AT90CAN32/64/128

Features
• High-performance, Low-power AVR® 8-bit Microcontroller
• Advanced RISC Architecture
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
– 133 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution
– 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers + Peripheral Control Registers
– Fully Static Operation
– Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz
– On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier
Non volatile Program and Data Memories
– 32K/64K/128K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash (AT90CAN32/64/128)
• Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
– Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits
• Selectable Boot Size: 1K Bytes, 2K Bytes, 4K Bytes or 8K Bytes
• In-System Programming by On-Chip Boot Program (CAN, UART, ...)
• True Read-While-Write Operation
– 1K/2K/4K Bytes EEPROM (Endurance: 100,000 Write/Erase Cycles) (AT90CAN32/64/128)
– 2K/4K/4K Bytes Internal SRAM (AT90CAN32/64/128)
– Up to 64K Bytes Optional External Memory Space
– Programming Lock for Software Security
JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 Compliant) Interface
– Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard
– Programming Flash (Hardware ISP), EEPROM, Lock & Fuse Bits
– Extensive On-chip Debug Support
CAN Controller 2.0A & 2.0B - ISO 16845 Certified (1)
– 15 Full Message Objects with Separate Identifier Tags and Masks
– Transmit, Receive, Automatic Reply and Frame Buffer Receive Modes
– 1Mbits/s Maximum Transfer Rate at 8 MHz
– Time stamping, TTC & Listening Mode (Spying or Autobaud)
Peripheral Features
– Programmable Watchdog Timer with On-chip Oscillator
– 8-bit Synchronous Timer/Counter-0
• 10-bit Prescaler
• External Event Counter
• Output Compare or 8-bit PWM Output
– 8-bit Asynchronous Timer/Counter-2
• 10-bit Prescaler
• External Event Counter
• Output Compare or 8-Bit PWM Output
• 32Khz Oscillator for RTC Operation
– Dual 16-bit Synchronous Timer/Counters-1 & 3
• 10-bit Prescaler
• Input Capture with Noise Canceler
• External Event Counter
• 3-Output Compare or 16-Bit PWM Output
• Output Compare Modulation
– 8-channel, 10-bit SAR ADC
• 8 Single-ended Channels
• 7 Differential Channels
• 2 Differential Channels With Programmable Gain at 1x, 10x, or 200x
– On-chip Analog Comparator
– Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface
– Dual Programmable Serial USART
– Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface
• Programming Flash (Hardware ISP)
Special Microcontroller Features
– Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection
– Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator
– 8 External Interrupt Sources
– 5 Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down & Standby
– Software Selectable Clock Frequency
– Global Pull-up Disable
I/O and Packages
– 53 Programmable I/O Lines
– 64-lead TQFP and 64-lead QFN
Operating Voltages: 2.7 - 5.5V
Operating temperature: Industrial (-40°C to +85°C)
Maximum Frequency: 8 MHz at 2.7V, 16 MHz at 4.5V
Note:
1. Details on section 19.4.3 on page 242.
8-bit
Microcontroller
with
32K/64K/128K
Bytes of
ISP Flash
and
CAN Controller
AT90CAN32
AT90CAN64
AT90CAN128
Rev. 7679H–CAN–08/08
1. Description
1.1
Comparison Between AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64 and AT90CAN128
AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64 and AT90CAN128 are hardware and software compatible. They differ only in memory sizes as shown in Table 1-1.
1.2
Table 1-1.
Memory Size Summary
Device
Flash
EEPROM
RAM
AT90CAN32
32K Bytes
1K Byte
2K Bytes
AT90CAN64
64K Bytes
2K Bytes
4K Bytes
AT90CAN128
128K Bytes
4K Byte
4K Bytes
Part Description
The AT90CAN32/64/128 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR
enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the
AT90CAN32/64/128 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system
designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.
The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All 32
registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent
registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting
architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers.
The AT90CAN32/64/128 provides the following features: 32K/64K/128K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write capabilities, 1K/2K/4K bytes EEPROM, 2K/4K/4K
bytes SRAM, 53 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, a CAN controller, Real Time Counter (RTC), four flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes and PWM, 2
USARTs, a byte oriented Two-wire Serial Interface, an 8-channel 10-bit ADC with optional differential input stage with programmable gain, a programmable Watchdog Timer with Internal
Oscillator, an SPI serial port, IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant JTAG test interface, also used for
accessing the On-chip Debug system and programming and five software selectable power saving modes.
The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, SPI/CAN ports and
interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the register contents but
freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or Hardware
Reset. In Power-save mode, the asynchronous timer continues to run, allowing the user to maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping. The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops
the CPU and all I/O modules except Asynchronous Timer and ADC, to minimize switching noise
during ADC conversions. In Standby mode, the Crystal/Resonator Oscillator is running while the
rest of the device is sleeping. This allows very fast start-up combined with low power
consumption.
The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology. The Onchip ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system through an SPI serial
interface, by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer, or by an On-chip Boot program
running on the AVR core. The boot program can use any interface to download the application
program in the application Flash memory. Software in the Boot Flash section will continue to run
while the Application Flash section is updated, providing true Read-While-Write operation. By
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AT90CAN32/64/128
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AT90CAN32/64/128
combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a monolithic chip,
the Atmel AT90CAN32/64/128 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly flexible and
cost effective solution to many embedded control applications.
The AT90CAN32/64/128 AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development
tools including: C compilers, macro assemblers, program debugger/simulators, in-circuit emulators, and evaluation kits.
1.3
Disclaimer
Typical values contained in this datasheet are based on simulations and characterization of
other AVR microcontrollers manufactured on the same process technology. Min and Max values
will be available after the device is characterized.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
Block Diagram
PF7 - PF0
VCC
PC7 - PC0
PA7 - PA0
PORTA DRIVERS
PORTF DRIVERS
RESET
Block Diagram
XTAL2
Figure 1-1.
XTAL1
1.4
PORTC DRIVERS
GND
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTF
DATA REGISTER
PORTF
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTA
DATA REGISTER
PORTA
DATA REGISTER
PORTC
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTC
8-BIT DATA BUS
POR - BOD
RESET
AVCC
INTERNAL
OSCILLATOR
CALIB. OSC
ADC
AGND
AREF
PROGRAM
COUNTER
STACK
POINTER
ON-CHIP DEBUG
PROGRAM
FLASH
SRAM
BOUNDARYSCAN
INSTRUCTION
REGISTER
JTAG TAP
OSCILLATOR
WATCHDOG
TIMER
OSCILLATOR
TIMING AND
CONTROL
MCU CONTROL
REGISTER
CAN
CONTROLLER
TIMER/
COUNTERS
GENERAL
PURPOSE
REGISTERS
X
PROGRAMMING
LOGIC
INSTRUCTION
DECODER
Z
INTERRUPT
UNIT
ALU
EEPROM
Y
CONTROL
LINES
STATUS
REGISTER
+
-
ANALOG
COMPARATOR
USART0
SPI
DATA REGISTER
PORTE
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTE
DATA REGISTER
PORTB
PORTE DRIVERS
PE7 - PE0
4
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTB
PORTB DRIVERS
PB7 - PB0
USART1
DATA REGISTER
PORTD
TWO-WIRE SERIAL
INTERFACE
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTD
DATA REG.
PORTG
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTG
PORTD DRIVERS
PORTG DRIVERS
PD7 - PD0
PG4 - PG0
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Pin Configurations
GND
AREF
PF0 (ADC0)
PF1 (ADC1)
PF2 (ADC2)
PF3 (ADC3)
PF4 (ADC4 / TCK)
PF5 (ADC5 / TMS)
PF6 (ADC6 / TDO)
PF7 (ADC7 / TDI)
GND
VCC
PA0 (AD0)
PA1 (AD1)
PA2 (AD2)
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
Pinout AT90CAN32/64/128 - TQFP
AVCC
NC (1)
1
48
PA3 (AD3)
(RXD0 / PDI) PE0
2
47
PA4 (AD4)
(TXD0 / PDO) PE1
3
46
PA5 (AD5)
(XCK0 / AIN0) PE2
4
45
PA6 (AD6)
(OC3A / AIN1) PE3
5
44
PA7 (AD7)
(OC3B / INT4) PE4
6
43
PG2 (ALE)
(OC3C / INT5) PE5
7
42
PC7 (A15 / CLKO)
(T3 / INT6) PE6
8
41
PC6 (A14)
(ICP3 / INT7) PE7
9
40
PC5 (A13)
(SS) PB0 10
39
PC4 (A12)
(SCK) PB1 11
38
PC3 (A11)
12
37
PC2 (A10)
(MISO) PB3 13
36
PC1 (A9)
(OC2A) PB4 14
35
PC0 (A8)
(OC1A) PB5
15
34
PG1 (RD)
(OC1B) PB6
16
33
PG0 (WR)
(1)
NC = Do not connect (May be used in future devices)
(2)
Timer2 Oscillator
(T0) PD7 32
(RXCAN / T1) PD6 31
(TXCAN / XCK1) PD5 30
(ICP1) PD4 29
(TXD1 / INT3) PD3 28
(RXD1 / INT2) PD2 27
(SDA / INT1) PD1 26
(SCL / INT0) PD0 25
XTAL1 24
XTAL2 23
GND 22
VCC 21
RESET 20
(2)
(2)
(TOSC1 ) PG4 19
(64-lead TQFP top view)
(OC0A / OC1C) PB7 17
(MOSI) PB2
INDEX CORNER
(TOSC2 ) PG3 18
Figure 1-2.
64
1.5
5
7679H–CAN–08/08
AVCC
GND
AREF
PF0 (ADC0)
PF1 (ADC1)
PF2 (ADC2)
PF3 (ADC3)
PF4 (ADC4 / TCK)
PF5 (ADC5 / TMS)
PF6 (ADC6 / TDO)
PF7 (ADC7 / TDI)
GND
VCC
PA0 (AD0)
PA1 (AD1)
PA2 (AD2)
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
PA3 (AD3)
2
47
PA4 (AD4)
(TXD0 / PDO) PE1
3
46
PA5 (AD5)
(XCK0 / AIN0) PE2
4
45
PA6 (AD6)
(OC3A / AIN1) PE3
5
44
PA7 (AD7)
INDEX CORNER
(OC3B / INT4) PE4
6
43
PG2 (ALE)
(OC3C / INT5) PE5
7
42
PC7 (A15 / CLKO)
(T3 / INT6) PE6
8
41
PC6 (A14)
(ICP3 / INT7) PE7
9
40
PC5 (A13)
(SS) PB0
10
39
PC4 (A12)
(SCK) PB1
11
38
PC3 (A11)
(MOSI) PB2
12
37
PC2 (A10)
(MISO) PB3
13
36
PC1 (A9)
(64-lead QFN top view)
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
VCC
XTAL2
XTAL1
(SCL / INT0) PD0
(SDA / INT1) PD1
(RXD1 / INT2) PD2
(TXD1 / INT3) PD3
(ICP1) PD4
(TXCAN / XCK1) PD5
(RXCAN / T1) PD6
(T0) PD7
(2)
(2)
GND
PG0 (WR)
20
33
RESET
PG1 (RD)
16
19
34
(OC1B) PB6
(TOSC1 ) PG4
15
18
35
(OC1A) PB5
17
14
PC0 (A8)
(TOSC2 ) PG3
(OC2A) PB4
(1)
NC = Do not connect (May be used in future devices)
(2)
Timer2 Oscillator
Note:
1.6.1
63
1
(RXD0 / PDI) PE0
NC
1.6
(1)
64
Pinout AT90CAN32/64/128 - QFN
(OC0A / OC1C) PB7
Figure 1-3.
The large center pad underneath the QFN package is made of metal and internally connected to
GND. It should be soldered or glued to the board to ensure good mechanical stability. If the center
pad is left unconnected, the package might loosen from the board.
Pin Descriptions
VCC
Digital supply voltage.
1.6.2
GND
Ground.
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AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
1.6.3
Port A (PA7..PA0)
Port A is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port A pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Port A also serves the functions of various special features of the AT90CAN32/64/128 as listed
on page 74.
1.6.4
Port B (PB7..PB0)
Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the AT90CAN32/64/128 as listed
on page 76.
1.6.5
Port C (PC7..PC0)
Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Port C also serves the functions of special features of the AT90CAN32/64/128 as listed on page
78.
1.6.6
Port D (PD7..PD0)
Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Port D also serves the functions of various special features of the AT90CAN32/64/128 as listed
on page 80.
1.6.7
Port E (PE7..PE0)
Port E is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port E output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port E pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port E pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Port E also serves the functions of various special features of the AT90CAN32/64/128 as listed
on page 83.
1.6.8
Port F (PF7..PF0)
Port F serves as the analog inputs to the A/D Converter.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
Port F also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port, if the A/D Converter is not used. Port pins
can provide internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port F output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port F pins
that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port F
pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
Port F also serves the functions of the JTAG interface. If the JTAG interface is enabled, the pullup resistors on pins PF7(TDI), PF5(TMS), and PF4(TCK) will be activated even if a reset occurs.
1.6.9
Port G (PG4..PG0)
Port G is a 5-bit I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port G output
buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As
inputs, Port G pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are
activated. The Port G pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock
is not running.
Port G also serves the functions of various special features of the AT90CAN32/64/128 as listed
on page 88.
1.6.10
RESET
Reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a
reset. The minimum pulse length is given in characteristics. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed
to generate a reset. The I/O ports of the AVR are immediately reset to their initial state even if
the clock is not running. The clock is needed to reset the rest of the AT90CAN32/64/128.
1.6.11
XTAL1
Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.
1.6.12
XTAL2
Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier.
1.6.13
AVCC
AVCC is the supply voltage pin for the A/D Converter on Port F. It should be externally connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be connected to VCC
through a low-pass filter.
1.6.14
AREF
This is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter.
2. About Code Examples
This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use various parts of
the device. These code examples assume that the part specific header file is included before
compilation. Be aware that not all C compiler vendors include bit definitions in the header files
and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent. Please confirm with the C compiler documentation for more details.
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AT90CAN32/64/128
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AT90CAN32/64/128
3. AVR CPU Core
3.1
Introduction
This section discusses the AVR core architecture in general. The main function of the CPU core
is to ensure correct program execution. The CPU must therefore be able to access memories,
perform calculations, control peripherals, and handle interrupts.
3.2
Architectural Overview
Figure 3-1.
Block Diagram of the AVR Architecture
Data Bus 8-bit
Flash
Program
Memory
Program
Counter
Status
and Control
32 x 8
General
Purpose
Registrers
Control Lines
Direct Addressing
Instruction
Decoder
Indirect Addressing
Instruction
Register
Interrupt
Unit
SPI
Unit
Watchdog
Timer
ALU
Analog
Comparator
I/O Module1
Data
SRAM
I/O Module 2
I/O Module n
EEPROM
I/O Lines
In order to maximize performance and parallelism, the AVR uses a Harvard architecture – with
separate memories and buses for program and data. Instructions in the program memory are
executed with a single level pipelining. While one instruction is being executed, the next instruction is pre-fetched from the program memory. This concept enables instructions to be executed
in every clock cycle. The program memory is In-System Reprogrammable Flash memory.
9
7679H–CAN–08/08
The fast-access Register File contains 32 x 8-bit general purpose working registers with a single
clock cycle access time. This allows single-cycle Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) operation. In a typical ALU operation, two operands are output from the Register File, the operation is executed,
and the result is stored back in the Register File – in one clock cycle.
Six of the 32 registers can be used as three 16-bit indirect address register pointers for Data
Space addressing – enabling efficient address calculations. One of the these address pointers
can also be used as an address pointer for look up tables in Flash program memory. These
added function registers are the 16-bit X-, Y-, and Z-register, described later in this section.
The ALU supports arithmetic and logic operations between registers or between a constant and
a register. Single register operations can also be executed in the ALU. After an arithmetic operation, the Status Register is updated to reflect information about the result of the operation.
Program flow is provided by conditional and unconditional jump and call instructions, able to
directly address the whole address space. Most AVR instructions have a single 16-bit word format. Every program memory address contains a 16- or 32-bit instruction.
Program Flash memory space is divided in two sections, the Boot Program section and the
Application Program section. Both sections have dedicated Lock bits for write and read/write
protection. The SPM (Store Program Memory) instruction that writes into the Application Flash
memory section must reside in the Boot Program section.
During interrupts and subroutine calls, the return address Program Counter (PC) is stored on the
Stack. The Stack is effectively allocated in the general data SRAM, and consequently the Stack
size is only limited by the total SRAM size and the usage of the SRAM. All user programs must
initialize the SP in the Reset routine (before subroutines or interrupts are executed). The Stack
Pointer (SP) is read/write accessible in the I/O space. The data SRAM can easily be accessed
through the five different addressing modes supported in the AVR architecture.
The memory spaces in the AVR architecture are all linear and regular memory maps.
A flexible interrupt module has its control registers in the I/O space with an additional Global
Interrupt Enable bit in the Status Register. All interrupts have a separate Interrupt Vector in the
Interrupt Vector table. The interrupts have priority in accordance with their Interrupt Vector position. The lower the Interrupt Vector address, the higher is the priority.
The I/O memory space contains 64 addresses for CPU peripheral functions as Control Registers, SPI, and other I/O functions. The I/O Memory can be accessed directly, or as the Data
Space locations following those of the Register File, 0x20 - 0x5F. In addition, the
AT90CAN32/64/128 has Extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM where only the
ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
3.3
ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit
The high-performance AVR ALU operates in direct connection with all the 32 general purpose
working registers. Within a single clock cycle, arithmetic operations between general purpose
registers or between a register and an immediate are executed. The ALU operations are divided
into three main categories – arithmetic, logical, and bit-functions. Some implementations of the
architecture also provide a powerful multiplier supporting both signed/unsigned multiplication
and fractional format. See the “Instruction Set Summary” section for a detailed description.
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AT90CAN32/64/128
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AT90CAN32/64/128
3.4
Status Register
The Status Register contains information about the result of the most recently executed arithmetic instruction. This information can be used for altering program flow in order to perform
conditional operations. Note that the Status Register is updated after all ALU operations, as
specified in the Instruction Set Reference. This will in many cases remove the need for using the
dedicated compare instructions, resulting in faster and more compact code.
The Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine and restored
when returning from an interrupt. This must be handled by software.
The AVR Status Register – SREG – is defined as:
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
I
T
H
S
V
N
Z
C
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SREG
• Bit 7 – I: Global Interrupt Enable
The Global Interrupt Enable bit must be set to enabled the interrupts. The individual interrupt
enable control is then performed in separate control registers. If the Global Interrupt Enable
Register is cleared, none of the interrupts are enabled independent of the individual interrupt
enable settings. The I-bit is cleared by hardware after an interrupt has occurred, and is set by
the RETI instruction to enable subsequent interrupts. The I-bit can also be set and cleared by
the application with the SEI and CLI instructions, as described in the instruction set reference.
• Bit 6 – T: Bit Copy Storage
The Bit Copy instructions BLD (Bit LoaD) and BST (Bit STore) use the T-bit as source or destination for the operated bit. A bit from a register in the Register File can be copied into T by the
BST instruction, and a bit in T can be copied into a bit in a register in the Register File by the
BLD instruction.
• Bit 5 – H: Half Carry Flag
The Half Carry Flag H indicates a Half Carry in some arithmetic operations. Half Carry Is useful
in BCD arithmetic. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 4 – S: Sign Bit, S = N ⊕ V
The S-bit is always an EXCLUSIVE OR between the negative flag N and the Two’s Complement
Overflow Flag V. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 3 – V: Two’s Complement Overflow Flag
The Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V supports two’s complement arithmetics. See the
“Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 2 – N: Negative Flag
The Negative Flag N indicates a negative result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the
“Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 1 – Z: Zero Flag
The Zero Flag Z indicates a zero result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction
Set Description” for detailed information.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
• Bit 0 – C: Carry Flag
The Carry Flag C indicates a carry in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set
Description” for detailed information.
3.5
General Purpose Register File
The Register File is optimized for the AVR Enhanced RISC instruction set. In order to achieve
the required performance and flexibility, the following input/output schemes are supported by the
Register File:
• One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input
• Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input
• Two 8-bit output operands and one 16-bit result input
• One 16-bit output operand and one 16-bit result input
Figure 3-2 shows the structure of the 32 general purpose working registers in the CPU.
Figure 3-2.
AVR CPU General Purpose Working Registers
7
0
Addr.
R0
0x00
R1
0x01
R2
0x02
…
R13
0x0D
General
R14
0x0E
Purpose
R15
0x0F
Working
R16
0x10
Registers
R17
0x11
…
R26
0x1A
X-register Low Byte
R27
0x1B
X-register High Byte
R28
0x1C
Y-register Low Byte
R29
0x1D
Y-register High Byte
R30
0x1E
Z-register Low Byte
R31
0x1F
Z-register High Byte
Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all registers, and
most of them are single cycle instructions.
As shown in Figure 3-2, each register is also assigned a data memory address, mapping them
directly into the first 32 locations of the user Data Space. Although not being physically implemented as SRAM locations, this memory organization provides great flexibility in access of the
registers, as the X-, Y- and Z-pointer registers can be set to index any register in the file.
3.5.1
12
The X-register, Y-register, and Z-register
The registers R26..R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage. These registers are 16-bit address pointers for indirect addressing of the data space. The three indirect
address registers X, Y, and Z are defined as described in Figure 3-3.
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 3-3.
The X-, Y-, and Z-registers
15
X-register
XH
XL
7
0
R27 (0x1B)
YH
YL
7
0
R29 (0x1D)
Z-register
0
R26 (0x1A)
15
Y-register
0
7
0
7
0
R28 (0x1C)
15
ZH
7
0
ZL
7
R31 (0x1F)
0
0
R30 (0x1E)
In the different addressing modes these address registers have functions as fixed displacement,
automatic increment, and automatic decrement (see the instruction set reference for details).
3.5.2
Extended Z-pointer Register for ELPM/SPM – RAMPZ
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
RAMPZ0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RAMPZ
• Bits 7..1 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use and will always read as zero. For compatibility with future
devices, be sure to write to write them to zero.
• Bit 0 – RAMPZ0: Extended RAM Page Z-pointer
The RAMPZ Register is normally used to select which 64K RAM Page is accessed by the Zpointer. As the AT90CAN32/64/128 does not support more than 64K of SRAM memory, this register is used only to select which page in the program memory is accessed when the ELPM/SPM
instruction is used. The different settings of the RAMPZ0 bit have the following effects:
RAMPZ0 = 0: Program memory address 0x0000 - 0x7FFF (lower 64K bytes) is accessed by
ELPM/SPM
RAMPZ0 = 1: Program memory address 0x8000 - 0xFFFF (higher 64K bytes) is accessed by
ELPM/SPM
– AT90CAN32 and AT90CAN64: RAMPZ0 exists as register bit but it is not used for
program memory addressing.
– AT90CAN128: RAMPZ0 exists as register bit and it is used for program memory
addressing.
Figure 3-4.
The Z-pointer used by ELPM and SPM
Bit (Individually)
7
Bit (Z-pointer)
23
0
7
16
15
RAMPZ
Note:
0
7
8
7
ZH
0
ZL
0
LPM (different of ELPM) is never affected by the RAMPZ setting.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
3.6
Stack Pointer
The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing
return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls. The Stack Pointer Register always points
to the top of the Stack. Note that the Stack is implemented as growing from higher memory locations to lower memory locations. This implies that a Stack PUSH command decreases the Stack
Pointer.
The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine and Interrupt
Stacks are located. This Stack space in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before
any subroutine calls are executed or interrupts are enabled. The Stack Pointer must be set to
point above 0xFF. The Stack Pointer is decremented by one when data is pushed onto the Stack
with the PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by two when the return address is pushed onto
the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt. The Stack Pointer is incremented by one when data is
popped from the Stack with the POP instruction, and it is incremented by two when data is
popped from the Stack with return from subroutine RET or return from interrupt RETI.
The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of
bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementations of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL is needed. In this case, the SPH Register
will not be present.
Bit
Read/Write
Initial Value
3.7
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
SP15
SP14
SP13
SP12
SP11
SP10
SP9
SP8
SPH
SP7
SP6
SP5
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
SPL
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Instruction Execution Timing
This section describes the general access timing concepts for instruction execution. The AVR
CPU is driven by the CPU clock clkCPU, directly generated from the selected clock source for the
chip. No internal clock division is used.
Figure 3-5 shows the parallel instruction fetches and instruction executions enabled by the Harvard architecture and the fast-access Register File concept. This is the basic pipelining concept
to obtain up to 1 MIPS per MHz with the corresponding unique results for functions per cost,
functions per clocks, and functions per power-unit.
Figure 3-5.
The Parallel Instruction Fetches and Instruction Executions
T1
T2
T3
T4
clkCPU
1st Instruction Fetch
1st Instruction Execute
2nd Instruction Fetch
2nd Instruction Execute
3rd Instruction Fetch
3rd Instruction Execute
4th Instruction Fetch
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AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 3-6 shows the internal timing concept for the Register File. In a single clock cycle an ALU
operation using two register operands is executed, and the result is stored back to the destination register.
Figure 3-6.
Single Cycle ALU Operation
T1
T2
T3
T4
clkCPU
Total Execution T
ime
Register Operands Fetch
ALU Operation Execute
Result Write Back
3.8
Reset and Interrupt Handling
The AVR provides several different interrupt sources. These interrupts and the separate Reset
Vector each have a separate program vector in the program memory space. All interrupts are
assigned individual enable bits which must be written logic one together with the Global Interrupt
Enable bit in the Status Register in order to enable the interrupt. Depending on the Program
Counter value, interrupts may be automatically disabled when Boot Lock bits BLB02 or BLB12
are programmed. This feature improves software security. See the section “Memory Programming” on page 336 for details.
The lowest addresses in the program memory space are by default defined as the Reset and
Interrupt Vectors. The complete list of vectors is shown in “Interrupts” on page 60. The list also
determines the priority levels of the different interrupts. The lower the address the higher is the
priority level. RESET has the highest priority, and next is INT0 – the External Interrupt Request
0. The Interrupt Vectors can be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by setting the IVSEL
bit in the MCU Control Register (MCUCR). Refer to “Interrupts” on page 60 for more information.
The Reset Vector can also be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by programming the
BOOTRST Fuse, see “Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming” on page
321.
3.8.1
Interrupt Behavior
When an interrupt occurs, the Global Interrupt Enable I-bit is cleared and all interrupts are disabled. The user software can write logic one to the I-bit to enable nested interrupts. All enabled
interrupts can then interrupt the current interrupt routine. The I-bit is automatically set when a
Return from Interrupt instruction – RETI – is executed.
There are basically two types of interrupts. The first type is triggered by an event that sets the
interrupt flag. For these interrupts, the Program Counter is vectored to the actual Interrupt Vector
in order to execute the interrupt handling routine, and hardware clears the corresponding interrupt flag. Interrupt flags can also be cleared by writing a logic one to the flag bit position(s) to be
cleared. If an interrupt condition occurs while the corresponding interrupt enable bit is cleared,
the interrupt flag will be set and remembered until the interrupt is enabled, or the flag is cleared
by software. Similarly, if one or more interrupt conditions occur while the Global Interrupt Enable
bit is cleared, the corresponding interrupt flag(s) will be set and remembered until the Global
Interrupt Enable bit is set, and will then be executed by order of priority.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
The second type of interrupts will trigger as long as the interrupt condition is present. These
interrupts do not necessarily have interrupt flags. If the interrupt condition disappears before the
interrupt is enabled, the interrupt will not be triggered.
When the AVR exits from an interrupt, it will always return to the main program and execute one
more instruction before any pending interrupt is served.
Note that the Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine, nor
restored when returning from an interrupt routine. This must be handled by software.
When using the CLI instruction to disable interrupts, the interrupts will be immediately disabled.
No interrupt will be executed after the CLI instruction, even if it occurs simultaneously with the
CLI instruction. The following example shows how this can be used to avoid interrupts during the
timed EEPROM write sequence.
Assembly Code Example
in
r16, SREG
; store SREG value
; disable interrupts during timed sequence
cli
sbi
EECR, EEMWE
sbi
EECR, EEWE
out
SREG, r16
; start EEPROM write
; restore SREG value (I-bit)
C Code Example
char cSREG;
cSREG = SREG;
/* store SREG value */
/* disable interrupts during timed sequence */
_CLI();
EECR |= (1<<EEMWE); /* start EEPROM write */
EECR |= (1<<EEWE);
SREG = cSREG;
/* restore SREG value (I-bit) */
When using the SEI instruction to enable interrupts, the instruction following SEI will be executed before any pending interrupts, as shown in this example.
Assembly Code Example
sei
; set Global Interrupt Enable
sleep
; enter sleep, waiting for interrupt
; note: will enter sleep before any pending
; interrupt(s)
C Code Example
_SEI();
/* set Global Interrupt Enable */
_SLEEP();
/* enter sleep, waiting for interrupt */
/* note: will enter sleep before any pending interrupt(s) */
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AT90CAN32/64/128
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AT90CAN32/64/128
3.8.2
Interrupt Response Time
The interrupt execution response for all the enabled AVR interrupts is four clock cycles minimum. After four clock cycles the program vector address for the actual interrupt handling routine
is executed. During this four clock cycle period, the Program Counter is pushed onto the Stack.
The vector is normally a jump to the interrupt routine, and this jump takes three clock cycles. If
an interrupt occurs during execution of a multi-cycle instruction, this instruction is completed
before the interrupt is served. If an interrupt occurs when the MCU is in sleep mode, the interrupt
execution response time is increased by four clock cycles. This increase comes in addition to the
start-up time from the selected sleep mode.
A return from an interrupt handling routine takes four clock cycles. During these four clock
cycles, the Program Counter (two bytes) is popped back from the Stack, the Stack Pointer is
incremented by two, and the I-bit in SREG is set.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
4. Memories
This section describes the different memories in the AT90CAN32/64/128. The AVR architecture
has two main memory spaces, the Data Memory and the Program Memory space. In addition,
the AT90CAN32/64/128 features an EEPROM Memory for data storage. All three memory
spaces are linear and regular.
Table 4-1.
Memory Mapping.
Memory
Size
Flash
I/O
Registers
Ext I/O
Registers
Internal
SRAM
External
Memory
Flash size
Flash end
Notes:
AT90CAN64
AT90CAN128
32 K bytes
64 K bytes
128 K bytes
0x07FFF(1)
0x3FFF(2)
0x0FFFF(1)
0x7FFF(2)
0x00000
Size
-
32 bytes
Start Address
-
0x0000
End Address
-
0x001F
Size
-
64 bytes
Start Address
-
0x0020
End Address
-
0x005F
Size
-
160 bytes
Start Address
-
0x0060
End Address
-
0x00FF
Size
ISRAM size
Start Address
ISRAM start
End Address
ISRAM end
Size
XMem size
Start Address
XMem start
End Address
XMem end
Size
EEPROM
AT90CAN32
-
Start Address
End Address
32
Registers
Mnemonic
E2 size
Start Address
-
End Address
E2 end
2 K bytes
4 K bytes
0x1FFFF(1)
0xFFFF(2)
4 K bytes
0x0100
0x08FF
0x10FF
0x10FF
0-64 K bytes
0x0900
0x1100
0x1100
0xFFFF
1 K bytes
2 K bytes
4 K bytes
0x0000
0x03FF
0x07FF
0x0FFF
1. Byte address.
2. Word (16-bit) address.
4.1
In-System Reprogrammable Flash Program Memory
The AT90CAN32/64/128 contains On-chip In-System Reprogrammable Flash memory for program storage (see “Flash size”). Since all AVR instructions are 16 or 32 bits wide, the Flash is
organized as 16 bits wide. For software security, the Flash Program memory space is divided
into two sections, Boot Program section and Application Program section.
The F lash memory has an endurance of at least 10,000 write/erase cycles. The
AT90CAN32/64/128 Program Counter (PC) address the program memory locations. The operation of Boot Program section and associated Boot Lock bits for software protection are described
in detail in “Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming” on page 321. “Memory
Programming” on page 336 contains a detailed description on Flash data serial downloading
using the SPI pins or the JTAG interface.
18
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Constant tables can be allocated within the entire program memory address space (see the
LPM – Load Program Memory and ELPM – Extended Load Program Memory instruction
description).
Timing diagrams for instruction fetch and execution are presented in “Instruction Execution Timing” on page 14.
Figure 4-1.
Program Memory Map
Program Memory
0x0000
Application Flash Section
Boot Flash Section
Flash end
4.2
SRAM Data Memory
Figure 4-2 shows how the AT90CAN32/64/128 SRAM Memory is organized.
The AT90CAN32/64/128 is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be
supported within the 64 locations reserved in the Opcode for the IN and OUT instructions. For
the Extended I/O space in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be
used.
The lower data memory locations address both the Register File, the I/O memory, Extended I/O
memory, and the internal data SRAM. The first 32 locations address the Register File, the next
64 location the standard I/O memory, then 160 locations of Extended I/O memory, and the next
locations address the internal data SRAM (see “ISRAM size”).
An optional external data SRAM can be used with the AT90CAN32/64/128. This SRAM will
occupy an area in the remaining address locations in the 64K address space. This area starts at
the address following the internal SRAM. The Register file, I/O, Extended I/O and Internal SRAM
occupies the lowest bytes, so when using 64 KB (65,536 bytes) of External Memory,
“XMem size” bytes of External Memory are available. See “External Memory Interface” on page
27 for details on how to take advantage of the external memory map.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
4.2.1
SRAM Data Access
When the addresses accessing the SRAM memory space exceeds the internal data memory
locations, the external data SRAM is accessed using the same instructions as for the internal
data memory access. When the internal data memories are accessed, the read and write strobe
pins (PG0 and PG1) are inactive during the whole access cycle. External SRAM operation is
enabled by setting the SRE bit in the XMCRA Register.
Accessing external SRAM takes one additional clock cycle per byte compared to access of the
internal SRAM. This means that the commands LD, ST, LDS, STS, LDD, STD, PUSH, and POP
take one additional clock cycle. If the Stack is placed in external SRAM, interrupts, subroutine
calls and returns take three clock cycles extra because the two-byte program counter is pushed
and popped, and external memory access does not take advantage of the internal pipe-line
memory access. When external SRAM interface is used with wait-state, one-byte external
access takes two, three, or four additional clock cycles for one, two, and three wait-states
respectively. Interrupts, subroutine calls and returns will need five, seven, or nine clock cycles
more than specified in the instruction set manual for one, two, and three wait-states.
The five different addressing modes for the data memory cover: Direct, Indirect with Displacement, Indirect, Indirect with Pre-decrement, and Indirect with Post-increment. In the Register
File, registers R26 to R31 feature the indirect addressing pointer registers.
The direct addressing reaches the entire data space.
The Indirect with Displacement mode reaches 63 address locations from the base address given
by the Y- or Z-register.
When using register indirect addressing modes with automatic pre-decrement and post-increment, the address registers X, Y, and Z are decremented or incremented.
The 32 general purpose working registers, 64 I/O Registers, 160 Extended I/O Registers, and
the “ISRAM size” bytes of internal data SRAM in the AT90CAN32/64/128 are all accessible
through all these addressing modes. The Register File is described in “General Purpose Register File” on page 12.
20
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 4-2.
Data Memory Map
Data Memory
32 Registers
64 I/O Registers
160 Ext I/O Reg.
0x0000 - 0x001F
0x0020 - 0x005F
0x0060 - 0x00FF
ISRAM start
Internal SRAM
(ISRAM size)
ISRAM end
XMem start
External SRAM
(XMem size)
0xFFFF
4.2.2
SRAM Data Access Times
This section describes the general access timing concepts for internal memory access. The
internal data SRAM access is performed in two clkCPU cycles as described in Figure 4-3.
Figure 4-3.
On-chip Data SRAM Access Cycles
T1
T2
T3
clkCPU
Address
Compute Address
Address valid
Write
Data
WR
Read
Data
RD
Memory Access Instruction
Next Instruction
21
7679H–CAN–08/08
4.3
EEPROM Data Memory
The AT90CAN32/64/128 contains EEPROM memory (see “E2 size”). It is organized as a separate data space, in which single bytes can be read and written. The EEPROM has an endurance
of at least 100,000 write/erase cycles. The access between the EEPROM and the CPU is
described in the following, specifying the EEPROM Address Registers, the EEPROM Data Register, and the EEPROM Control Register.
For a detailed description of SPI, JTAG and Parallel data downloading to the EEPROM, see
“SPI Serial Programming Overview” on page 348, “JTAG Programming Overview” on page 352,
and “Parallel Programming Overview” on page 339 respectively.
4.3.1
EEPROM Read/Write Access
The EEPROM Access Registers are accessible in the I/O space.
The write access time for the EEPROM is given in Table 4-2. A self-timing function, however,
lets the user software detect when the next byte can be written. If the user code contains instructions that write the EEPROM, some precautions must be taken. In heavily filtered power
supplies, VCC is likely to rise or fall slowly on power-up/down. This causes the device for some
period of time to run at a voltage lower than specified as minimum for the clock frequency used.
See “Preventing EEPROM Corruption” on page 26.for details on how to avoid problems in these
situations.
In order to prevent unintentional EEPROM writes, a specific write procedure must be followed.
Refer to the description of the EEPROM Control Register for details on this.
When the EEPROM is read, the CPU is halted for four clock cycles before the next instruction is
executed. When the EEPROM is written, the CPU is halted for two clock cycles before the next
instruction is executed.
4.3.2
The EEPROM Address Registers – EEARH and EEARL
Bit
Read/Write
Initial Value
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
–
–
–
–
EEAR11
EEAR10
EEAR9
EEAR8
EEARH
EEAR7
EEAR6
EEAR5
EEAR4
EEAR3
EEAR2
EEAR1
EEAR0
EEARL
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
• Bits 15..12 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the AT90CAN32/64/128 and will always read as zero.
• Bits 11..0 – EEAR11..0: EEPROM Address
The EEPROM Address Registers – EEARH and EEARL specify the EEPROM address in the
EEPROM space (see “E2 size”). The EEPROM data bytes are addressed linearly between 0
and “E2 end”. The initial value of EEAR is undefined. A proper value must be written before the
EEPROM may be accessed.
– AT90CAN32: EEAR11 & EEAR10 exist as register bit but they are not used for
addressing.
– AT90CAN64: EEAR11 exists as register bit but it is not used for addressing.
22
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
4.3.3
The EEPROM Data Register – EEDR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
EEDR7
EEDR6
EEDR5
EEDR4
EEDR3
EEDR2
EEDR1
EEDR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EEDR
• Bits 7..0 – EEDR7.0: EEPROM Data
For the EEPROM write operation, the EEDR Register contains the data to be written to the
EEPROM in the address given by the EEAR Register. For the EEPROM read operation, the
EEDR contains the data read out from the EEPROM at the address given by EEAR.
4.3.4
The EEPROM Control Register – EECR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
EERIE
EEMWE
EEWE
EERE
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
X
0
EECR
• Bits 7..4 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the AT90CAN32/64/128 and will always read as zero.
• Bit 3 – EERIE: EEPROM Ready Interrupt Enable
Writing EERIE to one enables the EEPROM Ready Interrupt if the I bit in SREG is set. Writing
EERIE to zero disables the interrupt. The EEPROM Ready interrupt generates a constant interrupt when EEWE is cleared.
• Bit 2 – EEMWE: EEPROM Master Write Enable
The EEMWE bit determines whether setting EEWE to one causes the EEPROM to be written.
When EEMWE is set, setting EEWE within four clock cycles will write data to the EEPROM at
the selected address If EEMWE is zero, setting EEWE will have no effect. When EEMWE has
been written to one by software, hardware clears the bit to zero after four clock cycles. See the
description of the EEWE bit for an EEPROM write procedure.
• Bit 1 – EEWE: EEPROM Write Enable
The EEPROM Write Enable Signal EEWE is the write strobe to the EEPROM. When address
and data are correctly set up, the EEWE bit must be written to one to write the value into the
EEPROM. The EEMWE bit must be written to one before a logical one is written to EEWE, otherwise no EEPROM write takes place. The following procedure should be followed when writing
the EEPROM (the order of steps 3 and 4 is not essential):
1. Wait until EEWE becomes zero.
2. Wait until SPMEN (Store Program Memory Enable) in SPMCSR (Store Program Memory Control and Status Register) becomes zero.
3. Write new EEPROM address to EEAR (optional).
4. Write new EEPROM data to EEDR (optional).
5. Write a logical one to the EEMWE bit while writing a zero to EEWE in EECR.
6. Within four clock cycles after setting EEMWE, write a logical one to EEWE.
The EEPROM can not be programmed during a CPU write to the Flash memory. The software
must check that the Flash programming is completed before initiating a new EEPROM write.
Step 2 is only relevant if the software contains a Boot Loader allowing the CPU to program the
Flash. If the Flash is never being updated by the CPU, step 2 can be omitted. See “Boot Loader
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7679H–CAN–08/08
Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming” on page 321 for details about Boot
programming.
Caution: An interrupt between step 5 and step 6 will make the write cycle fail, since the
EEPROM Master Write Enable will time-out. If an interrupt routine accessing the EEPROM is
interrupting another EEPROM access, the EEAR or EEDR Register will be modified, causing the
interrupted EEPROM access to fail. It is recommended to have the Global Interrupt Flag cleared
during all the steps to avoid these problems.
When the write access time has elapsed, the EEWE bit is cleared by hardware. The user software can poll this bit and wait for a zero before writing the next byte. When EEWE has been set,
the CPU is halted for two cycles before the next instruction is executed.
• Bit 0 – EERE: EEPROM Read Enable
The EEPROM Read Enable Signal EERE is the read strobe to the EEPROM. When the correct
address is set up in the EEAR Register, the EERE bit must be written to a logic one to trigger the
EEPROM read. The EEPROM read access takes one instruction, and the requested data is
available immediately. When the EEPROM is read, the CPU is halted for four cycles before the
next instruction is executed.
The user should poll the EEWE bit before starting the read operation. If a write operation is in
progress, it is neither possible to read the EEPROM, nor to change the EEAR Register.
The calibrated Oscillator is used to time the EEPROM accesses. Table 4-2 lists the typical programming time for EEPROM access from the CPU.
Table 4-2.
EEPROM Programming Time.
Symbol
EEPROM write (from CPU)
24
Number of Calibrated RC Oscillator Cycles
Typ Programming Time
67 584
8.5 ms
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
The following code examples show one assembly and one C function for writing to the
EEPROM. The examples assume that interrupts are controlled (e.g. by disabling interrupts globally) so that no interrupts will occur during execution of these functions. The examples also
assume that no Flash Boot Loader is present in the software. If such code is present, the
EEPROM write function must also wait for any ongoing SPM command to finish.
Assembly Code Example
EEPROM_write:
; Wait for completion of previous write
sbic
EECR,EEWE
rjmp
EEPROM_write
; Set up address (r18:r17) in address register
out
EEARH, r18
out
EEARL, r17
; Write data (r16) to data register
out
EEDR,r16
; Write logical one to EEMWE
sbi
EECR,EEMWE
; Start eeprom write by setting EEWE
sbi
EECR,EEWE
ret
C Code Example
void EEPROM_write (unsigned int uiAddress, unsigned char ucData)
{
/* Wait for completion of previous write */
while(EECR & (1<<EEWE));
/* Set up address and data registers */
EEAR = uiAddress;
EEDR = ucData;
/* Write logical one to EEMWE */
EECR |= (1<<EEMWE);
/* Start eeprom write by setting EEWE */
EECR |= (1<<EEWE);
}
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7679H–CAN–08/08
The next code examples show assembly and C functions for reading the EEPROM. The examples assume that interrupts are controlled so that no interrupts will occur during execution of
these functions.
Assembly Code Example
EEPROM_read:
; Wait for completion of previous write
sbic
EECR,EEWE
rjmp
EEPROM_read
; Set up address (r18:r17) in address register
out
EEARH, r18
out
EEARL, r17
; Start eeprom read by writing EERE
sbi
EECR,EERE
; Read data from data register
in
r16,EEDR
ret
C Code Example
unsigned char EEPROM_read(unsigned int uiAddress)
{
/* Wait for completion of previous write */
while(EECR & (1<<EEWE));
/* Set up address register */
EEAR = uiAddress;
/* Start eeprom read by writing EERE */
EECR |= (1<<EERE);
/* Return data from data register */
return EEDR;
}
4.3.5
Preventing EEPROM Corruption
During periods of low VCC, the EEPROM data can be corrupted because the supply voltage is
too low for the CPU and the EEPROM to operate properly. These issues are the same as for
board level systems using EEPROM, and the same design solutions should be applied.
An EEPROM data corruption can be caused by two situations when the voltage is too low. First,
a regular write sequence to the EEPROM requires a minimum voltage to operate correctly. Secondly, the CPU itself can execute instructions incorrectly, if the supply voltage is too low.
EEPROM data corruption can easily be avoided by following this design recommendation:
Keep the AVR RESET active (low) during periods of insufficient power supply voltage. This can
be done by enabling the internal Brown-out Detector (BOD). If the detection level of the internal
BOD does not match the needed detection level, an external low VCC reset Protection circuit can
be used. If a reset occurs while a write operation is in progress, the write operation will be completed provided that the power supply voltage is sufficient.
26
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
4.4
I/O Memory
The I/O space definition of the AT90CAN32/64/128 is shown in “Register Summary” on page
405.
All AT90CAN32/64/128 I/Os and peripherals are placed in the I/O space. All I/O locations may
be accessed by the LD/LDS/LDD and ST/STS/STD instructions, transferring data between the
32 general purpose working registers and the I/O space. I/O registers within the address range
0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In these registers, the
value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions. Refer to the
instruction set section for more details. When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the
I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O registers as data space using
LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The AT90CAN32/64/128 is a
complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 location
reserved in Opcode for the IN and OUT instructions. For the Extended I/O space from 0x60 0xFF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed.
Reserved I/O memory addresses should never be written.
Some of the status flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other
AVR’s, the CBI and SBI instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore be
used on registers containing such status flags. The CBI and SBI instructions work with registers
0x00 to 0x1F only.
The I/O and peripherals control registers are explained in later sections.
4.5
External Memory Interface
With all the features the External Memory Interface provides, it is well suited to operate as an
interface to memory devices such as External SRAM and Flash, and peripherals such as LCDdisplay, A/D, and D/A. The main features are:
• Four different wait-state settings (including no wait-state).
• Independent wait-state setting for different extErnal Memory sectors (configurable sector
size).
• The number of bits dedicated to address high byte is selectable.
• Bus keepers on data lines to minimize current consumption (optional).
4.5.1
Overview
When the eXternal MEMory (XMEM) is enabled, address space outside the internal SRAM
becomes available using the dedicated External Memory pins (see Figure 1-2 on page 5 or Figure 1-3 on page 6, Table 9-3 on page 74, Table 9-9 on page 78, and Table 9-21 on page 88).
The memory configuration is shown in Figure 4-4.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 4-4.
External Memory with Sector Select
0x0000
Internal memory
ISRAM end
XMem start
Lower sector
SRW01
SRW00
SRL[2..0]
External Memory
(0-64K x 8)
Upper sector
SRW11
SRW10
0xFFFF
4.5.2
Using the External Memory Interface
The interface consists of:
• AD7:0: Multiplexed low-order address bus and data bus.
• A15:8: High-order address bus (configurable number of bits).
• ALE: Address latch enable.
• RD: Read strobe.
• WR: Write strobe.
The control bits for the External Memory Interface are located in two registers, the External
Memory Control Register A – XMCRA, and the External Memory Control Register B – XMCRB.
When the XMEM interface is enabled, the XMEM interface will override the setting in the data
direction registers that corresponds to the ports dedicated to the XMEM interface. For details
about the port override, see the alternate functions in section “I/O-Ports” on page 66. The XMEM
interface will auto-detect whether an access is internal or external. If the access is external, the
XMEM interface will output address, data, and the control signals on the ports according to Figure 4-6 (this figure shows the wave forms without wait-states). When ALE goes from high-to-low,
there is a valid address on AD7:0. ALE is low during a data transfer. When the XMEM interface
is enabled, also an internal access will cause activity on address, data and ALE ports, but the
RD and WR strobes will not toggle during internal access. When the External Memory Interface
is disabled, the normal pin and data direction settings are used. Note that when the XMEM interface is disabled, the address space above the internal SRAM boundary is not mapped into the
internal SRAM. Figure 4-5 illustrates how to connect an external SRAM to the AVR using an
octal latch (typically “74x573” or equivalent) which is transparent when G is high.
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AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
4.5.3
Address Latch Requirements
Due to the high-speed operation of the XRAM interface, the address latch must be selected with
care for system frequencies above 8 MHz @ 4V and 4 MHz @ 2.7V. When operating at conditions above these frequencies, the typical old style 74HC series latch becomes inadequate. The
External Memory Interface is designed in compliance to the 74AHC series latch. However, most
latches can be used as long they comply with the main timing parameters. The main parameters
for the address latch are:
• D to Q propagation delay (tPD).
• Data setup time before G low (tSU).
• Data (address) hold time after G low (TH).
The External Memory Interface is designed to guaranty minimum address hold time after G is
asserted low of th = 5 ns. Refer to tLAXX_LD / tLLAXX_ST in Table 26-7 through Table 26-14 of Section 26.9 on page 375. The D-to-Q propagation delay (tPD) must be taken into consideration
when calculating the access time requirement of the external component. The data setup time
before G low (tSU) must not exceed address valid to ALE low (tAVLLC) minus PCB wiring delay
(dependent on the capacitive load).
Figure 4-5.
External SRAM Connected to the AVR
D[7:0]
AD7:0
D
ALE
G
AVR
A15:8
RD
WR
4.5.4
Q
A[7:0]
SRAM
A[15:8]
RD
WR
Pull-up and Bus-keeper
The pull-ups on the AD7:0 ports may be activated if the corresponding Port register is written to
one. To reduce power consumption in sleep mode, it is recommended to disable the pull-ups by
writing the Port register to zero before entering sleep.
The XMEM interface also provides a bus-keeper on the AD7:0 lines. The bus-keeper can be disabled and enabled in software as described in “External Memory Control Register B – XMCRB”
on page 33. When enabled, the bus-keeper will ensure a defined logic level (zero or one) on the
AD7:0 bus when these lines would otherwise be tri-stated by the XMEM interface.
4.5.5
Timing
External Memory devices have different timing requirements. To meet these requirements, the
AT90CAN32/64/128 XMEM interface provides four different wait-states as shown in Table 4-4. It
is important to consider the timing specification of the External Memory device before selecting
the wait-state. The most important parameters are the access time for the external memory
compared to the set-up requirement of the AT90CAN32/64/128. The access time for the External Memory is defined to be the time from receiving the chip select/address until the data of this
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7679H–CAN–08/08
address actually is driven on the bus. The access time cannot exceed the time from the ALE
pulse must be asserted low until data is stable during a read sequence (see tLLRL+ tRLRH - tDVRH
in Table 26-7 through Table 26-14). The different wait-states are set up in software. As an additional feature, it is possible to divide the external memory space in two sectors with individual
wait-state settings. This makes it possible to connect two different memory devices with different
timing requirements to the same XMEM interface. For XMEM interface timing details, please
refer to Table 26-7 through Table 26-14 and Figure 26-6 to Figure 26-9 in the “External Data
Memory Characteristics” on page 375.
Note that the XMEM interface is asynchronous and that the waveforms in the following figures
are related to the internal system clock. The skew between the internal and external clock
(XTAL1) is not guarantied (varies between devices temperature, and supply voltage). Consequently, the XMEM interface is not suited for synchronous operation.
Figure 4-6.
External Data Memory Cycles no Wait-state (SRWn1=0 and SRWn0=0)(1)
T1
T2
T3
T4
System Clock (CLK
CPU )
ALE
A15:8
Prev. addr.
DA7:0
Prev. data
Address
DA7:0 (XMBK = 0)
Prev. data
Address
DA7:0 (XMBK = 1)
Prev. data
Address
XX
Write
Address
Data
WR
XXXXX
Data
Read
Data
XXXXXXXX
RD
Note:
1. SRWn1 = SRW11 (upper sector) or SRW01 (lower sector), SRWn0 = SRW10 (upper sector) or
SRW00 (lower sector). The ALE pulse in period T4 is only present if the next instruction
accesses the RAM (internal or external).
Figure 4-7.
External Data Memory Cycles with SRWn1 = 0 and SRWn0 = 1(1)
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
System Clock (CLK
CPU )
ALE
A15:8
Prev. addr.
DA7:0
Prev. data
Address
DA7:0 (XMBK = 0)
Prev. data
Address
DA7:0 (XMBK = 1)
Prev. data
XX
Data
Write
Address
WR
Data
Read
Address
Data
RD
30
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Note:
1. SRWn1 = SRW11 (upper sector) or SRW01 (lower sector), SRWn0 = SRW10 (upper sector) or
SRW00 (lower sector).
The ALE pulse in period T5 is only present if the next instruction accesses the RAM (internal
or external).
Figure 4-8.
External Data Memory Cycles with SRWn1 = 1 and SRWn0 = 0(1)
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
System Clock (CLK
CPU )
ALE
A15:8
Prev. addr.
DA7:0
Prev. data
Address
DA7:0 (XMBK = 0)
Prev. data
Address
DA7:0 (XMBK = 1)
Prev. data
XX
Write
Address
Data
WR
Address
Read
Data
Data
RD
Note:
1. SRWn1 = SRW11 (upper sector) or SRW01 (lower sector), SRWn0 = SRW10 (upper sector) or
SRW00 (lower sector).
The ALE pulse in period T6 is only present if the next instruction accesses the RAM (internal
or external).
Figure 4-9.
External Data Memory Cycles with SRWn1 = 1 and SRWn0 = 1(1)
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
System Clock (CLK
CPU )
ALE
A15:8
Prev. addr.
DA7:0
Prev. data
Address
DA7:0 (XMBK = 0)
Prev. data
Address
DA7:0 (XMBK = 1)
Prev. data
XX
Data
Write
Address
WR
Data
Read
Address
Data
RD
Note:
1. SRWn1 = SRW11 (upper sector) or SRW01 (lower sector), SRWn0 = SRW10 (upper sector) or
SRW00 (lower sector).
The ALE pulse in period T7 is only present if the next instruction accesses the RAM (internal
or external).
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7679H–CAN–08/08
4.5.6
External Memory Control Register A – XMCRA
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SRE
SRL2
SRL1
SRL0
SRW11
SRW10
SRW01
SRW00
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
XMCRA
• Bit 7 – SRE: External SRAM/XMEM Enable
Writing SRE to one enables the External Memory Interface.The pin functions AD7:0, A15:8,
ALE, WR, and RD are activated as the alternate pin functions. The SRE bit overrides any pin
direction settings in the respective data direction registers. Writing SRE to zero, disables the
External Memory Interface and the normal pin and data direction settings are used. Note that
when the XMEM interface is disabled, the address space above the internal SRAM boundary is
not mapped into the internal SRAM.
• Bit 6..4 – SRL2, SRL1, SRL0: Wait-state Sector Limit
It is possible to configure different wait-states for different External Memory addresses. The
external memory address space can be divided in two sectors that have separate wait-state bits.
The SRL2, SRL1, and SRL0 bits select the split of the sectors, see Table 4-3 and Figure 4-4. By
default, the SRL2, SRL1, and SRL0 bits are set to zero and the entire external memory address
space is treated as one sector. When the entire SRAM address space is configured as one sector, the wait-states are configured by the SRW11 and SRW10 bits.
Table 4-3.
