RoHS compliant
Acriche’s thermal management exceeds other power LED solutions
incorporating state-of-the-art SMD technology, thermal path design,
and low thermal resistant materials.
Whether designing a spot light or tiled array, the Acriche A4 is an
ideal light source for general purpose illumination applications.
This application note provides assembly and handling information of
the A4 series.
Applications
•
•
•
•
Architectural lighting
Residential lighting
Task lighting
Decorative/Pathway
lighting
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Contents
1. Component
1.1 Description -----------------------------------------------------------------------3
1.2 Mechanical Dimension ----------------------------------------------------------3
1.3 PCB solder pad layout -----------------------------------------------------------4
1.4 Junction Temperature -----------------------------------------------------------4
1.5 Lens handling --------------------------------------------------------------------5
2. Driver Configurations
2.1 Description -----------------------------------------------------------------------5
2.2 Proper Resistor Selection-------------------------------------------------------5
2.3 Optional Components/Configurations-----------------------------------------7
2.4 Circuit configuration performance -------------------------------------------18
2.5 Relative light output between AC and DC------------------------------------19
2.6 Combining different voltage bins---------------------------------------------20
2.7 Color bin selection -------------------------------------------------------------21
3. Protection
3.1 Description ----------------------------------------------------------------------22
3.2 Lightning surges, Voltage spikes or Ring Wave Protection ---------------22
3.3 Over-current and Over-temperature Protection----------------------------22
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1. Component
1.1 Description
The ACRICHE A4 emitter is designed to operate off of rectified high voltage AC. The A4 PKG
contains a high brightness, high voltage LED chip array on a ceramic substrate that functions as a
mechanical support for the chips and connects the LED chip to the anode and cathode of the
package. Each A4 emitter contains a zener diode to provide ESD protection. A silicone lens
covering the LED chip helps to extract the light and provide environmental protection.
Silicone lens
Cathode
(over the chips)
Anode
Thermal pad
Ceramic substrate
(electrically isolated)
Figure 1. ACRICHE A4 (left) and bottom of A4 (right)
1.2 Mechanical Dimensions
As seen in Fig 2 below, the theoretical optical center is located at the center of the A4 package.
The anode, cathode and thermal pads are located on the bottom of the package. The cathode
mark indicates the cathode pad location. The ceramic substrate electrically isolates the thermal
pad or slug from the cathode and anode. Electrical shocks can occur at high voltage, therefore
safety considerations should be taken into account by following UL Recommendations.
The A4 has been UL recognized.
Figure 2. ACRICHE A4 mechanical dimensions(mm)
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1.3 PCB solder pad layout
The ACRICHE A4 emitter should be mounted on a printed circuit board for electrical connections
and to give a proper thermal path between the LED package and the heat sink. A temperature
check point is recommended to be designed into the solder pad layout which can be used to
calculate the junction temperature for thermal degradation and life time calculations. The solder
pad should not be designed larger than the recommended size as the part may shift and excess
solder paste may form solder balls which can create electrical shorts between internal pads on the
6.4
package (Figure 4).
Temperature check point
6.4
0.5
2.6
4.4
Figure 3. Recommended PCB solder pad layout
Internal electrical shorts can occur from
Solder balls if excess solder paste is used.
The LED may be partially on or totally
turned off.
Figure 4. Incorrect soldering of the ACRICHE A4 emitter
1.4 Junction Temperature
The life time of the ACRICHE A4 emitter is most directly related to the junction temperature, but it
is impossible to measure the junction temperature directly without any damage. Tj can be
theoretically calculated by using the thermal resistance between the LED junction and the board.
The equation for Tj is: Tj[℃] = Tb[℃] + RΘ j-b[℃/W] x emitter power[W].
The equation of the emitter power is calculated using the following formula:
P[W] = Input Vrms[V] X Input Irms[A] X Power Factor – Irms2[A] X Resistor Value[Ω].
The rectifier power dissipation is negligible so we are not using this in the calculations, although
we do need the Power Factor(PF) for the A4 emitter. It is about 0.89 in the typical drive
configuration consisting of only a rectifier and a resistor. (Note: The PF is 1.00 generally in
constant current drive).
Silicone lens
Chip
Ceramic substrate
Tj (Junction Temperature)
Tb (Board Temperature)
Solder paste
Metal PCB
Rev. 00
Figure 5. Thermal modeling of the ACRICHE A4 emitter
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1.5 Lens handling
Improper handling of the LED packages can damage the silicone lens. Avoid touching the silicone
dome of the LED especially with sharp tools. Pick up the LED on the sides of the package. Any
physical force to the silicone lens in excess of 3000gf will permanently and fatally damage the part.