Sector limits with different settings of SRL2..0
SRL2
SRL1
SRL0
0
0
0
Sector
Lower sector
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
Note:
32
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
Addressing
N/A
Upper sector
“XMem start”(1) - 0xFFFF
Lower sector
“XMem start”(1) - 0x1FFF
Upper sector
0x2000 - 0xFFFF
Lower sector
“XMem start”(1) - 0x3FFF
Upper sector
0x4000 - 0xFFFF
Lower sector
“XMem start”(1) - 0x5FFF
Upper sector
0x6000 - 0xFFFF
Lower sector
“XMem start”(1) - 0x7FFF
Upper sector
0x8000 - 0xFFFF
Lower sector
“XMem start”(1) - 0x9FFF
Upper sector
0xA000 - 0xFFFF
Lower sector
“XMem start”(1) - 0xBFFF
Upper sector
0xC000 - 0xFFFF
Lower sector
“XMem start”(1) - 0xDFFF
Upper sector
0xE000 - 0xFFFF
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1. See Table 4-1 on page 18 for “XMem start” setting.
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
• Bit 3..2 – SRW11, SRW10: Wait-state Select Bits for Upper Sector
The SRW11 and SRW10 bits control the number of wait-states for the upper sector of the external memory address space, see Table 4-4.
• Bit 1..0 – SRW01, SRW00: Wait-state Select Bits for Lower Sector
The SRW01 and SRW00 bits control the number of wait-states for the lower sector of the external memory address space, see Table 4-4.
Table 4-4.
SRWn1
SRWn0
0
0
No wait-states
0
1
Wait one cycle during read/write strobe
1
0
Wait two cycles during read/write strobe
1
1
Wait two cycles during read/write and wait one cycle before driving out new
address
Note:
4.5.7
Wait States(1)
Wait States
1. n = 0 or 1 (lower/upper sector).
For further details of the timing and wait-states of the External Memory Interface, see Figures
4-6 through Figures 4-9 for how the setting of the SRW bits affects the timing.
External Memory Control Register B – XMCRB
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
XMBK
–
–
–
–
XMM2
XMM1
XMM0
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
XMCRB
• Bit 7– XMBK: External Memory Bus-keeper Enable
Writing XMBK to one enables the bus keeper on the AD7:0 lines. When the bus keeper is
enabled, it will ensure a defined logic level (zero or one) on AD7:0 when they would otherwise
be tri-stated. Writing XMBK to zero disables the bus keeper. XMBK is not qualified with SRE, so
even if the XMEM interface is disabled, the bus keepers are still activated as long as XMBK is
one.
• Bit 6..4 – Reserved Bits
These are reserved bits and will always read as zero. When writing to this address location,
write these bits to zero for compatibility with future devices.
• Bit 2..0 – XMM2, XMM1, XMM0: External Memory High Mask
When the External Memory is enabled, all Port C pins are default used for the high address byte.
If the full address space is not required to access the External Memory, some, or all, Port C pins
can be released for normal Port Pin function as described in Table 4-5. As described in “Using
all 64KB Locations of External Memory” on page 35, it is possible to use the XMMn bits to
access all 64KB locations of the External Memory.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
Table 4-5.
4.5.8
Port C Pins Released as Normal Port Pins when the External Memory is Enabled
XMM2
XMM1
XMM0
# Bits for External Memory Address
Released Port Pins
0
0
0
8 (Full External Memory Space)
None
0
0
1
7
PC7
0
1
0
6
PC7 .. PC6
0
1
1
5
PC7 .. PC5
1
0
0
4
PC7 .. PC4
1
0
1
3
PC7 .. PC3
1
1
0
2
PC7 .. PC2
1
1
1
No Address high bits
Full Port C
Using all Locations of External Memory Smaller than 64 KB
Since the external memory is mapped after the internal memory as shown in Figure 4-4, the
external memory is not addressed when addressing the first “ISRAM size” bytes of data space. It
may appear that the first “ISRAM size” bytes of the external memory are inaccessible (external
memory addresses 0x0000 to “ISRAM end”). However, when connecting an external memory
smaller than 64 KB, for example 32 KB, these locations are easily accessed simply by addressing from address 0x8000 to “ISRAM end + 0x8000”. Since the External Memory Address bit A15
is not connected to the external memory, addresses 0x8000 to “ISRAM end + 0x8000” will
appear as addresses 0x0000 to “ISRAM end” for the external memory. Addressing above
address “ISRAM end + 0x8000” is not recommended, since this will address an external memory location that is already accessed by another (lower) address. To the Application software,
the external 32 KB memory will appear as one linear 32 KB address space from “XMem start” to
“XMem start + 0x8000”. This is illustrated in Figure 4-10.
Figure 4-10. Address Map with 32 KB External Memory
AVR Memory Map
0x0000
External 32K SRAM (Size=0x8000)
0x0000
Internal Memory
ISRAM end
XMem start
ISRAM end
XMem start
External Memory
0x7FFF
0x8000
0x7FFF
ISRAM end + 0x8000
XMem start + 0x8000
(Unused)
0xFFFF
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AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
4.5.9
Using all 64KB Locations of External Memory
Since the External Memory is mapped after the Internal Memory as shown in Figure 4-4, only
(64K-(“ISRAM size”+256)) bytes of External Memory is available by default (address space
0x0000 to “ISRAM end” is reserved for internal memory). However, it is possible to take advantage of the entire External Memory by masking the higher address bits to zero. This can be done
by using the XMMn bits and control by software the most significant bits of the address. By setting Port C to output 0x00, and releasing the most significant bits for normal Port Pin operation,
the Memory Interface will address 0x0000 - 0x1FFF. See the following code examples.
Assembly Code Example(1)
;
;
;
;
;
OFFSET is defined to 0x2000 to ensure
external memory access
Configure Port C (address high byte) to
output 0x00 when the pins are released
for normal Port Pin operation
ldi
r16, 0xFF
out
DDRC, r16
ldi
r16, 0x00
out
PORTC, r16
; release PC7:5
ldi
r16, (1<<XMM1)|(1<<XMM0)
sts
XMCRB, r16
; write 0xAA to address 0x0001 of external
; memory
ldi
r16, 0xaa
sts
0x0001+OFFSET, r16
; re-enable PC7:5 for external memory
ldi
r16, (0<<XMM1)|(0<<XMM0)
sts
XMCRB, r16
; store 0x55 to address (OFFSET + 1) of
; external memory
ldi
r16, 0x55
sts
0x0001+OFFSET, r16
C Code Example(1)
#define OFFSET 0x2000
void XRAM_example(void)
{
unsigned char *p = (unsigned char *) (OFFSET + 1);
DDRC = 0xFF;
PORTC = 0x00;
XMCRB = (1<<XMM1) | (1<<XMM0);
*p = 0xaa;
XMCRB = 0x00;
*p = 0x55;
}
Note:
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
Care must be exercised using this option as most of the memory is masked away.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
4.6
General Purpose I/O Registers
The AT90CAN32/64/128 contains three General Purpose I/O Registers. These registers can be
used for storing any information, and they are particularly useful for storing global variables and
status flags.
The General Purpose I/O Register 0, within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F, is directly bit-accessible using the SBI, CBI, SBIS, and SBIC instructions.
4.6.1
General Purpose I/O Register 0 – GPIOR0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
GPIOR07 GPIOR06 GPIOR05 GPIOR04 GPIOR03 GPIOR02 GPIOR01 GPIOR00
4.6.2
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
4
3
2
1
0
General Purpose I/O Register 1 – GPIOR1
Bit
7
6
GPIOR17 GPIOR16 GPIOR15 GPIOR14 GPIOR13 GPIOR12 GPIOR11 GPIOR10
4.6.3
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
4
3
2
1
0
GPIOR1
General Purpose I/O Register 2 – GPIOR2
Bit
7
6
GPIOR27 GPIOR26 GPIOR25 GPIOR24 GPIOR23 GPIOR22 GPIOR21 GPIOR20
36
GPIOR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GPIOR2
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
5. System Clock
5.1
Clock Systems and their Distribution
Figure 5-1 presents the principal clock systems in the AVR and their distribution. All of the clocks
need not be active at a given time. In order to reduce power consumption, the clocks to unused
modules can be halted by using different sleep modes, as described in “Power Management and
Sleep Modes” on page 46. The clock systems are detailed below.
Figure 5-1.
Clock Distribution
Asynchronous
Timer/Counter2
CAN
Controller
General I/O
Modules
ADC
CPU Core
RAM
Flash and
EEPROM
clkADC
clkI/O
CLKO
clkCPU
AVR Clock
Control Unit
clkASY
clkFLASH
CKOUT Fuse
Reset Logic
Source clock
Watchdog Timer
Watchdog clock
Prescaler
Multiplexer
Timer/Counter2
External Clock
Timer/Counter2
Oscillator
TOSC1
Watchdog
Oscillator
Clock
Multiplexer
TOSC2
External Clock
Crystal
Oscillator
XTAL1
Low-frequency
Crystal Oscillator
Calibrated RC
Oscillator
XTAL2
5.1.1
CPU Clock – clkCPU
The CPU clock is routed to parts of the system concerned with operation of the AVR core.
Examples of such modules are the General Purpose Register File, the Status Register and the
data memory holding the Stack Pointer. Halting the CPU clock inhibits the core from performing
general operations and calculations.
5.1.2
I/O Clock – clkI/O
The I/O clock is used by the majority of the I/O modules, like Timer/Counters, SPI, CAN,
USART. The I/O clock is also used by the External Interrupt module, but note that some external
interrupts are detected by asynchronous logic, allowing such interrupts to be detected even if the
I/O clock is halted. Also note that address recognition in the TWI module is carried out asynchronously when clkI/O is halted, enabling TWI address reception in all sleep modes.
5.1.3
Flash Clock – clkFLASH
The Flash clock controls operation of the Flash interface. The Flash clock is usually active simultaneously with the CPU clock.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
5.1.4
Asynchronous Timer Clock – clkASY
The Asynchronous Timer clock allows the Asynchronous Timer/Counter to be clocked directly
from an external clock or an external 32 kHz clock crystal. The dedicated clock domain allows
using this Timer/Counter as a real-time counter even when the device is in sleep mode.
5.1.5
ADC Clock – clkADC
The ADC is provided with a dedicated clock domain. This allows halting the CPU and I/O clocks
in order to reduce noise generated by digital circuitry. This gives more accurate ADC conversion
results.
5.2
Clock Sources
The device has the following clock source options, selectable by Flash Fuse bits as shown
below. The clock from the selected source is input to the AVR clock generator, and routed to the
appropriate modules.
Device Clocking Options Select(1)
Table 5-1.
Device Clocking Option
CKSEL3..0
External Crystal/Ceramic Resonator
1111 - 1000
External Low-frequency Crystal
0111 - 0100
Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator
0010
External Clock
0000
Reserved
Note:
0011, 0001
1. For all fuses “1” means unprogrammed while “0” means programmed.
The various choices for each clocking option is given in the following sections. When the CPU
wakes up from Power-down or Power-save, the selected clock source is used to time the startup, ensuring stable Oscillator operation before instruction execution starts. When the CPU starts
from reset, there is an additional delay allowing the power to reach a stable level before starting
normal operation. The Watchdog Oscillator is used for timing this real-time part of the start-up
time. The number of WDT Oscillator cycles used for each time-out is shown in Table 5-2. The
frequency of the Watchdog Oscillator is voltage dependent as shown in “AT90CAN32/64/128
Typical Characteristics” on page 384.
Table 5-2.
5.3
Number of Watchdog Oscillator Cycles
Typ Time-out (VCC = 5.0V)
Typ Time-out (VCC = 3.0V)
Number of Cycles
4.1 ms
4.3 ms
4K (4,096)
65 ms
69 ms
64K (65,536)
Default Clock Source
The device is shipped with CKSEL = “0010”, SUT = “10”, and CKDIV8 programmed. The default
clock source setting is the Internal RC Oscillator with longest start-up time and an initial system
clock prescaling of 8. This default setting ensures that all users can make their desired clock
source setting using an In-System or Parallel programmer.
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AT90CAN32/64/128
5.4
Crystal Oscillator
XTAL1 and XTAL2 are input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an On-chip Oscillator, as shown in Figure 5-2. Either a quartz crystal or a
ceramic resonator may be used.
C1 and C2 should always be equal for both crystals and resonators. The optimal value of the
capacitors depends on the crystal or resonator in use, the amount of stray capacitance, and the
electromagnetic noise of the environment. Some initial guidelines for choosing capacitors for
use with crystals are given in Table 5-3. For ceramic resonators, the capacitor values given by
the manufacturer should be used. For more information on how to choose capacitors and other
details on Oscillator operation, refer to the Multi-purpose Oscillator Application Note.
Figure 5-2.
Crystal Oscillator Connections
C2
C1
XTAL2
XTAL1
GND
The Oscillator can operate in three different modes, each optimized for a specific frequency
range. The operating mode is selected by the fuses CKSEL3..1 as shown in Table 5-3.
Table 5-3.
Crystal Oscillator Operating Modes
CKSEL3..1
Frequency Range (MHz)
Recommended Range for Capacitors C1 and
C2 for Use with Crystals (pF)
100(1)
0.4 - 0.9
12 - 22
101
0.9 - 3.0
12 - 22
110
3.0 - 8.0
12 - 22
111
8.0 - 16.0
12 - 22
Note:
1. This option should not be used with crystals, only with ceramic resonators.
The CKSEL0 Fuse together with the SUT1..0 Fuses select the start-up times as shown in Table
5-4.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
Table 5-4.
Start-up Times for the Oscillator Clock Selection
CKSEL0
SUT1..0
Start-up Time from
Power-down and
Power-save
Additional Delay
from Reset
(VCC = 5.0V)
Recommended Usage
0
00
258 CK(1)
14 CK + 4.1 ms
Ceramic resonator, fast
rising power
0
01
258 CK(1)
14 CK + 65 ms
Ceramic resonator, slowly
rising power
0
10
1K CK(2)
14 CK
Ceramic resonator, BOD
enabled
0
11
1K CK(2)
14 CK + 4.1 ms
Ceramic resonator, fast
rising power
1
00
1K CK(2)
14 CK + 65 ms
Ceramic resonator, slowly
rising power
1
01
16K CK
14 CK
Crystal Oscillator, BOD
enabled
1
10
16K CK
14 CK + 4.1 ms
Crystal Oscillator, fast
rising power
1
11
16K CK
14 CK + 65 ms
Crystal Oscillator, slowly
rising power
Notes:
1. These options should only be used when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the
device, and only if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application. These
options are not suitable for crystals.
2. These options are intended for use with ceramic resonators and will ensure frequency stability
at start-up. They can also be used with crystals when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application.
5.5
Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator
To use a 32.768 kHz watch crystal as the clock source for the device, the low-frequency crystal
Oscillator must be selected by setting the CKSEL Fuses to “0100”, “0101”, “0110”, or “0111”.
The crystal should be connected as shown in Figure 5-3.
Figure 5-3.
Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator Connections
12 - 22 pF
XTAL2
32.768 KHz
XTAL1
12 - 22 pF
GND
12-22 pF capacitors may be necessary if the parasitic impedance (pads, wires & PCB) is very
low.
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AT90CAN32/64/128
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AT90CAN32/64/128
When this Oscillator is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT1..0 fuses as shown in
Table 5-5 and CKSEL1..0 fuses as shown in Table 5-6.
Table 5-5.
Start-up Times for the Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator Clock Selection
SUT1..0
Additional Delay from Reset (VCC = 5.0V)
00
14 CK
01
14 CK + 4.1 ms
Slowly rising power
10
14 CK + 65 ms
Stable frequency at start-up
11
Start-up Times for the Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator Clock Selection
CKSEL3..0
Start-up Time from
Power-down and Power-save
0100(1)
1K CK
0101
32K CK
0110
(1)
Recommended Usage
Stable frequency at start-up
1K CK
0111
5.6
Fast rising power or BOD enabled
Reserved
Table 5-6.
Note:
Recommended Usage
32K CK
Stable frequency at start-up
1. These options should only be used if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the
application
Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator
The calibrated internal RC Oscillator provides a fixed 8.0 MHz clock. The frequency is nominal
value at 3V and 25°C. If 8 MHz frequency exceeds the specification of the device (depends on
VCC), the CKDIV8 Fuse must be programmed in order to divide the internal frequency by 8 during start-up. The device is shipped with the CKDIV8 Fuse programmed. See “System Clock
Prescaler” on page 44. for more details. This clock may be selected as the system clock by programming the CKSEL Fuses as shown in Table 5-7. If selected, it will operate with no external
components. During reset, hardware loads the calibration byte into the OSCCAL Register and
thereby automatically calibrates the RC Oscillator. At 5V and 25°C, this calibration gives a frequency within ± 10% of the nominal frequency. Using calibration methods as described in
application notes available at www.atmel.com/avr it is possible to achieve ± 2% accuracy at any
given VCC and temperature. When this Oscillator is used as the chip clock, the Watchdog Oscillator will still be used for the Watchdog Timer and for the Reset Time-out. For more information
on the pre-programmed calibration value, see the section “Calibration Byte” on page 339.
Table 5-7.
Note:
Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator Operating Modes(1)
CKSEL3..0
Nominal Frequency
0010
8.0 MHz
1. The device is shipped with this option selected.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
When this Oscillator is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as shown in
Table 5-8.
Table 5-8.
Start-up times for the internal calibrated RC Oscillator clock selection
SUT1..0
Start-up Time from Powerdown and Power-save
Additional Delay from
Reset (VCC = 5.0V)
00
6 CK
14 CK
01
6 CK
14 CK + 4.1 ms
Fast rising power
10(1)
6 CK
14 CK + 65 ms
Slowly rising power
11
Note:
5.6.1
Recommended Usage
BOD enabled
Reserved
1. The device is shipped with this option selected.
Oscillator Calibration Register – OSCCAL
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
CAL6
CAL5
CAL4
CAL3
CAL2
CAL1
CAL0
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
<----- -----------
Device Specific Calibration Value
OSCCAL
----------- ----->
• Bit 7 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use.
• Bits 6..0 – CAL6..0: Oscillator Calibration Value
Writing the calibration byte to this address will trim the internal Oscillator to remove process variations from the Oscillator frequency. This is done automatically during Chip Reset. When
OSCCAL is zero, the lowest available frequency is chosen. Writing non-zero values to this register will increase the frequency of the internal Oscillator. Writing 0x7F to the register gives the
highest available frequency. The calibrated Oscillator is used to time EEPROM and Flash
access. If EEPROM or Flash is written, do not calibrate to more than 10% above the nominal frequency. Otherwise, the EEPROM or Flash write may fail. Note that the Oscillator is intended for
calibration to 8.0 MHz. Tuning to other values is not guaranteed, as indicated in Table 5-9.
Table 5-9.
5.7
Internal RC Oscillator Frequency Range.
OSCCAL Value
Min Frequency in Percentage of
Nominal Frequency
Max Frequency in Percentage of
Nominal Frequency
0x00
50%
100%
0x3F
75%
150%
0x7F
100%
200%
External Clock
To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL1 should be driven as shown in Figure
5-4. To run the device on an external clock, the CKSEL Fuses must be programmed to “0000”.
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AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 5-4.
External Clock Drive Configuration
NC
XTAL2
External
Clock
Signal
XTAL1
GND
Table 5-10.
External Clock Frequency
CKSEL3..0
Frequency Range
0000
0 - 16 MHz
When this clock source is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as shown in
Table 5-11.
Table 5-11.
Start-up Times for the External Clock Selection
SUT1..0
Start-up Time from Powerdown and Power-save
Additional Delay from
Reset (VCC = 5.0V)
00
6 CK
14 CK
01
6 CK
14 CK + 4.1 ms
Fast rising power
10
6 CK
14 CK + 65 ms
Slowly rising power
11
Recommended Usage
BOD enabled
Reserved
When applying an external clock, it is required to avoid sudden changes in the applied clock frequency to ensure stable operation of the MCU. A variation in frequency of more than 2% from
one clock cycle to the next can lead to unpredictable behavior. It is required to ensure that the
MCU is kept in Reset during such changes in the clock frequency.
Note that the System Clock Prescaler can be used to implement run-time changes of the internal
clock frequency while still ensuring stable operation. Refer to “System Clock Prescaler” on page
44 for details.
5.8
Clock Output Buffer
When the CKOUT Fuse is programmed, the system Clock will be output on CLKO. This mode is
suitable when chip clock is used to drive other circuits on the system. The clock will be output
also during reset and the normal operation of I/O pin will be overridden when the fuse is programmed. Any clock source, including internal RC Oscillator, can be selected when CLKO
serves as clock output. If the System Clock Prescaler is used, it is the divided system clock that
is output (CKOUT Fuse programmed).
5.9
Timer/Counter2 Oscillator
For AVR microcontrollers with Timer/Counter2 Oscillator pins (TOSC1 and TOSC2), the crystal
is connected directly between the pins. The Oscillator is optimized for use with a 32.768 kHz
watch crystal. 12-22 pF capacitors may be necessary if the parasitic impedance (pads, wires &
PCB) is very low.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128 share the Timer/Counter2 Oscillator Pins (TOSC1 and TOSC2) with PG4
and PG3. This means that both PG4 and PG3 can only be used when the Timer/Counter2 Oscillator is not enable.
Applying an external clock source to TOSC1 can be done in asynchronous operation if EXTCLK
in the ASSR Register is written to logic one. See “Asynchronous operation of the
Timer/Counter2” on page 160 for further description on selecting external clock as input instead
of a 32 kHz crystal. In this configuration, PG4 cannot be used but PG3 is available.
5.10
System Clock Prescaler
The AT90CAN32/64/128 system clock can be divided by setting the Clock Prescaler Register –
CLKPR. This feature can be used to decrease power consumption when the requirement for
processing power is low. This can be used with all clock source options, and it will affect the
clock frequency of the CPU and all synchronous peripherals. clkI/O, clkADC, clkCPU, and clkFLASH
are divided by a factor as shown in Table 5-12.
5.10.1
Clock Prescaler Register – CLKPR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CLKPCE
–
–
–
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
<-----
See Bit Description
CLKPR
----->
• Bit 7 – CLKPCE: Clock Prescaler Change Enable
The CLKPCE bit must be written to logic one to enable change of the CLKPS bits. The CLKPCE
bit is only updated when the other bits in CLKPR are simultaneously written to zero. CLKPCE is
cleared by hardware four cycles after it is written or when CLKPS bits are written. Rewriting the
CLKPCE bit within this time-out period does neither extend the time-out period, nor clear the
CLKPCE bit.
• Bit 6..0 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use.
• Bits 3..0 – CLKPS3..0: Clock Prescaler Select Bits 3 - 0
These bits define the division factor between the selected clock source and the internal system
clock. These bits can be written run-time to vary the clock frequency to suit the application
requirements. As the divider divides the master clock input to the MCU, the speed of all synchronous peripherals is reduced when a division factor is used. The division factors are given in
Table 5-12.
To avoid unintentional changes of clock frequency, a special write procedure must be followed
to change the CLKPS bits:
1. Write the Clock Prescaler Change Enable (CLKPCE) bit to one and all other bits in
CLKPR to zero.
2. Within four cycles, write the desired value to CLKPS while writing a zero to CLKPCE.
Interrupts must be disabled when changing prescaler setting to make sure the write procedure is
not interrupted.
The CKDIV8 Fuse determines the initial value of the CLKPS bits. If CKDIV8 is unprogrammed,
the CLKPS bits will be reset to “0000”. If CKDIV8 is programmed, CLKPS bits are reset to
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AT90CAN32/64/128
“0011”, giving a division factor of 8 at start up. This feature should be used if the selected clock
source has a higher frequency than the maximum frequency of the device at the present operating conditions. Note that any value can be written to the CLKPS bits regardless of the CKDIV8
Fuse setting. The Application software must ensure that a sufficient division factor is chosen if
the selected clock source has a higher frequency than the maximum frequency of the device at
the present operating conditions. The device is shipped with the CKDIV8 Fuse programmed.
Table 5-12.
Clock Prescaler Select
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
1
0
4
0
0
1
1
8
0
1
0
0
16
0
1
0
1
32
0
1
1
0
64
0
1
1
1
128
1
0
0
0
256
1
0
0
1
Reserved
1
0
1
0
Reserved
1
0
1
1
Reserved
1
1
0
0
Reserved
1
1
0
1
Reserved
1
1
1
0
Reserved
1
1
1
1
Reserved
Note:
Clock Division Factor
The frequency of the asynchronous clock must be lower than 1/4th of the frequency of the scaled
down Source clock. Otherwise, interrupts may be lost, and accessing the Timer/Counter2 registers may fail.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
6. Power Management and Sleep Modes
Sleep modes enable the application to shut down unused modules in the MCU, thereby saving
power. The AVR provides various sleep modes allowing the user to tailor the power consumption to the application’s requirements.
To enter any of the five sleep modes, the SE bit in SMCR must be written to logic one and a
SLEEP instruction must be executed. The SM2, SM1, and SM0 bits in the SMCR Register select
which sleep mode (Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-down, Power-save, or Standby) will be
activated by the SLEEP instruction. See Table 6-1 for a summary. If an enabled interrupt occurs
while the MCU is in a sleep mode, the MCU wakes up. The MCU is then halted for four cycles in
addition to the start-up time, executes the interrupt routine, and resumes execution from the
instruction following SLEEP. The contents of the register file and SRAM are unaltered when the
device wakes up from sleep. If a reset occurs during sleep mode, the MCU wakes up and executes from the Reset Vector.
Figure 5-1 on page 37 presents the different clock systems in the AT90CAN32/64/128, and their
distribution. The figure is helpful in selecting an appropriate sleep mode.
6.0.1
Sleep Mode Control Register – SMCR
The Sleep Mode Control Register contains control bits for power management.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
SM2
SM1
SM0
SE
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SMCR
• Bit 7..4 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use.
• Bits 3..1 – SM2..0: Sleep Mode Select Bits 2, 1, and 0
These bits select between the five available sleep modes as shown in Table 6-1.
Table 6-1.
Note:
Sleep Mode Select
SM2
SM1
SM0
Sleep Mode
0
0
0
Idle
0
0
1
ADC Noise Reduction
0
1
0
Power-down
0
1
1
Power-save
1
0
0
Reserved
1
0
1
Reserved
1
1
0
Standby(1)
1
1
1
Reserved
1. Standby mode is only recommended for use with external crystals or resonators.
• Bit 1 – SE: Sleep Enable
The SE bit must be written to logic one to make the MCU enter the sleep mode when the SLEEP
instruction is executed. To avoid the MCU entering the sleep mode unless it is the programmer’s
46
AT90CAN32/64/128
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AT90CAN32/64/128
purpose, it is recommended to write the Sleep Enable (SE) bit to one just before the execution of
the SLEEP instruction and to clear it immediately after waking up.
6.1
Idle Mode
When the SM2..0 bits are written to 000, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Idle
mode, stopping the CPU but allowing SPI, CAN, USART, Analog Comparator, ADC, Two-wire
Serial Interface, Timer/Counters, Watchdog, and the interrupt system to continue operating. This
sleep mode basically halts clkCPU and clkFLASH, while allowing the other clocks to run.
Idle mode enables the MCU to wake up from external triggered interrupts as well as internal
ones like the Timer Overflow and USART Transmit Complete interrupts. If wake-up from the
Analog Comparator interrupt is not required, the Analog Comparator can be powered down by
setting the ACD bit in the Analog Comparator Control and Status Register – ACSR. This will
reduce power consumption in Idle mode. If the ADC is enabled, a conversion starts automatically when this mode is entered.
6.2
ADC Noise Reduction Mode
When the SM2..0 bits are written to 001, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter ADC
Noise Reduction mode, stopping the CPU but allowing the ADC, the External Interrupts, the
Two-wire Serial Interface address watch, Timer/Counter2, CAN and the Watchdog to continue
operating (if enabled). This sleep mode basically halts clkI/O, clkCPU, and clkFLASH, while allowing
the other clocks to run.
This improves the noise environment for the ADC, enabling higher resolution measurements. If
the ADC is enabled, a conversion starts automatically when this mode is entered. Apart from the
ADC Conversion Complete interrupt, only an External Reset, a Watchdog Reset, a Brown-out
Reset, a Two-wire Serial Interface address match interrupt, a Timer/Counter2 interrupt, an
SPM/EEPROM ready interrupt, an External Level Interrupt on INT7:4, or an External Interrupt on
INT3:0 can wake up the MCU from ADC Noise Reduction mode.
6.3
Power-down Mode
When the SM2..0 bits are written to 010, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Powerdown mode. In this mode, the External Oscillator is stopped, while the External Interrupts, the
Two-wire Serial Interface address watch, and the Watchdog continue operating (if enabled).
Only an External Reset, a Watchdog Reset, a Brown-out Reset, a Two-wire Serial Interface
address match interrupt, an External Level Interrupt on INT7:4, or an External Interrupt on
INT3:0 can wake up the MCU. This sleep mode basically halts all generated clocks, allowing
operation of asynchronous modules only.
Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up from Power-down mode, the changed
level must be held for some time to wake up the MCU. Refer to “External Interrupts” on page 93
for details.
When waking up from Power-down mode, there is a delay from the wake-up condition occurs
until the wake-up becomes effective. This allows the clock to restart and become stable after
having been stopped. The wake-up period is defined by the same CKSEL fuses that define the
Reset Time-out period, as described in “Clock Sources” on page 38.
6.4
Power-save Mode
When the SM2..0 bits are written to 011, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Powersave mode. This mode is identical to Power-down, with one exception:
47
7679H–CAN–08/08
If Timer/Counter2 is clocked asynchronously, i.e., the AS2 bit in ASSR is set, Timer/Counter2
will run during sleep. The device can wake up from either Timer Overflow or Output Compare
event from Timer/Counter2 if the corresponding Timer/Counter2 interrupt enable bits are set in
TIMSK2, and the global interrupt enable bit in SREG is set.
If the Asynchronous Timer is NOT clocked asynchronously, Power-down mode is recommended
instead of Power-save mode because the contents of the registers in the asynchronous timer
should be considered undefined after wake-up in Power-save mode if AS2 is 0.
This sleep mode basically halts all clocks except clkASY, allowing operation only of asynchronous
modules, including Timer/Counter2 if clocked asynchronously.
6.5
Standby Mode
When the SM2..0 bits are 110 and an External Crystal/Resonator clock option is selected, the
SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Standby mode. This mode is identical to Power-down
with the exception that the Oscillator is kept running. From Standby mode, the device wakes up
in 6 clock cycles.
Table 6-2.
Active Clock Domains and Wake-up Sources in the Different Sleep Modes.
Active Clock Domains
Sleep
Mode
clkCPU
Idle
clkFLASH
Oscillators
clkIO
clkADC
clkASY
Main
Clock
Source
Enabled
Timer
Osc.
Enabled
INT7:0
TWI
Address
Match
Timer
2
SPM/
EEPROM
Ready
ADC
Other
I/O
X
X
X
X
X(2)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X(2)
X(3)
X
X(2)
X
X
X(3)
X
X(3)
X
X(3)
X
ADC Noise
Reduction
Powerdown
Powersave
X(2)
Standby(1)
Notes:
Wake-up Sources
X(2)
X
X(2)
1. Only recommended with external crystal or resonator selected as clock source.
2. If AS2 bit in ASSR is set.
3. Only INT3:0 or level interrupt INT7:4.
6.6
Minimizing Power Consumption
There are several issues to consider when trying to minimize the power consumption in an AVR
controlled system. In general, sleep modes should be used as much as possible, and the sleep
mode should be selected so that as few as possible of the device’s functions are operating. All
functions not needed should be disabled. In particular, the following modules may need special
consideration when trying to achieve the lowest possible power consumption.
6.6.1
48
Analog to Digital Converter
If enabled, the ADC will be enabled in all sleep modes. To save power, the ADC should be disabled before entering any sleep mode. When the ADC is turned off and on again, the next
conversion will be an extended conversion. Refer to “Analog to Digital Converter - ADC” on page
273 for details on ADC operation.
AT90CAN32/64/128
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AT90CAN32/64/128
6.6.2
Analog Comparator
When entering Idle mode, the Analog Comparator should be disabled if not used. When entering
ADC Noise Reduction mode, the Analog Comparator should be disabled. In other sleep modes,
the Analog Comparator is automatically disabled. However, if the Analog Comparator is set up
to use the Internal Voltage Reference as input, the Analog Comparator should be disabled in all
sleep modes. Otherwise, the Internal Voltage Reference will be enabled, independent of sleep
mode. Refer to “Analog Comparator” on page 269 for details on how to configure the Analog
Comparator.
6.6.3
Brown-out Detector
If the Brown-out Detector is not needed by the application, this module should be turned off. If
the Brown-out Detector is enabled by the BODLEVEL Fuses, it will be enabled in all sleep
modes, and hence, always consume power. In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current consumption. Refer to “Brown-out Detection” on page 54 for details
on how to configure the Brown-out Detector.
6.6.4
Internal Voltage Reference
The Internal Voltage Reference will be enabled when needed by the Brown-out Detection, the
Analog Comparator or the ADC. If these modules are disabled as described in the sections
above, the internal voltage reference will be disabled and it will not be consuming power. When
turned on again, the user must allow the reference to start up before the output is used. If the
reference is kept on in sleep mode, the output can be used immediately. Refer to “Internal Voltage Reference” on page 56 for details on the start-up time.
6.6.5
Watchdog Timer
If the Watchdog Timer is not needed in the application, the module should be turned off. If the
Watchdog Timer is enabled, it will be enabled in all sleep modes, and hence, always consume
power. In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current consumption. Refer to “Watchdog Timer” on page 57 for details on how to configure the Watchdog Timer.
6.6.6
Port Pins
When entering a sleep mode, all port pins should be configured to use minimum power. The
most important is then to ensure that no pins drive resistive loads. In sleep modes where both
the I/O clock (clkI/O) and the ADC clock (clkADC) are stopped, the input buffers of the device will
be disabled. This ensures that no power is consumed by the input logic when not needed. In
some cases, the input logic is needed for detecting wake-up conditions, and it will then be
enabled. Refer to the section “Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes” on page 70 for details on
which pins are enabled. If the input buffer is enabled and the input signal is left floating or have
an analog signal level close to VCC/2, the input buffer will use excessive power.
For analog input pins, the digital input buffer should be disabled at all times. An analog signal
level close to VCC/2 on an input pin can cause significant current even in active mode. Digital
input buffers can be disabled by writing to the Digital Input Disable Registers (DIDR1 and
DIDR0). Refer to “Digital Input Disable Register 1 – DIDR1” on page 272 and “Digital Input Disable Register 0 – DIDR0” on page 292 for details.
6.6.7
JTAG Interface and On-chip Debug System
If the On-chip debug system is enabled by OCDEN Fuse and the chip enter sleep mode, the
main clock source is enabled, and hence, always consumes power. In the deeper sleep modes,
49
7679H–CAN–08/08
this will contribute significantly to the total current consumption. There are three alternative ways
to avoid this:
• Disable OCDEN Fuse.
• Disable JTAGEN Fuse.
• Write one to the JTD bit in MCUCR.
The TDO pin is left floating when the JTAG interface is enabled while the JTAG TAP controller is
not shifting data. If the hardware connected to the TDO pin does not pull up the logic level,
power consumption will increase. Note that the TDI pin for the next device in the scan chain contains a pull-up that avoids this problem. Writing the JTD bit in the MCUCR register to one or
leaving the JTAG fuse unprogrammed disables the JTAG interface.
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AT90CAN32/64/128
7. System Control and Reset
7.1
7.1.1
Reset
Resetting the AVR
During reset, all I/O Registers are set to their initial values, and the program starts execution
from the Reset Vector. The instruction placed at the Reset Vector must be a JMP – Absolute
Jump – instruction to the reset handling routine. If the program never enables an interrupt
source, the Interrupt Vectors are not used, and regular program code can be placed at these
locations. This is also the case if the Reset Vector is in the Application section while the Interrupt
Vectors are in the Boot section or vice versa. The circuit diagram in Figure 7-1 shows the reset
logic. Table 7-1 defines the electrical parameters of the reset circuitry.
The I/O ports of the AVR are immediately reset to their initial state when a reset source goes
active. This does not require any clock source to be running.
After all reset sources have gone inactive, a delay counter is invoked, stretching the internal
reset. This allows the power to reach a stable level before normal operation starts. The time-out
period of the delay counter is defined by the user through the SUT and CKSEL Fuses. The different selections for the delay period are presented in “Clock Sources” on page 38.
7.1.2
Reset Sources
The AT90CAN32/64/128 has five sources of reset:
• Power-on Reset. The MCU is reset when the supply voltage is below the Power-on Reset
threshold (VPOT).
• External Reset. The MCU is reset when a low level is present on the RESET pin for longer
than the minimum pulse length.
• Watchdog Reset. The MCU is reset when the Watchdog Timer period expires and the
Watchdog is enabled.
• Brown-out Reset. The MCU is reset when the supply voltage VCC is below the Brown-out
Reset threshold (VBOT) and the Brown-out Detector is enabled.
• JTAG AVR Reset. The MCU is reset as long as there is a logic one in the Reset Register, one
of the scan chains of the JTAG system. Refer to the section “Boundary-scan IEEE 1149.1
(JTAG)” on page 300 for details.
51
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 7-1.
Reset Logic
DATA BUS
PORF
BORF
EXTRF
WDRF
JTRF
MCU Status
Register (MCUSR)
Power-on Reset
Circuit
Brown-out
Reset Circuit
BODLEVEL [2..0]
Pull-up Resistor
Spike
Filter
JTAG Reset
Register
Watchdog
Oscillator
Clock
Generator
CK
Delay Counters
TIMEOUT
CKSEL[3:0]
SUT[1:0]
Table 7-1.
Symbol
Reset Characteristics
Parameter
Condition
Min.
Power-on Reset Threshold Voltage (rising)
VPOT
Power-on Reset Threshold Voltage (falling)
(1)
VPOR
Vcc Start Voltage to ensure
internal Power-on Reset signal
- 0.05
VCCRR
Vcc Rise Rate to ensure
internal Power-on Reset signal
0.3
VRST
RESET Pin Threshold Voltage
0.2
Vcc
tRST
Minimum pulse width on RESET Pin
Note:
7.1.3
Vcc = 5 V, temperature = 25 °C
Typ.
Max.
Units
1.4
2.3
V
1.3
2.3
V
GND
+ 0.05
V
V/ms
0.85
Vcc
400
V
ns
1. The Power-on Reset will not work unless the supply voltage has been below VPOT (falling)
Power-on Reset
A Power-on Reset (POR) pulse is generated by an On-chip detection circuit. The detection level
is defined in Table 7-1. The POR is activated whenever VCC is below the detection level. The
POR circuit can be used to trigger the start-up Reset, as well as to detect a failure in supply
voltage.
A Power-on Reset (POR) circuit ensures that the device is properly reset from Power-on if VCC
started from VPOR with a rise rate upper than VCCRR. Reaching the Power-on Reset threshold
voltage invokes the delay counter, which determines how long the device is kept in RESET after
52
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
VCC rise. The RESET signal is activated again, without any delay, when VCC decreases below
the detection level.
Figure 7-2.
MCU Start-up, RESET Tied to VCC
VCCRR
VCC
VPOR
RESET
VPOT
VCCRR
tTOUT
TIME-OUT
INTERNAL
RESET
Figure 7-3.
MCU Start-up, RESET Extended Externally
VCCRR
VCC
VPOR
RESET
TIME-OUT
VRST
tTOUT
INTERNAL
RESET
Note:
7.1.4
If VPOR or VCCRR parameter range can not be followed, an External Reset is required.
External Reset
An External Reset is generated by a low level on the RESET pin. Reset pulses longer than the
minimum pulse width (see Table 7-1) will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running.
Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset. When the applied signal reaches the
Reset Threshold Voltage – VRST – on its positive edge, the delay counter starts the MCU after
the Time-out period – tTOUT – has expired.
53
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 7-4.
External Reset During Operation
CC
7.1.5
Brown-out Detection
AT90CAN32/64/128 has an On-chip Brown-out Detection (BOD) circuit for monitoring the VCC
level during operation by comparing it to a fixed trigger level. The trigger level for the BOD can
be selected by the BODLEVEL Fuses. The trigger level has a hysteresis to ensure spike free
Brown-out Detection. The hysteresis on the detection level should be interpreted as V BOT+ =
VBOT + VHYST/2 and VBOT- = VBOT - VHYST/2.
Table 7-2.
BODLEVEL Fuse Coding(1)
BODLEVEL 2..0 Fuses
Min VBOT
111
Note:
Typ VBOT
Max VBOT
Units
BOD Disabled
110
4.1
V
101
4.0
V
100
3.9
V
011
3.8
V
010
2.7
V
001
2.6
V
000
2.5
V
1. VBOT may be below nominal minimum operating voltage for some devices. For devices where
this is the case, the device is tested down to VCC = VBOT during the production test. This guarantees that a Brown-Out Reset will occur before VCC drops to a voltage where correct
operation of the microcontroller is no longer guaranteed. The test is performed using
BODLEVEL = 010 for Low Operating Voltage and BODLEVEL = 101 for High Operating Voltage .
Table 7-3.
Brown-out Characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
VHYST
Brown-out Detector Hysteresis
70
mV
tBOD
Min Pulse Width on Brown-out Reset
2
µs
When the BOD is enabled, and VCC decreases to a value below the trigger level (VBOT- in Figure
7-5), the Brown-out Reset is immediately activated. When VCC increases above the trigger level
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AT90CAN32/64/128
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AT90CAN32/64/128
(VBOT+ in Figure 7-5), the delay counter starts the MCU after the Time-out period tTOUT has
expired.
The BOD circuit will only detect a drop in VCC if the voltage stays below the trigger level for
longer than tBOD given in Table 7-3.
Figure 7-5.
Brown-out Reset During Operation
VCC
VBOT-
VBOT+
RESET
tTOUT
TIME-OUT
INTERNAL
RESET
7.1.6
Watchdog Reset
When the Watchdog times out, it will generate a short reset pulse of one CK cycle duration. On
the falling edge of this pulse, the delay timer starts counting the Time-out period tTOUT. Refer to
page 57 for details on operation of the Watchdog Timer.
Figure 7-6.
Watchdog Reset During Operation
CC
CK
55
7679H–CAN–08/08
7.1.7
MCU Status Register – MCUSR
The MCU Status Register provides information on which reset source caused an MCU reset.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
JTRF
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
MCUSR
See Bit Description
• Bit 7..5 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use.
• Bit 4 – JTRF: JTAG Reset Flag
This bit is set if a reset is being caused by a logic one in the JTAG Reset Register selected by
the JTAG instruction AVR_RESET. This bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a logic
zero to the flag.
• Bit 3 – WDRF: Watchdog Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Watchdog Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a
logic zero to the flag.
• Bit 2 – BORF: Brown-out Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Brown-out Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a
logic zero to the flag.
• Bit 1 – EXTRF: External Reset Flag
This bit is set if an External Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a
logic zero to the flag.
• Bit 0 – PORF: Power-on Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Power-on Reset occurs. The bit is reset only by writing a logic zero to the flag.
To make use of the Reset flags to identify a reset condition, the user should read and then reset
the MCUSR as early as possible in the program. If the register is cleared before another reset
occurs, the source of the reset can be found by examining the reset flags.
7.2
Internal Voltage Reference
AT90CAN32/64/128 features an internal bandgap reference. This reference is used for Brownout Detection, and it can be used as an input to the Analog Comparator or the ADC.
7.2.1
Voltage Reference Enable Signals and Start-up Time
The voltage reference has a start-up time that may influence the way it should be used. The
start-up time is given in Table 7-4. To save power, the reference is not always turned on. The
reference is on during the following situations:
1. When the BOD is enabled (by programming the BODLEVEL [2..0] Fuse).
2. When the bandgap reference is connected to the Analog Comparator (by setting the
ACBG bit in ACSR).
3. When the ADC is enabled.
Thus, when the BOD is not enabled, after setting the ACBG bit or enabling the ADC, the user
must always allow the reference to start up before the output from the Analog Comparator or
56
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
ADC is used. To reduce power consumption in Power-down mode, the user can avoid the three
conditions above to ensure that the reference is turned off before entering Power-down mode.
7.2.2
Voltage Reference Characteristics
Table 7-4.
Symbol
7.3
Internal Voltage Reference Characteristics
Parameter
Condition
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
1.0
1.1
1.2
V
70
µs
VBG
Bandgap reference voltage
tBG
Bandgap reference start-up time
40
IBG
Bandgap reference current
consumption
15
µA
Watchdog Timer
The Watchdog Timer is clocked from a separate On-chip Oscillator which runs at 1 MHz. This is
the typical value at VCC = 5V. See characterization data for typical values at other VCC levels. By
controlling the Watchdog Timer prescaler, the Watchdog Reset interval can be adjusted as
shown in Table 7-6 on page 58. The WDR – Watchdog Reset – instruction resets the Watchdog
Timer. The Watchdog Timer is also reset when it is disabled and when a Chip Reset occurs.
Eight different clock cycle periods can be selected to determine the reset period. If the reset
period expires without another Watchdog Reset, the AT90CAN32/64/128 resets and executes
from the Reset Vector. For timing details on the Watchdog Reset, refer to Table 7-6 on page 58.
To prevent unintentional disabling of the Watchdog or unintentional change of time-out period,
two different safety levels are selected by the fuse WDTON as shown in Table 7-5. Refer to
“Timed Sequences for Changing the Configuration of the Watchdog Timer” on page 59 for
details.
Table 7-5.
WDT Configuration as a Function of the Fuse Settings of WDTON
Safety
Level
WDTON
WDT Initial
State
How to Disable
the WDT
How to Change
Time-out
Unprogrammed
1
Disabled
Timed sequence
Timed sequence
Programmed
2
Enabled
Always enabled
Timed sequence
Figure 7-7.
Watchdog Timer
WATCHDOG
OSCILLATOR
~1 MHz
57
7679H–CAN–08/08
7.3.1
Watchdog Timer Control Register – WDTCR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
WDCE
WDE
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WDTCR
• Bits 7..5 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits for future use.
• Bit 4 – WDCE: Watchdog Change Enable
This bit must be set when the WDE bit is written to logic zero. Otherwise, the Watchdog will not
be disabled. Once written to one, hardware will clear this bit after four clock cycles. Refer to the
description of the WDE bit for a Watchdog disable procedure. This bit must also be set when
changing the prescaler bits. See “Timed Sequences for Changing the Configuration of the
Watchdog Timer” on page 59.
• Bit 3 – WDE: Watchdog Enable
When the WDE is written to logic one, the Watchdog Timer is enabled, and if the WDE is written
to logic zero, the Watchdog Timer function is disabled. WDE can only be cleared if the WDCE bit
has logic level one. To disable an enabled Watchdog Timer, the following procedure must be
followed:
1. In the same operation, write a logic one to WDCE and WDE. A logic one must be written to WDE even though it is set to one before the disable operation starts.
2. Within the next four clock cycles, write a logic 0 to WDE. This disables the Watchdog.
In safety level 2, it is not possible to disable the Watchdog Timer, even with the algorithm
described above. See “Timed Sequences for Changing the Configuration of the Watchdog
Timer” on page 59.
• Bits 2..0 – WDP2, WDP1, WDP0: Watchdog Timer Prescaler 2, 1, and 0
The WDP2, WDP1, and WDP0 bits determine the Watchdog Timer prescaling when the Watchdog Timer is enabled. The different prescaling values and their corresponding Timeout Periods
are shown in Table 7-6.
Table 7-6.
58
Watchdog Timer Prescale Select
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
Number of WDT
Oscillator Cycles
Typical Time-out at
VCC = 3.0V
Typical Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
0
0
0
16K cycles
17.1 ms
16.3 ms
0
0
1
32K cycles
34.3 ms
32.5 ms
0
1
0
64K cycles
68.5 ms
65 ms
0
1
1
32/64K cycles
0.14 s
0.13 s
1
0
0
256K cycles
0.27 s
0.26 s
1
0
1
512K cycles
0.55 s
0.52 s
1
1
0
1,024K cycles
1.1 s
1.0 s
1
1
1
2,048K cycles
2.2 s
2.1 s
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
The following code example shows one assembly and one C function for turning off the WDT.
The example assumes that interrupts are controlled (e.g. by disabling interrupts globally) so that
no interrupts will occur during execution of these functions.
Assembly Code Example(1)
WDT_off:
; Write logical one to WDCE and WDE
ldi
r16, (1<<WDCE)|(1<<WDE)
sts
WDTCR, r16
; Turn off WDT
ldi
r16, (0<<WDE)
sts
WDTCR, r16
ret
C Code Example(1)
void WDT_off(void)
{
/* Write logical one to WDCE and WDE */
WDTCR = (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE);
/* Turn off WDT */
WDTCR = 0x00;
}
Note:
7.4
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
Timed Sequences for Changing the Configuration of the Watchdog Timer
The sequence for changing configuration differs slightly between the two safety levels. Separate
procedures are described for each level.
7.4.1
Safety Level 1
In this mode, the Watchdog Timer is initially disabled, but can be enabled by writing the WDE bit
to 1 without any restriction. A timed sequence is needed when changing the Watchdog Time-out
period or disabling an enabled Watchdog Timer. To disable an enabled Watchdog Timer, and/or
changing the Watchdog Time-out, the following procedure must be followed:
1. In the same operation, write a logic one to WDCE and WDE. A logic one must be written to WDE regardless of the previous value of the WDE bit.
2. Within the next four clock cycles, in the same operation, write the WDE and WDP bits
as desired, but with the WDCE bit cleared.
7.4.2
Safety Level 2
In this mode, the Watchdog Timer is always enabled, and the WDE bit will always read as one. A
timed sequence is needed when changing the Watchdog Time-out period. To change the
Watchdog Time-out, the following procedure must be followed:
1. In the same operation, write a logical one to WDCE and WDE. Even though the WDE
always is set, the WDE must be written to one to start the timed sequence.
2. Within the next four clock cycles, in the same operation, write the WDP bits as desired,
but with the WDCE bit cleared. The value written to the WDE bit is irrelevant.
59
7679H–CAN–08/08
8. Interrupts
This section describes the specifics of the interrupt handling as performed in
AT90CAN32/64/128. For a general explanation of the AVR interrupt handling, refer to “Reset
and Interrupt Handling” on page 15.
8.1
Interrupt Vectors in AT90CAN32/64/128
Table 8-1.
60
Reset and Interrupt Vectors
Vector
No.
Program
Address(1)
Source
Interrupt Definition
1
0x0000(2)
RESET
External Pin, Power-on Reset, Brown-out Reset,
Watchdog Reset, and JTAG AVR Reset
2
0x0002
INT0
External Interrupt Request 0
3
0x0004
INT1
External Interrupt Request 1
4
0x0006
INT2
External Interrupt Request 2
5
0x0008
INT3
External Interrupt Request 3
6
0x000A
INT4
External Interrupt Request 4
7
0x000C
INT5
External Interrupt Request 5
8
0x000E
INT6
External Interrupt Request 6
9
0x0010
INT7
External Interrupt Request 7
10
0x0012
TIMER2 COMP
Timer/Counter2 Compare Match
11
0x0014
TIMER2 OVF
Timer/Counter2 Overflow
12
0x0016
TIMER1 CAPT
Timer/Counter1 Capture Event
13
0x0018
TIMER1 COMPA
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match A
14
0x001A
TIMER1 COMPB
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match B
15
0x001C
TIMER1 COMPC
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match C
16
0x001E
TIMER1 OVF
Timer/Counter1 Overflow
17
0x0020
TIMER0 COMP
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match
18
0x0022
TIMER0 OVF
Timer/Counter0 Overflow
19
0x0024
CANIT
CAN Transfer Complete or Error
20
0x0026
OVRIT
CAN Timer Overrun
21
0x0028
SPI, STC
SPI Serial Transfer Complete
22
0x002A
USART0, RX
USART0, Rx Complete
23
0x002C
USART0, UDRE
USART0 Data Register Empty
24
0x002E
USART0, TX
USART0, Tx Complete
25
0x0030
ANALOG COMP
Analog Comparator
26
0x0032
ADC
ADC Conversion Complete
27
0x0034
EE READY
EEPROM Ready
28
0x0036
TIMER3 CAPT
Timer/Counter3 Capture Event
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Table 8-1.
Reset and Interrupt Vectors (Continued)
Vector
No.
Program
Address(1)
29
Source
Interrupt Definition
0x0038
TIMER3 COMPA
Timer/Counter3 Compare Match A
30
0x003A
TIMER3 COMPB
Timer/Counter3 Compare Match B
31
0x003C
TIMER3 COMPC
Timer/Counter3 Compare Match C
32
0x003E
TIMER3 OVF
Timer/Counter3 Overflow
33
0x0040
USART1, RX
USART1, Rx Complete
34
0x0042
USART1, UDRE
USART1 Data Register Empty
35
0x0044
USART1, TX
USART1, Tx Complete
36
0x0046
TWI
Two-wire Serial Interface
37
0x0048
SPM READY
Store Program Memory Ready
Notes:
1. When the IVSEL bit in MCUCR is set, Interrupt Vectors will be moved to the start of the Boot
Flash Section. The address of each Interrupt Vector will then be the address in this table
added to the start address of the Boot Flash Section.
2. When the BOOTRST Fuse is programmed, the device will jump to the Boot Loader address at
reset, see “Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming” on page 321.
Table 8-2 shows reset and Interrupt Vectors placement for the various combinations of
BOOTRST and IVSEL settings. If the program never enables an interrupt source, the Interrupt
Vectors are not used, and regular program code can be placed at these locations. This is also
the case if the Reset Vector is in the Application section while the Interrupt Vectors are in the
Boot section or vice versa.
Table 8-2.
Reset and Interrupt Vectors Placement(1)
BOOTRST
IVSEL
1
Note:
Reset Address
Interrupt Vectors Start Address
0
0x0000
0x0002
1
1
0x0000
Boot Reset Address + 0x0002
0
0
Boot Reset Address
0x0002
0
1
Boot Reset Address
Boot Reset Address + 0x0002
1. The Boot Reset Address is shown in Table 24-6 on page 334. For the BOOTRST Fuse “1”
means unprogrammed while “0” means programmed.
The most typical and general program setup for the Reset and Interrupt Vector Addresses in
AT90CAN32/64/128 is:
;Address
Labels Code
0x0000
jmp
RESET
; Reset Handler
Comments
0x0002
jmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x0004
jmp
EXT_INT1
; IRQ1 Handler
0x0006
jmp
EXT_INT2
; IRQ2 Handler
0x0008
jmp
EXT_INT3
; IRQ3 Handler
0x000A
jmp
EXT_INT4
; IRQ4 Handler
0x000C
jmp
EXT_INT5
; IRQ5 Handler
0x000E
jmp
EXT_INT6
; IRQ6 Handler
0x0010
jmp
EXT_INT7
; IRQ7 Handler
61
7679H–CAN–08/08
0x0012
jmp
TIM2_COMP ; Timer2 Compare Handler
0x0014
jmp
TIM2_OVF
0x0016
jmp
TIM1_CAPT ; Timer1 Capture Handler
0x0018
jmp
TIM1_COMPA; Timer1 CompareA Handler
0x001A
jmp
TIM1_COMPB; Timer1 CompareB Handler
0x001C
jmp
TIM1_OVF
; Timer1 CompareC Handler
0x001E
jmp
TIM1_OVF
; Timer1 Overflow Handler
0x0020
jmp
TIM0_COMP ; Timer0 Compare Handler
0x0022
jmp
TIM0_OVF
; Timer0 Overflow Handler
0x0024
jmp
CAN_IT
; CAN Handler
0x0026
jmp
CTIM_OVF
; CAN Timer Overflow Handler
0x0028
jmp
SPI_STC
; SPI Transfer Complete Handler
0x002A
jmp
USART0_RXC; USART0 RX Complete Handler
0x002C
jmp
USART0_DRE; USART0,UDR Empty Handler
0x002E
jmp
USART0_TXC; USART0 TX Complete Handler
0x0030
jmp
ANA_COMP
; Analog Comparator Handler
0x0032
jmp
ADC
; ADC Conversion Complete Handler
0x0034
jmp
EE_RDY
; EEPROM Ready Handler
0x0036
jmp
TIM3_CAPT ; Timer3 Capture Handler
0x0038
jmp
TIM3_COMPA; Timer3 CompareA Handler
0x003A
jmp
TIM3_COMPB; Timer3 CompareB Handler
0x003C
jmp
TIM3_COMPC; Timer3 CompareC Handler
0x003E
jmp
TIM3_OVF
0x0040
jmp
USART1_RXC; USART1 RX Complete Handler
0x0042
jmp
USART1_DRE; USART1,UDR Empty Handler
0x0044
jmp
USART1_TXC; USART1 TX Complete Handler
0x0046
jmp
TWI
; TWI Interrupt Handler
0x0048
jmp
SPM_RDY
; SPM Ready Handler
; Timer2 Overflow Handler
; Timer3 Overflow Handler
;
0x004A
RESET: ldi
0x004B
out
SPH,r16
0x004C
ldi
r16, low(RAMEND)
0x004D
out
SPL,r16
0x004E
sei
0x004F
<instr>
...