The silicone dome is sensitive to dust and debris and can cause an optical output decrease. If dust
or debris accumulates on the lens, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) can be used to remove dust from the
lens.
2. Driver Configurations
2.1 Description
The ACRICHE A4 emitter is designed to operate directly off of AC line power(e.g 120Vac, 230Vac)
with a rectifier, resistors or optional capacitor(s). This compact circuit can minimize the lighting
product size, help simplify thermal design, and increase overall product reliability. It is also an
economical solution because you do not need to have all the extra components. Typical low
voltage DC circuits require a transformer, regulator and multiple discrete components such as
capacitors, inductors, resistors.
2.2 Proper resistor selection
Operating the ACRICHE A4 emitter requires a bridge rectifier and resistors at a minimum, since the
architecture of the A4 has been modified from the earlier versions of the Acriche family(A2, A3),
which did not need a bridge. This architecture has a string of LEDs in one direction only,
compared to the previous version which has strings in both directions, thereby not requiring the
diode bridge previously. Utilizing the new architecture, we are able to reduce the number of LEDs
needed, thereby reducing package size and price.
It is better to use higher than rated power resistors for reliability. The rated power of the resistor
should be chosen based on the equation Irms(A)*Irms(A)*Resistor value(ohms). The normal
power rating of a 3216 size resistor is 0.25W. If the power consumption in one resistor exceeds
the rated power of the resistor it is suggested to use multiple resistors in parallel.
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Acriche A4
Rout
Vin
Acriche A4
BD
Rout
Vin
BD
Figure 6. Compact drive circuit configuration 100~120Vac
Input Voltage
100 Vac
110 Vac
120 Vac
VF bins
Power
dissipation
Target
Drive Current
A
B
C
D
2W
20 mA,rms
630 Ω
480 Ω
330 Ω
180 Ω
3W
25 mA,rms
420 Ω
270 Ω
120 Ω
N/A
4W
30 mA,rms
285 Ω
135 Ω
N/A
N/A
2W
20 mA,rms
1060 Ω
910 Ω
760 Ω
610 Ω
3W
25 mA,rms
765 Ω
615 Ω
465 Ω
315 Ω
4W
30 mA,rms
575 Ω
425 Ω
275 Ω
125 Ω
2W
20 mA,rms
1510 Ω
1360 Ω
1210 Ω
1060 Ω
3W
25 mA,rms
1125 Ω
975 Ω
825 Ω
675 Ω
4W
30 mA,rms
870 Ω
720 Ω
570 Ω
420 Ω
Table 1. Resistor values in Figure 6. (left)
Input Voltage
100 Vac
110 Vac
120 Vac
Power
dissipation
Target
Drive Current
4W
VF bins
A
B
C
D
40 mA,rms
315 Ω
240 Ω
165 Ω
90 Ω
6W
50 mA,rms
210 Ω
135 Ω
60 Ω
N/A
8W
60 mA,rms
140 Ω
65 Ω
N/A
N/A
4W
40 mA,rms
530 Ω
455 Ω
380 Ω
305 Ω
6W
50 mA,rms
385 Ω
310 Ω
235 Ω
160 Ω
8W
60 mA,rms
285 Ω
210 Ω
135 Ω
60 Ω
4W
40 mA,rms
755 Ω
680 Ω
605 Ω
530 Ω
6W
50 mA,rms
565 Ω
490 Ω
415 Ω
340 Ω
8W
60 mA,rms
435 Ω
360 Ω
285 Ω
210 Ω
Table 2. Resistor values in Figure 6. (right)
* Notes :
[1] SSC recommends that MS6B (Max input voltage: 420Vrms) would be used as a bridge rectifier.
[2] Applicable Part Numbers are currently SAW04A0A (AW4240-01) and SAW84A0C (AN4240-03)
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Acriche A4
Rout
Vin
BD
Figure 7. Standard compact drive circuit configuration 220~240Vac
Input Voltage
220 Vac
230 Vac
240 Vac
VF bins
Power
dissipation
Target
Drive Current
A
B
C
D
4W
20 mA,rms
2200 Ω
1900 Ω
1600 Ω
1300 Ω
6W
25 mA,rms
1570 Ω
1270 Ω
970 Ω
670 Ω
8W
30 mA,rms
1180 Ω
880 Ω
580 Ω
280 Ω
4W
20 mA,rms
2640 Ω
2340 Ω
2040 Ω
1740 Ω
6W
25 mA,rms
1930 Ω
1630 Ω
1330 Ω
1030 Ω
8W
30 mA,rms
1480 Ω
1180 Ω
880 Ω
580 Ω
4W
20 mA,rms
3080 Ω
2780 Ω
2480 Ω
2180 Ω
6W
25 mA,rms
2290 Ω
1990 Ω
1690 Ω
1390 Ω
8W
30 mA,rms
1780 Ω
1480 Ω
1180 Ω
880 Ω
Table 3. Resistor values in Figure 7.