...
...
r16, high(RAMEND) ; Main program start
;Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
; Enable interrupts
xxx
...
When the BOOTRST Fuse is unprogrammed, the Boot section size set to 8K bytes and the
IVSEL bit in the MCUCR Register is set before any interrupts are enabled, the most typical and
general program setup for the Reset and Interrupt Vector Addresses is:
;Address Labels
62
Code
0x0000
RESET: ldi
0x0001
out
SPH,r16
0x0002
ldi
r16,low(RAMEND)
0x0003
out
SPL,r16
Comments
r16,high(RAMEND) ; Main program start
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
0x0004
sei
0x0005
<instr>
; Enable interrupts
xxx
;
.org (BootResetAdd + 0x0002)
0x..02
jmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x..04
jmp
PCINT0
; PCINT0 Handler
...
...
...
;
0x..0C
jmp
SPM_RDY
; Store Program Memory Ready Handler
When the BOOTRST Fuse is programmed and the Boot section size set to 8K bytes, the most
typical and general program setup for the Reset and Interrupt Vector Addresses is:
;Address Labels
Code
Comments
.org 0x0002
0x0002
jmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x0004
jmp
PCINT0
; PCINT0 Handler
...
...
...
;
0x002C
jmp
SPM_RDY
; Store Program Memory Ready Handler
;
.org (BootResetAdd)
0x..00 RESET: ldi
r16,high(RAMEND) ; Main program start
0x..01
out
SPH,r16
0x..02
ldi
r16,low(RAMEND)
0x..03
out
SPL,r16
0x..04
sei
0x..05
<instr>
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
; Enable interrupts
xxx
When the BOOTRST Fuse is programmed, the Boot section size set to 8K bytes and the IVSEL
bit in the MCUCR Register is set before any interrupts are enabled, the most typical and general
program setup for the Reset and Interrupt Vector Addresses is:
;Address Labels
Code
Comments
;
.org (BootResetAdd)
0x..00
jmp
RESET
; Reset handler
0x0002
jmp
EXT_INT0
; IRQ0 Handler
0x..04
jmp
PCINT0
; PCINT0 Handler
...
...
...
;
0x..44
jmp
SPM_RDY
; Store Program Memory Ready Handler
;
0x..46
RESET: ldi
r16,high(RAMEND) ; Main program start
0x..47
out
SPH,r16
0x..48
ldi
r16,low(RAMEND)
0x..49
out
SPL,r16
0x..4A
sei
0x..4B
<instr>
; Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
; Enable interrupts
xxx
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7679H–CAN–08/08
8.2
Moving Interrupts Between Application and Boot Space
The General Interrupt Control Register controls the placement of the Interrupt Vector table.
8.2.1
MCU Control Register – MCUCR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
JTD
–
–
PUD
–
–
IVSEL
IVCE
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MCUCR
• Bit 1 – IVSEL: Interrupt Vector Select
When the IVSEL bit is cleared (zero), the Interrupt Vectors are placed at the start of the Flash
memory. When this bit is set (one), the Interrupt Vectors are moved to the beginning of the Boot
Loader section of the Flash. The actual address of the start of the Boot Flash Section is determined by the BOOTSZ Fuses. Refer to the section “Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write SelfProgramming” on page 321 for details. To avoid unintentional changes of Interrupt Vector tables, a
special write procedure must be followed to change the IVSEL bit:
1. Write the Interrupt Vector Change Enable (IVCE) bit to one.
2. Within four cycles, write the desired value to IVSEL while writing a zero to IVCE.
Interrupts will automatically be disabled while this sequence is executed. Interrupts are disabled
in the cycle IVCE is set, and they remain disabled until after the instruction following the write to
IVSEL. If IVSEL is not written, interrupts remain disabled for four cycles. The I-bit in the Status
Register is unaffected by the automatic disabling.
Note:
64
If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Boot Loader section and Boot Lock bit BLB02 is programmed, interrupts are disabled while executing from the Application section. If Interrupt Vectors
are placed in the Application section and Boot Lock bit BLB12 is programed, interrupts are disabled while executing from the Boot Loader section. Refer to the section “Boot Loader Support –
Read-While-Write Self-Programming” on page 321 for details on Boot Lock bits.
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
• Bit 0 – IVCE: Interrupt Vector Change Enable
The IVCE bit must be written to logic one to enable change of the IVSEL bit. IVCE is cleared by
hardware four cycles after it is written or when IVSEL is written. Setting the IVCE bit will disable
interrupts, as explained in the IVSEL description above. See Code Example below.
Assembly Code Example
Move_interrupts:
; Get MCUCR
in
r16, MCUCR
mov
r17, r16
; Enable change of Interrupt Vectors
ori
r16, (1<<IVCE)
out
MCUCR, r16
; Move interrupts to Boot Flash section
ori
r17, (1<<IVSEL)
out
MCUCR, r17
ret
C Code Example
void Move_interrupts(void)
{
uchar
temp;
/* Get MCUCR*/
temp = MCUCR;
/* Enable change of Interrupt Vectors */
MCUCR = temp | (1<<IVCE);
/* Move interrupts to Boot Flash section */
MCUCR = temp | (1<<IVSEL);
}
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7679H–CAN–08/08
9. I/O-Ports
9.1
Introduction
All AVR ports have true Read-Modify-Write functionality when used as general digital I/O ports.
This means that the direction of one port pin can be changed without unintentionally changing
the direction of any other pin with the SBI and CBI instructions. The same applies when changing drive value (if configured as output) or enabling/disabling of pull-up resistors (if configured as
input). Each output buffer has symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. All port pins have individually selectable pull-up resistors with a supply-voltage invariant resistance. All I/O pins have protection diodes to both VCC and Ground as indicated in Figure
9-1. Refer to “Electrical Characteristics (1)” on page 365 for a complete list of parameters.
Figure 9-1.
I/O Pin Equivalent Schematic
Rpu
Pxn
Logic
Cpin
See Figure
"General Digital I/O" for
Details
All registers and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case “x” represents the numbering letter for the port, and a lower case “n” represents the bit number. However,
when using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used. For example,
PORTB3 for bit no. 3 in Port B, here documented generally as PORTxn. The physical I/O Registers and bit locations are listed in “Register Description for I/O-Ports”.
Three I/O memory address locations are allocated for each port, one each for the Data Register
– PORTx, Data Direction Register – DDRx, and the Port Input Pins – PINx. The Port Input Pins
I/O location is read only, while the Data Register and the Data Direction Register are read/write.
However, writing a logic one to a bit in the PINx Register, will result in a toggle in the corresponding bit in the Data Register. In addition, the Pull-up Disable – PUD bit in MCUCR disables the
pull-up function for all pins in all ports when set.
Using the I/O port as General Digital I/O is described in “Ports as General Digital I/O”. Most port
pins are multiplexed with alternate functions for the peripheral features on the device. How each
alternate function interferes with the port pin is described in “Alternate Port Functions” on page
71. Refer to the individual module sections for a full description of the alternate functions.
Note that enabling the alternate function of some of the port pins does not affect the use of the
other pins in the port as general digital I/O.
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9.2
Ports as General Digital I/O
The ports are bi-directional I/O ports with optional internal pull-ups. Figure 9-2 shows a functional description of one I/O-port pin, here generically called Pxn.
Figure 9-2.
General Digital I/O(1)
PUD
Q
D
DDxn
Q CLR
WDx
RESET
1
Q
Pxn
D
0
PORTxn
Q CLR
WPx
DATA BUS
RDx
RESET
WRx
SLEEP
RRx
SYNCHRONIZER
D
Q
L
Q
D
RPx
Q
PINxn
Q
clk I/O
PUD: PULLUP DISABLE
SLEEP: SLEEP CONTROL
clkI/O : I/O CLOCK
Note:
9.2.1
WDx:
RDx:
WRx:
RRx:
RPx:
WPx:
WRITE DDRx
READ DDRx
WRITE PORTx
READ PORTx REGISTER
READ PORTx PIN
WRITE PINx REGISTER
1. WRx, WPx, WDx, RRx, RPx, and RDx are common to all pins within the same port. clkI/O,
SLEEP, and PUD are common to all ports.
Configuring the Pin
Each port pin consists of three register bits: DDxn, PORTxn, and PINxn. As shown in “Register
Description for I/O-Ports” on page 89, the DDxn bits are accessed at the DDRx I/O address, the
PORTxn bits at the PORTx I/O address, and the PINxn bits at the PINx I/O address.
The DDxn bit in the DDRx Register selects the direction of this pin. If DDxn is written logic one,
Pxn is configured as an output pin. If DDxn is written logic zero, Pxn is configured as an input
pin.
If PORTxn is written logic one when the pin is configured as an input pin, the pull-up resistor is
activated. To switch the pull-up resistor off, PORTxn has to be written logic zero or the pin has to
be configured as an output pin
The port pins are tri-stated when reset condition becomes active, even if no clocks are running.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
If PORTxn is written logic one when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is driven
high (one). If PORTxn is written logic zero when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port
pin is driven low (zero).
9.2.2
Toggling the Pin
Writing a logic one to PINxn toggles the value of PORTxn, independent on the value of DDRxn.
Note that the SBI instruction can be used to toggle one single bit in a port.
9.2.3
Switching Between Input and Output
When switching between tri-state ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b00) and output high ({DDxn, PORTxn}
= 0b11), an intermediate state with either pull-up enabled {DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b01) or output
low ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b10) occurs. Normally, the pull-up enabled state is fully acceptable, as
a high-impedant environment will not notice the difference between a strong high driver and a
pull-up. If this is not the case, the PUD bit in the MCUCR Register can be set to disable all pullups in all ports.
Switching between input with pull-up and output low generates the same problem. The user
must use either the tri-state ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b00) or the output high state ({DDxn, PORTxn}
= 0b11) as an intermediate step.
Table 9-1 summarizes the control signals for the pin value.
Table 9-1.
9.2.4
68
Port Pin Configurations
DDxn
PORTxn
PUD
(in MCUCR)
I/O
Pull-up
0
0
X
Input
No
Default configuration after Reset.
Tri-state (Hi-Z)
0
1
0
Input
Yes
Pxn will source current if ext. pulled low.
0
1
1
Input
No
Tri-state (Hi-Z)
1
0
X
Output
No
Output Low (Sink)
1
1
X
Output
No
Output High (Source)
Comment
Reading the Pin Value
Independent of the setting of Data Direction bit DDxn, the port pin can be read through the
PINxn Register bit. As shown in Figure 9-2, the PINxn Register bit and the preceding latch constitute a synchronizer. This is needed to avoid metastability if the physical pin changes value
near the edge of the internal clock, but it also introduces a delay. Figure 9-3 shows a timing diagram of the synchronization when reading an externally applied pin value. The maximum and
minimum propagation delays are denoted tpd,max and tpd,min respectively.
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 9-3.
Synchronization when Reading an Externally Applied Pin value
SYSTEM CLK
INSTRUCTIONS
XXX
XXX
in r17, PINx
SYNC LATCH
PINxn
r17
0x00
0xFF
t pd, max
t pd, min
Consider the clock period starting shortly after the first falling edge of the system clock. The latch
is closed when the clock is low, and goes transparent when the clock is high, as indicated by the
shaded region of the “SYNC LATCH” signal. The signal value is latched when the system clock
goes low. It is clocked into the PINxn Register at the succeeding positive clock edge. As indicated by the two arrows tpd,max and tpd,min, a single signal transition on the pin will be delayed
between ½ and 1½ system clock period depending upon the time of assertion.
When reading back a software assigned pin value, a nop instruction must be inserted as indicated in Figure 9-4. The out instruction sets the “SYNC LATCH” signal at the positive edge of
the clock. In this case, the delay tpd through the synchronizer is 1 system clock period.
Figure 9-4.
Synchronization when Reading a Software Assigned Pin Value
SYSTEM CLK
r16
INSTRUCTIONS
0xFF
out PORTx, r16
nop
in r17, PINx
SYNC LATCH
PINxn
r17
0x00
0xFF
t pd
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7679H–CAN–08/08
The following code example shows how to set port B pins 0 and 1 high, 2 and 3 low, and define
the port pins from 4 to 7 as input with pull-ups assigned to port pins 6 and 7. The resulting pin
values are read back again, but as previously discussed, a nop instruction is included to be able
to read back the value recently assigned to some of the pins.
Assembly Code Example(1)
...
; Define pull-ups and set outputs high
; Define directions for port pins
ldi
r16, (1<<PB7)|(1<<PB6)|(1<<PB1)|(1<<PB0)
ldi
r17, (1<<DDB3)|(1<<DDB2)|(1<<DDB1)|(1<<DDB0)
out
PORTB, r16
out
DDRB, r17
; Insert nop for synchronization
nop
; Read port pins
in
r16, PINB
...
C Code Example(1)
unsigned char i;
...
/* Define pull-ups and set outputs high */
/* Define directions for port pins */
PORTB = (1<<PB7)|(1<<PB6)|(1<<PB1)|(1<<PB0);
DDRB = (1<<DDB3)|(1<<DDB2)|(1<<DDB1)|(1<<DDB0);
/* Insert nop for synchronization*/
_NOP();
/* Read port pins */
i = PINB;
...
Note:
9.2.5
1. For the assembly program, two temporary registers are used to minimize the time from pullups are set on pins 0, 1, 6, and 7, until the direction bits are correctly set, defining bit 2 and 3
as low and redefining bits 0 and 1 as strong high drivers.
Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes
As shown in Figure 9-2, the digital input signal can be clamped to ground at the input of the
schmitt-trigger. The signal denoted SLEEP in the figure, is set by the MCU Sleep Controller in
Power-down mode, Power-save mode, and Standby mode to avoid high power consumption if
some input signals are left floating, or have an analog signal level close to VCC/2.
SLEEP is overridden for port pins enabled as external interrupt pins. If the external interrupt
request is not enabled, SLEEP is active also for these pins. SLEEP is also overridden by various
other alternate functions as described in “Alternate Port Functions” on page 71.
If a logic high level (“one”) is present on an Asynchronous External Interrupt pin configured as
“Interrupt on Rising Edge, Falling Edge, or Any Logic Change on Pin” while the external interrupt
is not enabled, the corresponding External Interrupt Flag will be set when resuming from the
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AT90CAN32/64/128
above mentioned sleep modes, as the clamping in these sleep modes produces the requested
logic change.
9.2.6
9.3
Unconnected Pins
If some pins are unused, it is recommended to ensure that these pins have a defined level. Even
though most of the digital inputs are disabled in the deep sleep modes as described above, floating inputs should be avoided to reduce current consumption in all other modes where the digital
inputs are enabled (Reset, Active mode and Idle mode). The simplest method to ensure a
defined level of an unused pin, is to enable the internal pull-up. In this case, the pull-up will be
disabled during reset. If low power consumption during reset is important, it is recommended to
use an external pull-up or pull-down. Connecting unused pins directly to VCC or GND is not recommended, since this may cause excessive currents if the pin is accidentally configured as an
output.
Alternate Port Functions
Most port pins have alternate functions in addition to being general digital I/Os. Figure 9-5 shows
how the port pin control signals from the simplified Figure 9-2 can be overridden by alternate
functions. The overriding signals may not be present in all port pins, but the figure serves as a
generic description applicable to all port pins in the AVR microcontroller family.
71
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 9-5.
Alternate Port Functions(1)
PUOExn
PUOVxn
1
PUD
0
DDOExn
DDOVxn
1
Q D
DDxn
0
Q CLR
WDx
PVOExn
RESET
RDx
1
1
Pxn
Q
0
D
0
PORTxn
PTOExn
Q CLR
DIEOExn
DATA BUS
PVOVxn
WPx
DIEOVxn
RESET
WRx
1
0
RRx
SLEEP
SYNCHRONIZER
D
SET
Q
RPx
Q
D
PINxn
L
CLR
Q
CLR
Q
clk I/O
DIxn
AIOxn
PUOExn: Pxn PULL-UP OVERRIDE ENABLE
PUOVxn:
DDOExn:
DDOVxn:
PVOExn:
PVOVxn:
DIEOExn:
Pxn PULL-UP OVERRIDE VALUE
Pxn DATA DIRECTION OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn DATA DIRECTION OVERRIDE VALUE
Pxn PORT VALUE OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn PORT VALUE OVERRIDE VALUE
Pxn DIGITAL INPUT-ENABLE OVERRIDE ENABLE
DIEOVxn: Pxn DIGITAL INPUT-ENABLE OVERRIDE VALUE
SLEEP: SLEEP CONTROL
PTOExn: Pxn, PORT TOGGLE OVERRIDE ENABLE
Note:
PUD: PULLUP DISABLE
WDx:
RDx:
RRx:
WRx:
RPx:
WPx:
clkI/O:
DIxn:
AIOxn:
WRITE DDRx
READ DDRx
READ PORTx REGISTER
WRITE PORTx
READ PORTx PIN
WRITE PINx
I/O CLOCK
DIGITAL INPUT PIN n ON PORTx
ANALOG INPUT/OUTPUT PIN n ON PORTx
1. WRx, WPx, WDx, RRx, RPx, and RDx are common to all pins within the same port. clkI/O,
SLEEP, and PUD are common to all ports. All other signals are unique for each pin.
Table 9-2 summarizes the function of the overriding signals. The pin and port indexes from
Figure 9-5 are not shown in the succeeding tables. The overriding signals are generated
internally in the modules having the alternate function.
72
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AT90CAN32/64/128
Table 9-2.
Generic Description of Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions
Signal Name
Full Name
Description
PUOE
Pull-up Override
Enable
If this signal is set, the pull-up enable is controlled by the PUOV
signal. If this signal is cleared, the pull-up is enabled when
{DDxn, PORTxn, PUD} = 0b010.
PUOV
Pull-up Override
Value
If PUOE is set, the pull-up is enabled/disabled when PUOV is
set/cleared, regardless of the setting of the DDxn, PORTxn,
and PUD Register bits.
DDOE
Data Direction
Override Enable
If this signal is set, the Output Driver Enable is controlled by the
DDOV signal. If this signal is cleared, the Output driver is
enabled by the DDxn Register bit.
DDOV
Data Direction
Override Value
If DDOE is set, the Output Driver is enabled/disabled when
DDOV is set/cleared, regardless of the setting of the DDxn
Register bit.
PVOE
Port Value
Override Enable
If this signal is set and the Output Driver is enabled, the port
value is controlled by the PVOV signal. If PVOE is cleared, and
the Output Driver is enabled, the port Value is controlled by the
PORTxn Register bit.
PVOV
Port Value
Override Value
If PVOE is set, the port value is set to PVOV, regardless of the
setting of the PORTxn Register bit.
PTOE
Port Toggle
Override Enable
If PTOE is set, the PORTxn Register bit is inverted.
DIEOE
Digital Input
Enable Override
Enable
If this bit is set, the Digital Input Enable is controlled by the
DIEOV signal. If this signal is cleared, the Digital Input Enable
is determined by MCU state (Normal mode, sleep mode).
DIEOV
Digital Input
Enable Override
Value
If DIEOE is set, the Digital Input is enabled/disabled when
DIEOV is set/cleared, regardless of the MCU state (Normal
mode, sleep mode).
DI
Digital Input
This is the Digital Input to alternate functions. In the figure, the
signal is connected to the output of the schmitt trigger but
before the synchronizer. Unless the Digital Input is used as a
clock source, the module with the alternate function will use its
own synchronizer.
AIO
Analog
Input/Output
This is the Analog Input/output to/from alternate functions. The
signal is connected directly to the pad, and can be used bidirectionally.
The following subsections shortly describe the alternate functions for each port, and relate the
overriding signals to the alternate function. Refer to the alternate function description for further
details.
9.3.1
MCU Control Register – MCUCR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
JTD
–
–
PUD
–
–
IVSEL
IVCE
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MCUCR
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7679H–CAN–08/08
• Bit 4 – PUD: Pull-up Disable
When this bit is written to one, the pull-ups in the I/O ports are disabled even if the DDxn and
PORTxn Registers are configured to enable the pull-ups ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b01). See “Configuring the Pin” for more details about this feature.
9.3.2
Alternate Functions of Port A
The Port A has an alternate function as the address low byte and data lines for the External
Memory Interface.
The Port A pins with alternate functions are shown in Table 9-3.
Table 9-3.
Port A Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PA7
AD7 (External memory interface address and data bit 7)
PA6
AD6 (External memory interface address and data bit 6)
PA5
AD5 (External memory interface address and data bit 5)
PA4
AD4 (External memory interface address and data bit 4)
PA3
AD3 (External memory interface address and data bit 3)
PA2
AD2 (External memory interface address and data bit 2)
PA1
AD1 (External memory interface address and data bit 1)
PA0
AD0 (External memory interface address and data bit 0)
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• AD7 – Port A, Bit 7
AD7, External memory interface address 7 and Data 7.
• AD6 – Port A, Bit 6
AD6, External memory interface address 6 and Data 6.
• AD5 – Port A, Bit 5
AD5, External memory interface address 5 and Data 5.
• AD4 – Port A, Bit 4
AD4, External memory interface address 4 and Data 4.
• AD3 – Port A, Bit 3
AD3, External memory interface address 3 and Data 3.
• AD2 – Port A, Bit 2
AD2, External memory interface address 2 and Data 2.
• AD1 – Port A, Bit 1
AD1, External memory interface address 1 and Data 1.
• AD0 – Port A, Bit 0
AD0, External memory interface address 0 and Data 0.
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Table 9-4 and Table 9-5 relates the alternate functions of Port A to the overriding signals shown
in Figure 9-5 on page 72.
Table 9-4.
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PA7..PA4
Signal Name
PA7/AD7
PA6/AD6
PA5/AD5
PA4/AD4
PUOE
SRE •
(ADA(1) + WR)
SRE •
(ADA(1) + WR)
SRE •
(ADA(1) + WR)
SRE •
(ADA(1) + WR)
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
SRE
SRE
SRE
SRE
DDOV
WR + ADA
WR + ADA
WR + ADA
WR + ADA
PVOE
SRE
SRE
SRE
SRE
(1)
PVOV
A7 • ADA + D7
OUTPUT • WR
A6 • ADA + D6
OUTPUT • WR
A5 • ADA + D5
OUTPUT • WR
A4 • ADA(1) + D4
OUTPUT • WR
PTOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
D7 INPUT
D6 INPUT
D5 INPUT
D4 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
Note:
(1)
(1)
1. ADA is short for ADdress Active and represents the time when address is output. See “External Memory Interface” on page 27 for details.
Table 9-5.
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PA3..PA0
Signal Name
PA3/AD3
PA2/AD2
PA1/AD1
PA0/AD0
PUOE
SRE •
(ADA(1) + WR)
SRE •
(ADA(1) + WR)
SRE •
(ADA(1) + WR)
SRE •
(ADA(1) + WR)
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
SRE
SRE
SRE
SRE
DDOV
WR + ADA
WR + ADA
WR + ADA
WR + ADA
PVOE
SRE
SRE
SRE
SRE
(1)
PVOV
A3 • ADA + D3
OUTPUT • WR
A2 • ADA + D2
OUTPUT • WR
A1 • ADA + D1
OUTPUT • WR
A0 • ADA(1) + D0
OUTPUT • WR
PTOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
D3 INPUT
D2 INPUT
D1 INPUT
D0 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
Note:
(1)
(1)
1. ADA is short for ADdress Active and represents the time when address is output. See “External Memory Interface” on page 27 for details.
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9.3.3
Alternate Functions of Port B
The Port B pins with alternate functions are shown in Table 9-6.
Table 9-6.
Port Pin
Port B Pins Alternate Functions
Alternate Functions
PB7
OC0A/OC1C (Output Compare and PWM Output A for Timer/Counter0 or Output Compare
and PWM Output C for Timer/Counter1)
PB6
OC1B (Output Compare and PWM Output B for Timer/Counter1)
PB5
OC1A (Output Compare and PWM Output A for Timer/Counter1)
PB4
OC2A (Output Compare and PWM Output A for Timer/Counter2 )
PB3
MISO (SPI Bus Master Input/Slave Output)
PB2
MOSI (SPI Bus Master Output/Slave Input)
PB1
SCK (SPI Bus Serial Clock)
PB0
SS (SPI Slave Select input)
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• OC0A/OC1C, Bit 7
OC0A, Output Compare Match A output. The PB7 pin can serve as an external output for the
Timer/Counter0 Output Compare A. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB7 set “one”)
to serve this function. The OC0A pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
OC1C, Output Compare Match C output. The PB7 pin can serve as an external output for the
Timer/Counter1 Output Compare C. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB7 set “one”)
to serve this function. The OC1C pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• OC1B, Bit 6
OC1B, Output Compare Match B output. The PB6 pin can serve as an external output for the
Timer/Counter1 Output Compare B. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB6 set “one”)
to serve this function. The OC1B pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• OC1A, Bit 5
OC1A, Output Compare Match A output. The PB5 pin can serve as an external output for the
Timer/Counter1 Output Compare A. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB5 set “one”)
to serve this function. The OC1A pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• OC2A, Bit 4
OC2A, Output Compare Match A output. The PB4 pin can serve as an external output for the
Timer/Counter2 Output Compare A. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB4 set “one”)
to serve this function. The OC2A pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• MISO – Port B, Bit 3
MISO, Master Data input, Slave Data output pin for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a
master, this pin is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB3. When the SPI is
enabled as a slave, the data direction of this pin is controlled by DDB3. When the pin is forced to
be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB3 bit.
• MOSI – Port B, Bit 2
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MOSI, SPI Master Data output, Slave Data input for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a
slave, this pin is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB2. When the SPI is
enabled as a master, the data direction of this pin is controlled by DDB2. When the pin is forced
to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB2 bit.
• SCK – Port B, Bit 1
SCK, Master Clock output, Slave Clock input pin for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a
slave, this pin is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB1. When the SPI is
enabled as a master, the data direction of this pin is controlled by DDB1. When the pin is forced
to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB1 bit.
• SS – Port B, Bit 0
SS, Slave Port Select input. When the SPI is enabled as a slave, this pin is configured as an
input regardless of the setting of DDB0. As a slave, the SPI is activated when this pin is driven
low. When the SPI is enabled as a master, the data direction of this pin is controlled by DDB0.
When the pin is forced to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB0 bit.
Table 9-7 and Table 9-8 relate the alternate functions of Port B to the overriding signals shown
in Figure 9-5 on page 72. SPI MSTR INPUT and SPI SLAVE OUTPUT constitute the MISO signal, while MOSI is divided into SPI MSTR OUTPUT and SPI SLAVE INPUT.
Table 9-7 and Table 9-8 relates the alternate functions of Port B to the overriding signals shown
in Figure 9-5 on page 72.
Table 9-7.
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PB7..PB4
Signal Name
PB7/OC0A/OC1C
PB6/OC1B
PB5/OC1A
PB4/OC2A
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
OC0A/OC1C
ENABLE(1)
OC1B ENABLE
OC1A ENABLE
OC2A ENABLE
PVOV
OC0A/OC1C(1)
OC1B
OC1A
OC2A
PTOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
–
–
–
–
Note:
1. See “Output Compare Modulator - OCM” on page 165 for details.
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Table 9-8.
9.3.4
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PB3..PB0
Signal Name
PB3/MISO
PB2/MOSI
PB1/SCK
PB0/SS
PUOE
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
PUOV
PORTB3 • PUD
PORTB2 • PUD
PORTB1 • PUD
PORTB0 • PUD
DDOE
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
SPE • MSTR
0
PVOV
SPI SLAVE
OUTPUT
SPI MASTER
OUTPUT
SCK OUTPUT
0
PTOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
SPI MASTER
INPUT
SPI SLAVE
INPUT • RESET
SCK INPUT
SPI SS
AIO
–
–
–
–
Alternate Functions of Port C
The Port C has an alternate function as the address high byte for the External Memory Interface.
The Port C pins with alternate functions are shown in Table 9-9.
Table 9-9.
Port C Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PC7
A15/CLKO (External memory interface address 15 or Divided System
Clock)
PC6
A14 (External memory interface address 14)
PC5
A13 (External memory interface address 13)
PC4
A12 (External memory interface address 12)
PC3
A11 (External memory interface address 11)
PC2
A10 (External memory interface address 10)
PC1
A9 (External memory interface address 9)
PC0
A8 (External memory interface address 8)
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• A15/CLKO – Port C, Bit 7
A15, External memory interface address 15.
CLKO, Divided System Clock: The divided system clock can be output on the PC7 pin. The
divided system clock will be output if the CKOUT Fuse is programmed, regardless of the
PORTC7 and DDC7 settings. It will also be output during reset.
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• A14 – Port C, Bit 6
A14, External memory interface address 14.
• A13 – Port C, Bit 5
A13, External memory interface address 13.
• A12 – Port C, Bit 4
A12, External memory interface address 12.
• A11 – Port C, Bit 3
A11, External memory interface address 11.
• A10 – Port C, Bit 2
A10, External memory interface address 10.
• A9 – Port C, Bit 1
A9, External memory interface address 9.
• A8 – Port C, Bit 0
A8, External memory interface address 8.
Table 9-10 and Table 9-11 relate the alternate functions of Port C to the overriding signals
shown in Figure 9-5 on page 72.
Table 9-10.
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PC7..PC4
Signal Name
PC7/A15
PC6/A14
PC5/A13
PC4/A12
PUOE
SRE • (XMM<1)
SRE • (XMM<2)
SRE • (XMM<3)
SRE • (XMM<4)
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
CKOUT(1) +
(SRE • (XMM<1))
SRE • (XMM<2)
SRE • (XMM<3)
SRE • (XMM<4)
DDOV
1
1
1
1
(1)
PVOE
CKOUT +
(SRE • (XMM<1))
SRE • (XMM<2)
SRE • (XMM<3)
SRE • (XMM<4)
PVOV
(A15 • CKOUT(1)) +
(CLKO • CKOUT(1))
A14
A13
A12
PTOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
–
–
–
–
Note:
1. CKOUT is one if the CKOUT Fuse is programmed
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7679H–CAN–08/08
Table 9-11.
9.3.5
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PC3..PC0
Signal Name
PC3/A11
PC2/A10
PC1/A9
PC0/A8
PUOE
SRE • (XMM<5)
SRE • (XMM<6)
SRE • (XMM<7)
SRE • (XMM<7)
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
SRE • (XMM<5)
SRE • (XMM<6)
SRE • (XMM<7)
SRE • (XMM<7)
DDOV
1
1
1
1
PVOE
SRE • (XMM<5)
SRE • (XMM<6)
SRE • (XMM<7)
SRE • (XMM<7)
PVOV
A11
A10
A9
A8
PTOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
–
–
–
–
Alternate Functions of Port D
The Port D pins with alternate functions are shown in Table 9-12.
Table 9-12.
Port Pin
Port D Pins Alternate Functions
Alternate Function
PD7
T0 (Timer/Counter0 Clock Input)
PD6
RXCAN/T1 (CAN Receive Pin or Timer/Counter1 Clock Input)
PD5
TXCAN/XCK1 (CAN Transmit Pin or USART1 External Clock Input/Output)
PD4
ICP1 (Timer/Counter1 Input Capture Trigger)
PD3
INT3/TXD1 (External Interrupt3 Input or UART1 Transmit Pin)
PD2
INT2/RXD1 (External Interrupt2 Input or UART1 Receive Pin)
PD1
INT1/SDA (External Interrupt1 Input or TWI Serial DAta)
PD0
INT0/SCL (External Interrupt0 Input or TWI Serial CLock)
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• T0 – Port D, Bit 7
T0, Timer/Counter0 counter source.
• RXCAN/T1 – Port D, Bit 6
RXCAN, CAN Receive Data (Data input pin for the CAN). When the CAN controller is enabled
this pin is configured as an input regardless of the value of DDD6. When the CAN forces this pin
to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTD6 bit.
T1, Timer/Counter1 counter source.
• TXCAN/XCK1 – Port D, Bit 5
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TXCAN, CAN Transmit Data (Data output pin for the CAN). When the CAN is enabled, this pin is
configured as an output regardless of the value of DDD5.
XCK1, USART1 External clock. The Data Direction Register (DDD5) controls whether the clock
is output (DDD5 set) or input (DDD45 cleared). The XCK1 pin is active only when the USART1
operates in Synchronous mode.
• ICP1 – Port D, Bit 4
ICP1, Input Capture Pin1. The PD4 pin can act as an input capture pin for Timer/Counter1.
• INT3/TXD1 – Port D, Bit 3
INT3, External Interrupt source 3. The PD3 pin can serve as an external interrupt source to the
MCU.
TXD1, Transmit Data (Data output pin for the USART1). When the USART1 Transmitter is
enabled, this pin is configured as an output regardless of the value of DDD3.
• INT2/RXD1 – Port D, Bit 2
INT2, External Interrupt source 2. The PD2 pin can serve as an External Interrupt source to the
MCU.
RXD1, Receive Data (Data input pin for the USART1). When the USART1 receiver is enabled
this pin is configured as an input regardless of the value of DDD2. When the USART forces this
pin to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTD2 bit.
• INT1/SDA – Port D, Bit 1
INT1, External Interrupt source 1. The PD1 pin can serve as an external interrupt source to the
MCU.
SDA, Two-wire Serial Interface Data. When the TWEN bit in TWCR is set (one) to enable the
Two-wire Serial Interface, pin PD1 is disconnected from the port and becomes the Serial Data
I/O pin for the Two-wire Serial Interface. In this mode, there is a spike filter on the pin to suppress spikes shorter than 50 ns on the input signal, and the pin is driven by an open drain driver
with slew-rate limitation.
• INT0/SCL – Port D, Bit 0
INT0, External Interrupt source 0. The PD0 pin can serve as an external interrupt source to the
MCU.
SCL, Two-wire Serial Interface Clock: When the TWEN bit in TWCR is set (one) to enable the
Two-wire Serial Interface, pin PD0 is disconnected from the port and becomes the Serial Clock
I/O pin for the Two-wire Serial Interface. In this mode, there is a spike filter on the pin to suppress spikes shorter than 50 ns on the input signal, and the pin is driven by an open drain driver
with slew-rate limitation.
81
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Table 9-13 and Table 9-14 relates the alternate functions of Port D to the overriding signals
shown in Figure 9-5 on page 72.
Table 9-13.
Signal Name
PD7/T0
PD6/T1/RXCAN
PD5/XCK1/TXCAN
PD4/ICP1
PUOE
0
RXCANEN
TXCANEN +
0
PUOV
0
PORTD6 • PUD
0
0
DDOE
0
RXCANEN
TXCANEN
0
DDOV
0
0
1
0
PVOE
0
0
TXCANEN + UMSEL1
0
PVOV
0
0
(XCK1 OUTPUT •
UMSEL1 • TXCANEN) +
(TXCAN • TXCANEN)
0
PTOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
T0 INPUT
T1 INPUT/RXCAN
XCK1 INPUT
ICP1 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
Table 9-14.
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PD3..PD0(1)
Signal Name
PD3/INT3/TXD1
PD2/INT2/RXD1
PD1/INT1/SDA
PD0/INT0/SCL
PUOE
TXEN1
RXEN1
TWEN
TWEN
PUOV
0
PORTD2 • PUD
PORTD1 • PUD
PORTD0 • PUD
DDOE
TXEN1
RXEN1
0
0
DDOV
1
0
0
0
PVOE
TXEN1
0
TWEN
TWEN
PVOV
TXD1
0
SDA_OUT
SCL_OUT
PTOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOE
INT3 ENABLE
INT2 ENABLE
INT1 ENABLE
INT0 ENABLE
DIEOV
INT3 ENABLE
INT2 ENABLE
INT1 ENABLE
INT0 ENABLE
DI
INT3 INPUT
INT2 INPUT/RXD1
INT1 INPUT
INT0 INPUT
AIO
–
–
SDA INPUT
SCL INPUT
Note:
82
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions PD7..PD4
1. When enabled, the Two-wire Serial Interface enables Slew-Rate controls on the output pins
PD0 and PD1. This is not shown in this table. In addition, spike filters are connected between
the AIO outputs shown in the port figure and the digital logic of the TWI module.
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AT90CAN32/64/128
9.3.6
Alternate Functions of Port E
The Port E pins with alternate functions are shown in Table 9-15.
Table 9-15.
Port Pin
Port E Pins Alternate Functions
Alternate Function
PE7
INT7/ICP3 (External Interrupt 7 Input or Timer/Counter3 Input Capture Trigger)
PE6
INT6/ T3 (External Interrupt 6 Input or Timer/Counter3 Clock Input)
PE5
INT5/OC3C (External Interrupt 5 Input or Output Compare and PWM Output C for
Timer/Counter3)
PE4
INT4/OC3B (External Interrupt4 Input or Output Compare and PWM Output B for
Timer/Counter3)
PE3
AIN1/OC3A (Analog Comparator Negative Input or Output Compare and PWM Output A
for Timer/Counter3)
PE2
AIN0/XCK0 (Analog Comparator Positive Input or USART0 external clock input/output)
PE1
PDO/TXD0 (Programming Data Output or UART0 Transmit Pin)
PE0
PDI/RXD0 (Programming Data Input or UART0 Receive Pin)
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• PCINT7/ICP3 – Port E, Bit 7
INT7, External Interrupt source 7. The PE7 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
ICP3, Input Capture Pin3: The PE7 pin can act as an input capture pin for Timer/Counter3.
• INT6/T3 – Port E, Bit 6
INT6, External Interrupt source 6. The PE6 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
T3, Timer/Counter3 counter source.
• INT5/OC3C – Port E, Bit 5
INT5, External Interrupt source 5. The PE5 pin can serve as an External Interrupt source.
OC3C, Output Compare Match C output. The PE5 pin can serve as an External output for the
Timer/Counter3 Output Compare C. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDE5 set “one”)
to serve this function. The OC3C pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• INT4/OC3B – Port E, Bit 4
INT4, External Interrupt source 4. The PE4 pin can serve as an External Interrupt source.
OC3B, Output Compare Match B output. The PE4 pin can serve as an External output for the
Timer/Counter3 Output Compare B. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDE4 set (one))
to serve this function. The OC3B pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• AIN1/OC3A – Port E, Bit 3
AIN1 – Analog Comparator Negative input. This pin is directly connected to the negative input of
the Analog Comparator.
OC3A, Output Compare Match A output. The PE3 pin can serve as an External output for the
Timer/Counter3 Output Compare A. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDE3 set “one”)
to serve this function. The OC3A pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
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• AIN0/XCK0 – Port E, Bit 2
AIN0 – Analog Comparator Positive input. This pin is directly connected to the positive input of
the Analog Comparator.
XCK0, USART0 External clock. The Data Direction Register (DDE2) controls whether the clock
is output (DDE2 set) or input (DDE2 cleared). The XCK0 pin is active only when the USART0
operates in Synchronous mode.
• PDO/TXD0 – Port E, Bit 1
PDO, SPI Serial Programming Data Output. During Serial Program Downloading, this pin is
used as data output line for the AT90CAN32/64/128.
TXD0, UART0 Transmit pin.
• PDI/RXD0 – Port E, Bit 0
PDI, SPI Serial Programming Data Input. During Serial Program Downloading, this pin is used
as data input line for the AT90CAN32/64/128.
RXD0, USART0 Receive Pin. Receive Data (Data input pin for the USART0). When the
USART0 receiver is enabled this pin is configured as an input regardless of the value of DDRE0.
When the USART0 forces this pin to be an input, a logical one in PORTE0 will turn on the internal pull-up.
Table 9-16 and Table 9-17 relates the alternate functions of Port E to the overriding signals
shown in Figure 9-5 on page 72.
Table 9-16.
84
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions PE7..PE4
Signal Name
PE7/INT7/ICP3
PE6/INT6/T3
PE5/INT5/OC3C
PE4/INT4/OC3B
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
OC3C ENABLE
OC3B ENABLE
PVOV
0
0
OC3C
OC3B
PTOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOE
INT7 ENABLE
INT6 ENABLE
INT5 ENABLE
INT4 ENABLE
DIEOV
INT7 ENABLE
INT6 ENABLE
INT5 ENABLE
INT4 ENABLE
DI
INT7 INPUT
/ICP3 INPUT
INT6 INPUT
/T3 INPUT
INT5 INPUT
INT4 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
AT90CAN32/64/128
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AT90CAN32/64/128
Table 9-17.
Signal Name
PE3/AIN1/OC3A
PE2/AIN0/XCK0
PE1/PDO/TXD0
PE0/PDI/RXD0
PUOE
0
0
TXEN0
RXEN0
PUOV
0
0
0
PORTE0 • PUD
DDOE
0
0
TXEN0
RXEN0
DDOV
0
0
1
0
PVOE
OC3A ENABLE
UMSEL0
TXEN0
0
PVOV
OC3A
XCK0 OUTPUT
TXD0
0
PTOE
0
0
0
0
(1)
(1)
DIEOE
AIN1D
AIN0D
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
0
XCK0 INPUT
–
RXD0
AIO
AIN1 INPUT
AIN0 INPUT
–
–
Note:
9.3.7
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PE3..PE0
1. AIN0D and AIN1D is described in “Digital Input Disable Register 1 – DIDR1” on page 272.
Alternate Functions of Port F
The Port F has an alternate function as analog input for the ADC as shown in Table 9-18. If
some Port F pins are configured as outputs, it is essential that these do not switch when a conversion is in progress. This might corrupt the result of the conversion. If the JTAG interface is
enabled, the pull-up resistors on pins PF7 (TDI), PF5 (TMS) and PF4 (TCK) will be activated
even if a reset occurs.
Table 9-18.
Port Pin
Port F Pins Alternate Functions
Alternate Function
PF7
ADC7/TDI (ADC input channel 7 or JTAG Data Input)
PF6
ADC6/TDO (ADC input channel 6 or JTAG Data Output)
PF5
ADC5/TMS (ADC input channel 5 or JTAG mode Select)
PF4
ADC4/TCK (ADC input channel 4 or JTAG ClocK)
PF3
ADC3 (ADC input channel 3)
PF2
ADC2 (ADC input channel 2)
PF1
ADC1 (ADC input channel 1)
PF0
ADC0 (ADC input channel 0)
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• TDI, ADC7 – Port F, Bit 7
ADC7, Analog to Digital Converter, input channel 7.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
TDI, JTAG Test Data In. Serial input data to be shifted in to the Instruction Register or Data Register (scan chains). When the JTAG interface is enabled, this pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
• TCK, ADC6 – Port F, Bit 6
ADC6, Analog to Digital Converter, input channel 6.
TDO, JTAG Test Data Out. Serial output data from Instruction Register or Data Register. When
the JTAG interface is enabled, this pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
• TMS, ADC5 – Port F, Bit 5
ADC5, Analog to Digital Converter, input channel 5.
TMS, JTAG Test mode Select. This pin is used for navigating through the TAP-controller state
machine. When the JTAG interface is enabled, this pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
• TDO, ADC4 – Port F, Bit 4
ADC4, Analog to Digital Converter, input channel 4.
TCK, JTAG Test Clock. JTAG operation is synchronous to TCK. When the JTAG interface is
enabled, this pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
• ADC3 – Port F, Bit 3
ADC3, Analog to Digital Converter, input channel 3.
• ADC2 – Port F, Bit 2
ADC2, Analog to Digital Converter, input channel 2.
• ADC1 – Port F, Bit 1
ADC1, Analog to Digital Converter, input channel 1.
• ADC0 – Port F, Bit 0
ADC0, Analog to Digital Converter, input channel 0.
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Table 9-19 and Table 9-20 relates the alternate functions of Port F to the overriding signals
shown in Figure 9-5 on page 72.
Table 9-19.
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PF7..PF4
Signal Name
PF7/ADC7/TDI
PF6/ADC6/TDO
PF5/ADC5/TMS
PF4/ADC4/TCK
PUOE
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
PUOV
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
DDOE
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
DDOV
0
SHIFT_IR +
SHIFT_DR
0
0
PVOE
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
PVOV
0
TDO
0
0
PTOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOE
JTAGEN +
ADC7D
JTAGEN +
ADC6D
JTAGEN +
ADC5D
JTAGEN +
ADC4D
DIEOV
JTAGEN
0
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
DI
TDI
–
TMS
TCK
AIO
ADC7 INPUT
ADC6 INPUT
ADC5 INPUT
ADC4 INPUT
Table 9-20.
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PF3..PF0
Signal Name
PF3/ADC3
PF2/ADC2
PF1/ADC1
PF0/ADC0
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
0
0
PVOV
0
0
0
0
PTOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOE
ADC3D
ADC2D
ADC1D
ADC0D
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
ADC3 INPUT
ADC2 INPUT
ADC1 INPUT
ADC0 INPUT
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9.3.8
Alternate Functions of Port G
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
Table 9-21.
Port Pin
Port G Pins Alternate Functions
Alternate Function
PG4
TOSC1 (RTC Oscillator Timer/Counter2)
PG3
TOSC2 (RTC Oscillator Timer/Counter2)
PG2
ALE (Address Latch Enable to external memory)
PG1
RD (Read strobe to external memory)
PG0
WR (Write strobe to external memory)
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• TOSC1 – Port G, Bit 4
TOSC2, Timer/Counter2 Oscillator pin 1. When the AS2 bit in ASSR is set (one) to enable asynchronous clocking of Timer/Counter2, pin PG4 is disconnected from the port, and becomes the
input of the inverting Oscillator amplifier. In this mode, a Crystal Oscillator is connected to this
pin, and the pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
• TOSC2 – Port G, Bit 3
TOSC2, Timer/Counter2 Oscillator pin 2. When the AS2 bit in ASSR is set (one) to enable asynchronous clocking of Timer/Counter2, pin PG3 is disconnected from the port, and becomes the
inverting output of the Oscillator amplifier. In this mode, a Crystal Oscillator is connected to this
pin, and the pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
• ALE – Port G, Bit 2
ALE is the external data memory Address Latch Enable signal.
• RD – Port G, Bit 1
RD is the external data memory read control strobe.
• WR – Port G, Bit 0
WR is the external data memory write control strobe.
88
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Table 9-21 and Table 9-22 relates the alternate functions of Port G to the overriding signals
shown in Figure 9-5 on page 72.
Table 9-22.
Overriding Signals for Alternate Function in PG4
Signal Name
9.4.1
-
-
PG4/TOSC1
PUOE
AS2
PUOV
0
DDOE
AS2
DDOV
0
PVOE
0
PVOV
0
PTOE
0
DIEOE
AS2
DIEOV
EXCLK
DI
–
AIO
T/C2 OSC INPUT
Table 9-23.
9.4
-
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PG3:0
Signal Name
PG3/TOSC2
PG2/ALE
PG1/RD
PG0/WR
PUOE
AS2 • EXCLK
SRE
SRE
SRE
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
AS2 • EXCLK
SRE
SRE
SRE
DDOV
0
1
1
1
PVOE
0
SRE
SRE
SRE
PVOV
0
ALE
RD
WR
PTOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOE
AS2
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
T/C2 OSC OUTPUT
–
–
–
Register Description for I/O-Ports
Port A Data Register – PORTA
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PORTA7
PORTA6
PORTA5
PORTA4
PORTA3
PORTA2
PORTA1
PORTA0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PORTA
89
7679H–CAN–08/08
9.4.2
Port A Data Direction Register – DDRA
Bit
9.4.3
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDA7
DDA6
DDA5
DDA4
DDA3
DDA2
DDA1
DDA0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Port A Input Pins Address – PINA
Bit
9.4.4
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PINA7
PINA6
PINA5
PINA4
PINA3
PINA2
PINA1
PINA0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PORTB7
PORTB6
PORTB5
PORTB4
PORTB3
PORTB2
PORTB1
PORTB0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDB7
DDB6
DDB5
DDB4
DDB3
DDB2
DDB1
DDB0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PINB7
PINB6
PINB5
PINB4
PINB3
PINB2
PINB1
PINB0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PORTC7
PORTC6
PORTC5
PORTC4
PORTC3
PORTC2
PORTC1
PORTC0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDC7
DDC6
DDC5
DDC4
DDC3
DDC2
DDC1
DDC0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DDRC
Port C Input Pins Address – PINC
Bit
90
PORTC
Port C Data Direction Register – DDRC
Bit
9.4.9
PINB
Port C Data Register – PORTC
Bit
9.4.8
DDRB
Port B Input Pins Address – PINB
Bit
9.4.7
PORTB
Port B Data Direction Register – DDRB
Bit
9.4.6
PINA
Port B Data Register – PORTB
Bit
9.4.5
DDRA
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PINC7
PINC6
PINC5
PINC4
PINC3
PINC2
PINC1
PINC0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
PINC
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
9.4.10
Port D Data Register – PORTD
Bit
9.4.11
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PORTD7
PORTD6
PORTD5
PORTD4
PORTD3
PORTD2
PORTD1
PORTD0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Port D Data Direction Register – DDRD
Bit
9.4.12
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDD7
DDD6
DDD5
DDD4
DDD3
DDD2
DDD1
DDD0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PIND7
PIND6
PIND5
PIND4
PIND3
PIND2
PIND1
PIND0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PORTE7
PORTE6
PORTE5
PORTE4
PORTE3
PORTE2
PORTE1
PORTE0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDE7
DDE6
DDE5
DDE4
DDE3
DDE2
DDE1
DDE0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PINE7
PINE6
PINE5
PINE4
PINE3
PINE2
PINE1
PINE0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
PINE
Port F Data Register – PORTF
Bit
9.4.17
DDRE
Port E Input Pins Address – PINE
Bit
9.4.16
PORTE
Port E Data Direction Register – DDRE
Bit
9.4.15
PIND
Port E Data Register – PORTE
Bit
9.4.14
DDRD
Port D Input Pins Address – PIND
Bit
9.4.13
PORTD
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PORTF7
PORTF6
PORTF5
PORTF4
PORTF3
PORTF2
PORTF1
PORTF0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PORTF
Port F Data Direction Register – DDRF
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDF7
DDF6
DDF5
DDF4
DDF3
DDF2
DDF1
DDF0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DDRF
91
7679H–CAN–08/08
9.4.18
Port F Input Pins Address – PINF
Bit
9.4.19
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PINF7
PINF6
PINF5
PINF4
PINF3
PINF2
PINF1
PINF0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Port G Data Register – PORTG
Bit
9.4.20
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
PORTG4
PORTG3
PORTG2
PORTG1
PORTG0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
DDG4
DDG3
DDG2
DDG1
DDG0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
PING4
PING3
PING2
PING1
PING0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
DDRG
Port G Input Pins Address – PING
Bit
92
PORTG
Port G Data Direction Register – DDRG
Bit
9.4.21
PINF
PING
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
10. External Interrupts
The External Interrupts are triggered by the INT7:0 pins. Observe that, if enabled, the interrupts
will trigger even if the INT7:0 pins are configured as outputs. This feature provides a way of generating a software interrupt. The External Interrupts can be triggered by a falling or rising edge or
a low level. This is set up as indicated in the specification for the External Interrupt Control Registers – EICRA (INT3:0) and EICRB (INT7:4). When the external interrupt is enabled and is
configured as level triggered, the interrupt will trigger as long as the pin is held low. Note that
recognition of falling or rising edge interrupts on INT7:4 requires the presence of an I/O clock,
described in “Clock Systems and their Distribution” on page 37. Low level interrupts and the
edge interrupt on INT3:0 are detected asynchronously. This implies that these interrupts can be
used for waking the part also from sleep modes other than Idle mode. The I/O clock is halted in
all sleep modes except Idle mode.
Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up from Power-down mode, the changed
level must be held for some time to wake up the MCU. This makes the MCU less sensitive to
noise. The changed level is sampled twice by the Watchdog Oscillator clock. The period of the
Watchdog Oscillator is 1 µs (nominal) at 5.0V and 25°C. The frequency of the Watchdog Oscillator is voltage dependent as shown in the “Electrical Characteristics (1)” on page 365. The MCU
will wake up if the input has the required level during this sampling or if it is held until the end of
the start-up time. The start-up time is defined by the SUT fuses as described in “System Clock”
on page 37. If the level is sampled twice by the Watchdog Oscillator clock but disappears before
the end of the start-up time, the MCU will still wake up, but no interrupt will be generated. The
required level must be held long enough for the MCU to complete the wake up to trigger the level
interrupt.
10.1
10.1.1
External Interrupt Register Description
Asynchronous External Interrupt Control Register A – EICRA
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ISC31
ISC30
ISC21
ISC20
ISC11
ISC10
ISC01
ISC00
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EICRA
• Bits 7..0 – ISC31, ISC30 – ISC01, ISC00: Asynchronous External Interrupt 3 - 0 Sense
Control Bits
The External Interrupts 3 - 0 are activated by the external pins INT3:0 if the SREG I-flag and the
corresponding interrupt mask in the EIMSK is set. The level and edges on the external pins that
activate the interrupts are defined in Table 10-1. Edges on INT3..INT0 are registered asynchronously. Pulses on INT3:0 pins wider than the minimum pulse width given in Table 10-2 will
generate an interrupt. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate an interrupt. If low level
interrupt is selected, the low level must be held until the completion of the currently executing
instruction to generate an interrupt. If enabled, a level triggered interrupt will generate an interrupt request as long as the pin is held low. When changing the ISCn bit, an interrupt can occur.
Therefore, it is recommended to first disable INTn by clearing its Interrupt Enable bit in the
EIMSK Register. Then, the ISCn bit can be changed. Finally, the INTn interrupt flag should be
cleared by writing a logical one to its Interrupt Flag bit (INTFn) in the EIFR Register before the
interrupt is re-enabled.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
Asynchronous External Interrupt Sense Control(1)
Table 10-1.
ISCn1
ISCn0
0
0
The low level of INTn generates an interrupt request.
0
1
Any logical change on INTn generates an interrupt request
1
0
The falling edge of INTn generates asynchronously an interrupt request.
1
1
The rising edge of INTn generates asynchronously an interrupt request.
Note:
1. n = 3, 2, 1 or 0.
When changing the ISCn1/ISCn0 bits, the interrupt must be disabled by clearing its Interrupt
Enable bit in the EIMSK Register. Otherwise an interrupt can occur when the bits are changed.
Table 10-2.
Symbol
Asynchronous External Interrupt Characteristics
Parameter
Condition
Min
Typ
Minimum pulse width for asynchronous
external interrupt
tINT
10.1.2
Description
Max
Units
50
ns
Synchronous External Interrupt Control Register B – EICRB
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ISC71
ISC70
ISC61
ISC60
ISC51
ISC50
ISC41
ISC40
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EICRB
• Bits 7..0 – ISC71, ISC70 - ISC41, ISC40: Synchronous External Interrupt 7 - 4 Sense
Control Bits
The External Interrupts 7 - 4 are activated by the external pins INT7:4 if the SREG I-flag and the
corresponding interrupt mask in the EIMSK is set. The level and edges on the external pins that
activate the interrupts are defined in Table 10-3. The value on the INT7:4 pins are sampled
before detecting edges. If edge or toggle interrupt is selected, pulses that last longer than one
clock period will generate an interrupt. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate an interrupt. Observe that CPU clock frequency can be lower than the XTAL frequency if the XTAL
divider is enabled. If low level interrupt is selected, the low level must be held until the completion of the currently executing instruction to generate an interrupt. If enabled, a level triggered
interrupt will generate an interrupt request as long as the pin is held low.