2.3 Optional Components/Configurations
Acriche A4 can be operated in three additional optional configurations if higher efficiency or
less flicker is needed. These optional configurations can lower power factor as seen in Table 13.
The three different component configurations consist of a bridge diode, resistor, and capacitor(s).
Optional Configuration #1 : output resistor + output capcacitor(parallel)
Optional Configuration #2 : Input capacitor(series) + output resistor
Optional Configuration #3 : Input capacitor(series) + output capcacitor(parallel) + output resistor
40
Standard AC driving
Optional Configuration#1
Optional Configuration#2 35
Optional Configuration#3
Current [mA]
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0.0
2.5
5.0
7.5
10.0
12.5
15.0
17.5
20.0
Time [ms]
7
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September 2011
Figure 8. Current waveforms of different circuit configurations
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Optional circuit configuration#1: This adds an output capacitor to the standard circuit. This
configuration has no flicker. The current shape through the A4 package is similar to DC current,
as seen in Figure 8. Input current and LED current are not the same value. The target drive
current indicates LED current through A4 PKG. There is no difference in resistor values between
50Hz and 60Hz of frequency.
Rout
Vin
Acriche A4
BD
Cout
Figure 9. Optional compact drive circuit configuration#1
Input Voltage
Frequency
LED#
4 ea
220 Vac
Cout
Rout for VF bins
20 mA,rms
A
B
C
D
47 uF
4650 Ω
4350 Ω
4050 Ω
3750 Ω
30 mA,rms
47 uF
2750 Ω
2450 Ω
2150 Ω
1850 Ω
40 mA,rms
47 uF
1850 Ω
1550 Ω
1250 Ω
950 Ω
20 mA,rms
47 uF
1960 Ω
1580 Ω
1210 Ω
830 Ω
20 mA,rms
47 uF
5350 Ω
5050 Ω
4750 Ω
4450 Ω
30 mA,rms
47 uF
3250 Ω
2950 Ω
2650 Ω
2350 Ω
40 mA,rms
47 uF
2200 Ω
1900 Ω
1600 Ω
1300 Ω
20 mA,rms
47 uF
2670 Ω
2290 Ω
1920 Ω
1540 Ω
30 mA,rms
47 uF
1370 Ω
1000 Ω
620 Ω
250 Ω
20 mA,rms
47 uF
6050 Ω
5750 Ω
5450 Ω
5150 Ω
30 mA,rms
47 uF
3700 Ω
3400 Ω
3100 Ω
2800 Ω
40 mA,rms
47 uF
2550 Ω
2250 Ω
1950 Ω
1650 Ω
20 mA,rms
47 uF
3380 Ω
3000 Ω
2630 Ω
2250 Ω
30 mA,rms
47 uF
1850 Ω
1470 Ω
1100 Ω
720 Ω
20 mA,rms
100 uF
1580 Ω
1430 Ω
1280 Ω
1130 Ω
30 mA,rms
100 uF
890 Ω
740 Ω
590 Ω
440 Ω
20 mA,rms
100 uF
2290 Ω
2140 Ω
1990 Ω
1840 Ω
30 mA,rms
100 uF
1360 Ω
1210 Ω
1060 Ω
910 Ω
40 mA,rms
100 uF
910 Ω
760 Ω
610 Ω
460 Ω
20 mA,rms
100 uF
2990 Ω
2840 Ω
2690 Ω
2540 Ω
30 mA,rms
100 uF
1830 Ω
1680 Ω
1530 Ω
1380 Ω
40 mA,rms
100 uF
1260 Ω
1110 Ω
960 Ω
810 Ω
50Hz/60Hz
5 ea
4 ea
230 Vac
Target
Drive Current
(ILED, not Iin)
50Hz/60Hz
5 ea
4 ea
240 Vac
50Hz/60Hz
5 ea
100 Vac
110 Vac
120 Vac
50Hz/60Hz
50Hz/60Hz
50Hz/60Hz
2 ea
2 ea
2 ea
Table 4. Resistor and capacitor values in Figure 9
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Optional circuit configuration#2: This adds an input capacitor to the standard circuit. This
Configuration has the same current shape through the A4 package as the standard AC drive
(as seen in Figure 8), but since it can only drive one LED string it is very suitable for compact
designs like a candle lamp. Additionally the circuit efficiency is very high(see table 13). You can
also improve efficiency a little by eliminating the output resistor(Rout), but SSC recommends using
Rout for surge immunity.
Cin
Rout
Vin
Acriche A4
BD
Figure 10. Optional compact drive circuit configuration#2
Input Voltage
Frequency
LED#
Target
Drive Current
(ILED = Iin)
Rout
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
560 nF
590 nF
640 nF
700 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
920 nF
1060 nF
1320 nF
N/A
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
410 nF
420 nF
420 nF
430 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
630 nF
650 nF
680 nF
710 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
870 nF
920 nF
980 nF
1060 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
350 nF
350 nF
350 nF
350 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
530 nF
530 nF
530 nF
540 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
720 nF
720 nF
720 nF
730 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
310 nF
310 nF
310 nF
310 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
460 nF
460 nF
460 nF
460 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
620 nF
620 nF
620 nF
620 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
470 nF
490 nF
530 nF
580 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
770 nF
880 nF
1100 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
340 nF
350 nF
350 nF
360 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
530 nF
550 nF
570 nF
590 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
730 nF
760 nF
810 nF
880 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
290 nF
290 nF
290 nF
290 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
440 nF
440 nF
440 nF
450 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
600 nF
600 nF
600 nF
610 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
260 nF
260 nF
260 nF
260 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
380 nF
380 nF
390 nF
390 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
510 nF
510 nF
520 nF
520 nF
4 ea
3 ea
50 Hz
2 ea
1 ea
220 Vac
Cin for VF bins
A
B
C
D
4 ea
3 ea
60 Hz
2 ea
1 ea
Table 5. Resistor and capacitor values in Figure 10 (220Vac)
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Input Voltage
Frequency
LED#
4 ea
3 ea
50 Hz
2 ea
1 ea
230 Vac
4 ea
3 ea
Target
Drive Current
(ILED = Iin)
Rout
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
500 nF
520 nF
550 nF
590 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
800 nF
890 nF
1020 nF
1280 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
1180 nF
1430 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
380 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
40 mA,rms
1 ea
A
B
C
D
N/A
N/A
390 nF
390 nF
400 nF
590 nF
600 nF
620 nF
640 nF
100 Ω
800 nF
840 nF
880 nF
940 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
330 nF
330 nF
330 nF
330 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
500 nF
500 nF
500 nF
500 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
680 nF
680 nF
680 nF
690 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
290 nF
290 nF
290 nF
290 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
440 nF
440 nF
440 nF
440 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
590 nF
590 nF
590 nF
590 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
420 nF
430 nF
460 nF
490 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
670 nF
740 nF
850 nF
1060 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
980 nF
1190 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
320 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
40 mA,rms
N/A
N/A
320 nF
330 nF
330 nF
490 nF
500 nF
520 nF
540 nF
100 Ω
670 nF
700 nF
730 nF
780 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
270 nF
270 nF
270 nF
270 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
420 nF
420 nF
420 nF
420 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
560 nF
560 nF
560 nF
570 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
240 nF
240 nF
240 nF
240 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
370 nF
370 nF
370 nF
370 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
490 nF
490 nF
490 nF
490 nF
60 Hz
2 ea
Cin for VF bins
Table 6. Resistor and capacitor values in Figure 10 (230Vac)
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Technical
Data
Sheet
Input Voltage
Frequency
LED#
4 ea
3 ea
50 Hz
2 ea
1 ea
240 Vac
4 ea
3 ea
Target
Drive Current
(ILED = Iin)
Rout
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
450 nF
470 nF
490 nF
510 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
720 nF
770 nF
860 nF
990 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
1030 nF
1180 nF
1500 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
360 nF
360 nF
370 nF
370 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
550 nF
560 nF
570 nF
590 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
750 nF
770 nF
810 nF
850 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
310 nF
310 nF
310 nF
310 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
470 nF
470 nF
470 nF
480 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
640 nF
640 nF
640 nF
650 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
280 nF
280 nF
280 nF
280 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
420 nF
420 nF
420 nF
420 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
560 nF
560 nF
560 nF