Synchronous External Interrupt Sense Control(1)
Table 10-3.
ISCn1
ISCn0
0
0
The low level of INTn generates an interrupt request.
0
1
Any logical change on INTn generates an interrupt request
1
0
The falling edge between two samples of INTn generates an interrupt request.
1
1
The rising edge between two samples of INTn generates an interrupt request.
Note:
94
Description
1. n = 7, 6, 5 or 4.
When changing the ISCn1/ISCn0 bits, the interrupt must be disabled by clearing its Interrupt
Enable bit in the EIMSK Register. Otherwise an interrupt can occur when the bits are changed.
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
10.1.3
External Interrupt Mask Register – EIMSK
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
INT7
INT6
INT5
INT4
INT3
INT2
INT1
IINT0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EIMSK
• Bits 7..0 – INT7 – INT0: External Interrupt Request 7 - 0 Enable
When an INT7 – INT0 bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register (SREG) is set
(one), the corresponding external pin interrupt is enabled. The Interrupt Sense Control bits in the
External Interrupt Control Registers – EICRA and EICRB – defines whether the external interrupt is activated on rising or falling edge or level sensed. Activity on any of these pins will trigger
an interrupt request even if the pin is enabled as an output. This provides a way of generating a
software interrupt.
10.1.4
External Interrupt Flag Register – EIFR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
INTF7
INTF6
INTF5
INTF4
INTF3
INTF2
INTF1
IINTF0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EIFR
• Bits 7..0 – INTF7 - INTF0: External Interrupt Flags 7 - 0
When an edge or logic change on the INT7:0 pin triggers an interrupt request, INTF7:0 becomes
set (one). If the I-bit in SREG and the corresponding interrupt enable bit, INT7:0 in EIMSK, are
set (one), the MCU will jump to the interrupt vector. The flag is cleared when the interrupt routine
is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical one to it. These flags are
always cleared when INT7:0 are configured as level interrupt. Note that when entering sleep
mode with the INT3:0 interrupts disabled, the input buffers on these pins will be disabled. This
may cause a logic change in internal signals which will set the INTF3:0 flags. See “Digital Input
Enable and Sleep Modes” on page 70 for more information.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
11. Timer/Counter3/1/0 Prescalers
Timer/Counter3, Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0 share the same prescaler module, but the
Timer/Counters can have different prescaler settings. The description below applies to both
Timer/Counter3, Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0.
11.1
Overview
Most bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case “n” replaces the
Timer/Counter number.
11.1.1
Internal Clock Source
The Timer/Counter can be clocked directly by the system clock (by setting the CSn2:0 = 1). This
provides the fastest operation, with a maximum Timer/Counter clock frequency equal to system
clock frequency (fCLK_I/O). Alternatively, one of four taps from the prescaler can be used as a
clock source. The prescaled clock has a frequency of either fCLK_I/O/8, fCLK_I/O/64, fCLK_I/O/256, or
fCLK_I/O/1024.
11.1.2
Prescaler Reset
The prescaler is free running, i.e., operates independently of the Clock Select logic of the
Timer/Counter, and it is shared by Timer/Counter3, Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0. Since
the prescaler is not affected by the Timer/Counter’s clock select, the state of the prescaler will
have implications for situations where a prescaled clock is used. One example of prescaling artifacts occurs when the timer is enabled and clocked by the prescaler (6 > CSn2:0 > 1). The
number of system clock cycles from when the timer is enabled to the first count occurs can be
from 1 to N+1 system clock cycles, where N equals the prescaler divisor (8, 64, 256, or 1024).
It is possible to use the prescaler reset for synchronizing the Timer/Counter to program execution. However, care must be taken if the other Timer/Counter that shares the same prescaler
also uses prescaling. A prescaler reset will affect the prescaler period for all Timer/Counters it is
connected to.
11.1.3
External Clock Source
An external clock source applied to the T3/T1/T0 pin can be used as Timer/Counter clock
(clkT3/clkT1/clkT0). The T3/T1/T0 pin is sampled once every system clock cycle by the pin synchronization logic. The synchronized (sampled) signal is then passed through the edge detector.
Figure 11-1 shows a functional equivalent block diagram of the T3/T1/T0 synchronization and
edge detector logic. The registers are clocked at the positive edge of the internal system clock
(clkI/O). The latch is transparent in the high period of the internal system clock.
The edge detector generates one clkT3/clkT1/clkT0 pulse for each positive (CSn2:0 = 7) or negative (CSn2:0 = 6) edge it detects.
96
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 11-1. T3/T1/T0 Pin Sampling
D
Tn
Q
D
Q
D
Tn_sync
(To Clock
Select Logic)
Q
LE
clk I/O
Synchronization
Edge Detector
The synchronization and edge detector logic introduces a delay of 2.5 to 3.5 system clock cycles
from an edge has been applied to the T3/T1/T0 pin to the counter is updated.
Enabling and disabling of the clock input must be done when T3/T1/T0 has been stable for at
least one system clock cycle, otherwise it is a risk that a false Timer/Counter clock pulse is
generated.
Each half period of the external clock applied must be longer than one system clock cycle to
ensure correct sampling. The external clock must be guaranteed to have less than half the system clock frequency (fExtClk < fclk_I/O/2) given a 50/50 % duty cycle. Since the edge detector uses
sampling, the maximum frequency of an external clock it can detect is half the sampling frequency (Nyquist sampling theorem). However, due to variation of the system clock frequency
and duty cycle caused by Oscillator source (crystal, resonator, and capacitors) tolerances, it is
recommended that maximum frequency of an external clock source is less than fclk_I/O/2.5.
An external clock source can not be prescaled.
Figure 11-2. Prescaler for Timer/Counter3, Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0 (1)
CK
T3
Synchronization
T1
Synchronization
T0
Synchronization
0
0
0
CS00
CS10
CS30
CS01
CS11
CS31
CS02
CS12
CS32
TIMER/COUNTER0 CLOCK SOURCE
clkT0
Note:
CK/1024
PSR310
CK/256
CK/8
CK/64
10-BIT T/C PRESCALER
Clear
TIMER/COUNTER1 CLOCK SOURCE
clkT1
TIMER/COUNTER3 CLOCK SOURCE
clkT3
1. The synchronization logic on the input pins (T0/T1/T3) is shown in Figure 11-1.
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11.2
11.2.1
Timer/Counter0/1/3 Prescalers Register Description
General Timer/Counter Control Register – GTCCR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TSM
–
–
–
–
–
PSR2
PSR310
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GTCCR
• Bit 7 – TSM: Timer/Counter Synchronization Mode
Writing the TSM bit to one activates the Timer/Counter Synchronization mode. In this mode, the
value that is written to the PSR2 and PSR310 bits is kept, hence keeping the corresponding
prescaler reset signals asserted. This ensures that the corresponding Timer/Counters are halted
and can be configured to the same value without the risk of one of them advancing during configuration. When the TSM bit is written to zero, the PSR2 and PSR310 bits are cleared by
hardware, and the Timer/Counters start counting simultaneously.
• Bit 0 – PSR310: Prescaler Reset Timer/Counter3, Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0
When this bit is one, Timer/Counter3, Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0 prescaler will be
Reset. This bit is normally cleared immediately by hardware, except if the TSM bit is set. Note
that Timer/Counter3, Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0 share the same prescaler and a reset
of this prescaler will affect these three timers.
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12. 8-bit Timer/Counter0 with PWM
Timer/Counter0 is a general purpose, single channel, 8-bit Timer/Counter module. The main
features are:
12.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
12.2
Single Channel Counter
Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload)
Glitch-free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
Frequency Generator
External Event Counter
10-bit Clock Prescaler
Overflow and Compare Match Interrupt Sources (TOV0 and OCF0A)
Overview
Many register and bit references in this section are written in general form.
• A lower case “n” replaces the Timer/Counter number, in this case 0. However, when using
the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used, i.e., TCNT0 for
accessing Timer/Counter0 counter value and so on.
• A lower case “x” replaces the Output Compare unit channel, in this case A. However, when
using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used, i.e., OCR0A for
accessing Timer/Counter0 output compare channel A value and so on.
A simplified block diagram of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 12-1. For the actual
placement of I/O pins, refer to “Pin Configurations” on page 5. CPU accessible I/O Registers,
including I/O bits and I/O pins, are shown in bold. The device-specific I/O Register and bit locations are listed in the “8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” on page 109.
Figure 12-1. 8-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram
TCCRn
count
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
clear
Control Logic
direction
clk Tn
Clock Select
Edge
Detector
DATA BUS
BOTTOM
Tn
TOP
( From Prescaler )
Timer/Counter
TCNTn
=
=0
= 0xFF
OCn
(Int.Req.)
Waveform
Generation
OCnx
OCRnx
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12.2.1
Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNT0) and Output Compare Register (OCR0A) are 8-bit registers. Interrupt request (abbreviated to Int.Req. in the figure) signals are all visible in the Timer Interrupt
Flag Register (TIFR0). All interrupts are individually masked with the Timer Interrupt Mask Register (TIMSK0). TIFR0 and TIMSK0 are not shown in the figure.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, or by an external clock source on
the T0 pin. The Clock Select logic block controls which clock source and edge the Timer/Counter
uses to increment (or decrement) its value. The Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source
is selected. The output from the Clock Select logic is referred to as the timer clock (clkT0).
The double buffered Output Compare Register (OCR0A) is compared with the Timer/Counter
value at all times. The result of the compare can be used by the Waveform Generator to generate a PWM or variable frequency output on the Output Compare pin (OC0A). See “Output
Compare Unit” on page 101. for details. The compare match event will also set the Compare
Flag (OCF0A) which can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt request.
12.2.2
Definitions
The following definitions are used extensively throughout the section:
12.3
BOTTOM
The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes 0x00.
MAX
The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFF (decimal 255).
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the
count sequence. The TOP value can be assigned to be the fixed value 0xFF
(MAX) or the value stored in the OCR0A Register. The assignment is dependent on the mode of operation.
Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal or an external clock source. The clock source
is selected by the Clock Select logic which is controlled by the Clock Select (CS02:0) bits
located in the Timer/Counter Control Register (TCCR0A). For details on clock sources and prescaler, see “Timer/Counter3/1/0 Prescalers” on page 96.
12.4
Counter Unit
The main part of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable bi-directional counter unit. Figure
12-2 shows a block diagram of the counter and its surroundings.
Figure 12-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
DATA BUS
Clock Select
count
TCNTn
clear
Control Logic
clkTn
Edge
Detector
Tn
direction
( From Prescaler )
bottom
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Signal description (internal signals):
count
Increment or decrement TCNT0 by 1.
direction
Select between increment and decrement.
clear
Clear TCNT0 (set all bits to zero).
clkTn
Timer/Counter clock, referred to as clkT0 in the following.
top
Signalize that TCNT0 has reached maximum value.
bottom
Signalize that TCNT0 has reached minimum value (zero).
Depending of the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or decremented
at each timer clock (clkT0). clkT0 can be generated from an external or internal clock source,
selected by the Clock Select bits (CS02:0). When no clock source is selected (CS02:0 = 0) the
timer is stopped. However, the TCNT0 value can be accessed by the CPU, regardless of
whether clkT0 is present or not. A CPU write overrides (has priority over) all counter clear or
count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the WGM01 and WGM00 bits located in
the Timer/Counter Control Register (TCCR0A). There are close connections between how the
counter behaves (counts) and how waveforms are generated on the Output Compare output
OC0A. For more details about advanced counting sequences and waveform generation, see
“Modes of Operation” on page 104.
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set according to the mode of operation selected by
the WGM01:0 bits. TOV0 can be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
12.5
Output Compare Unit
The 8-bit comparator continuously compares TCNT0 with the Output Compare Register
(OCR0A). Whenever TCNT0 equals OCR0A, the comparator signals a match. A match will set
the Output Compare Flag (OCF0A) at the next timer clock cycle. If enabled (OCIE0A = 1 and
Global Interrupt Flag in SREG is set), the Output Compare Flag generates an Output Compare
interrupt. The OCF0A flag is automatically cleared when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively,
the OCF0A flag can be cleared by software by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location. The
Waveform Generator uses the match signal to generate an output according to operating mode
set by the WGM01:0 bits and Compare Output mode (COM0A1:0) bits. The max and bottom signals are used by the Waveform Generator for handling the special cases of the extreme values
in some modes of operation (See “Modes of Operation” on page 104.).
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Figure 12-3 shows a block diagram of the Output Compare unit.
Figure 12-3. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
DATA BUS
OCRnx
TCNTn
= (8-bit Comparator )
OCFnx (Int.Req.)
top
bottom
Waveform Generator
OCnx
FOCn
WGMn1:0
COMnX1:0
The OCR0A Register is double buffered when using any of the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
modes. For the normal and Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) modes of operation, the double buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes the update of the OCR0A Compare
Register to either top or bottom of the counting sequence. The synchronization prevents the
occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical PWM pulses, thereby making the output glitch-free.
The OCR0A Register access may seem complex, but this is not case. When the double buffering is enabled, the CPU has access to the OCR0A Buffer Register, and if double buffering is
disabled the CPU will access the OCR0A directly.
12.5.1
Force Output Compare
In non-PWM waveform generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be forced by
writing a one to the Force Output Compare (FOC0A) bit. Forcing compare match will not set the
OCF0A flag or reload/clear the timer, but the OC0A pin will be updated as if a real compare
match had occurred (the COM0A1:0 bits settings define whether the OC0A pin is set, cleared or
toggled).
12.5.2
Compare Match Blocking by TCNT0 Write
All CPU write operations to the TCNT0 Register will block any compare match that occur in the
next timer clock cycle, even when the timer is stopped. This feature allows OCR0A to be initialized to the same value as TCNT0 without triggering an interrupt when the Timer/Counter clock is
enabled.
12.5.3
Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNT0 in any mode of operation will block all compare matches for one timer clock
cycle, there are risks involved when changing TCNT0 when using the Output Compare channel,
independently of whether the Timer/Counter is running or not. If the value written to TCNT0
equals the OCR0A value, the compare match will be missed, resulting in incorrect waveform
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generation. Similarly, do not write the TCNT0 value equal to BOTTOM when the counter is
downcounting.
The setup of the OC0A should be performed before setting the Data Direction Register for the
port pin to output. The easiest way of setting the OC0A value is to use the Force Output Compare (FOC0A) strobe bits in Normal mode. The OC0A Register keeps its value even when
changing between Waveform Generation modes.
Be aware that the COM0A1:0 bits are not double buffered together with the compare value.
Changing the COM0A1:0 bits will take effect immediately.
12.6
Compare Match Output Unit
The Compare Output mode (COM0A1:0) bits have two functions. The Waveform Generator
uses the COM0A1:0 bits for defining the Output Compare (OC0A) state at the next compare
match. Also, the COM0A1:0 bits control the OC0A pin output source. Figure 12-4 shows a simplified schematic of the logic affected by the COM0A1:0 bit setting. The I/O Registers, I/O bits,
and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the parts of the general I/O port control registers (DDR and PORT) that are affected by the COM0A1:0 bits are shown. When referring to the
OC0A state, the reference is for the internal OC0A Register, not the OC0A pin. If a system reset
occur, the OC0A Register is reset to “0”.
Figure 12-4. Compare Match Output Unit, Schematic
COMnx1
COMnx0
FOCnx
Waveform
Generator
D
Q
1
OCnx
DATA BUS
D
0
OCnx
Pin
Q
PORT
D
Q
DDR
clk I/O
12.6.1
Compare Output Function
The general I/O port function is overridden by the Output Compare (OC0A) from the Waveform
Generator if either of the COM0A1:0 bits are set. However, the OC0A pin direction (input or output) is still controlled by the Data Direction Register (DDR) for the port pin. The Data Direction
Register bit for the OC0A pin (DDR_OC0A) must be set as output before the OC0A value is visible on the pin. The port override function is independent of the Waveform Generation mode.
The design of the Output Compare pin logic allows initialization of the OC0A state before the
output is enabled. Note that some COM0A1:0 bit settings are reserved for certain modes of
operation. See “8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” on page 109.
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12.6.2
Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The Waveform Generator uses the COM0A1:0 bits differently in Normal, CTC, and PWM
modes. For all modes, setting the COM0A1:0 = 0 tells the Waveform Generator that no action on
the OC0A Register is to be performed on the next compare match. For compare output actions
in the non-PWM modes refer to Table 12-2 on page 110. For fast PWM mode, refer to Table 123 on page 110, and for phase correct PWM refer to Table 12-4 on page 111.
A change of the COM0A1:0 bits state will have effect at the first compare match after the bits are
written. For non-PWM modes, the action can be forced to have immediate effect by using the
FOC0A strobe bits.
12.7
Modes of Operation
The mode of operation, i.e., the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the Output Compare pins, is
defined by the combination of the Waveform Generation mode (WGM01:0) and Compare Output
mode (COM0A1:0) bits. The Compare Output mode bits do not affect the counting sequence,
while the Waveform Generation mode bits do. The COM0A1:0 bits control whether the PWM
output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or non-inverted PWM). For non-PWM
modes the COM0A1:0 bits control whether the output should be set, cleared, or toggled at a
compare match (See “Compare Match Output Unit” on page 103.).
For detailed timing information refer to Figure 12-8, Figure 12-9, Figure 12-10 and Figure 12-11
in “Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams” on page 108.
12.7.1
Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGM01:0 = 0). In this mode the counting
direction is always up (incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The counter simply
overruns when it passes its maximum 8-bit value (TOP = 0xFF) and then restarts from the bottom (0x00). In normal operation the Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) will be set in the same
timer clock cycle as the TCNT0 becomes zero. The TOV0 flag in this case behaves like a ninth
bit, except that it is only set, not cleared. However, combined with the timer overflow interrupt
that automatically clears the TOV0 flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software. There
are no special cases to consider in the Normal mode, a new counter value can be written
anytime.
The Output Compare unit can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using the Output Compare to generate waveforms in Normal mode is not recommended, since this will
occupy too much of the CPU time.
12.7.2
Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In Clear Timer on Compare or CTC mode (WGM01:0 = 2), the OCR0A Register is used to
manipulate the counter resolution. In CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when the counter
value (TCNT0) matches the OCR0A. The OCR0A defines the top value for the counter, hence
also its resolution. This mode allows greater control of the compare match output frequency. It
also simplifies the operation of counting external events.
The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 12-5. The counter value (TCNT0)
increases until a compare match occurs between TCNT0 and OCR0A, and then counter
(TCNT0) is cleared.
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Figure 12-5. CTC Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(Toggle)
Period
(COMnx1:0 = 1)
1
2
3
4
An interrupt can be generated each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by using the
OCF0A flag. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the
TOP value. However, changing TOP to a value close to BOTTOM when the counter is running
with none or a low prescaler value must be done with care since the CTC mode does not have
the double buffering feature. If the new value written to OCR0A is lower than the current value of
TCNT0, the counter will miss the compare match. The counter will then have to count to its maximum value (0xFF) and wrap around starting at 0x00 before the compare match can occur.
For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OC0A output can be set to toggle its logical
level on each compare match by setting the Compare Output mode bits to toggle mode
(COM0A1:0 = 1). The OC0A value will not be visible on the port pin unless the data direction for
the pin is set to output. The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of fOC0A =
fclk_I/O/2 when OCR0A is set to zero (0x00). The waveform frequency is defined by the following
equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnx = -------------------------------------------------2 ⋅ N ⋅ ( 1 + OCRnx )
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
As for the Normal mode of operation, the TOV0 flag is set in the same timer clock cycle that the
counter counts from MAX to 0x00.
12.7.3
Fast PWM Mode
The fast Pulse Width Modulation or fast PWM mode (WGM01:0 = 3) provides a high frequency
PWM waveform generation option. The fast PWM differs from the other PWM option by its single-slope operation. The counter counts from BOTTOM to MAX then restarts from BOTTOM. In
non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC0A) is cleared on the compare
match between TCNT0 and OCR0A, and set at BOTTOM. In inverting Compare Output mode,
the output is set on compare match and cleared at BOTTOM. Due to the single-slope operation,
the operating frequency of the fast PWM mode can be twice as high as the phase correct PWM
mode that use dual-slope operation. This high frequency makes the fast PWM mode well suited
for power regulation, rectification, and DAC applications. High frequency allows physically small
sized external components (coils, capacitors), and therefore reduces total system cost.
In fast PWM mode, the counter is incremented until the counter value matches the MAX value.
The counter is then cleared at the following timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the fast
PWM mode is shown in Figure 12-6. The TCNT0 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the single-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and
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inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent compare
matches between OCR0A and TCNT0.
Figure 12-6. Fast PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches MAX. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the compare value.
In fast PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC0A pin.
Setting the COM0A1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output
can be generated by setting the COM0A1:0 to three (See Table 12-3 on page 110). The actual
OC0A value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OC0A Register at the compare
match between OCR0A and TCNT0, and clearing (or setting) the OC0A Register at the timer
clock cycle the counter is cleared (changes from MAX to BOTTOM).
The PWM frequency for the output can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPWM = -----------------N ⋅ 256
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR0A Register represents special cases when generating a PWM
waveform output in the fast PWM mode. If the OCR0A is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will
be a narrow spike for each MAX+1 timer clock cycle. Setting the OCR0A equal to MAX will result
in a constantly high or low output (depending on the polarity of the output set by the COM0A1:0
bits.)
A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved by setting OC0A to toggle its logical level on each compare match (COM0A1:0 = 1). The waveform
generated will have a maximum frequency of fOC0A = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR0A is set to zero. This
feature is similar to the OC0A toggle in CTC mode, except the double buffer feature of the Output Compare unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
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12.7.4
Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct PWM mode (WGM01:0 = 1) provides a high resolution phase correct PWM
waveform generation option. The phase correct PWM mode is based on a dual-slope operation.
The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM to MAX and then from MAX to BOTTOM. In noninverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC0A) is cleared on the compare match
between TCNT0 and OCR0A while upcounting, and set on the compare match while downcounting. In inverting Output Compare mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation
has lower maximum operation frequency than single slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control
applications.
The PWM resolution for the phase correct PWM mode is fixed to eight bits. In phase correct
PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches MAX. When the counter
reaches MAX, it changes the count direction. The TCNT0 value will be equal to MAX for one
timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 12-7.
The TCNT0 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope
operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal
line marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent compare matches between OCR0A and TCNT0.
Figure 12-7. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM. The
interrupt flag can be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the BOTTOM
value.
In phase correct PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the
OC0A pin. Setting the COM0A1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM. An inverted
PWM output can be generated by setting the COM0A1:0 to three (See Table 12-4 on page 111).
The actual OC0A value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is
set as output. The PWM waveform is generated by clearing (or setting) the OC0A Register at the
compare match between OCR0A and TCNT0 when the counter increments, and setting (or
clearing) the OC0A Register at compare match between OCR0A and TCNT0 when the counter
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decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase correct PWM can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPCPWM = -----------------N ⋅ 510
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR0A Register represent special cases when generating a PWM
waveform output in the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCR0A is set equal to BOTTOM, the
output will be continuously low and if set equal to MAX the output will be continuously high for
non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the opposite logic values.
12.8
Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The Timer/Counter is a synchronous design and the timer clock (clkT0) is therefore shown as a
clock enable signal in the following figures. The figures include information on when interrupt
flags are set. Figure 12-8 contains timing data for basic Timer/Counter operation. The figure
shows the count sequence close to the MAX value in all modes other than phase correct PWM
mode.
Figure 12-8. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 12-9 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 12-9. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
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Figure 12-10 shows the setting of OCF0A in all modes except CTC mode.
Figure 12-10. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCF0A, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
Figure 12-11 shows the setting of OCF0A and the clearing of TCNT0 in CTC mode.
Figure 12-11. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Clear Timer on Compare Match mode, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
(CTC)
TOP - 1
TOP
OCRnx
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOP
OCFnx
12.9
12.9.1
8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description
Timer/Counter0 Control Register A – TCCR0A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC0A
WGM00
COM0A1
COM0A0
WGM01
CS02
CS01
CS00
Read/Write
W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR0A
• Bit 7 – FOC0A: Force Output Compare A
The FOC0A bit is only active when the WGM00 bit specifies a non-PWM mode. However, for
ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR0A is written
when operating in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC0A bit, an immediate compare match is forced on the Waveform Generation unit. The OC0A output is changed according
to its COM0A1:0 bits setting. Note that the FOC0A bit is implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is
the value present in the COM0A1:0 bits that determines the effect of the forced compare.
A FOC0A strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using
OCR0A as TOP.
The FOC0A bit is always read as zero.
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• Bit 6, 3 – WGM01:0: Waveform Generation Mode
These bits control the counting sequence of the counter, the source for the maximum (TOP)
counter value, and what type of waveform generation to be used. Modes of operation supported
by the Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode, Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC) mode, and
two types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. See Table 12-1 and “Modes of Operation”
on page 104.
Table 12-1.
Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description(1)
Mode
WGM01
(CTC0)
WGM00
(PWM0)
Timer/Counter
Mode of Operation
TOP
Update of
OCR0A at
TOV0 Flag
Set on
0
0
0
Normal
0xFF
Immediate
MAX
1
0
1
PWM, Phase Correct
0xFF
TOP
BOTTOM
2
1
0
CTC
OCR0A
Immediate
MAX
3
1
1
Fast PWM
0xFF
TOP
MAX
Note:
1. The CTC0 and PWM0 bit definition names are now obsolete. Use the WGM01:0 definitions.
However, the functionality and location of these bits are compatible with previous versions of
the timer.
• Bit 5:4 – COM01:0: Compare Match Output Mode
These bits control the Output Compare pin (OC0A) behavior. If one or both of the COM0A1:0
bits are set, the OC0A output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected
to. However, note that the Data Direction Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC0A pin
must be set in order to enable the output driver.
When OC0A is connected to the pin, the function of the COM0A1:0 bits depends on the
WGM01:0 bit setting. Table 12-2 shows the COM0A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM01:0 bits
are set to a normal or CTC mode (non-PWM).
Table 12-2.
Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM0A1
COM0A0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected.
0
1
Toggle OC0A on compare match
1
0
Clear OC0A on compare match
1
1
Set OC0A on compare match
Table 12-3 shows the COM0A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM01:0 bits are set to fast PWM
mode.
Table 12-3.
110
Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode(1)
COM0A1
COM0A0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC0A on compare match.
Set OC0A at TOP
1
1
Set OC0A on compare match.
Clear OC0A at TOP
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Note:
1. A special case occurs when OCR0A equals TOP and COM0A1 is set. In this case, the compare match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See “Fast PWM Mode” on page 105
for more details.
Table 12-4 shows the COM0A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM01:0 bits are set to phase correct PWM mode.
Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode(1)
Table 12-4.
COM0A1
COM0A0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC0A on compare match when up-counting.
Set OC0A on compare match when downcounting.
1
1
Set OC0A on compare match when up-counting.
Clear OC0A on compare match when downcounting.
Note:
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCR0A equals TOP and COM0A1 is set. In this case, the compare match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on
page 107 for more details.
• Bit 2:0 – CS02:0: Clock Select
The three Clock Select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter.
Table 12-5.
Clock Select Bit Description
CS02
CS01
CS00
Description
0
0
0
No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped)
0
0
1
clkI/O/(No prescaling)
0
1
0
clkI/O/8 (From prescaler)
0
1
1
clkI/O/64 (From prescaler)
1
0
0
clkI/O/256 (From prescaler)
1
0
1
clkI/O/1024 (From prescaler)
1
1
0
External clock source on T0 pin. Clock on falling edge.
1
1
1
External clock source on T0 pin. Clock on rising edge.
If external pin modes are used for the Timer/Counter0, transitions on the T0 pin will clock the
counter even if the pin is configured as an output. This feature allows software control of the
counting.
12.9.2
Timer/Counter0 Register – TCNT0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TCNT0[7:0]
TCNT0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Timer/Counter Register gives direct access, both for read and write operations, to the
Timer/Counter unit 8-bit counter. Writing to the TCNT0 Register blocks (removes) the compare
match on the following timer clock. Modifying the counter (TCNT0) while the counter is running,
introduces a risk of missing a compare match between TCNT0 and the OCR0A Register.
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12.9.3
Output Compare Register A – OCR0A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
OCR0A[7:0]
OCR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Output Compare Register A contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the
counter value (TCNT0). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to
generate a waveform output on the OC0A pin.
12.9.4
Timer/Counter0 Interrupt Mask Register – TIMSK0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE0A
TOIE0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK0
• Bit 7..2 – Reserved Bits
These are reserved bits for future use.
• Bit 1 – OCIE0A: Timer/Counter0 Output Compare Match A Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE0A bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match A interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed
if a compare match in Timer/Counter0 occurs, i.e., when the OCF0A bit is set in the
Timer/Counter 0 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR0.
• Bit 0 – TOIE0: Timer/Counter0 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When the TOIE0 bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the
Timer/Counter0 Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if an
overflow in Timer/Counter0 occurs, i.e., when the TOV0 bit is set in the Timer/Counter 0 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR0.
12.9.5
Timer/Counter0 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
OCF0A
TOV0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR0
• Bit 1 – OCF0A: Output Compare Flag 0 A
The OCF0A bit is set (one) when a compare match occurs between the Timer/Counter0 and the
data in OCR0A – Output Compare Register0. OCF0A is cleared by hardware when executing
the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, OCF0A is cleared by writing a logic
one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE0A (Timer/Counter0 Compare match Interrupt
Enable), and OCF0A are set (one), the Timer/Counter0 Compare match Interrupt is executed.
• Bit 0 – TOV0: Timer/Counter0 Overflow Flag
The bit TOV0 is set (one) when an overflow occurs in Timer/Counter0. TOV0 is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, TOV0 is cleared
by writing a logic one to the flag. When the SREG I-bit, TOIE0 (Timer/Counter0 Overflow Interrupt Enable), and TOV0 are set (one), the Timer/Counter0 Overflow interrupt is executed. In
phase correct PWM mode, this bit is set when Timer/Counter0 changes counting direction at
0x00.
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13. 16-bit Timer/Counter (Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter3)
The 16-bit Timer/Counter unit allows accurate program execution timing (event management),
wave generation, and signal timing measurement. The main features are:
13.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
13.2
True 16-bit Design (i.e., Allows 16-bit PWM)
Three independent Output Compare Units
Double Buffered Output Compare Registers
One Input Capture Unit
Input Capture Noise Canceler
Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload)
Glitch-free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
Variable PWM Period
Frequency Generator
External Event Counter
Four independent interrupt Sources (TOV1, OCF1A, OCF1B, and ICF1 for Timer/Counter1 - TOV3,
OCF3A, OCF3B, and ICF3 for Timer/Counter3)
Overview
Many register and bit references in this section are written in general form.
• A lower case “n” replaces the Timer/Counter number, in this case 1 or 3. However, when
using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used, i.e., TCNT1 for
accessing Timer/Counter1 counter value and so on.
• A lower case “x” replaces the Output Compare unit channel, in this case A, B or C. However,
when using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used, i.e.,
OCRnA for accessing Timer/Countern output compare channel A value and so on.
A simplified block diagram of the 16-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 13-1. For the actual
placement of I/O pins, refer to “Pin Configurations” on page 5. CPU accessible I/O Registers,
including I/O bits and I/O pins, are shown in bold. The device-specific I/O Register and bit locations are listed in the “16-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” on page 135.
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Figure 13-1. 16-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram(1)
Count
Clear
Direction
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
Control Logic
clk Tn
Clock Select
Edge
Detector
TOP
Tn
BOTTOM
( From Prescaler )
Timer/Counter
TCNTn
=
=0
OCFnA
(Int.Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnA
OCRnA
OCFnB
(Int.Req.)
Fixed
TOP
Values
Waveform
Generation
DATABUS
=
OCnB
OCRnB
OCFnC
(Int.Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCRnC
OCnC
( From Analog
Comparator Ouput )
ICFn (Int.Req.)
Edge
Detector
ICRn
Noise
Canceler
ICPn
TCCRnA
Note:
13.2.1
TCCRnB
TCCRnC
1. Refer to Figure 1-2 on page 5 or Figure 1-3 on page 6, Table 9-6 on page 76, and Table 9-15
on page 83 for Timer/Counter1 and 3 pin placement and description.
Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNTn), Output Compare Registers (OCRnx), and Input Capture Register
(ICRn) are all 16-bit registers. Special procedures must be followed when accessing the 16-bit
registers. These procedures are described in the section “Accessing 16-bit Registers” on page
116. The Timer/Counter Control Registers (TCCRnx) are 8-bit registers and have no CPU
access restrictions. Interrupt requests (abbreviated to Int.Req. in the figure) signals are all visible
in the Timer Interrupt Flag Register (TIFRn). All interrupts are individually masked with the Timer
Interrupt Mask Register (TIMSKn). TIFRn and TIMSKn are not shown in the figure.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, or by an external clock source on
the Tn pin. The Clock Select logic block controls which clock source and edge the Timer/Counter
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uses to increment (or decrement) its value. The Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source
is selected. The output from the Clock Select logic is referred to as the timer clock (clkTn).
The double buffered Output Compare Registers (OCRnx) are compared with the Timer/Counter
value at all time. The result of the compare can be used by the Waveform Generator to generate
a PWM or variable frequency output on the Output Compare pin (OCnx). See “Output Compare
Units” on page 123.. The compare match event will also set the Compare Match Flag (OCFnx)
which can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt request.
The Input Capture Register can capture the Timer/Counter value at a given external (edge triggered) event on either the Input Capture pin (ICPn) or on the Analog Comparator pins (See
“Analog Comparator” on page 269.) The Input Capture unit includes a digital filtering unit (Noise
Canceler) for reducing the chance of capturing noise spikes.
The TOP value, or maximum Timer/Counter value, can in some modes of operation be defined
by either the OCRnA Register, the ICRn Register, or by a set of fixed values. When using
OCRnA as TOP value in a PWM mode, the OCRnA Register can not be used for generating a
PWM output. However, the TOP value will in this case be double buffered allowing the TOP
value to be changed in run time. If a fixed TOP value is required, the ICRn Register can be used
as an alternative, freeing the OCRnA to be used as PWM output.
13.2.2
Definitions
The following definitions are used extensively throughout the section:
13.2.3
BOTTOM
The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes 0x0000.
MAX
The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFFFF (decimal 65,535).
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the count
sequence. The TOP value can be assigned to be one of the fixed values: 0x00FF, 0x01FF,
or 0x03FF, or to the value stored in the OCRnA or ICRn Register. The assignment is
dependent of the mode of operation.
Compatibility
The 16-bit Timer/Counter has been updated and improved from previous versions of the 16-bit
AVR Timer/Counter. This 16-bit Timer/Counter is fully compatible with the earlier version
regarding:
• All 16-bit Timer/Counter related I/O Register address locations, including Timer Interrupt
Registers.
• Bit locations inside all 16-bit Timer/Counter Registers, including Timer Interrupt Registers.
• Interrupt Vectors.
The following control bits have changed name, but have same functionality and register location:
• PWMn0 is changed to WGMn0.
• PWMn1 is changed to WGMn1.
• CTCn is changed to WGMn2.
The following registers are added to the 16-bit Timer/Counter:
• Timer/Counter Control Register C (TCCRnC).
• Output Compare Register C, OCRnCH and OCRnCL, combined OCRnC.
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The 16-bit Timer/Counter has improvements that will affect the compatibility in some special
cases.
The following bits are added to the 16-bit Timer/Counter Control Registers:
• COMnC1:0 are added to TCCRnA.
• FOCnA, FOCnB and FOCnC are added to TCCRnC.
• WGMn3 is added to TCCRnB.
Interrupt flag and mask bits for output compare unit C are added.
The 16-bit Timer/Counter has improvements that will affect the compatibility in some special
cases.
13.3
Accessing 16-bit Registers
The TCNTn, OCRnx, and ICRn are 16-bit registers that can be accessed by the AVR CPU via
the 8-bit data bus. The 16-bit register must be byte accessed using two read or write operations.
Each 16-bit timer has a single 8-bit register for temporary storing of the high byte of the 16-bit
access. The same temporary register is shared between all 16-bit registers within each 16-bit
timer. Accessing the low byte triggers the 16-bit read or write operation. When the low byte of a
16-bit register is written by the CPU, the high byte stored in the temporary register, and the low
byte written are both copied into the 16-bit register in the same clock cycle. When the low byte of
a 16-bit register is read by the CPU, the high byte of the 16-bit register is copied into the temporary register in the same clock cycle as the low byte is read.
Not all 16-bit accesses uses the temporary register for the high byte. Reading the OCRnx 16-bit
registers does not involve using the temporary register.
To do a 16-bit write, the high byte must be written before the low byte. For a 16-bit read, the low
byte must be read before the high byte.
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13.3.1
Code Examples
The following code examples show how to access the 16-bit timer registers assuming that no
interrupts updates the temporary register. The same principle can be used directly for accessing
the OCRnx and ICRn Registers. Note that when using “C”, the compiler handles the 16-bit
access.
Assembly Code Examples(1)
...
; Set TCNTn to 0x01FF
ldi
r17,0x01
ldi
r16,0xFF
sts
TCNTnH,r17
sts
TCNTnL,r16
; Read TCNTn into r17:r16
lds
r16,TCNTnL
lds
r17,TCNTnH
...
C Code Examples(1)
unsigned int i;
...
/* Set TCNTn to 0x01FF */
TCNTn = 0x1FF;
/* Read TCNTn into i */
i = TCNTn;
...
Note:
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
The assembly code example returns the TCNTn value in the r17:r16 register pair.
It is important to notice that accessing 16-bit registers are atomic operations. If an interrupt
occurs between the two instructions accessing the 16-bit register, and the interrupt code
updates the temporary register by accessing the same or any other of the 16-bit timer registers,
then the result of the access outside the interrupt will be corrupted. Therefore, when both the
main code and the interrupt code update the temporary register, the main code must disable the
interrupts during the 16-bit access.
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The following code examples show how to do an atomic read of the TCNTn Register contents.
Reading any of the OCRnx or ICRn Registers can be done by using the same principle.
Assembly Code Example(1)
TIM16_ReadTCNTn:
; Save global interrupt flag
in
r18,SREG
; Disable interrupts
cli
; Read TCNTn into r17:r16
lds
r16,TCNTnL
lds
r17,TCNTnH
; Restore global interrupt flag
out
SREG,r18
ret
C Code Example(1)
unsigned int TIM16_ReadTCNTn(void)
{
unsigned char sreg;
unsigned int i;
/* Save global interrupt flag */
sreg = SREG;
/* Disable interrupts */
_CLI();
/* Read TCNTn into i */
i = TCNTn;
/* Restore global interrupt flag */
SREG = sreg;
return i;
}
Note:
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
The assembly code example returns the TCNTn value in the r17:r16 register pair.
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The following code examples show how to do an atomic write of the TCNTn Register contents.
Writing any of the OCRnx or ICRn Registers can be done by using the same principle.
Assembly Code Example(1)
TIM16_WriteTCNTn:
; Save global interrupt flag
in
r18,SREG
; Disable interrupts
cli
; Set TCNTn to r17:r16
sts
TCNTnH,r17
sts
TCNTnL,r16
; Restore global interrupt flag
out
SREG,r18
ret
C Code Example(1)
void TIM16_WriteTCNTn(unsigned int i)
{
unsigned char sreg;
unsigned int i;
/* Save global interrupt flag */
sreg = SREG;
/* Disable interrupts */
_CLI();
/* Set TCNTn to i */
TCNTn = i;
/* Restore global interrupt flag */
SREG = sreg;
}
Note:
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
The assembly code example requires that the r17:r16 register pair contains the value to be written to TCNTn.
13.3.2
13.4
Reusing the Temporary High Byte Register
If writing to more than one 16-bit register where the high byte is the same for all registers written,
then the high byte only needs to be written once. However, note that the same rule of atomic
operation described previously also applies in this case.
Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal or an external clock source. The clock source
is selected by the Clock Select logic which is controlled by the Clock Select (CSn2:0) bits
located in the Timer/Counter control Register B (TCCRnB). For details on clock sources and
prescaler, see “Timer/Counter3/1/0 Prescalers” on page 96.
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13.5
Counter Unit
The main part of the 16-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable 16-bit bi-directional counter unit.
Figure 13-2 shows a block diagram of the counter and its surroundings.
Figure 13-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
DATA BUS (8-bit)
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
TEMP (8-bit)
Clock Select
Count
TCNTnH (8-bit)
TCNTnL (8-bit)
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
Clear
Direction
Control Logic
clkTn
Edge
Detector
Tn
( From Prescaler )
TOP
BOTTOM
Signal description (internal signals):
Count
Increment or decrement TCNTn by 1.
Direction
Select between increment and decrement.
Clear
Clear TCNTn (set all bits to zero).
clkTn
Timer/Counter clock.
TOP
Signalize that TCNTn has reached maximum value.
BOTTOM
Signalize that TCNTn has reached minimum value (zero).
The 16-bit counter is mapped into two 8-bit I/O memory locations: Counter High (TCNTnH) containing the upper eight bits of the counter, and Counter Low (TCNTnL) containing the lower eight
bits. The TCNTnH Register can only be indirectly accessed by the CPU. When the CPU does an
access to the TCNTnH I/O location, the CPU accesses the high byte temporary register (TEMP).
The temporary register is updated with the TCNTnH value when the TCNTnL is read, and
TCNTnH is updated with the temporary register value when TCNTnL is written. This allows the
CPU to read or write the entire 16-bit counter value within one clock cycle via the 8-bit data bus.
It is important to notice that there are special cases of writing to the TCNTn Register when the
counter is counting that will give unpredictable results. The special cases are described in the
sections where they are of importance.
Depending on the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or decremented
at each timer clock (clkTn). The clkTn can be generated from an external or internal clock source,
selected by the Clock Select bits (CSn2:0). When no clock source is selected (CSn2:0 = 0) the
timer is stopped. However, the TCNTn value can be accessed by the CPU, independent of
whether clkTn is present or not. A CPU write overrides (has priority over) all counter clear or
count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the Waveform Generation mode bits
(WGMn3:0) located in the Timer/Counter Control Registers A and B (TCCRnA and TCCRnB).
There are close connections between how the counter behaves (counts) and how waveforms
are generated on the Output Compare outputs OCnx. For more details about advanced counting
sequences and waveform generation, see “Modes of Operation” on page 126.
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The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOVn) is set according to the mode of operation selected by
the WGMn3:0 bits. TOVn can be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
13.6
Input Capture Unit
The Timer/Counter incorporates an Input Capture unit that can capture external events and give
them a time-stamp indicating time of occurrence. The external signal indicating an event, or multiple events, can be applied via the ICPn pin or alternatively, via the analog-comparator unit. The
time-stamps can then be used to calculate frequency, duty-cycle, and other features of the signal applied. Alternatively the time-stamps can be used for creating a log of the events.
The Input Capture unit is illustrated by the block diagram shown in Figure 13-3. The elements of
the block diagram that are not directly a part of the Input Capture unit are gray shaded.
Figure 13-3. Input Capture Unit Block Diagram
DATA BUS
(8-bit)
TEMP (8-bit)
ICRnH (8-bit)
WRITE
ICRnL (8-bit)
TCNTnH (8-bit)
ICRn (16-bit Register)
ICP3
ACIC*
TCNTnL (8-bit)
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
ICNC3
ICES3
Noise
Canceler
Edge
Detector
ICNC1
ICES1
Noise
Canceler
Edge
Detector
ICF3 (Int.Req.)
ICP1
ICF1 (Int.Req.)
ACO*
Analog
Comparator
Note:
The Analog Comparator Output (ACO) can only trigger the Timer/Counter1 IC Unit– not
Timer/Counter3.
When a change of the logic level (an event) occurs on the Input Capture pin (ICPn), alternatively
on the Analog Comparator output (ACO), and this change confirms to the setting of the edge
detector, a capture will be triggered. When a capture is triggered, the 16-bit value of the counter
(TCNTn) is written to the Input Capture Register (ICRn). The Input Capture Flag (ICFn) is set at
the same system clock as the TCNTn value is copied into ICRn Register. If enabled (ICIEn = 1),
the Input Capture Flag generates an Input Capture interrupt. The ICFn flag is automatically
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cleared when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively the ICFn flag can be cleared by software by
writing a logical one to its I/O bit location.
Reading the 16-bit value in the Input Capture Register (ICRn) is done by first reading the low
byte (ICRnL) and then the high byte (ICRnH). When the low byte is read the high byte is copied
into the high byte temporary register (TEMP). When the CPU reads the ICRnH I/O location it will
access the TEMP Register.
The ICRn Register can only be written when using a Waveform Generation mode that utilizes
the ICRn Register for defining the counter’s TOP value. In these cases the Waveform Generation mode (WGMn3:0) bits must be set before the TOP value can be written to the ICRn
Register. When writing the ICRn Register the high byte must be written to the ICRnH I/O location
before the low byte is written to ICRnL.
For more information on how to access the 16-bit registers refer to “Accessing 16-bit Registers”
on page 116.
13.6.1
Input Capture Trigger Source
The main trigger source for the Input Capture unit is the Input Capture pin (ICPn). Only
Timer/Counter1 can alternatively use the Analog Comparator output as trigger source for the
Input Capture unit. The Analog Comparator is selected as trigger source by setting the Analog
Comparator Input Capture (ACIC) bit in the Analog Comparator Control and Status Register
(ACSR). Be aware that changing trigger source can trigger a capture. The Input Capture Flag
must therefore be cleared after the change.
Both the Input Capture pin (ICPn) and the Analog Comparator output (ACO) inputs are sampled
using the same technique as for the Tn pin (Figure 11-1 on page 97). The edge detector is also
identical. However, when the noise canceler is enabled, additional logic is inserted before the
edge detector, which increases the delay by four system clock cycles. Note that the input of the
noise canceler and edge detector is always enabled unless the Timer/Counter is set in a Waveform Generation mode that uses ICRn to define TOP.
An Input Capture can be triggered by software by controlling the port of the ICPn pin.
13.6.2
Noise Canceler
The noise canceler improves noise immunity by using a simple digital filtering scheme. The
noise canceler input is monitored over four samples, and all four must be equal for changing the
output that in turn is used by the edge detector.
The noise canceler is enabled by setting the Input Capture Noise Canceler (ICNCn) bit in
Timer/Counter Control Register B (TCCRnB). When enabled the noise canceler introduces additional four system clock cycles of delay from a change applied to the input, to the update of the
ICRn Register. The noise canceler uses the system clock and is therefore not affected by the
prescaler.
13.6.3
Using the Input Capture Unit
The main challenge when using the Input Capture unit is to assign enough processor capacity
for handling the incoming events. The time between two events is critical. If the processor has
not read the captured value in the ICRn Register before the next event occurs, the ICRn will be
overwritten with a new value. In this case the result of the capture will be incorrect.
When using the Input Capture interrupt, the ICRn Register should be read as early in the interrupt handler routine as possible. Even though the Input Capture interrupt has relatively high
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priority, the maximum interrupt response time is dependent on the maximum number of clock
cycles it takes to handle any of the other interrupt requests.
Using the Input Capture unit in any mode of operation when the TOP value (resolution) is
actively changed during operation, is not recommended.
Measurement of an external signal’s duty cycle requires that the trigger edge is changed after
each capture. Changing the edge sensing must be done as early as possible after the ICRn
Register has been read. After a change of the edge, the Input Capture Flag (ICFn) must be
cleared by software (writing a logical one to the I/O bit location). For measuring frequency only,
the clearing of the ICFn flag is not required (if an interrupt handler is used).
13.7
Output Compare Units
The 16-bit comparator continuously compares TCNTn with the Output Compare Register
(OCRnx). If TCNT equals OCRnx the comparator signals a match. A match will set the Output
Compare Flag (OCFnx) at the next timer clock cycle. If enabled (OCIEnx = 1), the Output Compare Flag generates an Output Compare interrupt. The OCFnx flag is automatically cleared
when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively the OCFnx flag can be cleared by software by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location. The Waveform Generator uses the match signal to
generate an output according to operating mode set by the Waveform Generation mode
(WGMn3:0) bits and Compare Output mode (COMnx1:0) bits. The TOP and BOTTOM signals
are used by the Waveform Generator for handling the special cases of the extreme values in
some modes of operation (See “Modes of Operation” on page 126.)
A special feature of Output Compare unit A allows it to define the Timer/Counter TOP value (i.e.,
counter resolution). In addition to the counter resolution, the TOP value defines the period time
for waveforms generated by the Waveform Generator.
Figure 13-4 shows a block diagram of the Output Compare unit. The elements of the block diagram that are not directly a part of the Output Compare unit are gray shaded.
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Figure 13-4. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
DATA BUS (8-bit)
TEMP (8-bit)
OCRnxH Buf.(8-bit)
OCRnxL Buf.(8-bit)
TCNTnH (8-bit)
OCRnx Buffer (16-bit Register)
OCRnxH (8-bit)
TCNTnL (8-bit)
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
OCRnxL (8-bit)
OCRnx (16-bit Register)
= (16-bit Comparator )
OCFnx
TOP
BOTTOM
Waveform Generator
WGMn3:0
(Int.Req.)
OCnx
COMnx1:0
The OCRnx Register is double buffered when using any of the twelve Pulse Width Modulation
(PWM) modes. For the Normal and Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) modes of operation, the
double buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes the update of the OCRnx Compare Register to either TOP or BOTTOM of the counting sequence. The synchronization
prevents the occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical PWM pulses, thereby making the output glitch-free.
The OCRnx Register access may seem complex, but this is not case. When the double buffering
is enabled, the CPU has access to the OCRnx Buffer Register, and if double buffering is disabled the CPU will access the OCRnx directly. The content of the OCRnx (Buffer or Compare)
Register is only changed by a write operation (the Timer/Counter does not update this register
automatically as the TCNT1 and ICRn Register). Therefore OCRnx is not read via the high byte
temporary register (TEMP). However, it is a good practice to read the low byte first as when
accessing other 16-bit registers. Writing the OCRnx Registers must be done via the TEMP Register since the compare of all 16 bits is done continuously. The high byte (OCRnxH) has to be
written first. When the high byte I/O location is written by the CPU, the TEMP Register will be
updated by the value written. Then when the low byte (OCRnxL) is written to the lower eight bits,
the high byte will be copied into the upper 8-bits of either the OCRnx buffer or OCRnx Compare
Register in the same system clock cycle.
For more information of how to access the 16-bit registers refer to “Accessing 16-bit Registers”
on page 116.
13.7.1
124
Force Output Compare
In non-PWM Waveform Generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be forced by
writing a one to the Force Output Compare (FOCnx) bit. Forcing compare match will not set the
OCFnx flag or reload/clear the timer, but the OCnx pin will be updated as if a real compare
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match had occurred (the COMnx1:0 bits settings define whether the OCnx pin is set, cleared or
toggled).
13.7.2
Compare Match Blocking by TCNTn Write
All CPU writes to the TCNTn Register will block any compare match that occurs in the next timer
clock cycle, even when the timer is stopped. This feature allows OCRnx to be initialized to the
same value as TCNTn without triggering an interrupt when the Timer/Counter clock is enabled.
13.7.3
Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNTn in any mode of operation will block all compare matches for one timer clock
cycle, there are risks involved when changing TCNTn when using any of the Output Compare
channels, independent of whether the Timer/Counter is running or not. If the value written to
TCNTn equals the OCRnx value, the compare match will be missed, resulting in incorrect waveform generation. Do not write the TCNTn equal to TOP in PWM modes with variable TOP
values. The compare match for the TOP will be ignored and the counter will continue to 0xFFFF.
Similarly, do not write the TCNTn value equal to BOTTOM when the counter is downcounting.
The setup of the OCnx should be performed before setting the Data Direction Register for the
port pin to output. The easiest way of setting the OCnx value is to use the Force Output Compare (FOCnx) strobe bits in Normal mode. The OCnx Register keeps its value even when
changing between Waveform Generation modes.
Be aware that the COMnx1:0 bits are not double buffered together with the compare value.
Changing the COMnx1:0 bits will take effect immediately.
13.8
Compare Match Output Unit
The Compare Output mode (COMnx1:0) bits have two functions. The Waveform Generator uses
the COMnx1:0 bits for defining the Output Compare (OCnx) state at the next compare match.
Secondly the COMnx1:0 bits control the OCnx pin output source. Figure 13-5 shows a simplified
schematic of the logic affected by the COMnx1:0 bit setting. The I/O Registers, I/O bits, and I/O
pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the parts of the general I/O port control registers (DDR
and PORT) that are affected by the COMnx1:0 bits are shown. When referring to the OCnx
state, the reference is for the internal OCnx Register, not the OCnx pin. If a system reset occur,
the OCnx Register is reset to “0”.
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Figure 13-5. Compare Match Output Unit, Schematic
COMnx1
COMnx0
FOCnx
Waveform
Generator
D
Q
1
OCnx
DATA BUS
D
0
OCnx
Pin
Q
PORT
D
Q
DDR
clk I/O
13.8.1
Compare Output Function
The general I/O port function is overridden by the Output Compare (OCnx) from the Waveform
Generator if either of the COMnx1:0 bits are set. However, the OCnx pin direction (input or output) is still controlled by the Data Direction Register (DDR) for the port pin. The Data Direction
Register bit for the OCnx pin (DDR_OCnx) must be set as output before the OCnx value is visible on the pin. The port override function is generally independent of the Waveform Generation
mode, but there are some exceptions. Refer to Table 13-1, Table 13-2 and Table 13-3 for
details.
The design of the Output Compare pin logic allows initialization of the OCnx state before the output is enabled. Note that some COMnx1:0 bit settings are reserved for certain modes of
operation. See “16-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” on page 135.
The COMnx1:0 bits have no effect on the Input Capture unit.
13.8.2
Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The Waveform Generator uses the COMnx1:0 bits differently in normal, CTC, and PWM modes.
For all modes, setting the COMnx1:0 = 0 tells the Waveform Generator that no action on the
OCnx Register is to be performed on the next compare match. For compare output actions in the
non-PWM modes refer to Table 13-1 on page 136. For fast PWM mode refer to Table 13-2 on
page 136, and for phase correct and phase and frequency correct PWM refer to Table 13-3 on
page 137.
A change of the COMnx1:0 bits state will have effect at the first compare match after the bits are
written. For non-PWM modes, the action can be forced to have immediate effect by using the
FOCnx strobe bits.
13.9
Modes of Operation
The mode of operation, i.e., the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the Output Compare pins, is
defined by the combination of the Waveform Generation mode (WGMn3:0) and Compare Output
mode (COMnx1:0) bits. The Compare Output mode bits do not affect the counting sequence,
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while the Waveform Generation mode bits do. The COMnx1:0 bits control whether the PWM output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or non-inverted PWM). For non-PWM modes
the COMnx1:0 bits control whether the output should be set, cleared or toggle at a compare
match (See “Compare Match Output Unit” on page 125.)
For detailed timing information refer to “Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams” on page 134.
13.9.1
Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGMn3:0 = 0). In this mode the counting
direction is always up (incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The counter simply
overruns when it passes its maximum 16-bit value (MAX = 0xFFFF) and then restarts from the
BOTTOM (0x0000). In normal operation the Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOVn) will be set in
the same timer clock cycle as the TCNTn becomes zero. The TOVn flag in this case behaves
like a 17th bit, except that it is only set, not cleared. However, combined with the timer overflow
interrupt that automatically clears the TOVn flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software. There are no special cases to consider in the Normal mode, a new counter value can be
written anytime.
The Input Capture unit is easy to use in Normal mode. However, observe that the maximum
interval between the external events must not exceed the resolution of the counter. If the interval
between events are too long, the timer overflow interrupt or the prescaler must be used to
extend the resolution for the capture unit.
The Output Compare units can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using the
Output Compare to generate waveforms in Normal mode is not recommended, since this will
occupy too much of the CPU time.
13.9.2
Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In Clear Timer on Compare or CTC mode (WGMn3:0 = 4 or 12), the OCRnA or ICRn Register
are used to manipulate the counter resolution. In CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when
the counter value (TCNTn) matches either the OCRnA (WGMn3:0 = 4) or the ICRn (WGMn3:0 =
12). The OCRnA or ICRn define the top value for the counter, hence also its resolution. This
mode allows greater control of the compare match output frequency. It also simplifies the operation of counting external events.
The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 13-6. The counter value (TCNTn)
increases until a compare match occurs with either OCRnA or ICRn, and then counter (TCNTn)
is cleared.
Figure 13-6. CTC Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
TCNTn
OCnA
(Toggle)
Period
(COMnA1:0 = 1)
1
2
3
4
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An interrupt can be generated at each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by either
using the OCFnA or ICFn flag according to the register used to define the TOP value. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the TOP value. However,
changing the TOP to a value close to BOTTOM when the counter is running with none or a low
prescaler value must be done with care since the CTC mode does not have the double buffering
feature. If the new value written to OCRnA or ICRn is lower than the current value of TCNTn, the
counter will miss the compare match. The counter will then have to count to its maximum value
(0xFFFF) and wrap around starting at 0x0000 before the compare match can occur. In many
cases this feature is not desirable. An alternative will then be to use the fast PWM mode using
OCRnA for defining TOP (WGMn3:0 = 15) since the OCRnA then will be double buffered.
For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OCnA output can be set to toggle its logical
level on each compare match by setting the Compare Output mode bits to toggle mode
(COMnA1:0 = 1). The OCnA value will not be visible on the port pin unless the data direction for
the pin is set to output (DDR_OCnA = 1). The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of fOCnA = fclk_I/O/2 when OCRnA is set to zero (0x0000). The waveform frequency is
defined by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnA = --------------------------------------------------2 ⋅ N ⋅ ( 1 + OCRnA )
The N variable represents the prescaler factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
As for the Normal mode of operation, the TOVn flag is set in the same timer clock cycle that the
counter counts from MAX to 0x0000.
13.9.3
Fast PWM Mode
The fast Pulse Width Modulation or fast PWM mode (WGMn3:0 = 5, 6, 7, 14, or 15) provides a
high frequency PWM waveform generation option. The fast PWM differs from the other PWM
options by its single-slope operation. The counter counts from BOTTOM to TOP then restarts
from BOTTOM. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OCnx) is set on
the compare match between TCNTn and OCRnx, and cleared at TOP. In inverting Compare
Output mode output is cleared on compare match and set at TOP. Due to the single-slope operation, the operating frequency of the fast PWM mode can be twice as high as the phase correct
and phase and frequency correct PWM modes that use dual-slope operation. This high frequency makes the fast PWM mode well suited for power regulation, rectification, and DAC
applications. High frequency allows physically small sized external components (coils, capacitors), hence reduces total system cost.
The PWM resolution for fast PWM can be fixed to 8-, 9-, or 10-bit, or defined by either ICRn or
OCRnA. The minimum resolution allowed is 2-bit (ICRn or OCRnA set to 0x0003), and the maximum resolution is 16-bit (ICRn or OCRnA set to MAX). The PWM resolution in bits can be
calculated by using the following equation:
log ( TOP + 1 )
R FPWM = ----------------------------------log ( 2 )
In fast PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches either one of the
fixed values 0x00FF, 0x01FF, or 0x03FF (WGMn3:0 = 5, 6, or 7), the value in ICRn (WGMn3:0 =
14), or the value in OCRnA (WGMn3:0 = 15). The counter is then cleared at the following timer
clock cycle. The timing diagram for the fast PWM mode is shown in Figure 13-7. The figure
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shows fast PWM mode when OCRnA or ICRn is used to define TOP. The TCNTn value is in the
timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the single-slope operation. The diagram
includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNTn
slopes represent compare matches between OCRnx and TCNTn. The OCnx interrupt flag will be
set when a compare match occurs.
Figure 13-7. Fast PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx/TOP Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set and
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOVn) is set each time the counter reaches TOP. In addition
the OCnA or ICFn flag is set at the same timer clock cycle as TOVn is set when either OCRnA or
ICRn is used for defining the TOP value. If one of the interrupts are enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the TOP and compare values.
When changing the TOP value the program must ensure that the new TOP value is higher or
equal to the value of all of the Compare Registers. If the TOP value is lower than any of the
Compare Registers, a compare match will never occur between the TCNTn and the OCRnx.
Note that when using fixed TOP values the unused bits are masked to zero when any of the
OCRnx Registers are written.
The procedure for updating ICRn differs from updating OCRnA when used for defining the TOP
value. The ICRn Register is not double buffered. This means that if ICRn is changed to a low
value when the counter is running with none or a low prescaler value, there is a risk that the new
ICRn value written is lower than the current value of TCNTn. The result will then be that the
counter will miss the compare match at the TOP value. The counter will then have to count to the
MAX value (0xFFFF) and wrap around starting at 0x0000 before the compare match can occur.
The OCRnA Register however, is double buffered. This feature allows the OCRnA I/O location
to be written anytime. When the OCRnA I/O location is written the value written will be put into
the OCRnA Buffer Register. The OCRnA Compare Register will then be updated with the value
in the Buffer Register at the next timer clock cycle the TCNTn matches TOP. The update is done
at the same timer clock cycle as the TCNTn is cleared and the TOVn flag is set.
Using the ICRn Register for defining TOP works well when using fixed TOP values. By using
ICRn, the OCRnA Register is free to be used for generating a PWM output on OCnA. However,
if the base PWM frequency is actively changed (by changing the TOP value), using the OCRnA
as TOP is clearly a better choice due to its double buffer feature.
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In fast PWM mode, the compare units allow generation of PWM waveforms on the OCnx pins.
Setting the COMnx1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output
can be generated by setting the COMnx1:0 to three (see Table on page 136). The actual OCnx
value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output
(DDR_OCnx). The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OCnx Register at
the compare match between OCRnx and TCNTn, and clearing (or setting) the OCnx Register at
the timer clock cycle the counter is cleared (changes from TOP to BOTTOM).
The PWM frequency for the output can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPWM = ----------------------------------N ⋅ ( 1 + TOP )
The N variable represents the prescaler divider (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCRnx Register represents special cases when generating a PWM
waveform output in the fast PWM mode. If the OCRnx is set equal to BOTTOM (0x0000) the output will be a narrow spike for each TOP+1 timer clock cycle. Setting the OCRnx equal to TOP
will result in a constant high or low output (depending on the polarity of the output set by the
COMnx1:0 bits.)
A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved by setting OCnA to toggle its logical level on each compare match (COMnA1:0 = 1). The waveform
generated will have a maximum frequency of f OC n A = fclk_I/O /2 when OCRnA is set to zero
(0x0000). This feature is similar to the OCnA toggle in CTC mode, except the double buffer feature of the Output Compare unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
13.9.4
Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct Pulse Width Modulation or phase correct PWM mode (WGMn3:0 = 1, 2, 3,
10, or 11) provides a high resolution phase correct PWM waveform generation option. The
phase correct PWM mode is, like the phase and frequency correct PWM mode, based on a dualslope operation. The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM (0x0000) to TOP and then from
TOP to BOTTOM. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OCnx) is
cleared on the compare match between TCNTn and OCRnx while upcounting, and set on the
compare match while downcounting. In inverting Output Compare mode, the operation is
inverted. The dual-slope operation has lower maximum operation frequency than single slope
operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes
are preferred for motor control applications.
The PWM resolution for the phase correct PWM mode can be fixed to 8-, 9-, or 10-bit, or defined
by either ICRn or OCRnA. The minimum resolution allowed is 2-bit (ICRn or OCRnA set to
0x0003), and the maximum resolution is 16-bit (ICRn or OCRnA set to MAX). The PWM resolution in bits can be calculated by using the following equation:
log ( TOP + 1 )
R PCPWM = ----------------------------------log ( 2 )
In phase correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches either
one of the fixed values 0x00FF, 0x01FF, or 0x03FF (WGMn3:0 = 1, 2, or 3), the value in ICRn
(WGMn3:0 = 10), or the value in OCRnA (WGMn3:0 = 11). The counter has then reached the
TOP and changes the count direction. The TCNTn value will be equal to TOP for one timer clock
cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 13-8. The figure
shows phase correct PWM mode when OCRnA or ICRn is used to define TOP. The TCNTn
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value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The
diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on
the TCNTn slopes represent compare matches between OCRnx and TCNTn. The OCnx interrupt flag will be set when a compare match occurs.
Figure 13-8. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx/TOP Update and
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on Bottom)
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOVn) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM. When
either OCRnA or ICRn is used for defining the TOP value, the OCnA or ICFn flag is set accordingly at the same timer clock cycle as the OCRnx Registers are updated with the double buffer
value (at TOP). The interrupt flags can be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter
reaches the TOP or BOTTOM value.
When changing the TOP value the program must ensure that the new TOP value is higher or
equal to the value of all of the Compare Registers. If the TOP value is lower than any of the
Compare Registers, a compare match will never occur between the TCNTn and the OCRnx.
Note that when using fixed TOP values, the unused bits are masked to zero when any of the
OCRnx Registers are written. As the third period shown in Figure 13-8 illustrates, changing the
TOP actively while the Timer/Counter is running in the phase correct mode can result in an
unsymmetrical output. The reason for this can be found in the time of update of the OCRnx Register. Since the OCRnx update occurs at TOP, the PWM period starts and ends at TOP. This
implies that the length of the falling slope is determined by the previous TOP value, while the
length of the rising slope is determined by the new TOP value. When these two values differ the
two slopes of the period will differ in length. The difference in length gives the unsymmetrical
result on the output.
It is recommended to use the phase and frequency correct mode instead of the phase correct
mode when changing the TOP value while the Timer/Counter is running. When using a static
TOP value there are practically no differences between the two modes of operation.
In phase correct PWM mode, the compare units allow generation of PWM waveforms on the
OCnx pins. Setting the COMnx1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted
PWM output can be generated by setting the COMnx1:0 to three (See Table on page 137). The
actual OCnx value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as
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output (DDR_OCnx). The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OCnx Register at the compare match between OCRnx and TCNTn when the counter increments, and
clearing (or setting) the OCnx Register at compare match between OCRnx and TCNTn when
the counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase correct PWM can
be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPCPWM = ---------------------------2 ⋅ N ⋅ TOP
The N variable represents the prescaler divider (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCRnx Register represent special cases when generating a PWM
waveform output in the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCRnx is set equal to BOTTOM the
output will be continuously low and if set equal to TOP the output will be continuously high for
non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the opposite logic values.
13.9.5
Phase and Frequency Correct PWM Mode
The phase and frequency correct Pulse Width Modulation, or phase and frequency correct PWM
mode (WGMn3:0 = 8 or 9) provides a high resolution phase and frequency correct PWM waveform generation option. The phase and frequency correct PWM mode is, like the phase correct
PWM mode, based on a dual-slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM
(0x0000) to TOP and then from TOP to BOTTOM. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the
Output Compare (OCnx) is cleared on the compare match between TCNTn and OCRnx while
upcounting, and set on the compare match while downcounting. In inverting Compare Output
mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation gives a lower maximum operation frequency compared to the single-slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the
dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control applications.
The main difference between the phase correct, and the phase and frequency correct PWM
mode is the time the OCRnx Register is updated by the OCRnx Buffer Register, (see Figure 138 and Figure 13-9).
The PWM resolution for the phase and frequency correct PWM mode can be defined by either
ICRn or OCRnA. The minimum resolution allowed is 2-bit (ICRn or OCRnA set to 0x0003), and
the maximum resolution is 16-bit (ICRn or OCRnA set to MAX). The PWM resolution in bits can
be calculated using the following equation:
log ( TOP + 1 )
R PFCPWM = ----------------------------------log ( 2 )
In phase and frequency correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value
matches either the value in ICRn (WGMn3:0 = 8), or the value in OCRnA (WGMn3:0 = 9). The
counter has then reached the TOP and changes the count direction. The TCNTn value will be
equal to TOP for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct and frequency
correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 13-9. The figure shows phase and frequency correct
PWM mode when OCRnA or ICRn is used to define TOP. The TCNTn value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes noninverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNTn slopes represent compare matches between OCRnx and TCNTn. The OCnx interrupt flag will be set when a
compare match occurs.
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Figure 13-9. Phase and Frequency Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
OCRnx/TOP Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on Bottom)
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOVn) is set at the same timer clock cycle as the OCRnx
Registers are updated with the double buffer value (at BOTTOM). When either OCRnA or ICRn
is used for defining the TOP value, the OCnA or ICFn flag set when TCNTn has reached TOP.
The interrupt flags can then be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the
TOP or BOTTOM value.
When changing the TOP value the program must ensure that the new TOP value is higher or
equal to the value of all of the Compare Registers. If the TOP value is lower than any of the
Compare Registers, a compare match will never occur between the TCNTn and the OCRnx.
As Figure 13-9 shows the output generated is, in contrast to the phase correct mode, symmetrical in all periods. Since the OCRnx Registers are updated at BOTTOM, the length of the rising
and the falling slopes will always be equal. This gives symmetrical output pulses and is therefore
frequency correct.
Using the ICRn Register for defining TOP works well when using fixed TOP values. By using
ICRn, the OCRnA Register is free to be used for generating a PWM output on OCnA. However,
if the base PWM frequency is actively changed by changing the TOP value, using the OCRnA as
TOP is clearly a better choice due to its double buffer feature.
In phase and frequency correct PWM mode, the compare units allow generation of PWM waveforms on the OCnx pins. Setting the COMnx1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and
an inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the COMnx1:0 to three (See Table on
page 137). The actual OCnx value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the
port pin is set as output (DDR_OCnx). The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing)
the OCnx Register at the compare match between OCRnx and TCNTn when the counter increments, and clearing (or setting) the OCnx Register at compare match between OCRnx and
TCNTn when the counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase
and frequency correct PWM can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPFCPWM = ---------------------------2 ⋅ N ⋅ TOP
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7679H–CAN–08/08
The N variable represents the prescaler divider (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCRnx Register represents special cases when generating a PWM
waveform output in the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCRnx is set equal to BOTTOM the
output will be continuously low and if set equal to TOP the output will be set to high for noninverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the opposite logic values.
13.10 Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The Timer/Counter is a synchronous design and the timer clock (clkTn) is therefore shown as a
clock enable signal in the following figures. The figures include information on when interrupt
flags are set, and when the OCRnx Register is updated with the OCRnx buffer value (only for
modes utilizing double buffering). Figure 13-10 shows a timing diagram for the setting of OCFnx.
Figure 13-10. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCFnx, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
Figure 13-11 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 13-11. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCFnx, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
OCRnx
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
Figure 13-12 shows the count sequence close to TOP in various modes. When using phase and
frequency correct PWM mode the OCRnx Register is updated at BOTTOM. The timing diagrams
will be the same, but TOP should be replaced by BOTTOM, TOP-1 by BOTTOM+1 and so on.
The same renaming applies for modes that set the TOVn flag at BOTTOM.
134
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Figure 13-12. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
(CTC and FPWM)
TCNTn
(PC and PFC PWM)
TOP - 1
TOP
BOTTOM
TOP - 1
TOP
TOP - 1
BOTTOM + 1
TOP - 2
TOVn (FPWM)
and ICFn (if used
as TOP)
OCRnx
New OCRnx Value
Old OCRnx Value
(Update at TOP)
Figure 13-13 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 13-13. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clk
/8)
I/O
TCNTn
(CTC and FPWM)
TCNTn
(PC and PFC PWM)
TOP - 1
TOP
BOTTOM
TOP - 1
TOP
TOP - 1
BOTTOM + 1
TOP - 2
TOVn(FPWM)
and ICFn(if used
as TOP)
OCRnx
Old OCRnx Value
(Update at TOP)
New OCRnx Value
13.11 16-bit Timer/Counter Register Description
13.11.1
Timer/Counter1 Control Register A – TCCR1A
Bit
13.11.2
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
COM1A1
COM1A0
COM1B1
COM1B0
COM1C1
COM1C0
WGM11
WGM10
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR1A
Timer/Counter3 Control Register A – TCCR3A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
COM3A1
COM3A0
COM3B1
COM3B0
COM3C1
COM3C0
WGM31
WGM30
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR3A
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7679H–CAN–08/08
• Bit 7:6 – COMnA1:0: Compare Output Mode for Channel A
• Bit 5:4 – COMnB1:0: Compare Output Mode for Channel B
• Bit 3:2 – COMnC1:0: Compare Output Mode for Channel C
The COMnA1:0, COMnB1:0 and COMnC1:0 control the Output Compare pins (OCnA, OCnB
and OCnC respectively) behavior. If one or both of the COMnA1:0 bits are written to one, the
OCnA output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. If one or
both of the COMnB1:0 bit are written to one, the OCnB output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. If one or both of the COMnC1:0 bit are written to one,
the OCnC output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However, note that the Data Direction Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OCnA, OCnB or
OCnC pin must be set in order to enable the output driver.
When the OCnA, OCnB or OCnC is connected to the pin, the function of the COMnx1:0 bits is
dependent of the WGMn3:0 bits setting. Table 13-1 shows the COMnx1:0 bit functionality when
the WGMn3:0 bits are set to a Normal or a CTC mode (non-PWM).
Table 13-1.
Compare Output Mode, non-PWM
COMnA1/COMnB1/
COMnC1
COMnA0/COMnB0/
COMnC0
0
0
Normal port operation, OCnA/OCnB/OCnC
disconnected.
0
1
Toggle OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare Match.
1
0
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare Match (Set
output to low level).
1
1
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare Match (Set
output to high level).
Description
Table 13-2 shows the COMnx1:0 bit functionality when the WGMn3:0 bits are set to the fast
PWM mode.
Table 13-2.
COMnA1/COMnB1/
COMnC1
COMnA0/COMnB0/
COMnC0
0
0
Normal port operation, OCnA/OCnB/OCnC
disconnected.
0
1
WGMn3=0: Normal port operation,
OCnA/OCnB/OCnC disconnected.
WGMn3=1: Toggle OCnA on Compare Match,
OCnB/OCnC reserved.
1
0
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare Match
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC at TOP
1
1
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare Match
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC at TOP
Note:
136
Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM (1)
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCRnA/OCRnB/OCRnC equals TOP and
COMnA1/COMnB1/COMnC1 is set. In this case the compare match is ignored, but the set or
clear is done at TOP. See “Fast PWM Mode” on page 128. for more details.
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Table 13-3 shows the COMnx1:0 bit functionality when the WGMn3:0 bits are set to the phase
correct or the phase and frequency correct, PWM mode.
Table 13-3.
Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct and Phase and Frequency Correct
PWM(1)
COMnA1/COMnB1/
COMnC1
COMnA0/COMnB0/
COMnC0
0
0
Normal port operation, OCnA/OCnB/OCnC
disconnected.
1
WGMn3=0: Normal port operation,
OCnA/OCnB/OCnC disconnected.
WGMn3=1: Toggle OCnA on Compare Match,
OCnB/OCnC reserved.
0
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare Match when
up-counting.
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare Match when
downcounting.
1
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare Match when upcounting.
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare Match when
downcounting.
0
1
1
Note:
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCnA/OCnB/OCnC equals TOP and
COMnA1/COMnB1/COMnC1 is set. See “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on page 130. for more
details.
• Bit 1:0 – WGMn1:0: Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGMn3:2 bits found in the TCCRnB Register, these bits control the counting
sequence of the counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value, and what type of waveform generation to be used, see Table 13-4. Modes of operation supported by the Timer/Counter
unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC) mode, and three types
of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. (See “Modes of Operation” on page 126.).
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7679H–CAN–08/08
Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description (1)
Table 13-4.
Mode
WGMn3
WGMn2
(CTCn)
WGMn1
(PWMn1)
WGMn0
(PWMn0)
Timer/Counter
Mode of Operation
TOP
Update of
OCRnx at
TOVn Flag
Set on
0
0
0
0
0
Normal
0xFFFF
Immediate
MAX
1
0
0
0
1
PWM, Phase Correct, 8-bit
0x00FF
TOP
BOTTOM
2
0
0
1
0
PWM, Phase Correct, 9-bit
0x01FF
TOP
BOTTOM
3
0
0
1
1
PWM, Phase Correct, 10bit
0x03FF
TOP
BOTTOM
4
0
1
0
0
CTC
OCRnA
Immediate
MAX
5
0
1
0
1
Fast PWM, 8-bit
0x00FF
TOP
TOP
6
0
1
1
0
Fast PWM, 9-bit
0x01FF
TOP
TOP
7
0
1
1
1
Fast PWM, 10-bit
0x03FF
TOP
TOP
8
1
0
0
0
PWM, Phase and
Frequency Correct
ICRn
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
9
1
0
0
1
PWM, Phase and
Frequency Correct
OCRnA
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
10
1
0
1
0
PWM, Phase Correct
ICRn
TOP
BOTTOM
11
1
0
1
1
PWM, Phase Correct
OCRnA
TOP
BOTTOM
12
1
1
0
0
CTC
ICRn
Immediate
MAX
13
1
1
0
1
(Reserved)
–
–
–
14
1
1
1
0
Fast PWM
ICRn
TOP
TOP
1
1
1
1
Fast PWM
OCRnA
TOP
TOP
15
Note:
13.11.3
1. The CTCn and PWMn1:0 bit definition names are obsolete. Use the WGMn2:0 definitions. However, the functionality and
location of these bits are compatible with previous versions of the timer.
Timer/Counter1 Control Register B – TCCR1B
Bit
13.11.4
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ICNC1
ICES1
–
WGM13
WGM12
CS12
CS11
CS10
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR1B
Timer/Counter3 Control Register B – TCCR3B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ICNC3
ICES3
–
WGM33
WGM32
CS32
CS31
CS30
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR3B
• Bit 7 – ICNCn: Input Capture Noise Canceler
Setting this bit (to one) activates the Input Capture Noise Canceler. When the noise canceler is
activated, the input from the Input Capture pin (ICPn) is filtered. The filter function requires four
successive equal valued samples of the ICPn pin for changing its output. The Input Capture is
therefore delayed by four Oscillator cycles when the noise canceler is enabled.
• Bit 6 – ICESn: Input Capture Edge Select
138
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
This bit selects which edge on the Input Capture pin (ICPn) that is used to trigger a capture
event. When the ICESn bit is written to zero, a falling (negative) edge is used as trigger, and
when the ICESn bit is written to one, a rising (positive) edge will trigger the capture.
When a capture is triggered according to the ICESn setting, the counter value is copied into the
Input Capture Register (ICRn). The event will also set the Input Capture Flag (ICFn), and this
can be used to cause an Input Capture Interrupt, if this interrupt is enabled.
When the ICRn is used as TOP value (see description of the WGMn3:0 bits located in the
TCCRnA and the TCCRnB Register), the ICPn is disconnected and consequently the Input Capture function is disabled.
• Bit 5 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. For ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be
written to zero when TCCRnB is written.
• Bit 4:3 – WGMn3:2: Waveform Generation Mode
See TCCRnA Register description.
• Bit 2:0 – CSn2:0: Clock Select
The three Clock Select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter, see Figure
13-10 and Figure 13-11.
Table 13-5.
Clock Select Bit Description
CSn2
CSn1
CSn0
Description
0
0
0
No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped).
0
0
1
clkI/O/1 (No prescaling)
0
1
0
clkI/O/8 (From prescaler)
0
1
1
clkI/O/64 (From prescaler)
1
0
0
clkI/O/256 (From prescaler)
1
0
1
clkI/O/1024 (From prescaler)
1
1
0
External clock source on Tn pin. Clock on falling edge.
1
1
1
External clock source on Tn pin. Clock on rising edge.
If external pin modes are used for the Timer/Countern, transitions on the Tn pin will clock the
counter even if the pin is configured as an output. This feature allows software control of the
counting.
13.11.5
Timer/Counter1 Control Register C – TCCR1C
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC1A
FOC1B
FOC1C
–
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR1C
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7679H–CAN–08/08
13.11.6
Timer/Counter3 Control Register C – TCCR3C
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC3A
FOC3B
FOC3C
–
–
–
–
–
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR3C
• Bit 7 – FOCnA: Force Output Compare for Channel A
• Bit 6 – FOCnB: Force Output Compare for Channel B
• Bit 5 – FOCnC: Force Output Compare for Channel C
The FOCnA/FOCnB/FOCnC bits are only active when the WGMn3:0 bits specifies a non-PWM
mode. However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, these bits must be set to zero
when TCCRnA is written when operating in a PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the
FOCnA/FOCnB/FOCnC bit, an immediate compare match is forced on the Waveform Generation unit. The OCnA/OCnB/OCnC output is changed according to its COMnx1:0 bits setting.
Note that the FOCnA/FOCnB/FOCnC bits are implemented as strobes. Therefore it is the value
present in the COMnx1:0 bits that determine the effect of the forced compare.
A FOCnA/FOCnB/FOCnC strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in Clear
Timer on Compare match (CTC) mode using OCRnA as TOP.
The FOCnA/FOCnB/FOCnC bits are always read as zero.
13.11.7
Timer/Counter1 – TCNT1H and TCNT1L
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TCNT1[15:8]
TCNT1H
TCNT1[7:0]
13.11.8
TCNT1L
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
3
2
1
0
Timer/Counter3 – TCNT3H and TCNT3L
Bit
7
6
5
TCNT3[15:8]
TCNT3H
TCNT3[7:0]
TCNT3L
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The two Timer/Counter I/O locations (TCNTnH and TCNTnL, combined TCNTn) give direct
access, both for read and for write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 16-bit counter. To
ensure that both the high and low bytes are read and written simultaneously when the CPU
accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit temporary high byte register
(TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See “Accessing 16-bit
Registers” on page 116.
Modifying the counter (TCNTn) while the counter is running introduces a risk of missing a compare match between TCNTn and one of the OCRnx Registers.
Writing to the TCNTn Register blocks (removes) the compare match on the following timer clock
for all compare units.
140
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
13.11.9
Output Compare Register A – OCR1AH and OCR1AL
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
OCR1A[15:8]
OCR1AH
OCR1A[7:0]
OCR1AL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
3
2
1
0
13.11.10 Output Compare Register B – OCR1BH and OCR1BL
Bit
7
6
5
OCR1B[15:8]
OCR1BH
OCR1B[7:0]
OCR1BL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
3
2
1
0
13.11.11 Output Compare Register C – OCR1CH and OCR1CL
Bit
7
6
5
OCR1C[15:8]
OCR1CH
OCR1C[7:0]
OCR1CL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
3
2
1
0
13.11.12 Output Compare Register A – OCR3AH and OCR3AL
Bit
7
6
5
OCR3A[15:8]
OCR3AH
OCR3A[7:0]
OCR3AL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
3
2
1
0
13.11.13 Output Compare Register B – OCR3BH and OCR3BL
Bit
7
6
5
OCR3B[15:8]
OCR3BH
OCR3B[7:0]
OCR3BL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
3
2
1
0
13.11.14 Output Compare Register C – OCR3CH and OCR3CL
Bit
7
6
5
OCR3C[15:8]
OCR3CH
OCR3C[7:0]
OCR3CL
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared with the
counter value (TCNTn). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to
generate a waveform output on the OCnx pin.
The Output Compare Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are
written simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the access is performed using an
8-bit temporary high byte register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other 16bit registers. See “Accessing 16-bit Registers” on page 116.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
13.11.15 Input Capture Register – ICR1H and ICR1L
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ICR1[15:8]
ICR1H
ICR1[7:0]
ICR1L
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
4
3
2
1
0
13.11.16 Input Capture Register – ICR3H and ICR3L
Bit
7
6
ICR3[15:8]
ICR3H
ICR3[7:0]
ICR3L
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Input Capture is updated with the counter (TCNTn) value each time an event occurs on the
ICPn pin (or optionally on the Analog Comparator output for Timer/Counter1). The Input Capture
can be used for defining the counter TOP value.
The Input Capture Register is 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are read
simultaneously when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit
temporary high byte register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit
registers. See “Accessing 16-bit Registers” on page 116.
13.11.17 Timer/Counter1 Interrupt Mask Register – TIMSK1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
ICIE1
–
OCIE1C
OCIE1B
OCIE1A
TOIE1
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK1
13.11.18 Timer/Counter3 Interrupt Mask Register – TIMSK3
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
ICIE3
–
OCIE3C
OCIE3B
OCIE3A
TOIE3
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK3
• Bit 7..6 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use.
• Bit 5 – ICIEn: Input Capture Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally
enabled), the Timer/Countern Input Capture interrupt is enabled. The corresponding Interrupt
Vector (See “Interrupts” on page 60.) is executed when the ICFn flag, located in TIFRn, is set.
• Bit 4 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use.
• Bit 3 – OCIEnC: Output Compare C Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally
enabled), the Timer/Countern Output Compare C Match interrupt is enabled. The corresponding
Interrupt Vector (See “Interrupts” on page 60.) is executed when the OCFnC flag, located in
TIFRn, is set.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
• Bit 2 – OCIEnB: Output Compare B Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally
enabled), the Timer/Countern Output Compare B Match interrupt is enabled. The corresponding
Interrupt Vector (See “Interrupts” on page 60.) is executed when the OCFnB flag, located in
TIFRn, is set.
• Bit 1 – OCIEnA: Output Compare A Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally
enabled), the Timer/Countern Output Compare A Match interrupt is enabled. The corresponding
Interrupt Vector (See “Interrupts” on page 60.) is executed when the OCFnA flag, located in
TIFRn, is set.
• Bit 0 – TOIEn: Timer/Counter Overflow Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts globally
enabled), the Timer/Countern Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding Interrupt Vector
(See “Interrupts” on page 60.) is executed when the TOVn flag, located in TIFRn, is set.
13.11.19 Timer/Counter1 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
ICF1
–
OCF1C
OCF1B
OCF1A
TOV1
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR1
13.11.20 Timer/Counter3 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR3
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
ICF3
–
OCF3C
OCF3B
OCF3A
TOV3
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR3
• Bit 7..6 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use.
• Bit 5 – ICFn: Input Capture Flag
This flag is set when a capture event occurs on the ICPn pin. When the Input Capture Register
(ICRn) is set by the WGMn3:0 to be used as the TOP value, the ICFn flag is set when the
counter reaches the TOP value.
ICFn is automatically cleared when the Input Capture Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively,
ICFn can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 4 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use.
• Bit 3 – OCFnC: Output Compare C Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNTn) value matches the Output
Compare Register C (OCRnC).
Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOCnC) strobe will not set the OCFnC flag.
OCFnC is automatically cleared when the Output Compare Match C Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCFnC can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
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• Bit 2 – OCFnB: Output Compare B Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNTn) value matches the Output
Compare Register B (OCRnB).
Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOCnB) strobe will not set the OCFnB flag.
OCFnB is automatically cleared when the Output Compare Match B Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCFnB can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 1 – OCFnA: Output Compare A Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNTn) value matches the Output
Compare Register A (OCRnA).
Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOCnA) strobe will not set the OCFnA flag.
OCFnA is automatically cleared when the Output Compare Match A Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCFnA can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 0 – TOVn: Timer/Counter Overflow Flag
The setting of this flag is dependent of the WGMn3:0 bits setting. In Normal and CTC modes,
the TOVn flag is set when the timer overflows. Refer to Table 13-4 on page 138 for the TOVn
flag behavior when using another WGMn3:0 bit setting.
TOVn is automatically cleared when the Timer/Countern Overflow Interrupt Vector is executed.
Alternatively, TOVn can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit location.
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14. 8-bit Timer/Counter2 with PWM and Asynchronous Operation
Timer/Counter2 is a general purpose, single channel, 8-bit Timer/Counter module. The main
features are:
14.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
14.2
Single Channel Counter
Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload)
Glitch-free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
Frequency Generator
10-bit Clock Prescaler
Overflow and Compare Match Interrupt Sources (TOV2 and OCF2A)
Allows Clocking from External 32 kHz Watch Crystal Independent of the I/O Clock
Overview
Many register and bit references in this section are written in general form.
• A lower case “n” replaces the Timer/Counter number, in this case 2. However, when using
the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used, i.e., TCNT2 for
accessing Timer/Counter2 counter value and so on.
• A lower case “x” replaces the Output Compare unit channel, in this case A. However, when
using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used, i.e., OCR2A for
accessing Timer/Counter2 output compare channel A value and so on.
A simplified block diagram of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 14-1. For the actual
placement of I/O pins, refer to Figure 1-2 on page 5 or Figure 1-3 on page 6. CPU accessible I/O
Registers, including I/O bits and I/O pins, are shown in bold. The device-specific I/O Register
and bit locations are listed in the “8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” on page 157.
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Figure 14-1. 8-bit Timer/Counter2 Block Diagram
TCCRnx
count
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
clear
Control Logic
direction
clkTn
TOSC2
BOTTOM
TOP
Prescaler
T/C
Oscillator
TOSC1
Timer/Counter
TCNTn
=0
= 0xFF
DATA BUS
OCnx
(Int.Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
clk I/O
OCnx
OCRnx
Synchronized Status flags
clk I/O
Synchronization Unit
clk ASY
Status flags
ASSRn
asynchronous mode
select (ASn)
The Timer/Counter (TCNT2) and Output Compare Register (OCR2A) are 8-bit registers. Interrupt request (shorten as Int.Req.) signals are all visible in the Timer Interrupt Flag Register
(TIFR2). All interrupts are individually masked with the Timer Interrupt Mask Register (TIMSK2).
TIFR2 and TIMSK2 are not shown in the figure.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, or asynchronously clocked from
the TOSC1/2 pins, as detailed later in this section. The asynchronous operation is controlled by
the Asynchronous Status Register (ASSR). The Clock Select logic block controls which clock
source the Timer/Counter uses to increment (or decrement) its value. The Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source is selected. The output from the Clock Select logic is referred to as the
timer clock (clkT2).
The double buffered Output Compare Register (OCR2A) is compared with the Timer/Counter
value at all times. The result of the compare can be used by the Waveform Generator to generate a PWM or variable frequency output on the Output Compare pin (OC2A). See “Output
Compare Unit” on page 148. for details. The compare match event will also set the compare flag
(OCF2A) which can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt request.
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14.2.1
Definitions
The following definitions are used extensively throughout the section:
14.3
BOTTOM
The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes zero (0x00).
MAX
The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFF (decimal 255).
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the
count sequence. The TOP value can be assigned to be the fixed value 0xFF
(MAX) or the value stored in the OCR2A Register. The assignment is dependent on the mode of operation.
Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal synchronous or an external asynchronous
clock source. The clock source is selected by the clock select logic which is controlled by the
clock select (CS22:0) bits located in the Timer/Counter control register (TCCR2).The clock
source clkT2 is by default equal to the MCU clock, clkI/O. When the AS2 bit in the ASSR Register
is written to logic one, the clock source is taken from the Timer/Counter Oscillator connected to
TOSC1 and TOSC2 or directly from TOSC1. For details on asynchronous operation, see “Asynchronous Status Register – ASSR” on page 160. For details on clock sources and prescaler, see
“Timer/Counter2 Prescaler” on page 163.
14.4
Counter Unit
The main part of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable bi-directional counter unit. Figure
14-2 shows a block diagram of the counter and its surrounding environment.
Figure 14-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
DATA BUS
TOSC2
count
clear
TCNTn
clk Tn
Control Logic
Prescaler
clk TnS
T/C
Oscillator
direction
bottom
TOSC1
top
clkI/O
Figure 14-3.
Signal description (internal signals):
count
Increment or decrement TCNT2 by 1.
direction
Selects between increment and decrement.
clear
Clear TCNT2 (set all bits to zero).
clkT2
Timer/Counter clock.
top
Signalizes that TCNT2 has reached maximum value.
bottom
Signalizes that TCNT2 has reached minimum value (zero).
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Depending on the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or decremented
at each timer clock (clkT2). clkT2 can be generated from an external or internal clock source,
selected by the Clock Select bits (CS22:0). When no clock source is selected (CS22:0 = 0) the
timer is stopped. However, the TCNT2 value can be accessed by the CPU, regardless of
whether clkT2 is present or not. A CPU write overrides (has priority over) all counter clear or
count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the WGM21 and WGM20 bits located in
the Timer/Counter Control Register (TCCR2A). There are close connections between how the
counter behaves (counts) and how waveforms are generated on the Output Compare output
OC2A. For more details about advanced counting sequences and waveform generation, see
“Modes of Operation” on page 150.
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV2) is set according to the mode of operation selected by
the WGM21:0 bits. TOV2 can be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
14.5
Output Compare Unit
The 8-bit comparator continuously compares TCNT2 with the Output Compare Register
(OCR2A). Whenever TCNT2 equals OCR2A, the comparator signals a match. A match will set
the Output Compare Flag (OCF2A) at the next timer clock cycle. If enabled (OCIE2A = 1), the
Output Compare Flag generates an Output Compare interrupt. The OCF2A flag is automatically
cleared when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively, the OCF2A flag can be cleared by software
by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location. The Waveform Generator uses the match signal to
generate an output according to operating mode set by the WGM21:0 bits and Compare Output
mode (COM2A1:0) bits. The max and bottom signals are used by the Waveform Generator for
handling the special cases of the extreme values in some modes of operation (“Modes of Operation” on page 150).
Figure 14-4 shows a block diagram of the Output Compare unit.
Figure 14-4. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
DATA BUS
OCRnx
TCNTn
= (8-bit Comparator )
OCFnx (Int.Req.)
top
bottom
Waveform Generator
OCnx
FOCn
WGMn1:0
COMnX1:0
The OCR2A Register is double buffered when using any of the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
modes. For the Normal and Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) modes of operation, the double
buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes the update of the OCR2A Compare
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Register to either top or bottom of the counting sequence. The synchronization prevents the
occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical PWM pulses, thereby making the output glitch-free.
The OCR2A Register access may seem complex, but this is not case. When the double buffering is enabled, the CPU has access to the OCR2A Buffer Register, and if double buffering is
disabled the CPU will access the OCR2A directly.
14.5.1
Force Output Compare
In non-PWM waveform generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be forced by
writing a one to the Force Output Compare (FOC2A) bit. Forcing compare match will not set the
OCF2A flag or reload/clear the timer, but the OC2A pin will be updated as if a real compare
match had occurred (the COM2A1:0 bits settings define whether the OC2A pin is set, cleared or
toggled).
14.5.2
Compare Match Blocking by TCNT2 Write
All CPU write operations to the TCNT2 Register will block any compare match that occurs in the
next timer clock cycle, even when the timer is stopped. This feature allows OCR2A to be initialized to the same value as TCNT2 without triggering an interrupt when the Timer/Counter clock is
enabled.
14.5.3
Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNT2 in any mode of operation will block all compare matches for one timer clock
cycle, there are risks involved when changing TCNT2 when using the Output Compare channel,
independently of whether the Timer/Counter is running or not. If the value written to TCNT2
equals the OCR2A value, the compare match will be missed, resulting in incorrect waveform
generation. Similarly, do not write the TCNT2 value equal to BOTTOM when the counter is
downcounting.
The setup of the OC2A should be performed before setting the Data Direction Register for the
port pin to output. The easiest way of setting the OC2A value is to use the Force Output Compare (FOC2A) strobe bit in Normal mode. The OC2A Register keeps its value even when
changing between Waveform Generation modes.
Be aware that the COM2A1:0 bits are not double buffered together with the compare value.
Changing the COM2A1:0 bits will take effect immediately.
14.6
Compare Match Output Unit
The Compare Output mode (COM2A1:0) bits have two functions. The Waveform Generator
uses the COM2A1:0 bits for defining the Output Compare (OC2A) state at the next compare
match. Also, the COM2A1:0 bits control the OC2A pin output source. Figure 14-5 shows a simplified schematic of the logic affected by the COM2A1:0 bit setting. The I/O Registers, I/O bits,
and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the parts of the general I/O port control registers (DDR and PORT) that are affected by the COM2A1:0 bits are shown. When referring to the
OC2A state, the reference is for the internal OC2A Register, not the OC2A pin.
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Figure 14-5. Compare Match Output Unit, Schematic
COMnx1
COMnx0
FOCnx
Waveform
Generator
D
Q
1
OCnx
DATA BUS
D
0
OCnx
Pin
Q
PORT
D
Q
DDR
clk I/O
14.6.1
Compare Output Function
The general I/O port function is overridden by the Output Compare (OC2A) from the Waveform
Generator if either of the COM2A1:0 bits are set. However, the OC2A pin direction (input or output) is still controlled by the Data Direction Register (DDR) for the port pin. The Data Direction
Register bit for the OC2A pin (DDR_OC2A) must be set as output before the OC2A value is visible on the pin. The port override function is independent of the Waveform Generation mode.
The design of the Output Compare pin logic allows initialization of the OC2A state before the
output is enabled. Note that some COM2A1:0 bit settings are reserved for certain modes of
operation. See “8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” on page 157.
14.6.2
Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The Waveform Generator uses the COM2A1:0 bits differently in normal, CTC, and PWM modes.
For all modes, setting the COM2A1:0 = 0 tells the Waveform Generator that no action on the
OC2A Register is to be performed on the next compare match. For compare output actions in
the non-PWM modes refer to Table 14-2 on page 158. For fast PWM mode, refer to Table 14-3
on page 158, and for phase correct PWM refer to Table 14-4 on page 159.
A change of the COM2A1:0 bits state will have effect at the first compare match after the bits are
written. For non-PWM modes, the action can be forced to have immediate effect by using the
FOC2A strobe bits.
14.7
Modes of Operation
The mode of operation, i.e., the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the Output Compare pins, is
defined by the combination of the Waveform Generation mode (WGM21:0) and Compare Output
mode (COM2A1:0) bits. The Compare Output mode bits do not affect the counting sequence,
while the Waveform Generation mode bits do. The COM2A1:0 bits control whether the PWM
output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or non-inverted PWM). For non-PWM
modes the COM2A1:0 bits control whether the output should be set, cleared, or toggled at a
compare match (See “Compare Match Output Unit” on page 149.).
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For detailed timing information refer to “Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams” on page 155.
14.7.1
Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGM21:0 = 0). In this mode the counting
direction is always up (incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The counter simply
overruns when it passes its maximum 8-bit value (TOP = 0xFF) and then restarts from the bottom (0x00). In normal operation the Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV2) will be set in the same
timer clock cycle as the TCNT2 becomes zero. The TOV2 flag in this case behaves like a ninth
bit, except that it is only set, not cleared. However, combined with the timer overflow interrupt
that automatically clears the TOV2 flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software. There
are no special cases to consider in the Normal mode, a new counter value can be written
anytime.
The Output Compare unit can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using the Output Compare to generate waveforms in Normal mode is not recommended, since this will
occupy too much of the CPU time.
14.7.2
Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In Clear Timer on Compare or CTC mode (WGM21:0 = 2), the OCR2A Register is used to
manipulate the counter resolution. In CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when the counter
value (TCNT2) matches the OCR2A. The OCR2A defines the top value for the counter, hence
also its resolution. This mode allows greater control of the compare match output frequency. It
also simplifies the operation of counting external events.
The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 14-6. The counter value (TCNT2)
increases until a compare match occurs between TCNT2 and OCR2A, and then counter
(TCNT2) is cleared.
Figure 14-6. CTC Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(Toggle)
Period
(COMnx1:0 = 1)
1
2
3
4
An interrupt can be generated each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by using the
OCF2A flag. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the
TOP value. However, changing the TOP to a value close to BOTTOM when the counter is running with none or a low prescaler value must be done with care since the CTC mode does not
have the double buffering feature. If the new value written to OCR2A is lower than the current
value of TCNT2, the counter will miss the compare match. The counter will then have to count to
its maximum value (0xFF) and wrap around starting at 0x00 before the compare match can
occur.
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For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OC2A output can be set to toggle its logical
level on each compare match by setting the Compare Output mode bits to toggle mode
(COM2A1:0 = 1). The OC2A value will not be visible on the port pin unless the data direction for
the pin is set to output. The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of fOC2A =
fclk_I/O/2 when OCR2A is set to zero (0x00). The waveform frequency is defined by the following
equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnx = -------------------------------------------------2 ⋅ N ⋅ ( 1 + OCRnx )
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 1024).
As for the Normal mode of operation, the TOV2 flag is set in the same timer clock cycle that the
counter counts from MAX to 0x00.
14.7.3
Fast PWM Mode
The fast Pulse Width Modulation or fast PWM mode (WGM21:0 = 3) provides a high frequency
PWM waveform generation option. The fast PWM differs from the other PWM option by its single-slope operation. The counter counts from BOTTOM to MAX then restarts from BOTTOM. In
non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC2A) is cleared on the compare
match between TCNT2 and OCR2A, and set at BOTTOM. In inverting Compare Output mode,
the output is set on compare match and cleared at BOTTOM. Due to the single-slope operation,
the operating frequency of the fast PWM mode can be twice as high as the phase correct PWM
mode that uses dual-slope operation. This high frequency makes the fast PWM mode well suited
for power regulation, rectification, and DAC applications. High frequency allows physically small
sized external components (coils, capacitors), and therefore reduces total system cost.
In fast PWM mode, the counter is incremented until the counter value matches the MAX value.
The counter is then cleared at the following timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the fast
PWM mode is shown in Figure 14-7. The TCNT2 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the single-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and
inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT2 slopes represent compare
matches between OCR2A and TCNT2.
Figure 14-7. Fast PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
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4
5
6
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The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV2) is set each time the counter reaches MAX. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the compare value.
In fast PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC2A pin.
Setting the COM2A1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output
can be generated by setting the COM2A1:0 to three (See Table 14-3 on page 158). The actual
OC2A value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OC2A Register at the compare
match between OCR2A and TCNT2, and clearing (or setting) the OC2A Register at the timer
clock cycle the counter is cleared (changes from MAX to BOTTOM).
The PWM frequency for the output can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPWM = -----------------N ⋅ 256
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR2A Register represent special cases when generating a PWM
waveform output in the fast PWM mode. If the OCR2A is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will
be a narrow spike for each MAX+1 timer clock cycle. Setting the OCR2A equal to MAX will result
in a constantly high or low output (depending on the polarity of the output set by the COM2A1:0
bits.)
A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved by setting OC2A to toggle its logical level on each compare match (COM2A1:0 = 1). The waveform
generated will have a maximum frequency of foc2A = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR2A is set to zero. This
feature is similar to the OC2A toggle in CTC mode, except the double buffer feature of the Output Compare unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
14.7.4
Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct PWM mode (WGM21:0 = 1) provides a high resolution phase correct PWM
waveform generation option. The phase correct PWM mode is based on a dual-slope operation.
The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM to MAX and then from MAX to BOTTOM. In noninverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC2A) is cleared on the compare match
between TCNT2 and OCR2A while upcounting, and set on the compare match while downcounting. In inverting Output Compare mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation
has lower maximum operation frequency than single slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control
applications.
The PWM resolution for the phase correct PWM mode is fixed to eight bits. In phase correct
PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches MAX. When the counter
reaches MAX, it changes the count direction. The TCNT2 value will be equal to MAX for one
timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 14-8.
The TCNT2 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope
operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal
line marks on the TCNT2 slopes represent compare matches between OCR2A and TCNT2.
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Figure 14-8. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV2) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM. The
interrupt flag can be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the BOTTOM
value.
In phase correct PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the
OC2A pin. Setting the COM2A1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM. An inverted
PWM output can be generated by setting the COM2A1:0 to three (See Table 14-4 on page 159).
The actual OC2A value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is
set as output. The PWM waveform is generated by clearing (or setting) the OC2A Register at the
compare match between OCR2A and TCNT2 when the counter increments, and setting (or
clearing) the OC2A Register at compare match between OCR2A and TCNT2 when the counter
decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase correct PWM can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPCPWM = -----------------N ⋅ 510
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR2A Register represent special cases when generating a PWM
waveform output in the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCR2A is set equal to BOTTOM, the
output will be continuously low and if set equal to MAX the output will be continuously high for
non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the opposite logic values.
At the very start of period 2 in Figure 14-8 on page 154 OCnx has a transition from high to low
even though there is no Compare Match. The point of this transition is to guarantee symmetry
around BOTTOM. There are two cases that give a transition without Compare Match.
• OCR2A changes its value from MAX, like in Figure 14-8 on page 154. When the OCR2A
value is MAX the OCn pin value is the same as the result of a down-counting compare
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match. To ensure symmetry around BOTTOM the OCn value at MAX must correspond to the
result of an up-counting Compare Match.
• The timer starts counting from a value higher than the one in OCR2A, and for that reason
misses the Compare Match and hence the OCn change that would have happened on the
way up.
14.8
Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The following figures show the Timer/Counter in synchronous mode, and the timer clock (clkT2)
is therefore shown as a clock enable signal. In asynchronous mode, clkI/O should be replaced by
the Timer/Counter Oscillator clock. The figures include information on when interrupt flags are
set. Figure 14-9 contains timing data for basic Timer/Counter operation. The figure shows the
count sequence close to the MAX value in all modes other than phase correct PWM mode.
Figure 14-9. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 14-10 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 14-10. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 14-11 shows the setting of OCF2A in all modes except CTC mode.
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Figure 14-11. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCF2A, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
OCRnx
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
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Figure 14-12 shows the setting of OCF2A and the clearing of TCNT2 in CTC mode.
Figure 14-12. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Clear Timer on Compare Match mode, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
(CTC)
TOP - 1
TOP
OCRnx
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOP
OCFnx
14.9
8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description
14.9.1
Timer/Counter2 Control Register A– TCCR2A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC2A
WGM20
COM2A1
COM2A0
WGM21
CS22
CS21
CS20
Read/Write
W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCCR2A
• Bit 7 – FOC2A: Force Output Compare A
The FOC2A bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode. However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR2A is written when
operating in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC2A bit, an immediate compare
match is forced on the Waveform Generation unit. The OC2A output is changed according to its
COM2A1:0 bits setting. Note that the FOC2A bit is implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the
value present in the COM2A1:0 bits that determines the effect of the forced compare.
A FOC2A strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using
OCR2A as TOP.
The FOC2A bit is always read as zero.
• Bit 6, 3 – WGM21:0: Waveform Generation Mode
These bits control the counting sequence of the counter, the source for the maximum (TOP)
counter value, and what type of waveform generation to be used. Modes of operation supported
by the Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode, Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC) mode, and
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two types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. See Table 14-1 and “Modes of Operation”
on page 150.
Table 14-1.
Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description(1)
Mode
WGM21
(CTC2)
WGM20
(PWM2)
Timer/Counter
Mode of Operation
TOP
Update of
OCR2A at
TOV2 Flag
Set on
0
0
0
Normal
0xFF
Immediate
MAX
1
0
1
PWM, Phase Correct
0xFF
TOP
BOTTOM
2
1
0
CTC
OCR2A
Immediate
MAX
3
1
1
Fast PWM
0xFF
TOP
MAX
Note:
1. The CTC2 and PWM2 bit definition names are now obsolete. Use the WGM21:0 definitions.
However, the functionality and location of these bits are compatible with previous versions of
the timer.
• Bit 5:4 – COM2A1:0: Compare Match Output Mode A
These bits control the Output Compare pin (OC2A) behavior. If one or both of the COM2A1:0
bits are set, the OC2A output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected
to. However, note that the Data Direction Register (DDR) bit corresponding to OC2A pin must be
set in order to enable the output driver.
When OC2A is connected to the pin, the function of the COM2A1:0 bits depends on the
WGM21:0 bit setting. Table 14-2 shows the COM2A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM21:0 bits
are set to a normal or CTC mode (non-PWM).
Table 14-2.
Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM2A1
COM2A0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2A disconnected.
0
1
Toggle OC2A on compare match.
1
0
Clear OC2A on compare match.
1
1
Set OC2A on compare match.
Table 14-3 shows the COM2A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM21:0 bits are set to fast PWM
mode.
Table 14-3.
COM2A1
COM2A0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2A disconnected.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC2A on compare match.
Set OC2A at TOP.
1
1
Set OC2A on compare match.
Clear OC2A at TOP.
Note:
158
Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode(1)
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCR2A equals TOP and COM2A1 is set. In this case, the compare match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See “Fast PWM Mode” on page 152
for more details.
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Table 14-4 shows the COM21:0 bit functionality when the WGM21:0 bits are set to phase correct PWM mode.
Table 14-4.
Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode(1)
COM2A1
COM2A0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2A disconnected.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC2A on compare match when up-counting.
Set OC2A on compare match when downcounting.
1
1
Set OC2A on compare match when up-counting.
Clear OC2A on compare match when downcounting.
Note:
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCR2A equals TOP and COM2A1 is set. In this case, the compare match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on
page 153 for more details.
• Bit 2:0 – CS22:0: Clock Select
The three Clock Select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter, see Table
14-5.
Table 14-5.
14.9.2
Clock Select Bit Description
CS22
CS21
CS20
Description
0
0
0
No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped).
0
0
1
clkT2S/(No prescaling)
0
1
0
clkT2S/8 (From prescaler)
0
1
1
clkT2S/32 (From prescaler)
1
0
0
clkT2S/64 (From prescaler)
1
0
1
clkT2S/128 (From prescaler)
1
1
0
clkT2S/256 (From prescaler)
1
1
1
clkT2S/1024 (From prescaler)
Timer/Counter2 Register – TCNT2
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TCNT2[7:0]
TCNT2
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Timer/Counter Register gives direct access, both for read and write operations, to the
Timer/Counter unit 8-bit counter. Writing to the TCNT2 Register blocks (removes) the compare
match on the following timer clock. Modifying the counter (TCNT2) while the counter is running,
introduces a risk of missing a compare match between TCNT2 and the OCR2A Register.
14.9.3
Output Compare Register A – OCR2A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
OCR2A[7:0]
OCR2A
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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The Output Compare Register A contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the
counter value (TCNT2). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to
generate a waveform output on the OC2A pin.
14.10 Asynchronous operation of the Timer/Counter2
14.10.1
Asynchronous Status Register – ASSR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
EXCLK
AS2
TCN2UB
OCR2UB
TCR2UB
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ASSR
• Bit 7..5 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use.
• Bit 4 – EXCLK: Enable External Clock Input
When EXCLK is written to one, and asynchronous clock is selected, the external clock input
buffer is enabled and an external clock can be input on Timer Oscillator 1 (TOSC1) pin instead
of a 32 kHz crystal. Writing to EXCLK should be done before asynchronous operation is
selected. Note that the crystal Oscillator will only run when this bit is zero.
• Bit 3 – AS2: Asynchronous Timer/Counter2
When AS2 is written to zero, Timer/Counter2 is clocked from the I/O clock, clkI/O and the crystal
Oscillator connected to the Timer/Counter2 Oscillator (TOSC) does nor run. When AS2 is written
to one, Timer/Counter2 is clocked from a crystal Oscillator connected to the Timer/Counter2
Oscillator (TOSC) or from external clock on TOSC1 depending on EXCLK setting. When the
value of AS2 is changed, the contents of TCNT2, OCR2A, and TCCR2A might be corrupted.
• Bit 2 – TCN2UB: Timer/Counter2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and TCNT2 is written, this bit becomes set.
When TCNT2 has been updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates that TCNT2 is ready to be updated with a new value.
• Bit 1 – OCR2UB: Output Compare Register2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and OCR2A is written, this bit becomes set.
When OCR2A has been updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates that OCR2A is ready to be updated with a new value.
• Bit 0 – TCR2UB: Timer/Counter Control Register2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and TCCR2A is written, this bit becomes set.
When TCCR2A has been updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is cleared by
hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates that TCCR2A is ready to be updated with a new
value.
If a write is performed to any of the three Timer/Counter2 Registers while its update busy flag is
set, the updated value might get corrupted and cause an unintentional interrupt to occur.
The mechanisms for reading TCNT2, OCR2A, and TCCR2A are different. When reading
TCNT2, the actual timer value is read. When reading OCR2A or TCCR2A, the value in the temporary storage register is read.
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14.10.2
Asynchronous Operation of Timer/Counter2
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously, some considerations must be taken.