560 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
380 nF
390 nF
410 nF
430 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
600 nF
640 nF
710 nF
820 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
860 nF
990 nF
1250 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
300 nF
300 nF
300 nF
310 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
460 nF
470 nF
480 nF
490 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
620 nF
640 nF
670 nF
710 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
260 nF
260 nF
260 nF
260 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
390 nF
390 nF
390 nF
400 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
530 nF
530 nF
530 nF
540 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
230 nF
230 nF
230 nF
230 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
350 nF
350 nF
350 nF
350 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
470 nF
470 nF
470 nF
470 nF
60 Hz
2 ea
1 ea
Cin for VF bins
A
B
C
D
N/A
N/A
Table 7. Resistor and capacitor values in Figure 10 (240Vac)
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Technical
Data
Sheet
Input Voltage
Frequency
LED#
2 ea
Target
Drive Current
(ILED = Iin)
Rout
20 mA,rms
A
B
C
D
100 Ω
1600 nF
1850 nF
2340 nF
N/A
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
780 nF
790 nF
800 nF
800 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
1200 nF
1210 nF
1230 nF
1250 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
1630 nF
1660 nF
1700 nF
1740 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
1340 nF
1550 nF
1950 nF
N/A
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
650 nF
660 nF
660 nF
670 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
1000 nF
1010 nF
1020 nF
1040 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
1350 nF
1380 nF
1410 nF
1450 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
1150 nF
1230 nF
1330 nF
1490 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
1950 nF
2290 nF
3100 nF
N/A
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
690 nF
690 nF
700 nF
700 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
1050 nF
1060 nF
1070 nF
1080 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
1420 nF
1440 nF
1470 nF
1500 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
960 nF
1020 nF
1110 nF
1250 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
1620 nF
1910 nF
2550 nF
N/A
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
580 nF
580 nF
580 nF
590 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
870 nF
880 nF
890 nF
900 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
1180 nF
1200 nF
1220 nF
1250 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
920 nF
950 nF
1000 nF
1060 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
1480 nF
1620 nF
1810 nF
2150 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
2170 nF
2570 nF
3500 nF
N/A
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
620 nF
620 nF
620 nF
630 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
940 nF
940 nF
950 nF
960 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
1260 nF
1280 nF
1300 nF
1320 nF
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
760 nF
800 nF
930 nF
880 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
1240 nF
1350 nF
1510 nF
1800 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
1810 nF
2140 nF
2900 nF
N/A
20 mA,rms
100 Ω
510 nF
520 nF
520 nF
520 nF
30 mA,rms
100 Ω
780 nF
790 nF
790 nF
800 nF
40 mA,rms
100 Ω
1050 nF
1070 nF
1080 nF
1100 nF
50 Hz
1 ea
Cin for VF bins
100Vac
2 ea
60 Hz
1 ea
2 ea
50 Hz
1 ea
110 Vac
2 ea
60 Hz
1 ea
2 ea
50 Hz
1 ea
120 Vac
2 ea
60 Hz
1 ea
Table 8. Resistor and capacitor values in Figure 10 (100~120 Vac)
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We can also see based on Figure 10, the peak currents and waveforms are different based on
number of LEDs in the circuit. The more LEDs in the circuit the higher the peak current in identical
currents(i.e. 20mA rms). This translates into lower luminous output because of droop, but we will
see higher power factors with more LEDs. Flicker can be more prominent with a higher
number of LEDs as you can see there is more off time with more LEDs.
Configuration #2
LED#-4ea
LED#-3ea
LED#-2ea
LED#-1ea
50
45
Current [mA,rms]
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
10
20
30
40
Time [ms]
Figure 11. LED current shape for 1-4 LEDs.
Input Voltage is [email protected] and target LED current is 20mA,rms.
Figure 12 shows LED current vs input voltage variation on A4 with 1-4 emitters. When quantities of
LEDs decrease, the current variation is less.
30
26
Current [mA,rms]
24
140
130
120
22
110
20
100
18
90
16
80
14
70
12
60
10
184
207
230
253
Nomalized Current [%]
28
150
Configuration #2
LED#-4ea
LED#-3ea
LED#-2ea
LED#-1ea
50
276
Input Voltage [Vac] at 50Hz
Figure 12. LED current variation at input voltage range (230Vac ± 20%) in Figure10.
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Optional circuit configuration#3: This adds an input capacitor and output capacitor to the
standard circuit. This configuration has no flicker and the current shape through the A4 package
is similar to DC current, as seen in Figure 8. This means we get a combination of configurations
#1 & 2, higher efficiency and no flicker issues.
Cin
Rout
Vin
Acriche A4
BD
Cout
Figure 13. Optional compact drive circuit configuration#3
Input Voltage
Frequency
LED#
Target
Drive Current
(ILED, not Iin)
Cout
Cin for VF bins
20 mA,rms
47 uF
390 Ω
1160 nF
1250 nF
1350 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
390 Ω
2060 nF
2350 nF
2760 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
700 nF
730 nF
760 nF
780 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
1140 nF
1200 nF
1270 nF
1350 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
1630 nF
1760 nF
1920 nF
2100 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
510 nF
510 nF
520 nF
530 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
780 nF
800 nF
820 nF
840 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
1080 nF
1120 nF
1160 nF
1200 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
390 nF
400 nF
400 nF
400 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
600 nF
600 nF
610 nF
610 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
800 nF
820 nF
830 nF
840 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
390 Ω
960 nF
1040 nF
1120 nF
1220 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
390 Ω
1710 nF
1960 nF
2280 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
590 nF
610 nF
630 nF
650 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
950 nF
1000 nF
1060 nF
1120 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
1360 nF
1470 nF
1600 nF
1750 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
420 nF
430 nF
430 nF
440 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
650 nF
670 nF
690 nF
700 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
900 nF
930 nF
960 nF
1000 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
330 nF
330 nF
330 nF
330 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
500 nF
500 nF
510 nF
510 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
670 nF
680 nF
690 nF
700 nF
A
4 ea
3 ea
50 Hz
2 ea
1 ea
220 Vac
4 ea
3 ea
60 Hz
2 ea
1 ea
Rout
B
C
D
1470 nF
N/A
N/A
Table 9. Resistor and capacitor values in Figure 12 (220Vac)
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Technical
Data
Sheet
Input Voltage
Frequency
LED#
Target
Drive Current
(ILED, not Iin)
Cout
Cin for VF bins
20 mA,rms
47 uF
390 Ω
990 nF
1060 nF
1130 nF
1210 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
390 Ω
1720 nF
1930 nF
2180 nF
2520 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
640 nF
660 nF
680 nF
710 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
1030 nF
1080 nF
1130 nF
1190 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
1460 nF
1570 nF
1690 nF
1830 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
470 nF
480 nF
490 nF
490 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
730 nF
750 nF
760 nF
780 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
1000 nF
1040 nF
1070 nF
1100 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
370 nF
370 nF
380 nF
380 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
560 nF
570 nF
570 nF
580 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
760 nF
770 nF
780 nF
790 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
390 Ω
830 nF
880 nF
940 nF
1010 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
390 Ω
1430 nF
1600 nF
1810 nF
2100 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
530 nF
550 nF
570 nF
590 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
850 nF
900 nF
940 nF
990 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
1220 nF
1300 nF
1400 nF
1520 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
390 nF
400 nF
400 nF
410 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
610 nF
620 nF
630 nF
650 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
840 nF
860 nF
890 nF
920 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
310 nF
310 nF
310 nF
310 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
470 nF
480 nF
480 nF
480 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
630 nF
640 nF
650 nF
660 nF
Rout
A
B
C
D
4 ea
3 ea
50 Hz
2 ea
1 ea
230 Vac
4 ea
3 ea
60 Hz
2 ea
1 ea
Table 10. Resistor and capacitor values in Figure 12 (230Vac)
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Technical
Data
Sheet
Input Voltage
Frequency
LED#
Target
Drive Current
(ILED, not Iin)
Cout
Cin for VF bins
20 mA,rms
47 uF
390 Ω
870 nF
920 nF
970 nF
1030 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
390 Ω
1480 nF
1630 nF
1810 nF
2030 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
590 nF
600 nF
620 nF
640 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
940 nF
980 nF
1020 nF
1070 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
1330 nF
1410 nF
1500 nF
1620 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
440 nF
450 nF
450 nF
460 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
680 nF
700 nF
710 nF
720 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
940 nF
960 nF
990 nF
1020 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
350 nF
350 nF
360 nF
360 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
530 nF
540 nF