• Warning: When switching between asynchronous and synchronous clocking of
Timer/Counter2, the timer registers TCNT2, OCR2A, and TCCR2A might be corrupted. A
safe procedure for switching clock source is:
a. Disable the Timer/Counter2 interrupts by clearing OCIE2A and TOIE2.
b. Select clock source by setting AS2 and EXCLK as appropriate.
c.
Write new values to TCNT2, OCR2A, and TCCR2A.
d. To switch to asynchronous operation: Wait for TCN2UB, OCR2UB, and TCR2UB.
e. Clear the Timer/Counter2 interrupt flags.
f.
Enable interrupts, if needed.
• The Oscillator is optimized for use with a 32.768 kHz watch crystal. The CPU main clock
frequency must be more than four times the Oscillator or external clock frequency.
• When writing to one of the registers TCNT2, OCR2A, or TCCR2A, the value is transferred to
a temporary register, and latched after two positive edges on TOSC1. The user should not
write a new value before the contents of the temporary register have been transferred to its
destination. Each of the three mentioned registers have their individual temporary register,
which means that e.g. writing to TCNT2 does not disturb an OCR2A write in progress. To
detect that a transfer to the destination register has taken place, the Asynchronous Status
Register – ASSR has been implemented.
• When entering Power-save or Extended Standby mode after having written to TCNT2,
OCR2A, or TCCR2A, the user must wait until the written register has been updated if
Timer/Counter2 is used to wake up the device. Otherwise, the MCU will enter sleep mode
before the changes are effective. This is particularly important if the Output Compare2
interrupt is used to wake up the device, since the Output Compare function is disabled during
writing to OCR2A or TCNT2. If the write cycle is not finished, and the MCU enters sleep
mode before the OCR2UB bit returns to zero, the device will never receive a compare match
interrupt, and the MCU will not wake up.
• If Timer/Counter2 is used to wake the device up from Power-save or Extended Standby
mode, precautions must be taken if the user wants to re-enter one of these modes: The
interrupt logic needs one TOSC1 cycle to be reset. If the time between wake-up and reentering sleep mode is less than one TOSC1 cycle, the interrupt will not occur, and the
device will fail to wake up. If the user is in doubt whether the time before re-entering Powersave mode is sufficient, the following algorithm can be used to ensure that one TOSC1 cycle
has elapsed:
a. Write a value to TCCR2A, TCNT2, or OCR2A.
b. Wait until the corresponding Update Busy flag in ASSR returns to zero.
c.
Enter Power-save or ADC Noise Reduction mode.
• When the asynchronous operation is selected, the 32.768 kHz Oscillator for Timer/Counter2
is always running, except in Power-down and Standby modes. After a Power-up Reset or
wake-up from Power-down or Standby mode, the user should be aware of the fact that this
Oscillator might take as long as one second to stabilize. The user is advised to wait for at
least one second before using Timer/Counter2 after power-up or wake-up from Power-down
or Standby mode. The contents of all Timer/Counter2 Registers must be considered lost after
a wake-up from Power-down or Standby mode due to unstable clock signal upon start-up, no
matter whether the Oscillator is in use or a clock signal is applied to the TOSC1 pin.
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• Description of wake up from Power-save mode when the timer is clocked asynchronously:
When the interrupt condition is met, the wake up process is started on the following cycle of
the timer clock, that is, the timer is always advanced by at least one before the processor can
read the counter value. After wake-up, the MCU is halted for four cycles, it executes the
interrupt routine, and resumes execution from the instruction following SLEEP.
• Reading of the TCNT2 Register shortly after wake-up from Power-save may give an incorrect
result. Since TCNT2 is clocked on the asynchronous TOSC clock, reading TCNT2 must be
done through a register synchronized to the internal I/O clock domain. Synchronization takes
place for every rising TOSC1 edge. When waking up from Power-save mode, and the I/O
clock (clkI/O) again becomes active, TCNT2 will read as the previous value (before entering
sleep) until the next rising TOSC1 edge. The phase of the TOSC clock after waking up from
Power-save mode is essentially unpredictable, as it depends on the wake-up time. The
recommended procedure for reading TCNT2 is thus as follows:
a. Write any value to either of the registers OCR2A or TCCR2A.
b. Wait for the corresponding Update Busy Flag to be cleared.
c.
Read TCNT2.
• During asynchronous operation, the synchronization of the interrupt flags for the
asynchronous timer takes 3 processor cycles plus one timer cycle. The timer is therefore
advanced by at least one before the processor can read the timer value causing the setting of
the interrupt flag. The Output Compare pin is changed on the timer clock and is not
synchronized to the processor clock.
14.10.3
Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Mask Register – TIMSK2
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE2A
TOIE2
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK2
• Bit 7..2 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use.
• Bit 1 – OCIE2A: Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Match A Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE2A bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the
Timer/Counter2 Compare Match A interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed
if a compare match in Timer/Counter2 occurs, i.e., when the OCF2A bit is set in the
Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR2.
• Bit 0 – TOIE2: Timer/Counter2 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When the TOIE2 bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the
Timer/Counter2 Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if an
overflow in Timer/Counter2 occurs, i.e., when the TOV2 bit is set in the Timer/Counter2 Interrupt
Flag Register – TIFR2.
14.10.4
Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR2
Bit
162
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
OCF2A
TOV2
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR2
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AT90CAN32/64/128
• Bit 7..2 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use.
• Bit 1 – OCF2A: Output Compare Flag 2 A
The OCF2A bit is set (one) when a compare match occurs between the Timer/Counter2 and the
data in OCR2A – Output Compare Register2. OCF2A is cleared by hardware when executing
the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, OCF2A is cleared by writing a logic
one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE2 (Timer/Counter2 Compare match Interrupt
Enable), and OCF2A are set (one), the Timer/Counter2 Compare match Interrupt is executed.
• Bit 0 – TOV2: Timer/Counter2 Overflow Flag
The TOV2 bit is set (one) when an overflow occurs in Timer/Counter2. TOV2 is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, TOV2 is cleared
by writing a logic one to the flag. When the SREG I-bit, TOIE2A (Timer/Counter2 Overflow Interrupt Enable), and TOV2 are set (one), the Timer/Counter2 Overflow interrupt is executed. In
PWM mode, this bit is set when Timer/Counter2 changes counting direction at 0x00.
14.11 Timer/Counter2 Prescaler
Figure 14-13. Prescaler for Timer/Counter2
AS2
clkT2S
10-BIT T/C PRESCALER
Clear
1
TOSC1
1
EXCLK
PSR2
clkT2S/1024
0
clkT2S/256
0
clkT2S/128
32 kHz
Oscillator
clkT2S/64
clkI/O
clkT2S/32
Enable
clkT2S/8
TOSC2
EXCLK
AS2
0
CS20
CS21
CS22
TIMER/COUNTER2 CLOCK SOURCE
clkT2
The clock source for Timer/Counter2 is named clkT2S. clkT2S is by default connected to the main
system I/O clock clk IO. By setting the AS2 bit in ASSR, Timer/Counter2 is asynchronously
clocked from the TOSC oscillator or TOSC1 pin. This enables use of Timer/Counter2 as a Real
Time Counter (RTC).
A crystal can then be connected between the TOSC1 and TOSC2 pins to serve as an independent clock source for Timer/Counter2. The Oscillator is optimized for use with a 32.768 kHz
crystal. Setting AS2 and resetting EXCLK enables the TOSC oscillator.
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Figure 14-14. Timer/Counter2 Crystal Oscillator Connections
12 - 22 pF
TOSC2
32.768 KHz
TOSC1
12 - 22 pF
GND
A external clock can also be used using TOSC1 as input. Setting AS2 and EXCLK enables this
configuration.
Figure 14-15. Timer/Counter2 External Clock Connections
NC
TOSC2
External
Clock
Signal
TOSC1
For Timer/Counter2, the possible prescaled selections are: clk T2S /8, clk T2S /32, clk T2S /64,
clkT2S/128, clkT2S/256, and clkT2S/1024. Additionally, clkT2S as well as 0 (stop) may be selected.
Setting the PSR2 bit in GTCCR resets the prescaler. This allows the user to operate with a predictable prescaler.
14.11.1
General Timer/Counter Control Register – GTCCR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TSM
–
–
–
–
–
PSR2
PSR310
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GTCCR
• Bit 1 – PSR2: Prescaler Reset Timer/Counter2
When this bit is one, the Timer/Counter2 prescaler will be reset. This bit is normally cleared
immediately by hardware. If the bit is written when Timer/Counter2 is operating in asynchronous
mode, the bit will remain one until the prescaler has been reset. The bit will not be cleared by
hardware if the TSM bit is set. Refer to the description of the “Bit 7 – TSM: Timer/Counter Synchronization Mode” on page 98 for a description of the Timer/Counter Synchronization mode.
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15. Output Compare Modulator - OCM
15.1
Overview
Many register and bit references in this section are written in general form.
• A lower case “n” replaces the Timer/Counter number, in this case 0 and 1. However, when
using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used, i.e., TCNT0 for
accessing Timer/Counter0 counter value and so on.
• A lower case “x” replaces the Output Compare unit channel, in this case A or C. However,
when using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used, i.e.,
OCR0A for accessing Timer/Counter0 output compare channel A value and so on.
The Output Compare Modulator (OCM) allows generation of waveforms modulated with a carrier
frequency. The modulator uses the outputs from the Output Compare Unit C of the 16-bit
Timer/Counter1 and the Output Compare Unit of the 8-bit Timer/Counter0. For more details
about these Timer/Counters see “16-bit Timer/Counter (Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter3)”
on page 113 and “8-bit Timer/Counter0 with PWM” on page 99.
Figure 15-1. Output Compare Modulator, Block Diagram
Timer/Counter 1
OC1C
Pin
OC0A / OC1C / PB7
Timer/Counter 0
OC0A
When the modulator is enabled, the two output compare channels are modulated together as
shown in the block diagram (Figure 15-1).
15.2
Description
The Output Compare unit 1C and Output Compare unit 0A shares the PB7 port pin for output.
The outputs of the Output Compare units (OC1C and OC0A) overrides the normal PORTB7
Register when one of them is enabled (i.e., when COMnx1:0 is not equal to zero). When both
OC1C and OC0A are enabled at the same time, the modulator is automatically enabled.
When the modulator is enabled the type of modulation (logical AND or OR) can be selected by
the PORTB7 Register. Note that the DDRB7 controls the direction of the port independent of the
COMnx1:0 bit setting.
The functional equivalent schematic of the modulator is shown on Figure 15-2. The schematic
includes part of the Timer/Counter units and the port B pin 7 output driver circuit.
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Figure 15-2. Output Compare Modulator, Schematic
COM0A1
COM0A0
Vcc
COM1C1
COM1C0
(From T/C1
Waveform Generator)
Modulator
0
D
1
Q
1
OC1C
Pin
0
(From T/C0
Waveform Generator)
D
OC0A / OC1C / PB7
Q
OC0A
D
Q
D
PORTB7
Q
DDRB7
DATABUS
15.2.1
Timing Example
Figure 15-3 illustrates the modulator in action. In this example the Timer/Counter1 is set to operate in fast PWM mode (non-inverted) and Timer/Counter0 uses CTC waveform mode with toggle
Compare Output mode (COMnx1:0 = 1).
Figure 15-3. Output Compare Modulator, Timing Diagram
clk I/O
OC1C
(FPWM Mode)
OC0A
(CTC Mode)
PB7
(PORTB7 = 0)
PB7
(PORTB7 = 1)
(Period)
1
2
3
In this example, Timer/Counter0 provides the carrier, while the modulating signal is generated
by the Output Compare unit C of the Timer/Counter1.
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15.2.2
Resolution of the PWM Signal
The resolution of the PWM signal (OC1C) is reduced by the modulation. The reduction factor is
equal to the number of system clock cycles of one period of the carrier (OC0A). In this example
the resolution is reduced by a factor of two. The reason for the reduction is illustrated in Figure
15-3 at the second and third period of the PB7 output when PORTB7 equals zero. The period 2
high time is one cycle longer than the period 3 high time, but the result on the PB7 output is
equal in both periods.
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16. Serial Peripheral Interface – SPI
The Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) allows high-speed synchronous data transfer between the
AT90CAN32/64/128 and peripheral devices or between several AVR devices. The
AT90CAN32/64/128 SPI includes the following features:
16.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Full-duplex, Three-wire Synchronous Data Transfer
Master or Slave Operation
LSB First or MSB First Data Transfer
Seven Programmable Bit Rates
End of Transmission Interrupt Flag
Write Collision Flag Protection
Wake-up from Idle Mode
Double Speed (CK/2) Master SPI Mode
Figure 16-1. SPI Block Diagram(1)
clk IO
SPI2X
SPI2X
DIVIDER
/2/4/8/16/32/64/128
Note:
168
1. Refer to Figure 1-2 on page 5 or Figure 1-3 on page 6, and Table 9-6 on page 76 for SPI pin
placement.
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The interconnection between Master and Slave CPUs with SPI is shown in Figure 16-2. The system consists of two shift Registers, and a Master clock generator. The SPI Master initiates the
communication cycle when pulling low the Slave Select SS pin of the desired Slave. Master and
Slave prepare the data to be sent in their respective shift Registers, and the Master generates
the required clock pulses on the SCK line to interchange data. Data is always shifted from Master to Slave on the Master Out – Slave In, MOSI, line, and from Slave to Master on the Master In
– Slave Out, MISO, line. After each data packet, the Master will synchronize the Slave by pulling
high the Slave Select, SS, line.
When configured as a Master, the SPI interface has no automatic control of the SS line. This
must be handled by user software before communication can start. When this is done, writing a
byte to the SPI Data Register starts the SPI clock generator, and the hardware shifts the eight
bits into the Slave. After shifting one byte, the SPI clock generator stops, setting the end of
transmission flag (SPIF). If the SPI Interrupt Enable bit (SPIE) in the SPCR Register is set, an
interrupt is requested. The Master may continue to shift the next byte by writing it into SPDR, or
signal the end of packet by pulling high the Slave Select, SS line. The last incoming byte will be
kept in the Buffer Register for later use.
When configured as a Slave, the SPI interface will remain sleeping with MISO tri-stated as long
as the SS pin is driven high. In this state, software may update the contents of the SPI Data
Register, SPDR, but the data will not be shifted out by incoming clock pulses on the SCK pin
until the SS pin is driven low. As one byte has been completely shifted, the end of transmission
flag, SPIF is set. If the SPI Interrupt Enable bit, SPIE, in the SPCR Register is set, an interrupt is
requested. The Slave may continue to place new data to be sent into SPDR before reading the
incoming data. The last incoming byte will be kept in the Buffer Register for later use.
Figure 16-2. SPI Master-slave Interconnection
SHIFT
ENABLE
The system is single buffered in the transmit direction and double buffered in the receive direction. This means that bytes to be transmitted cannot be written to the SPI Data Register before
the entire shift cycle is completed. When receiving data, however, a received character must be
read from the SPI Data Register before the next character has been completely shifted in. Otherwise, the first byte is lost.
In SPI Slave mode, the control logic will sample the incoming signal of the SCK pin. To ensure
correct sampling of the clock signal, the minimum low and high period should be:
– Low period: Longer than 2 CPU clock cycles,
– High period: Longer than 2 CPU clock cycles.
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When the SPI is enabled, the data direction of the MOSI, MISO, SCK, and SS pins is overridden
according to Table 16-1. For more details on automatic port overrides, refer to “Alternate Port
Functions” on page 71.
Table 16-1.
Pin
Direction, Master SPI
Direction, Slave SPI
MOSI
User Defined
Input
MISO
Input
User Defined
SCK
User Defined
Input
SS
User Defined
Input
Note:
170
SPI Pin Overrides(1)
1. See “Alternate Functions of Port B” on page 76 for a detailed description of how to define the
direction of the user defined SPI pins.
AT90CAN32/64/128
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AT90CAN32/64/128
The following code examples show how to initialize the SPI as a Master and how to perform a
simple transmission.
DDR_SPI in the examples must be replaced by the actual Data Direction Register controlling the
SPI pins. DD_MOSI, DD_MISO and DD_SCK must be replaced by the actual data direction bits
for these pins. E.g. if MOSI is placed on pin PB2, replace DD_MOSI with DDB2 and DDR_SPI
with DDRB.
Assembly Code Example(1)
SPI_MasterInit:
; Set MOSI and SCK output, all others input
ldi
r17,(1<<DD_MOSI)|(1<<DD_SCK)
out
DDR_SPI,r17
; Enable SPI, Master, set clock rate fck/16
ldi
r17,(1<<SPE)|(1<<MSTR)|(1<<SPR0)
out
SPCR,r17
ret
SPI_MasterTransmit:
; Start transmission of data (r16)
out
SPDR,r16
Wait_Transmit:
; Wait for transmission complete
in
r17,SPSR
sbrs
r17,SPIF
rjmp
Wait_Transmit
ret
C Code Example(1)
void SPI_MasterInit(void)
{
/* Set MOSI and SCK output, all others input */
DDR_SPI = (1<<DD_MOSI)|(1<<DD_SCK);
/* Enable SPI, Master, set clock rate fck/16 */
SPCR = (1<<SPE)|(1<<MSTR)|(1<<SPR0);
}
void SPI_MasterTransmit(char cData)
{
/* Start transmission */
SPDR = cData;
/* Wait for transmission complete */
while(!(SPSR & (1<<SPIF)));
}
Note:
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
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The following code examples show how to initialize the SPI as a Slave and how to perform a
simple reception.
Assembly Code Example(1)
SPI_SlaveInit:
; Set MISO output, all others input
ldi
r17,(1<<DD_MISO)
out
DDR_SPI,r17
; Enable SPI
ldi
r17,(1<<SPE)
out
SPCR,r17
ret
SPI_SlaveReceive:
; Wait for reception complete
sbis
SPSR,SPIF
rjmp
SPI_SlaveReceive
; Read received data and return
in
r16,SPDR
ret
C Code Example(1)
void SPI_SlaveInit(void)
{
/* Set MISO output, all others input */
DDR_SPI = (1<<DD_MISO);
/* Enable SPI */
SPCR = (1<<SPE);
}
char SPI_SlaveReceive(void)
{
/* Wait for reception complete */
while(!(SPSR & (1<<SPIF)));
/* Return data register */
return SPDR;
}
Note:
16.2
16.2.1
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
SS Pin Functionality
Slave Mode
When the SPI is configured as a Slave, the Slave Select (SS) pin is always input. When SS is
held low, the SPI is activated, and MISO becomes an output if configured so by the user. All
other pins are inputs. When SS is driven high, all pins are inputs, and the SPI is passive, which
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means that it will not receive incoming data. Note that the SPI logic will be reset once the SS pin
is driven high.
The SS pin is useful for packet/byte synchronization to keep the slave bit counter synchronous
with the master clock generator. When the SS pin is driven high, the SPI slave will immediately
reset the send and receive logic, and drop any partially received data in the Shift Register.
16.2.2
Master Mode
When the SPI is configured as a Master (MSTR in SPCR is set), the user can determine the
direction of the SS pin.
If SS is configured as an output, the pin is a general output pin which does not affect the SPI
system. Typically, the pin will be driving the SS pin of the SPI Slave.
If SS is configured as an input, it must be held high to ensure Master SPI operation. If the SS pin
is driven low by peripheral circuitry when the SPI is configured as a Master with the SS pin
defined as an input, the SPI system interprets this as another master selecting the SPI as a
slave and starting to send data to it. To avoid bus contention, the SPI system takes the following
actions:
1. The MSTR bit in SPCR is cleared and the SPI system becomes a Slave. As a result of
the SPI becoming a Slave, the MOSI and SCK pins become inputs.
2. The SPIF flag in SPSR is set, and if the SPI interrupt is enabled, and the I-bit in SREG
is set, the interrupt routine will be executed.
Thus, when interrupt-driven SPI transmission is used in Master mode, and there exists a possibility that SS is driven low, the interrupt should always check that the MSTR bit is still set. If the
MSTR bit has been cleared by a slave select, it must be set by the user to re-enable SPI Master
mode.
16.2.3
SPI Control Register – SPCR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPIE
SPE
DORD
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SPCR
• Bit 7 – SPIE: SPI Interrupt Enable
This bit causes the SPI interrupt to be executed if SPIF bit in the SPSR Register is set and if the
Global Interrupt Enable bit in SREG is set.
• Bit 6 – SPE: SPI Enable
When the SPE bit is written to one, the SPI is enabled. This bit must be set to enable any SPI
operations.
• Bit 5 – DORD: Data Order
When the DORD bit is written to one, the LSB of the data word is transmitted first.
When the DORD bit is written to zero, the MSB of the data word is transmitted first.
• Bit 4 – MSTR: Master/Slave Select
This bit selects Master SPI mode when written to one, and Slave SPI mode when written logic
zero. If SS is configured as an input and is driven low while MSTR is set, MSTR will be cleared,
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and SPIF in SPSR will become set. The user will then have to set MSTR to re-enable SPI Master mode.
• Bit 3 – CPOL: Clock Polarity
When this bit is written to one, SCK is high when idle. When CPOL is written to zero, SCK is low
when idle. Refer to Figure 16-3 and Figure 16-4 for an example. The CPOL functionality is summarized below:
Table 16-2.
CPOL Functionality
CPOL
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
0
Rising
Falling
1
Falling
Rising
• Bit 2 – CPHA: Clock Phase
The settings of the Clock Phase bit (CPHA) determine if data is sampled on the leading (first) or
trailing (last) edge of SCK. Refer to Figure 16-3 and Figure 16-4 for an example. The CPOL
functionality is summarized below:
Table 16-3.
CPHA Functionality
CPHA
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
0
Sample
Setup
1
Setup
Sample
• Bits 1, 0 – SPR1, SPR0: SPI Clock Rate Select 1 and 0
These two bits control the SCK rate of the device configured as a Master. SPR1 and SPR0 have
no effect on the Slave. The relationship between SCK and the clkIO frequency fclkio is shown in
the following table:
Table 16-4.
174
Relationship Between SCK and the Oscillator Frequency
SPI2X
SPR1
SPR0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
SCK Frequency
fclkio/4
fclkio/16
fclkio/64
fclkio/128
fclkio/2
fclkio/8
fclkio/32
fclkio/64
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AT90CAN32/64/128
16.2.4
SPI Status Register – SPSR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPIF
WCOL
–
–
–
–
–
SPI2X
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SPSR
• Bit 7 – SPIF: SPI Interrupt Flag
When a serial transfer is complete, the SPIF flag is set. An interrupt is generated if SPIE in
SPCR is set and global interrupts are enabled. If SS is an input and is driven low when the SPI is
in Master mode, this will also set the SPIF flag. SPIF is cleared by hardware when executing the
corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, the SPIF bit is cleared by first reading the
SPI Status Register with SPIF set, then accessing the SPI Data Register (SPDR).
• Bit 6 – WCOL: Write COLlision Flag
The WCOL bit is set if the SPI Data Register (SPDR) is written during a data transfer. The
WCOL bit (and the SPIF bit) are cleared by first reading the SPI Status Register with WCOL set,
and then accessing the SPI Data Register.
• Bit 5..1 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the AT90CAN32/64/128 and will always read as zero.
• Bit 0 – SPI2X: Double SPI Speed Bit
When this bit is written logic one the SPI speed (SCK Frequency) will be doubled when the SPI
is in Master mode (see Table 16-4). This means that the minimum SCK period will be two CPU
clock periods. When the SPI is configured as Slave, the SPI is only guaranteed to work at fclkio/4
or lower.
The SPI interface on the AT90CAN32/64/128 is also used for program memory and EEPROM
downloading or uploading. See “SPI Serial Programming Overview” on page 348 for serial programming and verification.
16.2.5
SPI Data Register – SPDR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPD7
SPD6
SPD5
SPD4
SPD3
SPD2
SPD1
SPD0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
SPDR
Undefined
• Bits 7:0 - SPD7:0: SPI Data
The SPI Data Register is a read/write register used for data transfer between the Register File
and the SPI Shift Register. Writing to the register initiates data transmission. Reading the register causes the Shift Register Receive buffer to be read.
16.3
Data Modes
There are four combinations of SCK phase and polarity with respect to serial data, which are
determined by control bits CPHA and CPOL. The SPI data transfer formats are shown in Figure
16-3 and Figure 16-4. Data bits are shifted out and latched in on opposite edges of the SCK sig-
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nal, ensuring sufficient time for data signals to stabilize. This is clearly seen by summarizing
Table 16-2 and Table 16-3, as done below:
Table 16-5.
CPOL Functionality
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
SPI Mode
CPOL=0, CPHA=0
Sample (Rising)
Setup (Falling)
0
CPOL=0, CPHA=1
Setup (Rising)
Sample (Falling)
1
CPOL=1, CPHA=0
Sample (Falling)
Setup (Rising)
2
CPOL=1, CPHA=1
Setup (Falling)
Sample (Rising)
3
Figure 16-3. SPI Transfer Format with CPHA = 0
SCK (CPOL = 0)
mode 0
SCK (CPOL = 1)
mode 2
SAMPLE I
MOSI/MISO
CHANGE 0
MOSI PIN
CHANGE 0
MISO PIN
SS
MSB first (DORD = 0) MSB
LSB first (DORD = 1) LSB
Bit 6
Bit 1
Bit 5
Bit 2
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 3
Bit 4
Bit 2
Bit 5
Bit 1
Bit 6
LSB
MSB
Figure 16-4. SPI Transfer Format with CPHA = 1
SCK (CPOL = 0)
mode 1
SCK (CPOL = 1)
mode 3
SAMPLE I
MOSI/MISO
CHANGE 0
MOSI PIN
CHANGE 0
MISO PIN
SS
MSB first (DORD = 0)
LSB first (DORD = 1)
176
MSB
LSB
Bit 6
Bit 1
Bit 5
Bit 2
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 3
Bit 4
Bit 2
Bit 5
Bit 1
Bit 6
LSB
MSB
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AT90CAN32/64/128
17. USART (USART0 and USART1)
The Universal Synchronous and Asynchronous serial Receiver and Transmitter (USART) is a
highly flexible serial communication device. The main features are:
17.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
17.2
Full Duplex Operation (Independent Serial Receive and Transmit Registers)
Asynchronous or Synchronous Operation
Master or Slave Clocked Synchronous Operation
High Resolution Baud Rate Generator
Supports Serial Frames with 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 Data Bits and 1 or 2 Stop Bits
Odd or Even Parity Generation and Parity Check Supported by Hardware
Data OverRun Detection
Framing Error Detection
Noise Filtering Includes False Start Bit Detection and Digital Low Pass Filter
Three Separate Interrupts on TX Complete, TX Data Register Empty and RX Complete
Multi-processor Communication Mode
Double Speed Asynchronous Communication Mode
Overview
Many registers and bit references in this section are written in general form.
• A lower case “n” replaces the USART number, in this case 0 or 1. However, when using the
register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used, i.e., UDR0 for accessing
USART0 I/O data value and so on.
17.3
Dual USART
The AT90CAN32/64/128 has two USART’s, USART0 and USART1. The functionality for both
USART’s is described below. USART0 and USART1 have different I/O registers as shown in
“Register Summary” on page 405.
A simplified block diagram of the USARTn Transmitter is shown in Figure 17-1. CPU accessible
I/O Registers and I/O pins are shown in bold.
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Figure 17-1. USARTn Block Diagram (1)
Clock Generator
UBRRn[H:L]
CLKio
BAUD RATE GENERATOR
SYNC LOGIC
PIN
CONTROL
XCKn
Transmitter
TX
CONTROL
DATA BUS
UDRn (Transmit)
PARITY
GENERATOR
TxDn
Receiver
RECEIVE SHIFT REGISTER
UDRn (Receive)
UCSRAn
Note:
PIN
CONTROL
TRANSMIT SHIFT REGISTER
CLOCK
RECOVERY
RX
CONTROL
DATA
RECOVERY
PIN
CONTROL
RxDn
PARITY
CHECKER
UCSRBn
UCSRCn
1. Refer to Figure 1-2 on page 5 or Figure 1-3 on page 6, Table 9-15 on page 83, and Table 9-10
on page 79 for USARTn pin placement.
The dashed boxes in the block diagram separate the three main parts of the USARTn (listed
from the top): Clock Generator, Transmitter and Receiver. Control registers are shared by all
units. The Clock Generation logic consists of synchronization logic for external clock input used
by synchronous slave operation, and the baud rate generator. The XCKn (Transfer Clock) pin is
only used by synchronous transfer mode. The Transmitter consists of a single write buffer, a
serial Shift Register, Parity Generator and Control logic for handling different serial frame formats. The write buffer allows a continuous transfer of data without any delay between frames.
The Receiver is the most complex part of the USARTn module due to its clock and data recovery
units. The recovery units are used for asynchronous data reception. In addition to the recovery
units, the Receiver includes a Parity Checker, Control logic, a Shift Register and a two level
receive buffer (UDRn). The Receiver supports the same frame formats as the Transmitter, and
can detect Frame Error, Data OverRun and Parity Errors.
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17.4
Clock Generation
The Clock Generation logic generates the base clock for the Transmitter and Receiver. The
USARTn supports four modes of clock operation: Normal asynchronous, Double Speed asynchronous, Master synchronous and Slave synchronous mode. The UMSELn bit in USARTn
Control and Status Register C (UCSRnC) selects between asynchronous and synchronous
operation. Double Speed (asynchronous mode only) is controlled by the U2Xn found in the
UCSRnA Register. When using synchronous mode (UMSELn = 1), the Data Direction Register
for the XCKn pin (DDR_XCKn) controls whether the clock source is internal (Master mode) or
external (Slave mode). The XCKn pin is only active when using synchronous mode.
Figure 17-2 shows a block diagram of the clock generation logic.
Figure 17-2. USARTn Clock Generation Logic, Block Diagram
UBRRn
U2Xn
fclk io
Prescaling
Down-Counter
UBRRn+1
/2
/4
/2
0
1
0
clk io
DDR_XCKn
xn cki
XCKn
Pin
Sync
Register
Edge
Detector
0
UCPOLn
txn clk
UMSELn
1
xn cko
DDR_XCKn
1
1
0
rxn clk
Signal description:
17.4.1
txn clk
Transmitter clock (Internal Signal).
rxn clk
Receiver base clock (Internal Signal).
xn cki
Input from XCK pin (internal Signal). Used for synchronous slave
operation.
xn cko
Clock output to XCK pin (Internal Signal). Used for synchronous master
operation.
fclkio
System I/O Clock frequency.
Internal Clock Generation – Baud Rate Generator
Internal clock generation is used for the asynchronous and the synchronous master modes of
operation. The description in this section refers to Figure 17-2.
The USARTn Baud Rate Register (UBRRn) and the down-counter connected to it function as a
programmable prescaler or baud rate generator. The down-counter, running at system clock
(fclkio), is loaded with the UBRRn value each time the counter has counted down to zero or
when the UBRRnL Register is written. A clock is generated each time the counter reaches zero.
This clock is the baud rate generator clock output (= fclkio/(UBRRn+1)). The Transmitter divides
the baud rate generator clock output by 2, 8 or 16 depending on mode. The baud rate generator
output is used directly by the Receiver’s clock and data recovery units. However, the recovery
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units use a state machine that uses 2, 8 or 16 states depending on mode set by the state of the
UMSELn, U2Xn and DDR_XCKn bits.
Table 17-1 contains equations for calculating the baud rate (in bits per second) and for calculating the UBRRn value for each mode of operation using an internally generated clock source.
Table 17-1.
Equations for Calculating Baud Rate Register Setting
Equation for Calculating Baud
Rate (1)
Equation for Calculating
UBRRn Value
Asynchronous Normal mode
(U2Xn = 0)
f CLKio
BAUD = -----------------------------------------16 ( UBRRn + 1 )
f CLKio
UBRRn = ------------------------ – 1
16BAUD
Asynchronous Double Speed
mode (U2Xn = 1)
f CLKio
BAUD = --------------------------------------8 ( UBRRn + 1 )
f CLKio
UBRRn = -------------------- – 1
8BAUD
Synchronous Master mode
f CLKio
BAUD = --------------------------------------2 ( UBRRn + 1 )
f CLKio
UBRRn = -------------------- – 1
2BAUD
Operating Mode
Note:
1. The baud rate is defined to be the transfer rate in bit per second (bps)
BAUD
Baud rate (in bits per second, bps).
fclkio
System I/O Clock frequency.
UBRRn
Contents of the UBRRnH and UBRRnL Registers, (0-4095).
Some examples of UBRRn values for some system clock frequencies are found in Table 17-9
(see page 200).
17.4.2
Double Speed Operation (U2X)
The transfer rate can be doubled by setting the U2Xn bit in UCSRnA. Setting this bit only has
effect for the asynchronous operation. Set this bit to zero when using synchronous operation.
Setting this bit will reduce the divisor of the baud rate divider from 16 to 8, effectively doubling
the transfer rate for asynchronous communication. Note however that the Receiver will in this
case only use half the number of samples (reduced from 16 to 8) for data sampling and clock
recovery, and therefore a more accurate baud rate setting and system clock are required when
this mode is used. For the Transmitter, there are no downsides.
17.4.3
External Clock
External clocking is used by the synchronous slave modes of operation. The description in this
section refers to Figure 17-2 for details.
External clock input from the XCKn pin is sampled by a synchronization register to minimize the
chance of meta-stability. The output from the synchronization register must then pass through
an edge detector before it can be used by the Transmitter and Receiver. This process introduces a two CPU clock period delay and therefore the maximum external XCKn clock frequency
is limited by the following equation:
f CLKio
f XCKn < ---------------4
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Note that fclkio depends on the stability of the system clock source. It is therefore recommended
to add some margin to avoid possible loss of data due to frequency variations.
17.4.4
Synchronous Clock Operation
When synchronous mode is used (UMSELn = 1), the XCKn pin will be used as either clock input
(Slave) or clock output (Master). The dependency between the clock edges and data sampling
or data change is the same. The basic principle is that data input (on RxDn) is sampled at the
opposite XCKn clock edge of the edge the data output (TxDn) is changed.
Figure 17-3. Synchronous Mode XCKn Timing.
UCPOLn = 1
XCKn
RxDn / TxDn
Sample
UCPOLn = 0
XCKn
RxDn / TxDn
Sample
The UCPOLn bit UCRSnC selects which XCKn clock edge is used for data sampling and which
is used for data change. As Figure 17-3 shows, when UCPOLn is zero the data will be changed
at rising XCKn edge and sampled at falling XCKn edge. If UCPOLn is set, the data will be
changed at falling XCKn edge and sampled at rising XCKn edge.
17.5
Serial Frame
A serial frame is defined to be one character of data bits with synchronization bits (start and stop
bits), and optionally a parity bit for error checking.
17.5.1
Frame Formats
The USARTn accepts all 30 combinations of the following as valid frame formats:
• 1 start bit
• 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 data bits
• no, even or odd parity bit
• 1 or 2 stop bits
A frame starts with the start bit followed by the least significant data bit. Then the next data bits,
up to a total of nine, are succeeding, ending with the most significant bit. If enabled, the parity bit
is inserted after the data bits, before the stop bits. When a complete frame is transmitted, it can
be directly followed by a new frame, or the communication line can be set to an idle (high) state.
Figure 17-4 illustrates the possible combinations of the frame formats. Bits inside brackets are
optional.
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Figure 17-4. Frame Formats
FRAME
(IDLE)
St
0
1
2
3
4
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[P]
Sp1 [Sp2]
St
Start bit, always low.
(n)
Data bits (0 to 8).
P
Parity bit. Can be odd or even.
Sp
Stop bit, always high.
IDLE
No transfers on the communication line (RxDn or TxDn).
An IDLE line must be high.
(St / IDLE)
The frame format used by the USARTn is set by the UCSZn2:0, UPMn1:0 and USBSn bits in
UCSRnB and UCSRnC. The Receiver and Transmitter use the same setting. Note that changing
the setting of any of these bits will corrupt all ongoing communication for both the Receiver and
Transmitter.
The USARTn Character SiZe (UCSZn2:0) bits select the number of data bits in the frame. The
USARTn Parity mode (UPMn1:0) bits enable and set the type of parity bit. The selection
between one or two stop bits is done by the USARTn Stop Bit Select (USBSn) bit. The Receiver
ignores the second stop bit. An FEn (Frame Error) will therefore only be detected in the cases
where the first stop bit is zero.
17.5.2
Parity Bit Calculation
The parity bit is calculated by doing an exclusive-or of all the data bits. If odd parity is used, the
result of the exclusive or is inverted. The relation between the parity bit and data bits is as
follows:
P even = d n – 1 ⊕ … ⊕ d 3 ⊕ d 2 ⊕ d 1 ⊕ d 0 ⊕ 0
P odd = d n – 1 ⊕ … ⊕ d 3 ⊕ d 2 ⊕ d 1 ⊕ d 0 ⊕ 1
Peven
Parity bit using even parity
Podd
Parity bit using odd parity
dn
Data bit n of the character
If used, the parity bit is located between the last data bit and first stop bit of a serial frame.
17.6
USART Initialization
The USARTn has to be initialized before any communication can take place. The initialization
process normally consists of setting the baud rate, setting frame format and enabling the Transmitter or the Receiver depending on the usage. For interrupt driven USARTn operation, the
Global Interrupt Flag should be cleared (and interrupts globally disabled) when doing the
initialization.
Before doing a re-initialization with changed baud rate or frame format, be sure that there are no
ongoing transmissions during the period the registers are changed. The TXCn flag can be used
to check that the Transmitter has completed all transfers, and the RXCn flag can be used to
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check that there are no unread data in the receive buffer. Note that the TXCn flag must be
cleared before each transmission (before UDRn is written) if it is used for this purpose.
The following simple USART0 initialization code examples show one assembly and one C function that are equal in functionality. The examples assume asynchronous operation using polling
(no interrupts enabled) and a fixed frame format. The baud rate is given as a function parameter.
For the assembly code, the baud rate parameter is assumed to be stored in the r17:r16
Registers.
Assembly Code Example (1)
USART0_Init:
; Set baud rate
sts
UBRR0H, r17
sts
UBRR0L, r16
; Set frame format: 8data, no parity & 2 stop bits
ldi
r16, (0<<UMSEL0)|(0<<UPM0)|(1<<USBS0)|(3<<UCSZ0)
sts
UCSR0C, r16
; Enable receiver and transmitter
ldi
r16, (1<<RXEN0)|(1<<TXEN0)
sts
UCSR0B, r16
ret
C Code Example (1)
void USART0_Init (unsigned int baud)
{
/* Set baud rate */
UBRR0H = (unsigned char) (baud>>8);
UBRR0L = (unsigned char) baud;
/* Set frame format: 8data, no parity & 2 stop bits */
UCSR0C = (0<<UMSEL0) | (0<<UPM0) | (1<<USBS0) | (3<<UCSZ0);
/* Enable receiver and transmitter */
UCSR0B = (1<<RXEN0) | (1<<TXEN0);
}
Note:
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
More advanced initialization routines can be made that include frame format as parameters, disable interrupts and so on. However, many applications use a fixed setting of the baud and
control registers, and for these types of applications the initialization code can be placed directly
in the main routine, or be combined with initialization code for other I/O modules.
17.7
Data Transmission – USART Transmitter
The USARTn Transmitter is enabled by setting the Transmit Enable (TXENn) bit in the UCSRnB
Register. When the Transmitter is enabled, the normal port operation of the TxDn pin is overridden by the USARTn and given the function as the Transmitter’s serial output. The baud rate,
mode of operation and frame format must be set up once before doing any transmissions. If syn-
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chronous operation is used, the clock on the XCKn pin will be overridden and used as
transmission clock.
17.7.1
Sending Frames with 5 to 8 Data Bit
A data transmission is initiated by loading the transmit buffer with the data to be transmitted. The
CPU can load the transmit buffer by writing to the UDRn I/O location. The buffered data in the
transmit buffer will be moved to the Shift Register when the Shift Register is ready to send a new
frame. The Shift Register is loaded with new data if it is in idle state (no ongoing transmission) or
immediately after the last stop bit of the previous frame is transmitted. When the Shift Register is
loaded with new data, it will transfer one complete frame at the rate given by the Baud Register,
U2Xn bit or by XCKn depending on mode of operation.
The following code examples show a simple USART0 transmit function based on polling of the
Data Register Empty (UDRE0) flag. When using frames with less than eight bits, the most significant bits written to the UDR0 are ignored. The USART0 has to be initialized before the function
can be used. For the assembly code, the data to be sent is assumed to be stored in Register
R16.
Assembly Code Example (1)
USART0_Transmit:
; Wait for empty transmit buffer
lds
r17, UCSR0A
sbrs
r17, UDRE0
rjmp
USART0_Transmit
; Put data (r16) into buffer, sends the data
sts
UDR0, r16
ret
C Code Example (1)
void USART0_Transmit (unsigned char data)
{
/* Wait for empty transmit buffer */
while ( ! ( UCSRA0 & (1<<UDRE0)));
/* Put data into buffer, sends the data */
UDR0 = data;
}
Note:
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
The function simply waits for the transmit buffer to be empty by checking the UDRE0 flag, before
loading it with new data to be transmitted. If the Data Register Empty interrupt is utilized, the
interrupt routine writes the data into the buffer.
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17.7.2
Sending Frames with 9 Data Bit
If 9-bit characters are used (UCSZn = 7), the ninth bit must be written to the TXB8n bit in UCSRnB before the low byte of the character is written to UDRn. The following code examples show
a transmit function that handles 9-bit characters. For the assembly code, the data to be sent is
assumed to be stored in registers R17:R16.
Assembly Code Example (1)(2)
USART0_Transmit:
; Wait for empty transmit buffer
lds
r18, UCSR0A
sbrs
r18, UDRE0
rjmp
USART0_Transmit
; Copy 9th bit from r17-bit0 to TXB80 via T-bit of SREG
lds
r18, UCSR0B
bst
r17, 0
bld
r18, TXB80
sts
UCSR0B, r18
; Put LSB data (r16) into buffer, sends the data
sts
UDR0, r16
ret
C Code Example (1)(2)
void USART0_Transmit (unsigned int data)
{
/* Wait for empty transmit buffer */
while ( !( UCSR0A & (1<<UDRE0)));
/* Copy 9th bit to TXB8 */
UCSR0B &= ~(1<<TXB80);
if ( data & 0x0100 )
UCSR0B |= (1<<TXB80);
/* Put data into buffer, sends the data */
UDR0 = data;
}
Notes:
1. These transmit functions are written to be general functions. They can be optimized if the contents of the UCSR0B is static. For example, only the TXB80 bit of the UCSRB0 Register is
used after initialization.
2. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
The ninth bit can be used for indicating an address frame when using multi processor communication mode or for other protocol handling as for example synchronization.
17.7.3
Transmitter Flags and Interrupts
The USARTn Transmitter has two flags that indicate its state: USART Data Register Empty
(UDREn) and Transmit Complete (TXCn). Both flags can be used for generating interrupts.
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The Data Register Empty (UDREn) flag indicates whether the transmit buffer is ready to receive
new data. This bit is set when the transmit buffer is empty, and cleared when the transmit buffer
contains data to be transmitted that has not yet been moved into the Shift Register. For compatibility with future devices, always write this bit to zero when writing the UCSRnA Register.
When the Data Register Empty Interrupt Enable (UDRIEn) bit in UCSRBn is written to one, the
USARTn Data Register Empty Interrupt will be executed as long as UDREn is set (provided that
global interrupts are enabled). UDREn is cleared by writing UDRn. When interrupt-driven data
transmission is used, the Data Register Empty interrupt routine must either write new data to
UDRn in order to clear UDREn or disable the Data Register Empty interrupt, otherwise a new
interrupt will occur once the interrupt routine terminates.
The Transmit Complete (TXCn) flag bit is set one when the entire frame in the Transmit Shift
Register has been shifted out and there are no new data currently present in the transmit buffer.
The TXCn flag bit is automatically cleared when a transmit complete interrupt is executed, or it
can be cleared by writing a one to its bit location. The TXCn flag is useful in half-duplex communication interfaces (like the RS-485 standard), where a transmitting application must enter
receive mode and free the communication bus immediately after completing the transmission.
When the Transmit Complete Interrupt Enable (TXCIEn) bit in UCSRnB is set, the USARTn
Transmit Complete Interrupt will be executed when the TXCn flag becomes set (provided that
global interrupts are enabled). When the transmit complete interrupt is used, the interrupt handling routine does not have to clear the TXCn flag, this is done automatically when the interrupt
is executed.
17.7.4
Parity Generator
The Parity Generator calculates the parity bit for the serial frame data. When parity bit is enabled
(UPMn1 = 1), the transmitter control logic inserts the parity bit between the last data bit and the
first stop bit of the frame that is sent.
17.7.5
Disabling the Transmitter
The disabling of the Transmitter (setting the TXENn to zero) will not become effective until ongoing and pending transmissions are completed, i.e., when the Transmit Shift Register and
Transmit Buffer Register do not contain data to be transmitted. When disabled, the Transmitter
will no longer override the TxDn pin.
17.8
Data Reception – USART Receiver
The USARTn Receiver is enabled by writing the Receive Enable (RXENn) bit in the UCSRnB
Register to one. When the Receiver is enabled, the normal pin operation of the RxDn pin is overridden by the USARTn and given the function as the Receiver’s serial input. The baud rate,
mode of operation and frame format must be set up once before any serial reception can be
done. If synchronous operation is used, the clock on the XCKn pin will be used as transfer clock.
17.8.1
186
Receiving Frames with 5 to 8 Data Bits
The Receiver starts data reception when it detects a valid start bit. Each bit that follows the start
bit will be sampled at the baud rate or XCKn clock, and shifted into the Receive Shift Register
until the first stop bit of a frame is received. A second stop bit will be ignored by the Receiver.
When the first stop bit is received, i.e., a complete serial frame is present in the Receive Shift
Register, the contents of the Shift Register will be moved into the receive buffer. The receive
buffer can then be read by reading the UDRn I/O location.
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The following code example shows a simple USART0 receive function based on polling of the
Receive Complete (RXC0) flag. When using frames with less than eight bits the most significant
bits of the data read from the UDR0 will be masked to zero. The USART0 has to be initialized
before the function can be used.
Assembly Code Example (1)
USART0_Receive:
; Wait for data to be received
lds
r18, UCSR0A
sbrs
r18, RXC0
rjmp
USART0_Receive
; Get and return received data from buffer
lds
r16, UDR0
ret
C Code Example (1)
unsigned char USART0_Receive (void)
{
/* Wait for data to be received */
while ( ! (UCSR0A & (1<<RXC0)));
/* Get and return received data from buffer */
return UDR0;
}
Note:
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
The function simply waits for data to be present in the receive buffer by checking the RXC0 flag,
before reading the buffer and returning the value.
17.8.2
Receiving Frames with 9 Data Bits
If 9-bit characters are used (UCSZn=7) the ninth bit must be read from the RXB8n bit in UCSRnB before reading the low bits from the UDRn. This rule applies to the FEn, DORn and UPEn
Status Flags as well. Read status from UCSRnA, then data from UDRn. Reading the UDRn I/O
location will change the state of the receive buffer FIFO and consequently the TXB8n, FEn,
DORn and UPEn bits, which all are stored in the FIFO, will change.
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The following code example shows a simple USART0 receive function that handles both nine bit
characters and the status bits.
Assembly Code Example (1)
USART0_Receive:
; Wait for data to be received
lds
r18, UCSR0A
sbrs
r18, RXC0
rjmp
USART0_Receive
; Get status and 9th bit, then data from buffer
lds
r17, UCSR0B
lds
r16, UDR0
; If error, return -1
andi
r18, (1<<FE0) | (1<<DOR0) | (1<<UPE0)
breq
USART0_ReceiveNoError
ldi
r17, HIGH(-1)
ldi
r16, LOW(-1)
USART0_ReceiveNoError:
; Filter the 9th bit, then return
lsr
r17
andi
r17, 0x01
ret
C Code Example (1)
unsigned int USART0_Receive(void)
{
unsigned char status, resh, resl;
/* Wait for data to be received */
while ( ! (UCSR0A & (1<<RXC0)));
/* Get status and 9th bit, then data */
/* from buffer */
status = UCSR0A;
resh = UCSR0B;
resl = UDR0;
/* If error, return -1 */
if ( status & (1<<FE0)|(1<<DOR0)|(1<<UPE0) )
return -1;
/* Filter the 9th bit, then return */
resh = (resh >> 1) & 0x01;
return ((resh << 8) | resl);
}
Note:
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
The receive function example reads all the I/O Registers into the Register File before any computation is done. This gives an optimal receive buffer utilization since the buffer location read will
be free to accept new data as early as possible.
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17.8.3
Receive Complete Flag and Interrupt
The USARTn Receiver has one flag that indicates the Receiver state.
The Receive Complete (RXCn) flag indicates if there are unread data present in the receive
buffer. This flag is one when unread data exist in the receive buffer, and zero when the receive
buffer is empty (i.e., does not contain any unread data). If the Receiver is disabled (RXENn = 0),
the receive buffer will be flushed and consequently the RXCn bit will become zero.
When the Receive Complete Interrupt Enable (RXCIEn) in UCSRnB is set, the USARTn
Receive Complete interrupt will be executed as long as the RXCn flag is set (provided that global interrupts are enabled). When interrupt-driven data reception is used, the receive complete
routine must read the received data from UDRn in order to clear the RXCn flag, otherwise a new
interrupt will occur once the interrupt routine terminates.
17.8.4
Receiver Error Flags
The USARTn Receiver has three error flags: Frame Error (FEn), Data OverRun (DORn) and
Parity Error (UPEn). All can be accessed by reading UCSRnA. Common for the error flags is
that they are located in the receive buffer together with the frame for which they indicate the
error status. Due to the buffering of the error flags, the UCSRnA must be read before the receive
buffer (UDRn), since reading the UDRn I/O location changes the buffer read location. Another
equality for the error flags is that they can not be altered by software doing a write to the flag
location. However, all flags must be set to zero when the UCSRnA is written for upward compatibility of future USART implementations. None of the error flags can generate interrupts.
The Frame Error (FEn) flag indicates the state of the first stop bit of the next readable frame
stored in the receive buffer. The FEn flag is zero when the stop bit was correctly read (as one),
and the FEn flag will be one when the stop bit was incorrect (zero). This flag can be used for
detecting out-of-sync conditions, detecting break conditions and protocol handling. The FEn flag
is not affected by the setting of the USBSn bit in UCSRnC since the Receiver ignores all, except
for the first, stop bits. For compatibility with future devices, always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA.
The Data OverRun (DORn) flag indicates data loss due to a receiver buffer full condition. A Data
OverRun occurs when the receive buffer is full (two characters), it is a new character waiting in
the Receive Shift Register, and a new start bit is detected. If the DORn flag is set there was one
or more serial frame lost between the frame last read from UDRn, and the next frame read from
UDRn. For compatibility with future devices, always write this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA. The DORn flag is cleared when the frame received was successfully moved from the Shift
Register to the receive buffer.
The Parity Error (UPEn) Flag indicates that the next frame in the receive buffer had a Parity
Error when received. If Parity Check is not enabled the UPEn bit will always be read zero. For
compatibility with future devices, always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA. For more
details see “Parity Bit Calculation” on page 182 and “Parity Checker” on page 189.
17.8.5
Parity Checker
The Parity Checker is active when the high USARTn Parity mode (UPMn1) bit is set. Type of
Parity Check to be performed (odd or even) is selected by the UPMn0 bit. When enabled, the
Parity Checker calculates the parity of the data bits in incoming frames and compares the result
with the parity bit from the serial frame. The result of the check is stored in the receive buffer
together with the received data and stop bits. The Parity Error (UPEn) flag can then be read by
software to check if the frame had a Parity Error.
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The UPEn bit is set if the next character that can be read from the receive buffer had a Parity
Error when received and the Parity Checking was enabled at that point (UPMn1 = 1). This bit is
valid until the receive buffer (UDRn) is read.
17.8.6
Disabling the Receiver
In contrast to the Transmitter, disabling of the Receiver will be immediate. Data from ongoing
receptions will therefore be lost. When disabled (i.e., the RXENn is set to zero) the Receiver will
no longer override the normal function of the RxDn port pin. The Receiver buffer FIFO will be
flushed when the Receiver is disabled. Remaining data in the buffer will be lost
17.8.7
Flushing the Receive Buffer
The receiver buffer FIFO will be flushed when the Receiver is disabled, i.e., the buffer will be
emptied of its contents. Unread data will be lost. If the buffer has to be flushed during normal
operation, due to for instance an error condition, read the UDRn I/O location until the RXCn flag
is cleared.
The following code example shows how to flush the receive buffer.
Assembly Code Example (1)
USART0_Flush:
lds
r16, UCSR0A
sbrs
r16, RXC0
ret
lds
r16, UDR0
rjmp
USART0_Flush
C Code Example (1)
void USART0_Flush (void)
{
unsigned char dummy;
while (UCSR0A & (1<<RXC0) ) dummy = UDR0;
}
Note:
17.9
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
Asynchronous Data Reception
The USARTn includes a clock recovery and a data recovery unit for handling asynchronous data
reception. The clock recovery logic is used for synchronizing the internally generated baud rate
clock to the incoming asynchronous serial frames at the RxDn pin. The data recovery logic samples and low pass filters each incoming bit, thereby improving the noise immunity of the
Receiver. The asynchronous reception operational range depends on the accuracy of the internal baud rate clock, the rate of the incoming frames, and the frame size in number of bits.
17.9.1
190
Asynchronous Clock Recovery
The clock recovery logic synchronizes internal clock to the incoming serial frames. Figure 17-5
illustrates the sampling process of the start bit of an incoming frame. The sample rate is 16 times
the baud rate for Normal mode, and eight times the baud rate for Double Speed mode. The hor-
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izontal arrows illustrate the synchronization variation due to the sampling process. Note the
larger time variation when using the Double Speed mode (U2Xn = 1) of operation. Samples
denoted zero are samples done when the RxDn line is idle (i.e., no communication activity).
Figure 17-5. Start Bit Sampling
RxDn
IDLE
START
BIT 0
Sample
(U2Xn = 0)
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
1
2
3
Sample
(U2Xn = 1)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
When the clock recovery logic detects a high (idle) to low (start) transition on the RxDn line, the
start bit detection sequence is initiated. Let sample 1 denote the first zero-sample as shown in
the figure. The clock recovery logic then uses samples 8, 9, and 10 for Normal mode, and samples 4, 5, and 6 for Double Speed mode (indicated with sample numbers inside boxes on the
figure), to decide if a valid start bit is received. If two or more of these three samples have logical
high levels (the majority wins), the start bit is rejected as a noise spike and the Receiver starts
looking for the next high to low-transition. If however, a valid start bit is detected, the clock recovery logic is synchronized and the data recovery can begin. The synchronization process is
repeated for each start bit.
17.9.2
Asynchronous Data Recovery
When the receiver clock is synchronized to the start bit, the data recovery can begin. The data
recovery unit uses a state machine that has 16 states for each bit in Normal mode and eight
states for each bit in Double Speed mode. Figure 17-6 shows the sampling of the data bits and
the parity bit. Each of the samples is given a number that is equal to the state of the recovery
unit.
Figure 17-6. Sampling of Data and Parity Bit
RxDn
BIT x
Sample
(U2Xn = 0)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
1
Sample
(U2Xn = 1)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
The decision of the logic level of the received bit is taken by doing a majority voting of the logic
value to the three samples in the center of the received bit. The center samples are emphasized
on the figure by having the sample number inside boxes. The majority voting process is done as
follows: If two or all three samples have high levels, the received bit is registered to be a logic 1.
If two or all three samples have low levels, the received bit is registered to be a logic 0. This
majority voting process acts as a low pass filter for the incoming signal on the RxDn pin. The
recovery process is then repeated until a complete frame is received. Including the first stop bit.
Note that the Receiver only uses the first stop bit of a frame.
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Figure 17-7 shows the sampling of the stop bit and the earliest possible beginning of the start bit
of the next frame.
Figure 17-7. Stop Bit Sampling and Next Start Bit Sampling
RxDn
STOP 1
(A)
(B)
(C)
Sample
(U2Xn = 0)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0/1
0/1
0/1
Sample
(U2Xn = 1)
1
2
3
4
5
6
0/1
The same majority voting is done to the stop bit as done for the other bits in the frame. If the stop
bit is registered to have a logic 0 value, the Frame Error (FEn) flag will be set.
A new high to low transition indicating the start bit of a new frame can come right after the last of
the bits used for majority voting. For Normal Speed mode, the first low level sample can be at
point marked (A) in Figure 17-7. For Double Speed mode the first low level must be delayed to
(B). (C) marks a stop bit of full length. The early start bit detection influences the operational
range of the Receiver.
17.9.3
Asynchronous Operational Range
The operational range of the Receiver is dependent on the mismatch between the received bit
rate and the internally generated baud rate. If the Transmitter is sending frames at too fast or too
slow bit rates, or the internally generated baud rate of the Receiver does not have a similar (see
Table 17-2) base frequency, the Receiver will not be able to synchronize the frames to the start
bit.
The following equations can be used to calculate the ratio of the incoming data rate and internal
receiver baud rate.
( D + 1 )S
R slow = ------------------------------------------S – 1 + D ⋅ S + SF
( D + 2 )S
R fast = ----------------------------------( D + 1 )S + S M
D
Sum of character size and parity size (D = 5 to 10 bit)
S
Samples per bit. S = 16 for Normal Speed mode and S = 8 for Double Speed mode.
SF
First sample number used for majority voting. SF = 8 for normal speed and
SF = 4 for Double Speed mode.
SM
Middle sample number used for majority voting. SM = 9 for normal speed and
SM = 5 for Double Speed mode.
Rslow
is the ratio of the slowest incoming data rate that can be accepted in relation to
the receiver baud rate.
Rfast is the ratio of the fastest incoming data rate that can be accepted in relation to the
receiver baud rate.
Table 17-2 and Table 17-3 list the maximum receiver baud rate error that can be tolerated. Note
that Normal Speed mode has higher toleration of baud rate variations.
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Table 17-2.
Recommended Maximum Receiver Baud Rate Error for Normal Speed Mode
(U2Xn = 0)
D
# (Data + Parity Bit)
Rslow (%)
Rfast (%)
Max Total Error (%)
Recommended Max
Receiver Error (%)
5
93.20
106.67
+6.67/-6.8
± 3.0
6
94.12
105.79
+5.79/-5.88
± 2.5
7
94.81
105.11
+5.11/-5.19
± 2.0
8
95.36
104.58
+4.58/-4.54
± 2.0
9
95.81
104.14
+4.14/-4.19
± 1.5
10
96.17
103.78
+3.78/-3.83
± 1.5
Table 17-3.
Recommended Maximum Receiver Baud Rate Error for Double Speed Mode
(U2Xn = 1)
D
# (Data + Parity Bit)
Rslow (%)
Rfast (%)
Max Total Error (%)
Recommended Max
Receiver Error (%)
5
94.12
105.66
+5.66/-5.88
± 2.5
6
94.92
104.92
+4.92/-5.08
± 2.0
7
95.52
104,35
+4.35/-4.48
± 1.5
8
96.00
103.90
+3.90/-4.00
± 1.5
9
96.39
103.53
+3.53/-3.61
± 1.5
10
96.70
103.23
+3.23/-3.30
± 1.0
The recommendations of the maximum receiver baud rate error was made under the assumption that the Receiver and Transmitter equally divides the maximum total error.
There are two possible sources for the receivers baud rate error. The Receiver’s system clock
(XTAL) will always have some minor instability over the supply voltage range and the temperature range. When using a crystal to generate the system clock, this is rarely a problem, but for a
resonator the system clock may differ more than 2% depending of the resonators tolerance. The
second source for the error is more controllable. The baud rate generator can not always do an
exact division of the system frequency to get the baud rate wanted. In this case an UBRRn value
that gives an acceptable low error can be used if possible.
17.10 Multi-processor Communication Mode
Setting the Multi-processor Communication mode (MPCMn) bit in UCSRnA enables a filtering
function of incoming frames received by the USARTn Receiver. Frames that do not contain
address information will be ignored and not put into the receive buffer. This effectively reduces
the number of incoming frames that has to be handled by the CPU, in a system with multiple
MCUs that communicate via the same serial bus. The Transmitter is unaffected by the MPCMn
setting, but has to be used differently when it is a part of a system utilizing the Multi-processor
Communication mode.
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17.10.1
MPCM Protocol
If the Receiver is set up to receive frames that contain 5 to 8 data bits, then the first stop bit indicates if the frame contains data or address information. If the Receiver is set up for frames with
nine data bits, then the ninth bit (RXB8n) is used for identifying address and data frames. When
the frame type bit (the first stop or the ninth bit) is one, the frame contains an address. When the
frame type bit is zero the frame is a data frame.
The Multi-processor Communication mode enables several slave MCUs to receive data from a
master MCU. This is done by first decoding an address frame to find out which MCU has been
addressed. If a particular slave MCU has been addressed, it will receive the following data
frames as normal, while the other slave MCUs will ignore the received frames until another
address frame is received.
17.10.2
Using MPCM
For an MCU to act as a master MCU, it can use a 9-bit character frame format (UCSZn = 7). The
ninth bit (TXB8n) must be set when an address frame (TXB8n = 1) or cleared when a data frame
(TXBn = 0) is being transmitted. The slave MCUs must in this case be set to use a 9-bit character frame format.
The following procedure should be used to exchange data in Multi-processor Communication
mode:
1. All Slave MCUs are in Multi-processor Communication mode (MPCMn in
UCSRnA is set).
2. The Master MCU sends an address frame, and all slaves receive and read this frame.
In the Slave MCUs, the RXCn flag in UCSRnA will be set as normal.
3. Each Slave MCU reads the UDRn Register and determines if it has been selected. If
so, it clears the MPCMn bit in UCSRnA, otherwise it waits for the next address byte and
keeps the MPCMn setting.
4. The addressed MCU will receive all data frames until a new address frame is received.
The other Slave MCUs, which still have the MPCMn bit set, will ignore the data frames.
5. When the last data frame is received by the addressed MCU, the addressed MCU sets
the MPCMn bit and waits for a new address frame from master. The process then
repeats from 2.
Using any of the 5- to 8-bit character frame formats is possible, but impractical since the
Receiver must change between using N and N+1 character frame formats. This makes fullduplex operation difficult since the Transmitter and Receiver use the same character size setting. If 5- to 8-bit character frames are used, the Transmitter must be set to use two stop bit
(USBSn = 1) since the first stop bit is used for indicating the frame type.
194
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
17.11 USART Register Description
17.11.1
USART0 I/O Data Register – UDR0
Bit
17.11.2
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXB0[7:0]
UDR0 (Read)
TXB0[7:0]
UDR0 (Write)
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
USART1 I/O Data Register – UDR1
Bit
7
RXB1[7:0]
UDR1 (Read)
TXB1[7:0]
UDR1 (Write)
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bit 7:0 – RxBn7:0: Receive Data Buffer (read access)
• Bit 7:0 – TxBn7:0: Transmit Data Buffer (write access)
The USARTn Transmit Data Buffer Register and USARTn Receive Data Buffer Registers share
the same I/O address referred to as USARTn Data Register or UDRn. The Transmit Data Buffer
Register (TXBn) will be the destination for data written to the UDRn Register location. Reading
the UDRn Register location will return the contents of the Receive Data Buffer Register (RXBn).
For 5-, 6-, or 7-bit characters the upper unused bits will be ignored by the Transmitter and set to
zero by the Receiver.
The transmit buffer can only be written when the UDREn flag in the UCSRnA Register is set.
Data written to UDRn when the UDREn flag is not set, will be ignored by the USARTn Transmitter. When data is written to the transmit buffer, and the Transmitter is enabled, the Transmitter
will load the data into the Transmit Shift Register when the Shift Register is empty. Then the
data will be serially transmitted on the TxDn pin.
The receive buffer consists of a two level FIFO. The FIFO will change its state whenever the
receive buffer is accessed.
17.11.3
USART0 Control and Status Register A – UCSR0A
Bit
17.11.4
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXC0
TXC0
UDRE0
FE0
DOR0
UPE0
U2X0
MPCM0
Read/Write
R
R/W
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
UCSR0A
USART1 Control and Status Register A – UCSR1A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXC1
TXC1
UDRE1
FE1
DOR1
UPE1
U2X1
MPCM1
Read/Write
R
R/W
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
UCSR1A
• Bit 7 – RXCn: USARTn Receive Complete
This flag bit is set when there are unread data in the receive buffer and cleared when the receive
buffer is empty (i.e., does not contain any unread data). If the Receiver is disabled, the receive
buffer will be flushed and consequently the RXCn bit will become zero. The RXCn flag can be
used to generate a Receive Complete interrupt (see description of the RXCIEn bit).
195
7679H–CAN–08/08
• Bit 6 – TXCn: USARTn Transmit Complete
This flag bit is set when the entire frame in the Transmit Shift Register has been shifted out and
there are no new data currently present in the transmit buffer (UDRn). The TXCn flag bit is automatically cleared when a transmit complete interrupt is executed, or it can be cleared by writing
a one to its bit location. The TXCn flag can generate a Transmit Complete interrupt (see description of the TXCIEn bit).
• Bit 5 – UDREn: USARTn Data Register Empty
The UDREn flag indicates if the transmit buffer (UDRn) is ready to receive new data. If UDREn is
one, the buffer is empty, and therefore ready to be written. The UDREn flag can generate a Data
Register Empty interrupt (see description of the UDRIEn bit).
UDREn is set after a reset to indicate that the Transmitter is ready.
• Bit 4 – FEn: Frame Error
This bit is set if the next character in the receive buffer had a Frame Error when received. I.e.,
when the first stop bit of the next character in the receive buffer is zero. This bit is valid until the
receive buffer (UDRn) is read. The FEn bit is zero when the stop bit of received data is one.
Always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA.
• Bit 3 – DORn: Data OverRun
This bit is set if a Data OverRun condition is detected. A Data OverRun occurs when the receive
buffer is full (two characters), it is a new character waiting in the Receive Shift Register, and a
new start bit is detected. This bit is valid until the receive buffer (UDRn) is read. Always set this
bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA.
• Bit 2 – UPEn: USARTn Parity Error
This bit is set if the next character in the receive buffer had a Parity Error when received and the
Parity Checking was enabled at that point (UPMn1 = 1). This bit is valid until the receive buffer
(UDRn) is read. Always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA.
• Bit 1 – U2Xn: Double the USARTn Transmission Speed
This bit only has effect for the asynchronous operation. Write this bit to zero when using synchronous operation.
Writing this bit to one will reduce the divisor of the baud rate divider from 16 to 8 effectively doubling the transfer rate for asynchronous communication.
• Bit 0 – MPCMn: Multi-processor Communication Mode
This bit enables the Multi-processor Communication mode. When the MPCMn bit is written to
one, all the incoming frames received by the USARnT Receiver that do not contain address
information will be ignored. The Transmitter is unaffected by the MPCMn setting. For more
detailed information see “Multi-processor Communication Mode” on page 193.
17.11.5
USART0 Control and Status Register B – UCSR0B
Bit
196
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXCIE0
TXCIE0
UDRIE0
RXEN0
TXEN0
UCSZ02
RXB80
TXB80
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
UCSR0B
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
17.11.6
USART1 Control and Status Register B – UCSR1B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXCIE1
TXCIE1
UDRIE1
RXEN1
TXEN1
UCSZ12
RXB81
TXB81
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
UCSR1B
• Bit 7 – RXCIEn: RX Complete Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the RXCn flag. A USARTn Receive Complete interrupt will be generated only if the RXCIEn bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt Flag in SREG
is written to one and the RXCn bit in UCSRnA is set.
• Bit 6 – TXCIEn: TX Complete Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the TXCn flag. A USARTn Transmit Complete interrupt will be generated only if the TXCIEn bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt Flag in SREG
is written to one and the TXCn bit in UCSRnA is set.
• Bit 5 – UDRIEn: USARTn Data Register Empty Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the UDREn flag. A Data Register Empty interrupt will
be generated only if the UDRIEn bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt Flag in SREG is written
to one and the UDREn bit in UCSRnA is set.
• Bit 4 – RXENn: Receiver Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the USARTn Receiver. The Receiver will override normal port
operation for the RxDn pin when enabled. Disabling the Receiver will flush the receive buffer
invalidating the FEn, DORn, and UPEn Flags.
• Bit 3 – TXENn: Transmitter Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the USARTn Transmitter. The Transmitter will override normal
port operation for the TxDn pin when enabled. The disabling of the Transmitter (writing TXENn
to zero) will not become effective until ongoing and pending transmissions are completed, i.e.,
when the Transmit Shift Register and Transmit Buffer Register do not contain data to be transmitted. When disabled, the Transmitter will no longer override the TxDn port.
• Bit 2 – UCSZn2: Character Size
The UCSZn2 bits combined with the UCSZn1:0 bit in UCSRnC sets the number of data bits
(Character SiZe) in a frame the Receiver and Transmitter use.
• Bit 1 – RXB8n: Receive Data Bit 8
RXB8n is the ninth data bit of the received character when operating with serial frames with nine
data bits. Must be read before reading the low bits from UDRn.
• Bit 0 – TXB8n: Transmit Data Bit 8
TXB8n is the ninth data bit in the character to be transmitted when operating with serial frames
with nine data bits. Must be written before writing the low bits to UDRn.
17.11.7
USART0 Control and Status Register C – UCSR0C
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
UMSEL0
UPM01
UPM00
USBS0
UCSZ01
UCSZ00
UCPOL0
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
UCSR0C
197
7679H–CAN–08/08
17.11.8
USART1 Control and Status Register C – UCSR1C
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
UMSEL1
UPM11
UPM10
USBS1
UCSZ11
UCSZ10
UCPO1L
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
UCSR1C
• Bit 7 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, these bit must be written
to zero when UCSRnC is written.
• Bit 6 – UMSELn: USARTn Mode Select
This bit selects between asynchronous and synchronous mode of operation.
Table 17-4.
UMSELn Bit Settings
UMSELn
Mode
0
Asynchronous Operation
1
Synchronous Operation
• Bit 5:4 – UPMn1:0: Parity Mode
These bits enable and set type of parity generation and check. If enabled, the Transmitter will
automatically generate and send the parity of the transmitted data bits within each frame. The
Receiver will generate a parity value for the incoming data and compare it to the UPMn0 setting.
If a mismatch is detected, the UPEn Flag in UCSRnA will be set.
Table 17-5.
UPMn Bits Settings
UPMn1
UPMn0
Parity Mode
0
0
Disabled
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Enabled, Even Parity
1
1
Enabled, Odd Parity
• Bit 3 – USBSn: Stop Bit Select
This bit selects the number of stop bits to be inserted by the Transmitter. The Receiver ignores
this setting.
Table 17-6.
USBSn Bit Settings
USBSn
198
Stop Bit(s)
0
1-bit
1
2-bit
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
• Bit 2:1 – UCSZn1:0: Character Size
The UCSZn1:0 bits combined with the UCSZn2 bit in UCSRnB sets the number of data bits
(Character SiZe) in a frame the Receiver and Transmitter use.
Table 17-7.
UCSZn Bits Settings
UCSZn2
UCSZn1
UCSZn0
Character Size
0
0
0
5-bit
0
0
1
6-bit
0
1
0
7-bit
0
1
1
8-bit
1
0
0
Reserved
1
0
1
Reserved
1
1
0
Reserved
1
1
1
9-bit
• Bit 0 – UCPOLn: Clock Polarity
This bit is used for synchronous mode only. Write this bit to zero when asynchronous mode is
used. The UCPOLn bit sets the relationship between data output change and data input sample,
and the synchronous clock (XCKn).
Table 17-8.
Transmitted Data Changed
(Output of TxDn Pin)
Received Data Sampled
(Input on RxDn Pin)
0
Rising XCK Edge
Falling XCK Edge
1
Falling XCK Edge
Rising XCK Edge
UCPOLn
17.11.9
UCPOLn Bit Settings
USART0 Baud Rate Registers – UBRR0L and UBRR0H
Bit
15
14
13
12
–
–
–
–
11
10
9
8
UBRR0[11:8]
UBRR0H
UBRR0[7:0]
7
Read/Write
Initial Value
6
5
4
3
UBRR0L
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
10
9
8
17.11.10 USART1 Baud Rate Registers – UBRR1L and UBRR1H
Bit
15
14
13
12
–
–
–
–
UBRR1[11:8]
UBRR1H
UBRR1[7:0]
7
Read/Write
Initial Value
6
5
4
3
UBRR1L
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
199
7679H–CAN–08/08
• Bit 15:12 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, these bit must be
written to zero when UBRRnH is written.
• Bit 11:0 – UBRRn11:0: USARTn Baud Rate Register
This is a 12-bit register which contains the USARTn baud rate. The UBRRnH contains the four
most significant bits, and the UBRRnL contains the eight least significant bits of the USARTn
baud rate. Ongoing transmissions by the Transmitter and Receiver will be corrupted if the baud
rate is changed. Writing UBRRnL will trigger an immediate update of the baud rate prescaler.
17.12 Examples of Baud Rate Setting
For standard crystal, resonator and external oscillator frequencies, the most commonly used
baud rates for asynchronous operation can be generated by using the UBRRn settings in Table
17-9 up to Table 17-12. UBRRn values which yield an actual baud rate differing less than 0.5%
from the target baud rate, are bold in the table. Higher error ratings are acceptable, but the
Receiver will have less noise resistance when the error ratings are high, especially for large
serial frames (see “Asynchronous Operational Range” on page 192). The error values are calculated using the following equation:
BaudRate Closest Match
Error[%] = ⎛ 1 – --------------------------------------------------------⎞ • 100%
⎝
⎠
BaudRate
Table 17-9.
Baud
Rate
(bps)
Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Frequencies
fclkio = 1.0000 MHz
U2Xn = 0
UBRRn
Error
fclkio = 1.8432 MHz
U2Xn = 1
UBRRn
Error
U2Xn = 0
UBRRn
Error
fclkio = 2.0000 MHz
U2Xn = 1
UBRRn
Error
U2Xn = 0
UBRRn
Error
U2Xn = 1
UBRRn
Error
2400
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
4800
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
9600
6
-7.0%
12
0.2%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
14.4k
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
8
-3.5%
16
2.1%
19.2k
2
8.5%
6
-7.0%
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
6
-7.0%
12
0.2%
28.8k
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
38.4k
1
-18.6%
2
8.5%
2
0.0%
5
0.0%
2
8.5%
6
-7.0%
57.6k
0
8.5%
1
8.5%
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
76.8k
–
–
1
-18.6%
1
-25.0%
2
0.0%
1
-18.6%
2
8.5%
115.2k
–
–
0
8.5%
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
0
8.5%
1
8.5%
230.4k
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
0.0%
–
–
–
–
250k
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
500k
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1M
Max.
Note:
200
(1)
62.5 Kbps
125 Kbps
115.2 Kbps
230.4 Kbps
125 Kbps
250 Kbps
1. UBRRn = 0, Error = 0.0%
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Table 17-10. Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Frequencies (Continued)
Baud
Rate
(bps)
fclkio = 3.6864 MHz
U2Xn = 0
UBRRn
fclkio = 4.0000 MHz
U2Xn = 1
Error
UBRRn
U2Xn = 0
Error
UBRRn
fclkio = 7.3728 MHz
U2Xn = 1
Error
UBRRn
U2Xn = 0
Error
UBRRn
U2Xn = 1
Error
UBRRn
Error
2400
95
0.0%
191
0.0%
103
0.2%
207
0.2%
191
0.0%
383
0.0%
4800
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
95
0.0%
191
0.0%
9600
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
14.4k
15
0.0%
31
0.0%
16
2.1%
34
-0.8%
31
0.0%
63
0.0%
19.2k
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
28.8k
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
8
-3.5%
16
2.1%
15
0.0%
31
0.0%
38.4k
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
6
-7.0%
12
0.2%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
57.6k
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
76.8k
2
0.0%
5
0.0%
2
8.5%
6
-7.0%
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
115.2k
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
230.4k
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
0
8.5%
1
8.5%
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
250k
0
-7.8%
1
-7.8%
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
1
-7.8%
3
-7.8%
500k
–
–
0
-7.8%
–
–
0
0.0%
0
-7.8%
1
-7.8%
1M
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
-7.8%
Max.
Note:
(1)
230.4 Kbps
460.8 Kbps
250 Kbps
0.5 Mbps
460.8 Kbps
921.6 Kbps
1. UBRRn = 0, Error = 0.0%
201
7679H–CAN–08/08
Table 17-11. Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Frequencies (Continued)
Baud
Rate
(bps)
fclkio = 8.0000 MHz
U2Xn = 0
UBRRn
Error
fclkio = 10.000 MHz
U2Xn = 1
UBRRn
Error
U2Xn = 0
UBRRn
Error
fclkio = 11.0592 MHz
U2Xn = 1
UBRRn
Error
U2Xn = 0
UBRRn
Error
U2Xn = 1
UBRRn
Error
2400
207
0.2%
416
-0.1%
259
0.2%
520
0.0%
287
0.0%
575
0.0%
4800
103
0.2%
207
0.2%
129
0.2%
259
0.2%
143
0.0%
287
0.0%
9600
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
64
0.2%
129
0.2%
71
0.0%
143
0.0%
14.4k
34
-0.8%
68
0.6%
42
0.9%
86
0.2%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
19.2k
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
32
-1.4%
64
0.2%
35
0.0%
71
0.0%
28.8k
16
2.1%
34
-0.8%
21
-1.4%
42
0.9%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
38.4k
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
15
1.8%
32
-1.4%
17
0.0%
35
0.0%
57.6k
8
-3.5%
16
2.1%
10
-1.5%
21
-1.4%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
76.8k
6
-7.0%
12
0.2%
7
1.9%
15
1.8%
8
0.0%
17
0.0%
115.2k
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
4
9.6%
10
-1.5%
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
230.4k
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
2
-16.8%
4
9.6%
2
0.0%
5
0.0%
250k
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
2
-33.3%
4
0.0%
2
-7.8%
5
-7.8%
500k
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
–
–
2
-33.3%
–
–
2
-7.8%
–
–
0
0.0%
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1M
Max.
Note:
202
(1)
0.5 Mbps
1 Mbps
625 Kbps
1.25 Mbps
691.2 Kbps
1.3824 Mbps
1. UBRRn = 0, Error = 0.0%
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Table 17-12. Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Frequencies (Continued)
Baud
Rate
(bps)
fclkio = 12.0000 MHz
U2Xn = 0
UBRRn
Error
fclkio = 14.7456 MHz
U2Xn = 1
UBRRn
Error
U2Xn = 0
UBRRn
Error
fclkio = 16.0000 MHz
U2Xn = 1
UBRRn
Error
U2Xn = 0
UBRRn
Error
U2Xn = 1
UBRRn
Error
2400
312
-0.2%
624
0.0%
383
0.0%
767
0.0%
416
-0.1%
832
0.0%
4800
155
0.2%
312
-0.2%
191
0.0%
383
0.0%
207
0.2%
416
-0.1%
9600
77
0.2%
155
0.2%
95
0.0%
191
0.0%
103
0.2%
207
0.2%
14.4k
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
63
0.0%
127
0.0%
68
0.6%
138
-0.1%
19.2k
38
0.2%
77
0.2%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
28.8k
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
31
0.0%
63
0.0%
34
-0.8%
68
0.6%
38.4k
19
-2.5%
38
0.2%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
57.6k
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
15
0.0%
31
0.0%
16
2.1%
34
-0.8%
76.8k
9
-2.7%
19
-2.5%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
115.2k
6
-8.9%
12
0.2%
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
8
-3.5%
16
2.1%
230.4k
2
11.3%
6
-8.9%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
250k
2
0.0%
5
0.0%
3
-7.8%
6
5.3%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
500k
–
–
2
0.0%
1
-7.8%
3
-7.8%
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
–
–
–
–
0
-7.8%
1
-7.8%
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
1M
Max.
Note:
(1)
750 Kbps
1.5 Mbps
921.6 Kbps
1.8432 Mbps
1 Mbps
2 Mbps
1. UBRRn = 0, Error = 0.0%
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18. Two-wire Serial Interface
18.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
18.2
Simple yet Powerful and Flexible Communication Interface, only Two Bus Lines Needed
Both Master and Slave Operation Supported
Device can Operate as Transmitter or Receiver
7-bit Address Space allows up to 128 Different Slave Addresses
Multi-master Arbitration Support
Up to 400 kHz Data Transfer Speed
Slew-rate Limited Output Drivers
Noise Suppression Circuitry Rejects Spikes on Bus Lines
Fully Programmable Slave Address with General Call Support
Address Recognition Causes Wake-up when AVR is in Sleep Mode
Two-wire Serial Interface Bus Definition
The Two-wire Serial Interface (TWI) is ideally suited for typical microcontroller applications. The
TWI protocol allows the systems designer to interconnect up to 128 different devices using only
two bi-directional bus lines, one for clock (SCL) and one for data (SDA). The only external hardware needed to implement the bus is a single pull-up resistor for each of the TWI bus lines. All
devices connected to the bus have individual addresses, and mechanisms for resolving bus
contention are inherent in the TWI protocol.
Figure 18-1. TWI Bus Interconnection
Device 1
Device 2
Device 3
........
Device n
VCC
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
18.2.1
TWI Terminology
The following definitions are frequently encountered in this section.
Table 18-1.
204
TWI Terminology
Term
Description
Master
The device that initiates and terminates a transmission. The master also generates the
SCL clock
Slave
The device addressed by a master
Transmitter
The device placing data on the bus
Receiver
The device reading data from the bus
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18.2.2
Electrical Interconnection
As depicted in Figure 18-1, both bus lines are connected to the positive supply voltage through
pull-up resistors. The bus drivers of all TWI-compliant devices are open-drain or open-collector.
This implements a wired-AND function which is essential to the operation of the interface. A low
level on a TWI bus line is generated when one or more TWI devices output a zero. A high level
is output when all TWI devices tri-state their outputs, allowing the pull-up resistors to pull the line
high. Note that all AVR devices connected to the TWI bus must be powered in order to allow any
bus operation.
The number of devices that can be connected to the bus is only limited by the bus capacitance
limit of 400 pF and the 7-bit slave address space. A detailed specification of the electrical characteristics of the TWI is given in “Two-wire Serial Interface Characteristics” on page 369. Two
different sets of specifications are presented there, one relevant for bus speeds below 100 kHz,
and one valid for bus speeds up to 400 kHz.
18.3
18.3.1
Data Transfer and Frame Format
Transferring Bits
Each data bit transferred on the TWI bus is accompanied by a pulse on the clock line. The level
of the data line must be stable when the clock line is high. The only exception to this rule is for
generating start and stop conditions.
Figure 18-2. Data Validity
SDA
SCL
Data Stable
Data Stable
Data Change
18.3.2
START and STOP Conditions
The master initiates and terminates a data transmission. The transmission is initiated when the
master issues a START condition on the bus, and it is terminated when the master issues a
STOP condition. Between a START and a STOP condition, the bus is considered busy, and no
other master should try to seize control of the bus. A special case occurs when a new START
condition is issued between a START and STOP condition. This is referred to as a REPEATED
START condition, and is used when the master wishes to initiate a new transfer without relinquishing control of the bus. After a REPEATED START, the bus is considered busy until the next
STOP. This is identical to the START behaviour, and therefore START is used to describe both
START and REPEATED START for the remainder of this datasheet, unless otherwise noted. As
depicted below, START and STOP conditions are signalled by changing the level of the SDA
line when the SCL line is high.
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Figure 18-3. START, REPEATED START and STOP Conditions
SDA
SCL
START
18.3.3
REPEATED START
STOP START
STOP
Address Packet Format
All address packets transmitted on the TWI bus are 9 bits long, consisting of 7 address bits, one
READ/WRITE control bit and an acknowledge bit. If the READ/WRITE bit is set, a read operation is to be performed, otherwise a write operation should be performed. When a slave
recognizes that it is being addressed, it should acknowledge by pulling SDA low in the ninth SCL
(ACK) cycle. If the addressed slave is busy, or for some other reason can not service the master’s request, the SDA line should be left high in the ACK clock cycle. The master can then
transmit a STOP condition, or a REPEATED START condition to initiate a new transmission. An
address packet consisting of a slave address and a READ or a WRITE bit is called SLA+R or
SLA+W, respectively.
The MSB of the address byte is transmitted first. Slave addresses can freely be allocated by the
designer, but the address 0000 000 is reserved for a general call.
When a general call is issued, all slaves should respond by pulling the SDA line low in the ACK
cycle. A general call is used when a master wishes to transmit the same message to several
slaves in the system. When the general call address followed by a Write bit is transmitted on the
bus, all slaves set up to acknowledge the general call will pull the SDA line low in the ack cycle.
The following data packets will then be received by all the slaves that acknowledged the general
call. Note that transmitting the general call address followed by a Read bit is meaningless, as
this would cause contention if several slaves started transmitting different data.
All addresses of the format 1111 xxx should be reserved for future purposes.
Figure 18-4. Address Packet Format
Addr MSB
Addr LSB
R/W
ACK
7
8
9
SDA
SCL
1
2
START
18.3.4
206
Data Packet Format
All data packets transmitted on the TWI bus are 9 bits long, consisting of one data byte and an
acknowledge bit. During a data transfer, the master generates the clock and the START and
STOP conditions, while the receiver is responsible for acknowledging the reception. An
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Acknowledge (ACK) is signalled by the receiver pulling the SDA line low during the ninth SCL
cycle. If the receiver leaves the SDA line high, a NACK is signalled. When the receiver has
received the last byte, or for some reason cannot receive any more bytes, it should inform the
transmitter by sending a NACK after the final byte. The MSB of the data byte is transmitted first.
Figure 18-5. Data Packet Format
Data MSB
Data LSB
ACK
8
9
Aggregate
SDA
SDA from
Transmitter
SDA from
Receiver
SCL from
Master
1
2
7
SLA+R/W
18.3.5
STOP, REPEATED
START or Next
Data Byte
Data Byte
Combining Address and Data Packets Into a Transmission
A transmission basically consists of a START condition, a SLA+R/W, one or more data packets
and a STOP condition. An empty message, consisting of a START followed by a STOP condition, is illegal. Note that the Wired-ANDing of the SCL line can be used to implement
handshaking between the master and the slave. The slave can extend the SCL low period by
pulling the SCL line low. This is useful if the clock speed set up by the master is too fast for the
slave, or the slave needs extra time for processing between the data transmissions. The slave
extending the SCL low period will not affect the SCL high period, which is determined by the
master. As a consequence, the slave can reduce the TWI data transfer speed by prolonging the
SCL duty cycle.
Figure 18-6 shows a typical data transmission. Note that several data bytes can be transmitted
between the SLA+R/W and the STOP condition, depending on the software protocol implemented by the application software.
Figure 18-6. Typical Data Transmission
Addr MSB
Addr LSB
R/W
ACK
Data MSB
7
8
9
1
Data LSB
ACK
8
9
SDA
SCL
1
START
18.4
2
SLA+R/W
2
7
Data Byte
STOP
Multi-master Bus Systems, Arbitration and Synchronization
The TWI protocol allows bus systems with several masters. Special concerns have been taken
in order to ensure that transmissions will proceed as normal, even if two or more masters initiate
a transmission at the same time. Two problems arise in multi-master systems:
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• An algorithm must be implemented allowing only one of the masters to complete the
transmission. All other masters should cease transmission when they discover that they have
lost the selection process. This selection process is called arbitration. When a contending
master discovers that it has lost the arbitration process, it should immediately switch to slave
mode to check whether it is being addressed by the winning master. The fact that multiple
masters have started transmission at the same time should not be detectable to the slaves,
i.e., the data being transferred on the bus must not be corrupted.
• Different masters may use different SCL frequencies. A scheme must be devised to
synchronize the serial clocks from all masters, in order to let the transmission proceed in a
lockstep fashion. This will facilitate the arbitration process.
The wired-ANDing of the bus lines is used to solve both these problems. The serial clocks from
all masters will be wired-ANDed, yielding a combined clock with a high period equal to the one
from the master with the shortest high period. The low period of the combined clock is equal to
the low period of the master with the longest low period. Note that all masters listen to the SCL
line, effectively starting to count their SCL high and low time-out periods when the combined
SCL line goes high or low, respectively.
Figure 18-7. SCL Synchronization between Multiple Masters
TA low
TA high
SCL from
master A
SCL from
master B
SCL Bus
Line
TBlow
Masters Start
Counting Low Period
TBhigh
Masters Start
Counting High Period
Arbitration is carried out by all masters continuously monitoring the SDA line after outputting
data. If the value read from the SDA line does not match the value the master had output, it has
lost the arbitration. Note that a master can only lose arbitration when it outputs a high SDA value
while another master outputs a low value. The losing master should immediately go to slave
mode, checking if it is being addressed by the winning master. The SDA line should be left high,
but losing masters are allowed to generate a clock signal until the end of the current data or
address packet. Arbitration will continue until only one master remains, and this may take many
bits. If several masters are trying to address the same slave, arbitration will continue into the
data packet.
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Figure 18-8. Arbitration Between two Masters
START
SDA from
Master A
Master A loses
Arbitration, SDAA SDA
SDA from
Master B
SDA Line
Synchronized
SCL Line
Note that arbitration is not allowed between:
• A REPEATED START condition and a data bit
• A STOP condition and a data bit
• A REPEATED START and a STOP condition
It is the user software’s responsibility to ensure that these illegal arbitration conditions never
occur. This implies that in multi-master systems, all data transfers must use the same composition of SLA+R/W and data packets. In other words: All transmissions must contain the same
number of data packets, otherwise the result of the arbitration is undefined.
18.5
Overview of the TWI Module
The TWI module is comprised of several submodules, as shown in Figure 18-9. All registers
drawn in a thick line are accessible through the AVR data bus.
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Figure 18-9. Overview of the TWI Module
SCL
Slew-rate
Control
SDA
Spike
Filter
Spike
Filter
Slew-rate
Control
Bus Interface Unit
START / STOP
Control
Spike Suppression
Arbitration detection
Address/Data Shift
Register (TWDR)
Bit Rate Generator
Prescaler
Address Match Unit
Address Register
(TWAR)
Bit Rate Register
(TWBR)
Ack
Control Unit
Status Register
(TWSR)
Address Comparator
Control Register
(TWCR)
State Machine and
Status control
TWI
Unit
18.5.1
SCL and SDA Pins
These pins interface the AVR TWI with the rest of the MCU system. The output drivers contain a
slew-rate limiter in order to conform to the TWI specification. The input stages contain a spike
suppression unit removing spikes shorter than 50 ns. Note that the internal pullups in the AVR
pads can be enabled by setting the PORT bits corresponding to the SCL and SDA pins, as
explained in the I/O Port section. The internal pull-ups can in some systems eliminate the need
for external ones.
18.5.2
Bit Rate Generator Unit
This unit controls the period of SCL when operating in a Master mode. The SCL period is controlled by settings in the TWI Bit Rate Register (TWBR) and the Prescaler bits in the TWI Status
Register (TWSR). Slave operation does not depend on Bit Rate or Prescaler settings, but the
CPU clock frequency in the slave must be at least 16 times higher than the SCL frequency. Note
that slaves may prolong the SCL low period, thereby reducing the average TWI bus clock
period. The SCL frequency is generated according to the following equation:
CLKio
SCL frequency = ----------------------------------------------------------TWPS
16 + 2(TWBR) ⋅ 4
• TWBR = Value of the TWI Bit Rate Register
• TWPS = Value of the prescaler bits in the TWI Status Register
Note:
210
TWBR should be 10 or higher if the TWI operates in Master mode. If TWBR is lower than 10, the
master may produce an incorrect output on SDA and SCL for the reminder of the byte. The problem occurs when operating the TWI in Master mode, sending Start + SLA + R/W to a slave (a
slave does not need to be connected to the bus for the condition to happen).
AT90CAN32/64/128
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18.5.3
Bus Interface Unit
This unit contains the Data and Address Shift Register (TWDR), a START/STOP Controller and
Arbitration detection hardware. The TWDR contains the address or data bytes to be transmitted,
or the address or data bytes received. In addition to the 8-bit TWDR, the Bus Interface Unit also
contains a register containing the (N)ACK bit to be transmitted or received. This (N)ACK Register is not directly accessible by the application software. However, when receiving, it can be set
or cleared by manipulating the TWI Control Register (TWCR). When in Transmitter mode, the
value of the received (N)ACK bit can be determined by the value in the TWSR.
The START/STOP Controller is responsible for generation and detection of START, REPEATED
START, and STOP conditions. The START/STOP controller is able to detect START and STOP
conditions even when the AVR MCU is in one of the sleep modes, enabling the MCU to wake up
if addressed by a master.
If the TWI has initiated a transmission as master, the Arbitration Detection hardware continuously monitors the transmission trying to determine if arbitration is in process. If the TWI has lost
an arbitration, the Control Unit is informed. Correct action can then be taken and appropriate
status codes generated.
18.5.4
Address Match Unit
The Address Match unit checks if received address bytes match the 7-bit address in the TWI
Address Register (TWAR). If the TWI General Call Recognition Enable (TWGCE) bit in the
TWAR is written to one, all incoming address bits will also be compared against the General Call
address. Upon an address match, the Control Unit is informed, allowing correct action to be
taken. The TWI may or may not acknowledge its address, depending on settings in the TWCR.
The Address Match unit is able to compare addresses even when the AVR MCU is in sleep
mode, enabling the MCU to wake up if addressed by a master. If another interrupt (e.g., INT0)
occurs during TWI Power-down address match and wakes up the CPU, the TWI aborts operation and return to it’s idle state. If this cause any problems, ensure that TWI Address Match is the
only enabled interrupt when entering Power-down.
18.5.5
Control Unit
The Control unit monitors the TWI bus and generates responses corresponding to settings in the
TWI Control Register (TWCR). When an event requiring the attention of the application occurs
on the TWI bus, the TWI Interrupt Flag (TWINT) is asserted. In the next clock cycle, the TWI Status Register (TWSR) is updated with a status code identifying the event. The TWSR only
contains relevant status information when the TWI Interrupt Flag is asserted. At all other times,
the TWSR contains a special status code indicating that no relevant status information is available. As long as the TWINT flag is set, the SCL line is held low. This allows the application
software to complete its tasks before allowing the TWI transmission to continue.
The TWINT flag is set in the following situations:
• After the TWI has transmitted a START/REPEATED START condition
• After the TWI has transmitted SLA+R/W
• After the TWI has transmitted an address byte
• After the TWI has lost arbitration
• After the TWI has been addressed by own slave address or general call
• After the TWI has received a data byte
• After a STOP or REPEATED START has been received while still addressed as a slave
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• When a bus error has occurred due to an illegal START or STOP condition
18.6
18.6.1
TWI Register Description
TWI Bit Rate Register – TWBR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWBR7
TWBR6
TWBR5
TWBR4
TWBR3
TWBR2
TWBR1
TWBR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TWBR
• Bits 7.0 – TWI Bit Rate Register
TWBR selects the division factor for the bit rate generator. The bit rate generator is a frequency
divider which generates the SCL clock frequency in the Master modes. See “Bit Rate Generator
Unit” on page 210 for calculating bit rates.
18.6.2
TWI Control Register – TWCR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TWCR
The TWCR is used to control the operation of the TWI. It is used to enable the TWI, to initiate a
master access by applying a START condition to the bus, to generate a receiver acknowledge,
to generate a stop condition, and to control halting of the bus while the data to be written to the
bus are written to the TWDR. It also indicates a write collision if data is attempted written to
TWDR while the register is inaccessible.
• Bit 7 – TWINT: TWI Interrupt Flag
This bit is set by hardware when the TWI has finished its current job and expects application
software response. If the I-bit in SREG and TWIE in TWCR are set, the MCU will jump to the
TWI interrupt vector. While the TWINT flag is set, the SCL low period is stretched. The TWINT
flag must be cleared by software by writing a logic one to it. Note that this flag is not automatically cleared by hardware when executing the interrupt routine. Also note that clearing this flag
starts the operation of the TWI, so all accesses to the TWI Address Register (TWAR), TWI Status Register (TWSR), and TWI Data Register (TWDR) must be complete before clearing this
flag.
• Bit 6 – TWEA: TWI Enable Acknowledge Bit
The TWEA bit controls the generation of the ACK pulse. If the TWEA bit is written to one, the
ACK pulse is generated on the TWI bus if the following conditions are met:
1. The device’s own slave address has been received.
2. A general call has been received, while the TWGCE bit in the TWAR is set.
3. A data byte has been received in Master Receiver or Slave Receiver mode.
By writing the TWEA bit to zero, the device can be virtually disconnected from the Two-wire
Serial Bus temporarily. Address recognition can then be resumed by writing the TWEA bit to one
again.
• Bit 5 – TWSTA: TWI START Condition Bit
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The application writes the TWSTA bit to one when it desires to become a master on the Twowire Serial Bus. The TWI hardware checks if the bus is available, and generates a START condition on the bus if it is free. However, if the bus is not free, the TWI waits until a STOP condition
is detected, and then generates a new START condition to claim the bus Master status. TWSTA
must be cleared by software when the START condition has been transmitted.
• Bit 4 – TWSTO: TWI STOP Condition Bit
Writing the TWSTO bit to one in Master mode will generate a STOP condition on the Two-wire
Serial Bus. When the STOP condition is executed on the bus, the TWSTO bit is cleared automatically. In slave mode, setting the TWSTO bit can be used to recover from an error condition.
This will not generate a STOP condition, but the TWI returns to a well-defined unaddressed
Slave mode and releases the SCL and SDA lines to a high impedance state.
• Bit 3 – TWWC: TWI Write Collision Flag
The TWWC bit is set when attempting to write to the TWI Data Register – TWDR when TWINT is
low. This flag is cleared by writing the TWDR Register when TWINT is high.
• Bit 2 – TWEN: TWI Enable Bit
The TWEN bit enables TWI operation and activates the TWI interface. When TWEN is written to
one, the TWI takes control over the I/O pins connected to the SCL and SDA pins, enabling the
slew-rate limiters and spike filters. If this bit is written to zero, the TWI is switched off and all TWI
transmissions are terminated, regardless of any ongoing operation.
• Bit 1 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, this must be written to
zero when TWCR is written.
• Bit 0 – TWIE: TWI Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-bit in SREG is set, the TWI interrupt request will be activated for as long as the TWINT flag is high.
18.6.3
TWI Status Register – TWSR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWS7
TWS6
TWS5
TWS4
TWS3
–
TWPS1
TWPS0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
TWSR
• Bits 7.3 – TWS: TWI Status
These 5 bits reflect the status of the TWI logic and the Two-wire Serial Bus. The different status
codes are described later in this section. Note that the value read from TWSR contains both the
5-bit status value and the 2-bit prescaler value. The application designer should mask the prescaler bits to zero when checking the Status bits. This makes status checking independent of
prescaler setting. This approach is used in this datasheet, unless otherwise noted.
• Bit 2 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved and will always read as zero.
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• Bits 1.0 – TWPS: TWI Prescaler Bits
These bits can be read and written, and control the bit rate prescaler.
Table 18-2.
TWI Bit Rate Prescaler
TWPS1
TWPS0
Prescaler Value
0
0
1
0
1
4
1
0
16
1
1
64
To calculate bit rates, see “Bit Rate Generator Unit” on page 210. The value of TWPS1.0 is used
in the equation.
18.6.4
TWI Data Register – TWDR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWD7
TWD6
TWD5
TWD4
TWD3
TWD2
TWD1
TWD0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
TWDR
In Transmit mode, TWDR contains the next byte to be transmitted. In receive mode, the TWDR
contains the last byte received. It is writable while the TWI is not in the process of shifting a byte.
This occurs when the TWI interrupt flag (TWINT) is set by hardware. Note that the Data Register
cannot be initialized by the user before the first interrupt occurs. The data in TWDR remains stable as long as TWINT is set. While data is shifted out, data on the bus is simultaneously shifted
in. TWDR always contains the last byte present on the bus, except after a wake up from a sleep
mode by the TWI interrupt. In this case, the contents of TWDR is undefined. In the case of a lost
bus arbitration, no data is lost in the transition from Master to Slave. Handling of the ACK bit is
controlled automatically by the TWI logic, the CPU cannot access the ACK bit directly.
• Bits 7.0 – TWD: TWI Data Register
These eight bits constitute the next data byte to be transmitted, or the latest data byte received
on the TWI Serial Bus.
18.6.5
TWI (Slave) Address Register – TWAR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWA6
TWA5
TWA4
TWA3
TWA2
TWA1
TWA0
TWGCE
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
TWAR
• Bits 7.1 – TWA: TWI (Slave) Address Register
These seven bits constitute the slave address of the TWI unit. The TWAR should be loaded with
the 7-bit slave address to which the TWI will respond when programmed as a slave transmitter
or receiver, and not needed in the master modes. In multimaster systems, TWAR must be set in
masters which can be addressed as slaves by other masters.
• Bit 0 – TWGCE: TWI General Call Recognition Enable Bit
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TWGCE is used to enable recognition of the general call address (0x00). There is an associated
address comparator that looks for the slave address (or general call address if enabled) in the
received serial address. If a match is found, an interrupt request is generated. If set, this bit
enables the recognition of a General Call given over the TWI Serial Bus.
18.7
Using the TWI
The AVR TWI is byte-oriented and interrupt based. Interrupts are issued after all bus events, like
reception of a byte or transmission of a START condition. Because the TWI is interrupt-based,
the application software is free to carry on other operations during a TWI byte transfer. Note that
the TWI Interrupt Enable (TWIE) bit in TWCR together with the Global Interrupt Enable bit in
SREG allow the application to decide whether or not assertion of the TWINT flag should generate an interrupt request. If the TWIE bit is cleared, the application must poll the TWINT flag in
order to detect actions on the TWI bus.
When the TWINT flag is asserted, the TWI has finished an operation and awaits application
response. In this case, the TWI Status Register (TWSR) contains a value indicating the current
state of the TWI bus. The application software can then decide how the TWI should behave in
the next TWI bus cycle by manipulating the TWCR and TWDR Registers.
Figure 18-10 is a simple example of how the application can interface to the TWI hardware. In
this example, a master wishes to transmit a single data byte to a slave. This description is quite
abstract, a more detailed explanation follows later in this section. A simple code example implementing the desired behavior is also presented.
Application
Action
Figure 18-10. Interfacing the Application to the TWI in a Typical Transmission
TWI bus
1. Application
writes to TWCR
to initiate
transmission of
START.
3. Check TWSR to see if
START was sent. Application
loads SLA+W into TWDR, and
loads appropriate control signals
into TWCR, making sure that
TWINT is written to one.
START
TWI
Hardware
Action
SLA+W
2. TWINT set.
Status code indicates
START condition sent
5. Check TWSR to see if SLA+W
was sent and ACK received.
Application loads data into TWDR,
and loads appropriate control signals
into TWCR, making sure that TWINT
is written to one.
A
4. TWINT set.
Status code indicates
SLA+W sendt,
ACK received
Data
7. Check TWSR to see if data
was sent and ACK received.
Application loads appropriate
control signals to send STOP
into TWCR, making sure that
TWINT is written to one.
A
6. TWINT set.
Status code indicates
data sent,
ACK received
STOP
Indicates
TWINT set
1. The first step in a TWI transmission is to transmit a START condition. This is done by
writing a specific value into TWCR, instructing the TWI hardware to transmit a START
condition. Which value to write is described later on. However, it is important that the
TWINT bit is set in the value written. Writing a one to TWINT clears the flag. The TWI
will not start any operation as long as the TWINT bit in TWCR is set. Immediately after
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the application has cleared TWINT, the TWI will initiate transmission of the START
condition.
2. When the START condition has been transmitted, the TWINT flag in TWCR is set, and
TWSR is updated with a status code indicating that the START condition has successfully been sent.
3. The application software should now examine the value of TWSR, to make sure that
the START condition was successfully transmitted. If TWSR indicates otherwise, the
application software might take some special action, like calling an error routine.
Assuming that the status code is as expected, the application must load SLA+W into
TWDR. Remember that TWDR is used both for address and data. After TWDR has
been loaded with the desired SLA+W, a specific value must be written to TWCR,
instructing the TWI hardware to transmit the SLA+W present in TWDR. Which value to
write is described later on. However, it is important that the TWINT bit is set in the value
written. Writing a one to TWINT clears the flag. The TWI will not start any operation as
long as the TWINT bit in TWCR is set. Immediately after the application has cleared
TWINT, the TWI will initiate transmission of the address packet.
4. When the address packet has been transmitted, the TWINT flag in TWCR is set, and
TWSR is updated with a status code indicating that the address packet has successfully been sent. The status code will also reflect whether a slave acknowledged the
packet or not.
5. The application software should now examine the value of TWSR, to make sure that
the address packet was successfully transmitted, and that the value of the ACK bit was
as expected. If TWSR indicates otherwise, the application software might take some
special action, like calling an error routine. Assuming that the status code is as
expected, the application must load a data packet into TWDR. Subsequently, a specific
value must be written to TWCR, instructing the TWI hardware to transmit the data
packet present in TWDR. Which value to write is described later on. However, it is
important that the TWINT bit is set in the value written. Writing a one to TWINT clears
the flag. The TWI will not start any operation as long as the TWINT bit in TWCR is set.
Immediately after the application has cleared TWINT, the TWI will initiate transmission
of the data packet.
6. When the data packet has been transmitted, the TWINT flag in TWCR is set, and
TWSR is updated with a status code indicating that the data packet has successfully
been sent. The status code will also reflect whether a slave acknowledged the packet
or not.
7. The application software should now examine the value of TWSR, to make sure that
the data packet was successfully transmitted, and that the value of the ACK bit was as
expected. If TWSR indicates otherwise, the application software might take some special action, like calling an error routine. Assuming that the status code is as expected,
the application must write a specific value to TWCR, instructing the TWI hardware to
transmit a STOP condition. Which value to write is described later on. However, it is
important that the TWINT bit is set in the value written. Writing a one to TWINT clears
the flag. The TWI will not start any operation as long as the TWINT bit in TWCR is set.
Immediately after the application has cleared TWINT, the TWI will initiate transmission
of the STOP condition. Note that TWINT is NOT set after a STOP condition has been
sent.
Even though this example is simple, it shows the principles involved in all TWI transmissions.
These can be summarized as follows:
• When the TWI has finished an operation and expects application response, the TWINT flag is
set. The SCL line is pulled low until TWINT is cleared.
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• When the TWINT flag is set, the user must update all TWI Registers with the value relevant
for the next TWI bus cycle. As an example, TWDR must be loaded with the value to be
transmitted in the next bus cycle.
• After all TWI Register updates and other pending application software tasks have been
completed, TWCR is written. When writing TWCR, the TWINT bit should be set. Writing a
one to TWINT clears the flag. The TWI will then commence executing whatever operation
was specified by the TWCR setting.
In the following an assembly and C implementation of the example is given. Note that the code
below assumes that several definitions have been made for example by using include-files.
Assembly Code Example
ldi
1
sts
2
3
wait1:
lds
r16,TWCR
sbrs
r16,TWINT
rjmp
wait1
lds
andi
cpi
brne
r16,TWSR
r16, 0xF8
r16, START
ERROR
ldi
sts
ldi
r16, SLA_W
TWDR, r16
r16, (1<<TWINT)|
(1<<TWEN)
TWCR, r16
sts
4
5
wait2:
lds
r16,TWCR
sbrs
r16,TWINT
rjmp
wait2
lds
andi
cpi
brne
r16,TWSR
r16, 0xF8
r16, MT_SLA_ACK
ERROR
ldi
sts
ldi
r16, DATA
TWDR, r16
r16, (1<<TWINT)|
(1<<TWEN)
TWCR, r16
sts
6
7
r16, (1<<TWINT)|
(1<<TWSTA)|
(1<<TWEN)
TWCR, r16
wait3:
lds
r16,TWCR
sbrs
r16,TWINT
rjmp
wait3
lds
andi
cpi
brne
r16,TWSR
r16, 0xF8
r16, MT_DATA_ACK
ERROR
ldi
r16, (1<<TWINT)|
(1<<TWEN) |
(1<<TWSTO)
TWCR, r16
sts
C Example
TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|
(1<<TWSTA)|
(1<<TWEN)
Comments
Send START condition
while (!(TWCR & (1<<TWINT)));
Wait for TWINT flag set. This indicates that
the START condition has been transmitted
if ((TWSR & 0xF8)!= START)
ERROR();
Check value of TWI Status Register. Mask
prescaler bits. If status different from START
go to ERROR
TWDR = SLA_W;
TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWEN);
Load SLA_W into TWDR Register. Clear
TWINT bit in TWCR to start transmission of
address
while (!(TWCR & (1<<TWINT)));
Wait for TWINT flag set. This indicates that
the SLA+W has been transmitted, and
ACK/NACK has been received.
if ((TWSR & 0xF8)!= MT_SLA_ACK) Check value of TWI Status Register. Mask
prescaler bits. If status different from
ERROR();
MT_SLA_ACK go to ERROR
TWDR = DATA;
TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWEN);
while (!(TWCR & (1<<TWINT)));
Load DATA into TWDR Register. Clear TWINT
bit in TWCR to start transmission of data
Wait for TWINT flag set. This indicates that
the DATA has been transmitted, and
ACK/NACK has been received.
if ((TWSR & 0xF8)!=MT_DATA_ACK) Check value of TWI Status Register. Mask
ERROR();
prescaler bits. If status different from
MT_DATA_ACK go to ERROR
TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|
(1<<TWEN) |
(1<<TWSTO);
Transmit STOP condition
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18.8
Transmission Modes
The TWI can operate in one of four major modes. These are named Master Transmitter (MT),
Master Receiver (MR), Slave Transmitter (ST) and Slave Receiver (SR). Several of these
modes can be used in the same application. As an example, the TWI can use MT mode to write
data into a TWI EEPROM, MR mode to read the data back from the EEPROM. If other masters
are present in the system, some of these might transmit data to the TWI, and then SR mode
would be used. It is the application software that decides which modes are legal.
The following sections describe each of these modes. Possible status codes are described
along with figures detailing data transmission in each of the modes. These figures contain the
following abbreviations:
S:
START condition
Rs:
REPEATED START condition
R:
Read bit (high level at SDA)
W:
Write bit (low level at SDA)
A:
Acknowledge bit (low level at SDA)
A:
Not acknowledge bit (high level at SDA)
Data:
8-bit data byte
P:
STOP condition
SLA:
Slave Address
In Figure 18-12 to Figure 18-18, circles are used to indicate that the TWINT flag is set. The numbers in the circles show the status code held in TWSR, with the prescaler bits masked to zero. At
these points, actions must be taken by the application to continue or complete the TWI transfer.
The TWI transfer is suspended until the TWINT flag is cleared by software.
When the TWINT flag is set, the status code in TWSR is used to determine the appropriate software action. For each status code, the required software action and details of the following serial
transfer are given in Table 18-3 to Table 18-6. Note that the prescaler bits are masked to zero in
these tables.
18.8.1
218
Master Transmitter Mode
In the Master Transmitter mode, a number of data bytes are transmitted to a slave receiver (see
Figure 18-11). In order to enter a Master mode, a START condition must be transmitted. The format of the following address packet determines whether Master Transmitter or Master Receiver
mode is to be entered. If SLA+W is transmitted, MT mode is entered, if SLA+R is transmitted,
MR mode is entered. All the status codes mentioned in this section assume that the prescaler
bits are zero or are masked to zero.
AT90CAN32/64/128
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AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 18-11. Data Transfer in Master Transmitter Mode
Device 1
Device 2
MASTER
TRANSMITTER
SLAVE
RECEIVER
Device 3
........