550 nF
550 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
720 nF
730 nF
740 nF
750 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
390 Ω
730 nF
770 nF
810 nF
860 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
390 Ω
1230 nF
1350 nF
1500 nF
1680 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
390 Ω
1880 nF
2170 nF
2600 nF
3200 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
490 nF
500 nF
520 nF
540 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
780 nF
810 nF
850 nF
890 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
300 Ω
1100 nF
1170 nF
1250 nF
1350 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
370 nF
370 nF
380 nF
380 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
570 nF
580 nF
590 nF
600 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
200 Ω
780 nF
800 nF
830 nF
850 nF
20 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
300 nF
300 nF
300 nF
300 nF
30 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
450 nF
450 nF
460 nF
460 nF
40 mA,rms
47 uF
100 Ω
600 nF
610 nF
620 nF
620 nF
Rout
A
B
C
D
4 ea
3 ea
50 Hz
2 ea
1 ea
240 Vac
4 ea
3 ea
60 Hz
2 ea
1 ea
Table 11. Resistor and capacitor values in Figure 12 (240Vac)
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Technical
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Sheet
Input Voltage
Frequency
50 Hz
LED#
1 ea
Target
Drive Current
(ILED, not Iin)
Cout
Cin for VF bins
20 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
1180 nF
1210 nF
1230 nF
1250 nF
30 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
1850 nF
1910 nF
1960 nF
2020 nF
40 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
2570 nF
2680 nF
2790 nF
2910 nF
20 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
990 nF
1010 nF
1030 nF
1050 nF
30 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
1530 nF
1590 nF
1640 nF
1690 nF
40 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
2140 nF
2230 nF
2320 nF
2420 nF
20 mA,rms
100 uF
200 Ω
2360 nF
2550 nF
2770 nF
3000 nF
20 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
1010 nF
1030 nF
1050 nF
1070 nF
30 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
1580 nF
1620 nF
1660 nF
1700 nF
40 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
2170 nF
2250 nF
2330 nF
2410 nF
20 mA,rms
100 uF
200 Ω
1970 nF
2120 nF
2300 nF
2500 nF
20 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
850 nF
860 nF
870 nF
890 nF
30 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
1310 nF
1350 nF
1380 nF
1410 nF
40 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
1810 nF
1870 nF
1940 nF
2010 nF
20 mA,rms
100 uF
200 Ω
1780 nF
1890 nF
2010 nF
2100 nF
20 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
890 nF
900 nF
910 nF
920 nF
30 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
1370 nF
1400 nF
1430 nF
1460 nF
40 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
1880 nF
1940 nF
2000 nF
2060 nF
20 mA,rms
100 uF
200 Ω
1480 nF
1570 nF
1640 nF
1750 nF
20 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
740 nF
750 nF
760 nF
770 nF
30 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
1140 nF
1170 nF
1190 nF
1220 nF
40 mA,rms
100 uF
100 Ω
1570 nF
1610 nF
1660 nF
1710 nF
Rout
A
B
C
D
100 Vac
60 Hz
1 ea
2 ea
50 Hz
1 ea
110 Vac
2 ea
60 Hz
1 ea
2 ea
50 Hz
1 ea
120 Vac
2 ea
60 Hz
1 ea
Table 12. Resistor and capacitor values in Figure 12 (100~120Vac)
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2.4 Circuit configuration performance
The ACRICHE A4 emitter can be operated in diverse configurations. Configuration #1 has no
flicker, but has lower power factor and lower efficiency. On the contrary using Configuration #2,
there are characteristics of high efficiency, higher power factor. Lastly, configuration #3 has the
merit from configuration#1 & 2. It has high efficiency, no flicker, but power factor is a little low.
Table 13 shows detail circuit charateristic of four configurations that are operated in 230Vac/50Hz.
Standard AC Drive
Optional
Configuration #1
Optional
Configuration #2
Optional
Configuration #3
4 ea
4 ea
4 ea
4 ea
C
C
C
C
230 Vac
230 Vac
230 Vac
230 Vac
50 Hz
50 Hz
50 Hz
50 Hz
2040 Ω
4750 Ω
100 Ω
390 Ω
Cin
N/A
N/A
550 nF
1130 nF
Cout
N/A
47 uF
N/A
47 uF
LED current
20 mA,rms
20 mA,rms
20 mA,rms
20 mA,rms
Input current
20 mA,rms
100 mA,rms
20 mA,rms
40 mA,rms
Pin
4.16 W
6.52 W
3.23 W
4.71 W
Pled
3.33 W
4.54 W
3.17 W
4.53 W
Effciency(Pled/Pin)
80.15%
69.56%
98.19%
96.23%
Noticeable flicker
100Hz
no
100Hz
no
0.90
0.28
0.70
0.51
LED #
LED VF rank
Vin
Frequency
Rout
PF
Table 13. Circuit characteristic of four configurations with input 230Vac/50Hz
Rout
Vin
Rout
Acriche A4
Vin
BD
Optional
Standard
Cout Configuration #1
AC Drive
Cin
Cin
Rout
Vin
Acriche A4
BD
Acriche A4
Rout
Vin
BD
Acriche A4
BD
Optional
Optional
Cout Configuration #3
Configuration #2
Figure 14. Four circuit configurations
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2.5 Relative light output between AC and DC
The ACRICHE A4 emitter is binned at rectified AC 20mA,rms, not at constant current 20mA.
Figure 15 shows relative luminous flux vs current of an AC circuit and a DC circuit. Relative flux
results are normalized luminous flux at AC 20mA,rms. The AC drive current can simply be changed
by modifying the resistor value in the circuit.
Optional circuit configurations 1 and 3 are similar to driving at a constant current, therefore they
will have similar luminous flux characteristics.
3.0
2.8
Constant Current DC Driving
Standard AC driving
2.6
Relatve Luminous Flux
2.4
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Current [mA,rms]
Figure 15. Relative luminous flux between AC and DC driving.
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2.6 Vf bin combination
If we can combine multiple Vf bins, we can allow for more part acceptability in the system
application, thereby allowing a wider availability of parts. The ACRICHE A4 emitter can be
operated by mixing VF bins. The left picture of Figure 16 is an example of a series combination of
2 VF bin Cs in a 100/110/120V application. The right picture of Figure 15 would result in the same
current draw as the left using the same resistor, but this time we are combining 2 Vf B bins and 2
Vf D bins.
Same effect
Rout VF:C VF:C
Vin
BD
=
Rout VF:B VF:D
Vin
BD
Figure 16. Same effect of Vf bin combination
The same idea can be applied for 2 Vf bin Bs in series. These can be replaced with 1 Vf bin A
and 1 Vf bin C. If we take a look at the resistor settings, for example a 120Vac application on
page 6(Fig 17), we can see how the math works. The easy calculation is to take the resistor
setting for Vf bin A and the resistor setting for Vf bin C, add them together and divide by 2.
If we look at the 2W configuration:
(1510ohms + 1210ohms) / 2 = 1360ohms, which is the same resistor value as Vf bin B.
We can further expand this to other combinations of Vf if we modify Rout for setting the current.
This technique can be easily modified for 220/230/240Vac applications. We just add the four
resistor values together and divide by 4 since we have 4 LEDs in series.
Input Voltage
120 Vac
VF bins
Power
dissipation
Target
Drive Current
A
B
C
D
2W
20 mA,rms
1510 Ω
1360 Ω
1210 Ω
1060 Ω
3W
25 mA,rms
1125 Ω
975 Ω
825 Ω
675 Ω
4W
30 mA,rms
870 Ω
720 Ω
570 Ω
420 Ω
Figure 17. 120Vac resistor settings pulled from page 6
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2.7 Color bin selection
Color coordinates of the part AN4240-03 can change over temperature. Color shift can be inimized
with a good thermal system design. If color stability is important in a system, it is recommended
to design the system based on the specific application temperature. An example of color shift over
temperature is shown below in Figure 18. We can see as the board temperature gets hotter we
have a color shift to the left. Each application is specific and should be verified in application.
Tb=100℃
0.44
CIE y
0.42
0.40
0.38
Tb=50℃
Tb=75℃
2900K2700K
3000K
3200K
H8 H9
G9
3500K
G8
H0 H1
3700K
F9
G1
G0
F8
H2 H3
F1
G3
G2
F0
H4 H5
F3
G5
G4
F2
H7
H6
F5
F4
G6 G7
F7
F6
2600K
Tb=25℃
0.36
0.38
0.40
0.42
0.44
0.46
0.48
0.50
CIE x
Figure 18. Color coordinate depends on board temperature for AN4240-03
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3. Protection
3.1 Description
AC-LEDs are susceptible to line transients just as DC LEDs which can overheat the components,
either causing immediate failure or greatly shortening the useful life of the LEDs. Circuit-protection
should be utilized to protect against over-voltage, over-current and over temperature conditions.
3.2 Lightning surges, Voltage spikes or Ring Wave Protection
A metal oxide varistor (MOV) is often used to help protect lighting systems from lightning surges
and ring-wave effects, and helps manufacturers meet safety and performance standards. The MOV
clamps short-duration voltage impulses. Lightning tests according to IEC 61000-4-5 and ring-wave
tests according to IEEE C.62.41 can be used to simulate these real-life threats in the lab.
3.3 Over-current and Over-temperature Protection
In both AC-LEDs and DC-LEDs alike, excessive heat at the LED junction can dramatically reduce
both the light output and lifespan of the LED.
TE Circuit Protection’s PolySwitch polymeric positive temperature coefficient (PPTC) devices help
provide over-current and over-temperature protection and can be easily integrated onto a circuit
board with the AC-LED. The PPTC acts like a fuse to limit current in a series circuit that drives the
LED, yet can automatically reset itself when the fault clears.
An example circuit of a MOV and PPTC is shown in figure 19 below.
Figure 19. Example protection circuit
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