Device n
VCC
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
A START condition is sent by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
1
0
X
1
0
X
TWEN must be set to enable the Two-wire Serial Interface, TWSTA must be written to one to
transmit a START condition and TWINT must be written to one to clear the TWINT flag. The TWI
will then test the Two-wire Serial Bus and generate a START condition as soon as the bus
becomes free. After a START condition has been transmitted, the TWINT flag is set by hardware, and the status code in TWSR will be 0x08 (See Table 18-3). In order to enter MT mode,
SLA+W must be transmitted. This is done by writing SLA+W to TWDR. Thereafter the TWINT bit
should be cleared (by writing it to one) to continue the transfer. This is accomplished by writing
the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
0
0
X
1
0
X
When SLA+W have been transmitted and an acknowledgment bit has been received, TWINT is
set again and a number of status codes in TWSR are possible. Possible status codes in Master
mode are 0x18, 0x20, or 0x38. The appropriate action to be taken for each of these status codes
is detailed in Table 18-3.
When SLA+W has been successfully transmitted, a data packet should be transmitted. This is
done by writing the data byte to TWDR. TWDR must only be written when TWINT is high. If not,
the access will be discarded, and the Write Collision bit (TWWC) will be set in the TWCR Register. After updating TWDR, the TWINT bit should be cleared (by writing it to one) to continue the
transfer. This is accomplished by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
0
0
X
1
0
X
This scheme is repeated until the last byte has been sent and the transfer is ended by generating a STOP condition or a repeated START condition. A STOP condition is generated by writing
the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
0
1
X
1
0
X
A REPEATED START condition is generated by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
1
0
X
1
0
X
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After a repeated START condition (state 0x10) the Two-wire Serial Interface can access the
same slave again, or a new slave without transmitting a STOP condition. Repeated START
enables the master to switch between slaves, Master Transmitter mode and Master Receiver
mode without losing control of the bus.
Table 18-3.
Status Codes for Master Transmitter Mode
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler Bits
are 0
Application Software Response
Status of the Two-wire Serial Bus
To TWCR
and Two-wire Serial Interface
To/from TWDR
Hardware
STA
STO
TWINT
0x08
A START condition has been Load SLA+W
transmitted
X
0
1
X
SLA+W will be transmitted;
ACK or NOT ACK will be received
0x10
A repeated START condition has Load SLA+W or
been transmitted
Load SLA+R
X
0
1
X
X
0
1
X
SLA+W will be transmitted;
ACK or NOT ACK will be received
SLA+R will be transmitted;
Logic will switch to master receiver mode
SLA+W has been transmitted;
ACK has been received
Load data byte or
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
No TWDR action or
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
No TWDR action
1
1
1
X
Load data byte or
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
No TWDR action or
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
No TWDR action
1
1
1
X
Load data byte or
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
No TWDR action or
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
No TWDR action
1
1
1
X
Load data byte or
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
No TWDR action or
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
No TWDR action
1
1
1
X
0
0
1
X
1
0
1
X
0x18
0x20
0x28
0x30
0x38
220
SLA+W has been transmitted;
NOT ACK has been received
Data byte has been transmitted;
ACK has been received
Data byte has been transmitted;
NOT ACK has been received
Arbitration lost in SLA+W or data No TWDR action or
bytes
No TWDR action
Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
TWEA
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK or NOT ACK will be
received
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START condition will be
transmitted and TWSTO flag will be reset
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK or NOT ACK will be
received
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START condition will be
transmitted and TWSTO flag will be reset
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK or NOT ACK will be
received
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START condition will be
transmitted and TWSTO flag will be reset
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK or NOT ACK will be
received
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START condition will be
transmitted and TWSTO flag will be reset
Two-wire Serial Bus will be released and not addressed
slave mode entered
A START condition will be transmitted when the bus becomes free
AT90CAN32/64/128
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AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 18-12. Formats and States in the Master Transmitter Mode
MT
Successfull
transmission
to a slave
receiver
S
SLA
0x08
W
A
DATA
0x18
A
P
0x28
Next transfer
started with a
repeated start
condition
RS
SLA
W
0x10
Not acknowledge
received after the
slave address
A
R
P
0x20
MR
Not acknowledge
received after a data
byte
A
P
0x30
Arbitration lost in slave
address or data byte
A or A
Other master
continues
0x38
Arbitration lost and
addressed as slave
A
From slave to master
Other master
continues
0x38
Other master
continues
To corresponding
states in slave mode
0x68 0x78 0xB0
From master to slave
A or A
DATA
A
n
Any number of data bytes
and their associated acknowledge bits
This number (contained in TWSR) corresponds
to a defined state of the Two-wire Serial Bus. The
prescaler bits are zero or masked to zero
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18.8.2
Master Receiver Mode
In the Master Receiver Mode, a number of data bytes are received from a slave transmitter (see
Figure 18-13). In order to enter a Master mode, a START condition must be transmitted. The format of the following address packet determines whether Master Transmitter or Master Receiver
mode is to be entered. If SLA+W is transmitted, MT mode is entered, if SLA+R is transmitted,
MR mode is entered. All the status codes mentioned in this section assume that the prescaler
bits are zero or are masked to zero.
Figure 18-13. Data Transfer in Master Receiver Mode
Device 1
Device 2
MASTER
RECEIVER
SLAVE
TRANSMITTER
Device 3
........
Device n
VCC
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
A START condition is sent by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
1
0
X
1
0
X
TWEN must be written to one to enable the Two-wire Serial Interface, TWSTA must be written to
one to transmit a START condition and TWINT must be set to clear the TWINT flag. The TWI will
then test the Two-wire Serial Bus and generate a START condition as soon as the bus becomes
free. After a START condition has been transmitted, the TWINT flag is set by hardware, and the
status code in TWSR will be 0x08 (See Table 18-3). In order to enter MR mode, SLA+R must be
transmitted. This is done by writing SLA+R to TWDR. Thereafter the TWINT bit should be
cleared (by writing it to one) to continue the transfer. This is accomplished by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
0
0
X
1
0
X
When SLA+R have been transmitted and an acknowledgment bit has been received, TWINT is
set again and a number of status codes in TWSR are possible. Possible status codes in Master
mode are 0x38, 0x40, or 0x48. The appropriate action to be taken for each of these status codes
is detailed in Table 18-12. Received data can be read from the TWDR Register when the TWINT
flag is set high by hardware. This scheme is repeated until the last byte has been received. After
the last byte has been received, the MR should inform the ST by sending a NACK after the last
received data byte. The transfer is ended by generating a STOP condition or a repeated START
condition. A STOP condition is generated by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
value
222
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
0
1
X
1
0
X
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
A REPEATED START condition is generated by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
1
0
X
1
0
X
value
After a repeated START condition (state 0x10) the Two-wire Serial Interface can access the
same slave again, or a new slave without transmitting a STOP condition. Repeated START
enables the master to switch between slaves, Master Transmitter mode and Master Receiver
mode without losing control over the bus.
Figure 18-14. Formats and States in the Master Receiver Mode
MR
Successfull
reception
from a slave
receiver
S
SLA
0x08
R
A
DATA
0x40
A
DATA
0x50
A
P
0x58
Next transfer
started with a
repeated start
condition
RS
SLA
R
0x10
Not acknowledge
received after the
slave address
A
W
P
0x48
MT
Arbitration lost in slave
address or data byte
A or A
Other master
continues
0x38
Arbitration lost and
addressed as slave
A
From slave to master
Other master
continues
0x38
Other master
continues
To corresponding
states in slave mode
0x68 0x78 0xB0
From master to slave
A
DATA
A
n
Any number of data bytes
and their associated acknowledge bits
This number (contained in TWSR) corresponds
to a defined state of the Two-wire Serial Bus. The
prescaler bits are zero or masked to zero
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Table 18-4.
Status Codes for Master Receiver Mode
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler Bits
are 0
Application Software Response
Status of the Two-wire Serial Bus
To TWCR
and Two-wire Serial Interface
To/from TWDR
Hardware
STA
STO
TWINT
0x08
A START condition has been Load SLA+R
transmitted
X
0
1
X
SLA+R will be transmitted
ACK or NOT ACK will be received
0x10
A repeated START condition has Load SLA+R or
been transmitted
Load SLA+W
X
0
1
X
X
0
1
X
SLA+R will be transmitted
ACK or NOT ACK will be received
SLA+W will be transmitted
Logic will switch to master transmitter mode
Arbitration lost in SLA+R or NOT No TWDR action or
ACK bit
No TWDR action
0
0
1
X
1
0
1
X
SLA+R has been transmitted;
ACK has been received
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
0
No TWDR action
0
0
1
1
No TWDR action or
No TWDR action or
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
No TWDR action
1
1
1
X
0x38
0x40
0x48
SLA+R has been transmitted;
NOT ACK has been received
0x50
Data byte has been received;
ACK has been returned
Read data byte or
0
Read data byte
0
0
1
1
0x58
Data byte has been received;
NOT ACK has been returned
Read data byte or
Read data byte or
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
Read data byte
1
1
1
X
18.8.3
0
1
Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
TWEA
0
Two-wire Serial Bus will be released and not addressed
slave mode will be entered
A START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and TWSTO flag will
be reset
STOP condition followed by a START condition will be
transmitted and TWSTO flag will be reset
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted and TWSTO flag will
be reset
STOP condition followed by a START condition will be
transmitted and TWSTO flag will be reset
Slave Receiver Mode
In the Slave Receiver mode, a number of data bytes are received from a master transmitter (see
Figure 18-15). All the status codes mentioned in this section assume that the prescaler bits are
zero or are masked to zero.
Figure 18-15. Data Transfer in Slave Receiver Mode
Device 1
Device 2
SLAVE
RECEIVER
MASTER
TRANSMITTER
Device 3
........
Device n
VCC
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
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To initiate the Slave Receiver mode, TWAR and TWCR must be initialized as follows:
TWAR
TWA6
TWA5
value
TWA4
TWA3
TWA2
TWA1
TWA0
TWGCE
Device’s Own Slave Address
The upper seven bits are the address to which the Two-wire Serial Interface will respond when
addressed by a master. If the LSB is set, the TWI will respond to the general call address (0x00),
otherwise it will ignore the general call address.
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
X
TWEN must be written to one to enable the TWI. The TWEA bit must be written to one to enable
the acknowledgment of the device’s own slave address or the general call address. TWSTA and
TWSTO must be written to zero.
When TWAR and TWCR have been initialized, the TWI waits until it is addressed by its own
slave address (or the general call address if enabled) followed by the data direction bit. If the
direction bit is “0” (write), the TWI will operate in SR mode, otherwise ST mode is entered. After
its own slave address and the write bit have been received, the TWINT flag is set and a valid
status code can be read from TWSR. The status code is used to determine the appropriate software action. The appropriate action to be taken for each status code is detailed in Table 18-5.
The slave receiver mode may also be entered if arbitration is lost while the TWI is in the master
mode (see states 0x68 and 0x78).
If the TWEA bit is reset during a transfer, the TWI will return a “Not Acknowledge” (“1”) to SDA
after the next received data byte. This can be used to indicate that the slave is not able to
receive any more bytes. While TWEA is zero, the TWI does not acknowledge its own slave
address. However, the Two-wire Serial Bus is still monitored and address recognition may
resume at any time by setting TWEA. This implies that the TWEA bit may be used to temporarily
isolate the TWI from the Two-wire Serial Bus.
In all sleep modes other than Idle mode, the clock system to the TWI is turned off. If the TWEA
bit is set, the interface can still acknowledge its own slave address or the general call address by
using the Two-wire Serial Bus clock as a clock source. The part will then wake up from sleep
and the TWI will hold the SCL clock low during the wake up and until the TWINT flag is cleared
(by writing it to one). Further data reception will be carried out as normal, with the AVR clocks
running as normal. Observe that if the AVR is set up with a long start-up time, the SCL line may
be held low for a long time, blocking other data transmissions.
Note that the Two-wire Serial Interface Data Register – TWDR does not reflect the last byte
present on the bus when waking up from these sleep modes.
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Table 18-5.
Status Codes for Slave Receiver Mode
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler Bits
are 0
Application Software Response
Status of the Two-wire Serial Bus
To TWCR
and Two-wire Serial Interface HardTo/from TWDR
ware
STA
STO
TWINT
0x60
Own SLA+W has been received;
ACK has been returned
0x68
Arbitration lost in SLA+R/W as mas- No TWDR action or
ter; own SLA+W has been
received; ACK has been returned
No TWDR action
0x70
General call address has been
received; ACK has been returned
No TWDR action or
No TWDR action
0x78
Arbitration lost in SLA+R/W as mas- No TWDR action or
ter; General call address has been
No TWDR action
received; ACK has been
returned
0x80
0x88
Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
TWEA
No TWDR action or
X
0
1
0
No TWDR action
X
0
1
1
X
0
1
0
X
0
1
1
X
0
1
0
X
0
1
1
X
0
1
0
X
0
1
1
Previously addressed with own Read data byte or
SLA+W; data has been received;
ACK has been returned
Read data byte
X
0
1
0
X
0
1
1
Previously addressed with own Read data byte or
SLA+W; data has been received;
NOT ACK has been returned
Read data byte or
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
Read data byte or
1
0
1
0
Read data byte
1
0
1
1
0x90
Previously addressed with
Read data byte or
general call; data has been received; ACK has been returned
Read data byte
X
0
1
0
X
0
1
1
0x98
Previously addressed with
general call; data has been
received; NOT ACK has been
returned
Read data byte or
0
0
1
0
Read data byte or
0
0
1
1
Read data byte or
1
0
1
0
Read data byte
1
0
1
1
A STOP condition or repeated Read data byte or
START condition has been
received while still addressed as Read data byte or
slave
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
Read data byte or
1
0
1
0
Read data byte
1
0
1
1
0xA0
226
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be
returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 18-16. Formats and States in the Slave Receiver Mode
Reception of the
own slave address
and one or more
data bytes. All are
acknowledged
S
SLA
W
A
DATA
0x60
A
DATA
0x80
Last data byte received
is not acknowledged
A
P or S
0x80
0xA0
A
P or S
0x88
Arbitration lost as master
and addressed as slave
A
0x68
Reception of the general call
address and one or more data
bytes
General Call
A
DATA
0x70
A
DATA
0x90
Last data byte received is
not acknowledged
A
P or S
0x90
0xA0
A
P or S
0x98
Arbitration lost as master and
addressed as slave by general call
A
0x78
From master to slave
From slave to master
DATA
A
n
Any number of data bytes
and their associated acknowledge bits
This number (contained in TWSR) corresponds
to a defined state of the Two-wire Serial Bus. The
prescaler bits are zero or masked to zero
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18.8.4
Slave Transmitter Mode
In the Slave Transmitter mode, a number of data bytes are transmitted to a master receiver (see
Figure 18-17). All the status codes mentioned in this section assume that the prescaler bits are
zero or are masked to zero.
Figure 18-17. Data Transfer in Slave Transmitter Mode
Device 1
Device 2
SLAVE
TRANSMITTER
MASTER
RECEIVER
Device 3
........
Device n
VCC
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
To initiate the Slave Transmitter mode, TWAR and TWCR must be initialized as follows:
TWAR
TWA6
TWA5
value
TWA4
TWA3
TWA2
TWA1
TWA0
TWGCE
Device’s Own Slave Address
The upper seven bits are the address to which the Two-wire Serial Interface will respond when
addressed by a master. If the LSB is set, the TWI will respond to the general call address (0x00),
otherwise it will ignore the general call address.
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
X
TWEN must be written to one to enable the TWI. The TWEA bit must be written to one to enable
the acknowledgment of the device’s own slave address or the general call address. TWSTA and
TWSTO must be written to zero.
When TWAR and TWCR have been initialized, the TWI waits until it is addressed by its own
slave address (or the general call address if enabled) followed by the data direction bit. If the
direction bit is “1” (read), the TWI will operate in ST mode, otherwise SR mode is entered. After
its own slave address and the write bit have been received, the TWINT flag is set and a valid
status code can be read from TWSR. The status code is used to determine the appropriate software action. The appropriate action to be taken for each status code is detailed in Table 18-6.
The Slave Transmitter mode may also be entered if arbitration is lost while the TWI is in the
Master mode (see state 0xB0).
If the TWEA bit is written to zero during a transfer, the TWI will transmit the last byte of the transfer. State 0xC0 or state 0xC8 will be entered, depending on whether the master receiver
transmits a NACK or ACK after the final byte. The TWI is switched to the not addressed slave
mode, and will ignore the master if it continues the transfer. Thus the master receiver receives
all “1” as serial data. State 0xC8 is entered if the master demands additional data bytes (by
transmitting ACK), even though the slave has transmitted the last byte (TWEA zero and expecting NACK from the master).
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While TWEA is zero, the TWI does not respond to its own slave address. However, the Two-wire
Serial Bus is still monitored and address recognition may resume at any time by setting TWEA.
This implies that the TWEA bit may be used to temporarily isolate the TWI from the Two-wire
Serial Bus.
In all sleep modes other than Idle mode, the clock system to the TWI is turned off. If the TWEA
bit is set, the interface can still acknowledge its own slave address or the general call address by
using the Two-wire Serial Bus clock as a clock source. The part will then wake up from sleep
and the TWI will hold the SCL clock will low during the wake up and until the TWINT flag is
cleared (by writing it to one). Further data transmission will be carried out as normal, with the
AVR clocks running as normal. Observe that if the AVR is set up with a long start-up time, the
SCL line may be held low for a long time, blocking other data transmissions.
Note that the Two-wire Serial Interface Data Register – TWDR does not reflect the last byte
present on the bus when waking up from these sleep modes.
Table 18-6.
Status Codes for Slave Transmitter Mode
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler Bits
are 0
Application Software Response
Status of the Two-wire Serial Bus
To TWCR
and Two-wire Serial Interface HardTo/from TWDR
ware
STA
STO
TWINT
0xA8
Own SLA+R has been received;
ACK has been returned
0xB0
Arbitration lost in SLA+R/W as mas- Load data byte or
ter; own SLA+R has been
received; ACK has been returned
Load data byte
0xB8
Data byte in TWDR has been
transmitted; ACK has been
received
Load data byte or
0xC0
Data byte in TWDR has been
transmitted; NOT ACK has been
received
0xC8
Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
TWEA
Load data byte or
X
0
1
0
Load data byte
X
0
1
1
X
0
1
0
X
0
1
1
X
0
1
0
Load data byte
X
0
1
1
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
0
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
1
No TWDR action or
1
0
1
0
No TWDR action
1
0
1
1
Last data byte in TWDR has been No TWDR action or
transmitted (TWEA = “0”); ACK has
been received
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
No TWDR action or
1
0
1
0
No TWDR action
1
0
1
1
Last data byte will be transmitted and NOT ACK should
be received
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK should be received
Last data byte will be transmitted and NOT ACK should
be received
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK should be received
Last data byte will be transmitted and NOT ACK should
be received
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK should be received
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
no recognition of own SLA or GCA;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
Switched to the not addressed slave mode;
own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE = “1”;
a START condition will be transmitted when the bus
becomes free
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Figure 18-18. Formats and States in the Slave Transmitter Mode
Reception of the
own slave address
and one or
more data bytes
S
SLA
R
A
DATA
A
0xA8
Arbitration lost as master
and addressed as slave
DATA
0xB8
A
P or S
0xC0
A
0xB0
Last data byte transmitted.
Switched to not addressed
slave (TWEA = ’0’)
A
All 1’s
P or S
0xC8
From master to slave
DATA
From slave to master
18.8.5
Any number of data bytes
and their associated acknowledge bits
A
This number (contained in TWSR) corresponds
to a defined state of the Two-wire Serial Bus. The
prescaler bits are zero or masked to zero
n
Miscellaneous States
There are two status codes that do not correspond to a defined TWI state, see Table 18-7.
Status 0xF8 indicates that no relevant information is available because the TWINT flag is not
set. This occurs between other states, and when the TWI is not involved in a serial transfer.
Status 0x00 indicates that a bus error has occurred during a Two-wire Serial Bus transfer. A bus
error occurs when a START or STOP condition occurs at an illegal position in the format frame.
Examples of such illegal positions are during the serial transfer of an address byte, a data byte,
or an acknowledge bit. When a bus error occurs, TWINT is set. To recover from a bus error, the
TWSTO flag must set and TWINT must be cleared by writing a logic one to it. This causes the
TWI to enter the not addressed slave mode and to clear the TWSTO flag (no other bits in TWCR
are affected). The SDA and SCL lines are released, and no STOP condition is transmitted.
Table 18-7.
Miscellaneous States
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler Bits
are 0
Application Software Response
Status of the Two-wire Serial Bus
To TWCR
and Two-wire Serial Interface
To/from TWDR
Hardware
STA
STO
TWINT
0xF8
No relevant state information No TWDR action
available; TWINT = “0”
No TWCR action
0x00
Bus error due to an illegal START No TWDR action
or STOP condition
0
230
1
Next Action Taken by TWI Hardware
TWEA
Wait or proceed current transfer
1
X
Only the internal hardware is affected, no STOP condition
is sent on the bus. In all cases, the bus is released and
TWSTO is cleared.
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
18.8.6
Combining Several TWI Modes
In some cases, several TWI modes must be combined in order to complete the desired action.
Consider for example reading data from a serial EEPROM. Typically, such a transfer involves
the following steps:
1. The transfer must be initiated
2. The EEPROM must be instructed what location should be read
3. The reading must be performed
4. The transfer must be finished
Note that data is transmitted both from master to slave and vice versa. The master must instruct
the slave what location it wants to read, requiring the use of the MT mode. Subsequently, data
must be read from the slave, implying the use of the MR mode. Thus, the transfer direction must
be changed. The master must keep control of the bus during all these steps, and the steps
should be carried out as an atomical operation. If this principle is violated in a multimaster system, another master can alter the data pointer in the EEPROM between steps 2 and 3, and the
master will read the wrong data location. Such a change in transfer direction is accomplished by
transmitting a REPEATED START between the transmission of the address byte and reception
of the data. After a REPEATED START, the master keeps ownership of the bus. The following
figure shows the flow in this transfer.
Figure 18-19. Combining Several TWI Modes to Access a Serial EEPROM
Master Transmitter
S
SLA+W
A
ADDRESS
S = START
Transmitted from master to slave
Master Receiver
A
Rs
SLA+R
A
Rs = REPEATED START
DATA
A
P
P = STOP
Transmitted from slave to master
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18.9
Multi-master Systems and Arbitration
If multiple masters are connected to the same bus, transmissions may be initiated simultaneously by one or more of them. The TWI standard ensures that such situations are handled in
such a way that one of the masters will be allowed to proceed with the transfer, and that no data
will be lost in the process. An example of an arbitration situation is depicted below, where two
masters are trying to transmit data to a slave receiver.
Figure 18-20. An Arbitration Example
Device 1
Device 2
Device 3
MASTER
TRANSMITTER
SLAVE
RECEIVER
SLAVE
RECEIVER
........
Device n
VCC
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
Several different scenarios may arise during arbitration, as described below:
• Two or more masters are performing identical communication with the same slave. In this
case, neither the slave nor any of the masters will know about the bus contention.
• Two or more masters are accessing the same slave with different data or direction bit. In this
case, arbitration will occur, either in the READ/WRITE bit or in the data bits. The masters
trying to output a one on SDA while another master outputs a zero will lose the arbitration.
Losing masters will switch to not addressed slave mode or wait until the bus is free and
transmit a new START condition, depending on application software action.
• Two or more masters are accessing different slaves. In this case, arbitration will occur in the
SLA bits. Masters trying to output a one on SDA while another master outputs a zero will lose
the arbitration. Masters losing arbitration in SLA will switch to slave mode to check if they are
being addressed by the winning master. If addressed, they will switch to SR or ST mode,
depending on the value of the READ/WRITE bit. If they are not being addressed, they will
switch to not addressed slave mode or wait until the bus is free and transmit a new START
condition, depending on application software action.
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This is summarized in Figure 18-21. Possible status values are given in circles.
Figure 18-21. Possible Status Codes Caused by Arbitration
START
SLA
Data
Arbitration lost in SLA
Own
Address / General Call
received
No
STOP
Arbitration lost in Data
0x38
TWI bus will be released and not addressed slave mode will be entered
A START condition will be transmitted when the bus becomes free
Yes
Direction
Write
0x68 / 0x78
Read
0xB0
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Last data byte will be transmitted and NOT ACK should be received
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK should be received
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19. Controller Area Network - CAN
The Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol is a real-time, serial, broadcast protocol with a very
high level of security. The AT90CAN32/64/128 CAN controller is fully compatible with the CAN
Specification 2.0 Part A and Part B. It delivers the features required to implement the kernel of
the CAN bus protocol according to the ISO/OSI Reference Model:
• The Data Link Layer
- the Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer
- the Medium Access Control (MAC) sublayer
• The Physical Layer
- the Physical Signalling (PLS) sublayer
- not supported - the Physical Medium Attach (PMA)
- not supported - the Medium Dependent Interface (MDI)
The CAN controller is able to handle all types of frames (Data, Remote, Error and Overload) and
achieves a bitrate of 1 Mbit/s.
19.1
Features
• Full Can Controller
• Fully Compliant with CAN Standard rev 2.0 A and rev 2.0 B
• 15 MOb (Message Object) with their own:
– 11 bits of Identifier Tag (rev 2.0 A), 29 bits of Identifier Tag (rev 2.0 B)
– 11 bits of Identifier Mask (rev 2.0 A), 29 bits of Identifier Mask (rev 2.0 B)
– 8 Bytes Data Buffer (Static Allocation)
– Tx, Rx, Frame Buffer or Automatic Reply Configuration
– Time Stamping
• 1 Mbit/s Maximum Transfer Rate at 8 MHz
• TTC Timer
• Listening Mode (for Spying or Autobaud)
19.2
CAN Protocol
The CAN protocol is an international standard defined in the ISO 11898 for high speed and ISO
11519-2 for low speed.
19.2.1
Principles
CAN is based on a broadcast communication mechanism. This broadcast communication is
achieved by using a message oriented transmission protocol. These messages are identified by
using a message identifier. Such a message identifier has to be unique within the whole network
and it defines not only the content but also the priority of the message.
The priority at which a message is transmitted compared to another less urgent message is
specified by the identifier of each message. The priorities are laid down during system design in
the form of corresponding binary values and cannot be changed dynamically. The identifier with
the lowest binary number has the highest priority.
Bus access conflicts are resolved by bit-wise arbitration on the identifiers involved by each node
observing the bus level bit for bit. This happens in accordance with the "wired and" mechanism,
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by which the dominant state overwrites the recessive state. The competition for bus allocation is
lost by all nodes with recessive transmission and dominant observation. All the "losers" automatically become receivers of the message with the highest priority and do not re-attempt
transmission until the bus is available again.
19.2.2
19.2.2.1
Message Formats
The CAN protocol supports two message frame formats, the only essential difference being in
the length of the identifier. The CAN standard frame, also known as CAN 2.0 A, supports a
length of 11 bits for the identifier, and the CAN extended frame, also known as CAN 2.0 B, supports a length of 29 bits for the identifier.
Can Standard Frame
Figure 19-1. CAN Standard Frames
Data Frame
Bus Idle
SOF
11-bit identifier
ID10..0
Arbitration
Field
Interframe
Space
RTR IDE r0
4-bit DLC
DLC4..0
15-bit CRC
0 - 8 bytes
Control
Field
Data
Field
CRC
ACK
del. ACK del.
CRC
Field
ACK
Field
7 bits
End of
Frame
Intermission
3 bits
Bus Idle
(Indefinite)
Interframe
Space
Remote Frame
Bus Idle
Interframe
Space
SOF
11-bit identifier
ID10..0
Arbitration
Field
RTR IDE r0
4-bit DLC
DLC4..0
Control
Field
15-bit CRC
CRC
Field
CRC
ACK
del. ACK del.
ACK
Field
7 bits
End of
Frame
Intermission
3 bits
Bus Idle
(Indefinite)
Interframe
Space
A message in the CAN standard frame format begins with the "Start Of Frame (SOF)", this is followed by the "Arbitration field" which consist of the identifier and the "Remote Transmission
Request (RTR)" bit used to distinguish between the data frame and the data request frame
called remote frame. The following "Control field" contains the "IDentifier Extension (IDE)" bit
and the "Data Length Code (DLC)" used to indicate the number of following data bytes in the
"Data field". In a remote frame, the DLC contains the number of requested data bytes. The "Data
field" that follows can hold up to 8 data bytes. The frame integrity is guaranteed by the following
"Cyclic Redundant Check (CRC)" sum. The "ACKnowledge (ACK) field" compromises the ACK
slot and the ACK delimiter. The bit in the ACK slot is sent as a recessive bit and is overwritten as
a dominant bit by the receivers which have at this time received the data correctly. Correct messages are acknowledged by the receivers regardless of the result of the acceptance test. The
end of the message is indicated by "End Of Frame (EOF)". The "Intermission Frame Space
(IFS)" is the minimum number of bits separating consecutive messages. If there is no following
bus access by any node, the bus remains idle.
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19.2.2.2
CAN Extended Frame
Figure 19-2. CAN Extended Frames
Data Frame
Bus Idle
SOF
11-bit base identifier
IDT28..18
SRR IDE
18-bit identifier extension
ID17..0
RTR r1
Arbitration
Field
Interframe
Space
r0
4-bit DLC
DLC4..0
15-bit CRC
0 - 8 bytes
Control
Field
Data
Field
CRC
Field
CRC
ACK
del. ACK del.
ACK
Field
7 bits
End of
Frame
Intermission Bus Idle
3 bits
(Indefinite)
Interframe
Space
Remote Frame
Bus Idle
Interframe
Space
SOF
11-bit base identifier
IDT28..18
SRR IDE
18-bit identifier extension
ID17..0
Arbitration
Field
RTR r1
r0
4-bit DLC
DLC4..0
Control
Field
15-bit CRC
CRC
ACK
del. ACK del.
CRC
Field
ACK
Field
7 bits
End of
Frame
Intermission
3 bits
Bus Idle
(Indefinite)
Interframe
Space
A message in the CAN extended frame format is likely the same as a message in CAN standard
frame format. The difference is the length of the identifier used. The identifier is made up of the
existing 11-bit identifier (base identifier) and an 18-bit extension (identifier extension). The distinction between CAN standard frame format and CAN extended frame format is made by using
the IDE bit which is transmitted as dominant in case of a frame in CAN standard frame format,
and transmitted as recessive in the other case.
19.2.2.3
Format Co-existence
As the two formats have to co-exist on one bus, it is laid down which message has higher priority
on the bus in the case of bus access collision with different formats and the same identifier /
base identifier: The message in CAN standard frame format always has priority over the message in extended format.
There are three different types of CAN modules available:
– 2.0A - Considers 29 bit ID as an error
– 2.0B Passive - Ignores 29 bit ID messages
– 2.0B Active - Handles both 11 and 29 bit ID Messages
19.2.3
19.2.3.1
236
CAN Bit Timing
To ensure correct sampling up to the last bit, a CAN node needs to re-synchronize throughout
the entire frame. This is done at the beginning of each message with the falling edge SOF and
on each recessive to dominant edge.
Bit Construction
One CAN bit time is specified as four non-overlapping time segments. Each segment is constructed from an integer multiple of the Time Quantum. The Time Quantum or TQ is the smallest
discrete timing resolution used by a CAN node.
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 19-3. CAN Bit Construction
CAN Frame
(producer)
Transmission Point
(producer)
Nominal CAN Bit Time
Time Quantum
(producer)
Segments
(producer)
SYNC_SEG
PROP_SEG
PHASE_SEG_1
PHASE_SEG_2
propagation
delay
Segments
(consumer)
SYNC_SEG
PROP_SEG
PHASE_SEG_1
PHASE_SEG_2
Sample Point
19.2.3.2
Synchronization Segment
The first segment is used to synchronize the various bus nodes.
On transmission, at the start of this segment, the current bit level is output. If there is a bit state
change between the previous bit and the current bit, then the bus state change is expected to
occur within this segment by the receiving nodes.
19.2.3.3
Propagation Time Segment
This segment is used to compensate for signal delays across the network.
This is necessary to compensate for signal propagation delays on the bus line and through the
transceivers of the bus nodes.
19.2.3.4
Phase Segment 1
Phase Segment 1 is used to compensate for edge phase errors.
This segment may be lengthened during re-synchronization.
19.2.3.5
Sample Point
The sample point is the point of time at which the bus level is read and interpreted as the value
of the respective bit. Its location is at the end of Phase Segment 1 (between the two Phase
Segments).
19.2.3.6
Phase Segment 2
This segment is also used to compensate for edge phase errors.
This segment may be shortened during re-synchronization, but the length has to be at least as
long as the Information Processing Time (IPT) and may not be more than the length of Phase
Segment 1.
19.2.3.7
Information Processing Time
It is the time required for the logic to determine the bit level of a sampled bit.
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The IPT begins at the sample point, is measured in TQ and is fixed at 2TQ for the Atmel CAN.
Since Phase Segment 2 also begins at the sample point and is the last segment in the bit time,
PS2 minimum shall not be less than the IPT.
19.2.3.8
Bit Lengthening
As a result of resynchronization, Phase Segment 1 may be lengthened or Phase Segment 2
may be shortened to compensate for oscillator tolerances. If, for example, the transmitter oscillator is slower than the receiver oscillator, the next falling edge used for resynchronization may be
delayed. So Phase Segment 1 is lengthened in order to adjust the sample point and the end of
the bit time.
19.2.3.9
Bit Shortening
If, on the other hand, the transmitter oscillator is faster than the receiver one, the next falling
edge used for resynchronization may be too early. So Phase Segment 2 in bit N is shortened in
order to adjust the sample point for bit N+1 and the end of the bit time
19.2.3.10
Synchronization Jump Width
The limit to the amount of lengthening or shortening of the Phase Segments is set by the Resynchronization Jump Width.
This segment may not be longer than Phase Segment 2.
19.2.3.11
Programming the Sample Point
Programming of the sample point allows "tuning" of the characteristics to suit the bus.
Early sampling allows more Time Quanta in the Phase Segment 2 so the Synchronization Jump
Width can be programmed to its maximum. This maximum capacity to shorten or lengthen the
bit time decreases the sensitivity to node oscillator tolerances, so that lower cost oscillators such
as ceramic resonators may be used.
Late sampling allows more Time Quanta in the Propagation Time Segment which allows a
poorer bus topology and maximum bus length.
19.2.3.12
Synchronization
Hard synchronization occurs on the recessive-to-dominant transition of the start bit. The bit time
is restarted from that edge.
Re-synchronization occurs when a recessive-to-dominant edge doesn't occur within the Synchronization Segment in a message.
19.2.4
Arbitration
The CAN protocol handles bus accesses according to the concept called “Carrier Sense Multiple
Access with Arbitration on Message Priority”.
During transmission, arbitration on the CAN bus can be lost to a competing device with a higher
priority CAN Identifier. This arbitration concept avoids collisions of messages whose transmission was started by more than one node simultaneously and makes sure the most important
message is sent first without time loss.
The bus access conflict is resolved during the arbitration field mostly over the identifier value. If a
data frame and a remote frame with the same identifier are initiated at the same time, the data
frame prevails over the remote frame (c.f. RTR bit).
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Figure 19-4. Bus Arbitration
Arbitration lost
node A
TXCAN
Node A loses the bus
Node B wins the bus
node B
TXCAN
CAN bus
SOF ID10 ID9 ID8 ID7 ID6 ID5 ID4 ID3 ID2 ID1 ID0 RTR IDE
19.2.5
---------
Errors
The CAN protocol signals any errors immediately as they occur. Three error detection mechanisms are implemented at the message level and two at the bit level:
19.2.5.1
Error at Message Level
• Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
The CRC safeguards the information in the frame by adding redundant check bits at the
transmission end. At the receiver these bits are re-computed and tested against the received
bits. If they do not agree there has been a CRC error.
• Frame Check
This mechanism verifies the structure of the transmitted frame by checking the bit fields
against the fixed format and the frame size. Errors detected by frame checks are designated
"format errors".
• ACK Errors
As already mentioned frames received are acknowledged by all receivers through positive
acknowledgement. If no acknowledgement is received by the transmitter of the message an
ACK error is indicated.
19.2.5.2
Error at Bit Level
• Monitoring
The ability of the transmitter to detect errors is based on the monitoring of bus signals. Each
node which transmits also observes the bus level and thus detects differences between the
bit sent and the bit received. This permits reliable detection of global errors and errors local to
the transmitter.
• Bit Stuffing
The coding of the individual bits is tested at bit level. The bit representation used by CAN is
"Non Return to Zero (NRZ)" coding, which guarantees maximum efficiency in bit coding. The
synchronization edges are generated by means of bit stuffing.
19.2.5.3
Error Signalling
If one or more errors are discovered by at least one node using the above mechanisms, the current transmission is aborted by sending an "error flag". This prevents other nodes accepting the
message and thus ensures the consistency of data throughout the network. After transmission
of an erroneous message that has been aborted, the sender automatically re-attempts
transmission.
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19.3
CAN Controller
The CAN controller implemented into AT90CAN32/64/128 offers V2.0B Active.
This full-CAN controller provides the whole hardware for convenient acceptance filtering and
message management. For each message to be transmitted or received this module contains
one so called message object in which all information regarding the message (e.g. identifier,
data bytes etc.) are stored.
During the initialization of the peripheral, the application defines which messages are to be sent
and which are to be received. Only if the CAN controller receives a message whose identifier
matches with one of the identifiers of the programmed (receive-) message objects the message
is stored and the application is informed by interrupt. Another advantage is that incoming remote
frames can be answered automatically by the full-CAN controller with the corresponding data
frame. In this way, the CPU load is strongly reduced compared to a basic-CAN solution.
Using full-CAN controller, high baudrates and high bus loads with many messages can be
handled.
Figure 19-5. CAN Controller Structure
Control
Status
IDtag+IDmask
Time Stamp
Buffer MOb i
Low priority
MOb i
Size=120 Bytes
MOb
Scanning
Control
Status
IDtag+IDmask
Time Stamp
Buffer MOb2
Gen. Control
Gen. Status
Enable MOb
Interrupt
MOb2
Bit Timing
Line Error
CAN Timer
Control
Status
IDtag+IDmask
Time Stamp
Buffer MOb1
LCC
MAC
PLS
Internal
TxCAN
Internal
RxCAN
CAN Channel
MOb1
Control
Status
IDtag+IDmask
Time Stamp
Buffer MOb0
MOb0
CAN Data Buffers
Message Objets
High priority
Ma i l b ox
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19.4
19.4.1
CAN Channel
Configuration
The CAN channel can be in:
• Enabled mode
In this mode:
– the CAN channel (internal TxCAN & RxCAN) is enabled,
– the input clock is enabled.
• Standby mode
In standby mode:
– the transmitter constantly provides a recessive level (on internal TxCAN) and the
receiver is disabled,
– input clock is enabled,
– the registers and pages remain accessible.
• Listening mode
This mode is transparent for the CAN channel:
– enables a hardware loop back, internal TxCAN on internal RxCAN
– provides a recessive level on TXCAN output pin
– does not disable RXCAN input pin
– freezes TEC and REC error counters
Figure 19-6. Listening Mode
internal
TxCAN
PD5
TXCAN
PD6
RXCAN
LISTEN
19.4.2
internal
1
RxCAN
0
Bit Timing
FSM’s (Finite State Machine) of the CAN channel need to be synchronous to the time quantum.
So, the input clock for bit timing is the clock used into CAN channel FSM’s.
Field and segment abbreviations:
• BRP: Baud Rate Prescaler.
• TQ: Time Quantum (output of Baud Rate Prescaler).
• SYNS: SYNchronization Segment is 1 TQ long.
• PRS: PRopagation time Segment is programmable to be 1, 2, ..., 8 TQ long.
• PHS1: PHase Segment 1 is programmable to be 1, 2, ..., 8 TQ long.
• PHS2: PHase Segment 2 is programmable to be ≤ PHS1 and ≥ INFORMATION
PROCESSING TIME.
• INFORMATION PROCESSING TIME is 2 TQ.
• SJW: (Re) Synchronization Jump Width is programmable between 1 and min(4, PHS1).
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The total number of TQ in a bit time has to be programmed at least from 8 to 25.
Figure 19-7. Sample and Transmission Point
Bit Timing
PRS (3-bit length)
PHS1 (3-bit length)
CLK
Fcan (Tscl)
Time Quantum
Prescaler BRP
IO
Sample
Point
PHS2 (3-bit length)
Transmission
Point
SJW (2-bit length)
Figure 19-8. General Structure of a Bit Period
1
/CLK IO
CLK
IO
Bit Rate Prescaler
Tscl (TQ)
F
CAN
one nominal bit
Data
Tsyns(5)
Notes: 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Phase error < 0
Phase error > 0
Phase error > 0
Phase error < 0
Synchronization Segment: SYNS
Tsyns=1xTscl (fixed)
Tprs
Tphs1 (1)
or
Tphs1+Tsjw (3)
Tphs2 (2)
or
Tphs2+Tsjw (4)
Tbit
Sample
Point
19.4.3
Transmission
Point
Baud Rate
With no baud rate prescaler (BRP[5..0]=0) the sampling point comes one time quantum too
early. This leads to a fail according the ISO16845 Test plan. It is necessary to lengthen the
Phase Segment 1 by one time quantum and to shorten the Phase Segment 2 by one time quantum to compensate.
The baud rate selection is made by Tbit calculation:
Tbit(1) = Tsyns + Tprs + Tphs1 + Tphs2
1. Tsyns = 1 x Tscl = (BRP[5..0]+ 1)/clkIO (= 1TQ)
2. Tprs = (1 to 8) x Tscl = (PRS[2..0]+ 1) x Tscl
3. Tphs1 = (1 to 8) x Tscl = (PHS1[2..0]+ 1) x Tscl
4. Tphs2 = (1 to 8) x Tscl = (PHS2[2..0](2)+ 1) x Tscl
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5. Tsjw = (1 to 4) x Tscl = (SJW[1..0]+ 1) x Tscl
Notes:
1. The total number of Tscl (Time Quanta) in a bit time must be from 8 to 25.
2. PHS2[2..0] 2 is programmable to be ≤ PHS1[2..0] and ≥ 1.
19.4.4
Fault Confinement
(c.f. Section 19.7 ”Error Management” on page 248).
19.4.5
Overload Frame
An overload frame is sent by setting an overload request (OVRQ). After the next reception, the
CAN channel sends an overload frame in accordance with the CAN specification. A status or
flag is set (OVRG) as long as the overload frame is sent.
Figure 19-9. Overload Frame
Setting OVRQ bit
Instructions
Resetting OVRQ bit
OVRQ bit
OVRG bit
RXCAN
Ident "A"
TXCAN
19.5
Cmd
Message Data "A"
CRC
A
Interframe
Overload Frame
Ident "B"
Overload Frame
Message Objects
The MOb is a CAN frame descriptor. It contains all information to handle a CAN frame. This
means that a MOb has been outlined to allow to describe a CAN message like an object. The set
of MObs is the front end part of the “mailbox” where the messages to send and/or to receive are
pre-defined as well as possible to decrease the work load of the software.
The MObs are independent but priority is given to the lower one in case of multi matching. The
operating modes are:
– Disabled mode
– Transmit mode
– Receive mode
– Automatic reply
– Frame buffer receive mode
19.5.1
Number of MObs
This device has 15 MObs, they are numbered from 0 up to 14 (i=14, no MOb 15).
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19.5.2
Operating Modes
There is no default mode after RESET.
Every MOb has its own fields to control the operating mode. Before enabling the CAN peripheral, each MOb must be configured (ex: disabled mode - CONMOB=00).
Table 19-1.
MOb Configuration
MOb Configuration
0
0
0
1
1
Reply Valid
RTR Tag
x
x
Disabled
x
0
Tx Data Frame
x
1
Tx Remote Frame
x
0
Rx Data Frame
0
0
Operating Mode
Rx Remote Frame
1
1
1
19.5.2.1
1
x
Rx Remote Frame then, Tx Data Frame (reply)
x
Frame Buffer Receive Mode
Disabled
In this mode, the MOb is “free”.
19.5.2.2
Tx Data & Remote Frame
1. Several fields must be initialized before sending:
– Identifier tag (IDT)
– Identifier extension (IDE)
– Remote transmission request (RTRTAG)
– Data length code (DLC)
– Reserved bit(s) tag (RBnTAG)
– Data bytes of message (MSG)
2. The MOb is ready to send a data or a remote frame when the MOb configuration is set
(CONMOB).
3. Then, the CAN channel scans all the MObs in Tx configuration, finds the MOb having
the highest priority and tries to send it.
4. When the transmission is completed the TXOK flag is set (interrupt).
5. All the parameters and data are available in the MOb until a new initialization.
19.5.2.3
Rx Data & Remote Frame
1. Several fields must be initialized before receiving:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
244
Identifier tag (IDT)
Identifier mask (IDMSK)
Identifier extension (IDE)
Identifier extension mask (IDEMSK)
Remote transmission request (RTRTAG)
Remote transmission request mask (RTRMSK)
Data length code (DLC)
Reserved bit(s) tag (RBnTAG)
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
2. The MOb is ready to receive a data or a remote frame when the MOb configuration is
set (CONMOB).
3. When a frame identifier is received on CAN network, the CAN channel scans all the
MObs in receive mode, tries to find the MOb having the highest priority which is
matching.
4. On a hit, the IDT, the IDE and the DLC of the matched MOb are updated from the
incoming (frame) values.
5. Once the reception is completed, the data bytes of the received message are stored
(not for remote frame) in the data buffer of the matched MOb and the RXOK flag is set
(interrupt).
6. All the parameters and data are available in the MOb until a new initialization.
19.5.2.4
Automatic Reply
A reply (data frame) to a remote frame can be automatically sent after reception of the expected
remote frame.
1. Several fields must be initialized before receiving the remote frame:
– Reply valid (RPLV) in a identical flow to the one described in Section 19.5.2.3 ”Rx
Data & Remote Frame” on page 244.
2. When a remote frame matches, automatically the RTRTAG and the reply valid bit
(RPLV) are reset. No flag (or interrupt) is set at this time. Since the CAN data buffer has
not been used by the incoming remote frame, the MOb is then ready to be in transmit
mode without any more setting. The IDT, the IDE, the other tags and the DLC of the
received remote frame are used for the reply.
3. When the transmission of the reply is completed the TXOK flag is set (interrupt).
4. All the parameters and data are available in the MOb until a new initialization.
19.5.2.5
Frame Buffer Receive Mode
This mode is useful to receive multi frames. The priority between MObs offers a management for
these incoming frames. One set MObs (including non-consecutive MObs) is created when the
MObs are set in this mode. Due to the mode setting, only one set is possible. A frame buffer
completed flag (or interrupt) - BXOK - will rise only when all the MObs of the set will have
received their dedicated CAN frame.
1.
MObs in frame buffer receive mode need to be initialized as MObs in standard receive mode.
2. The MObs are ready to receive data (or a remote) frames when their respective configurations are set (CONMOB).
3. When a frame identifier is received on CAN network, the CAN channel scans all the
MObs in receive mode, tries to find the MOb having the highest priority which is
matching.
4. On a hit, the IDT, the IDE and the DLC of the matched MOb are updated from the
incoming (frame) values.
5. Once the reception is completed, the data bytes of the received message are stored (not
for remote frame) in the data buffer of the matched MOb and the RXOK flag is set
(interrupt).
6. When the reception in the last MOb of the set is completed, the frame buffer completed
BXOK flag is set (interrupt). BXOK flag can be cleared only if all CONMOB fields of the
set have been re-written before.
7. All the parameters and data are available in the MObs until a new initialization.
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19.5.3
Acceptance Filter
Upon a reception hit (i.e., a good comparison between the ID + RTR + RBn + IDE received and an
IDT+ RTRTAG + RBnTAG + IDE specified while taking the comparison mask into account) the IDT
+ RTRTAG + RBnTAG + IDE received are updated in the MOb (written over the registers).
Figure 19-10. Acceptance Filter Block Diagram
internal RxDcan
Rx Shift Register (internal)
ID & RB
RTR
IDE
14(33)
RB excluded
=
Hit MOb[i]
13(31)
Write
Enable
14(33)
ID & RB
1
13(31) - RB excluded
RTRTAG
IDE
13(31)
CANIDT Registers & CANCDMOB (MOb[i])
Note:
RTRMSK
IDMSK
IDEMSK
CANIDM Registers (MOb[i])
Examples:
Full filtering: to accept only ID = 0x317 in part A.
- ID MSK = 111 1111 1111 b
- ID TAG = 011 0001 0111 b
Partial filtering: to accept ID from 0x310 up to 0x317 in part A.
- ID MSK = 111 1111 1000 b
- ID TAG = 011 0001 0xxx b
No filtering: to accept all ID from 0x000 up to 0x7FF in part A.
- ID MSK = 000 0000 0000 b
- ID TAG = xxx xxxx xxxx b
19.5.4
MOb Page
Every MOb is mapped into a page to save place. The page number is the MOb number. This
page number is set in CANPAGE register. The number 15 is reserved for factory tests.
CANHPMOB register gives the MOb having the highest priority in CANSIT registers. It is formatted to provide a direct entry for CANPAGE register. Because CANHPMOB codes CANSIT
registers, it will be only updated if the corresponding enable bits (ENRX, ENTX, ENERR) are
enabled (c.f. Figure 19-14).
19.5.5
CAN Data Buffers
To preserve register allocation, the CAN data buffer is seen such as a FIFO (with address
pointer accessible) into a MOb selection.This also allows to reduce the risks of un-controlled
accesses.
There is one FIFO per MOb. This FIFO is accessed into a MOb page thanks to the CAN message register.
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The data index (INDX) is the address pointer to the required data byte. The data byte can be
read or write. The data index is automatically incremented after every access if the AINC* bit is
reset. A roll-over is implemented, after data index=7 it is data index=0.
The first byte of a CAN frame is stored at the data index=0, the second one at the data index=1,
...
19.6
CAN Timer
A programmable 16-bit timer is used for message stamping and time trigger communication
(TTC).
Figure 19-11. CAN Timer Block Diagram
clk
IO
8
ENFG
CANTCON
clk CANTIM
TTC
OVRTIM
overrun
CANTIM
TXOK[i]
"EOF "
"SOF "
RXOK[i]
CANSTM[i]
19.6.1
SYNCTTC
CANTTC
Prescaler
An 8-bit prescaler is initialized by CANTCON register. It receives the clkIO frequency divided by
8. It provides clkCANTIM frequency to the CAN Timer if the CAN controller is enabled.
TclkCANTIM = TclkIO x 8 x (CANTCON [7:0] + 1)
19.6.2
16-bit Timer
This timer starts counting from 0x0000 when the CAN controller is enabled (ENFG bit). When
the timer rolls over from 0xFFFF to 0x0000, an interrupt is generated (OVRTIM).
19.6.3
Time Triggering
Two synchronization modes are implemented for TTC (TTC bit):
– synchronization on Start of Frame (SYNCTTC=0),
– synchronization on End of Frame (SYNCTTC=1).
In TTC mode, a frame is sent once, even if an error occurs.
19.6.4
Stamping Message
The capture of the timer value is done in the MOb which receives or sends the frame. All managed MOb are stamped, the stamping of a received (sent) frame occurs on RxOk (TXOK).
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19.7
19.7.1
Error Management
Fault Confinement
The CAN channel may be in one of the three following states:
• Error active (default):
The CAN channel takes part in bus communication and can send an active error frame when
the CAN macro detects an error.
• Error passive:
The CAN channel cannot send an active error frame. It takes part in bus communication, but
when an error is detected, a passive error frame is sent. Also, after a transmission, an error
passive unit will wait before initiating further transmission.
• Bus off:
The CAN channel is not allowed to have any influence on the bus.
For fault confinement, a transmit error counter (TEC) and a receive error counter (REC) are
implemented. BOFF and ERRP bits give the information of the state of the CAN channel. Setting
BOFF to one may generate an interrupt.
Figure 19-12. Line Error Mode
Reset
ERRP = 0
BOFF = 0
Error
Active
TEC > 127 or
REC > 127
128 occurrences
of 11 consecutive
recessive bit
TEC < 127 and
REC < 127
ERRP = 1
BOFF = 0
ERRP = 0
BOFF = 1
Bus
Off
Error
Passive
TEC > 255
interrupt - BOFFIT
Note:
19.7.2
More than one REC/TEC change may apply during a given message transfer.
Error Types
• BERR: Bit error. The bit value which is monitored is different from the bit value sent.
Note:
Exceptions:
- Recessive bit sent monitored as dominant bit during the arbitration field and the acknowledge slot.
- Detecting a dominant bit during the sending of an error frame.
• SERR: Stuff error. Detection of more than five consecutive bit with the same polarity.
• CERR: CRC error (Rx only). The receiver performs a CRC check on every destuffed received
message from the start of frame up to the data field. If this checking does not match with the
destuffed CRC field, an CRC error is set.
• FERR: Form error. The form error results from one (or more) violations of the fixed form of
the following bit fields:
– CRC delimiter
– acknowledgement delimiter
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– end-of-frame
– error delimiter
– overload delimiter
• AERR: Acknowledgment error (Tx only). No detection of the dominant bit in the acknowledge
slot.
Figure 19-13. Error Detection Procedures in a Data Frame
Arbitration
Bit error
Stuff error
Form error
Tx
ACK error
SOF
Rx
Identifier
RTR
Control
Message Data
CRC
CRC ACK ACK
del.
del.
EOF
inter.
Bit error
Stuff error
Form error
CRC error
19.7.3
Error Setting
The CAN channel can detect some errors on the CAN network.
• In transmission:
The error is set at MOb level.
• In reception:
- The identified has matched:
The error is set at MOb level.
- The identified has not or not yet matched:
The error is set at general level.
After detecting an error, the CAN channel sends an error frame on network. If the CAN channel
detects an error frame on network, it sends its own error frame.
19.8
19.8.1
Interrupts
Interrupt organization
The different interrupts are:
• Interrupt on receive completed OK,
• Interrupt on transmit completed OK,
• Interrupt on error (bit error, stuff error, CRC error, form error, acknowledge error),
• Interrupt on frame buffer full,
• Interrupt on “Bus Off” setting,
• Interrupt on overrun of CAN timer.
The general interrupt enable is provided by ENIT bit and the specific interrupt enable for CAN
timer overrun is provided by ENORVT bit.
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Figure 19-14. CAN Controller Interrupt Structure
CANGIE.4 CANGIE.5 CANGIE.3
ENTX
CANSTMOB.6
TXOK[i]
CANSTMOB.5
RXOK[i]
CANSTMOB.4
BERR[i]
CANSTMOB.3
SERR[i]
CANSTMOB.2
CERR[i]
CANSTMOB.1
FERR[i]
CANSTMOB.0
AERR[i]
ENRX
ENERR
CANSIT 1/2
SIT[i]
CANIE 1/2
IEMOB[i]
0
CANGIT.7
i
CANGIT.4
BXOK
CANGIT.3
SERG
CANGIT.2
CERG
CANGIT.1
FERG
CANGIT.0
AERG
CANGIT.6
BOFFI
CANGIT.5
OVRTIM
CANIT
CANGIE.2 CANGIE.1 CANGIE.6
CANGIE.7
ENERG
ENIT
ENBX
ENBOFF
CAN IT
CANGIE.0
19.8.2
ENOVRT
OVR IT
Interrupt Behavior
When an interrupt occurs, an interrupt flag bit is set in the corresponding MOb-CANSTMOB register or in the general CANGIT register. If in the CANIE register, ENRX / ENTX / ENERR bit are
set, then the corresponding MOb bit is set in the CANSITn register.
To acknowledge a MOb interrupt, the corresponding bits of CANSTMOB register (RXOK,
TXOK,...) must be cleared by the software application. This operation needs a read-modify-write
software routine.
To acknowledge a general interrupt, the corresponding bits of CANGIT register (BXOK, BOFFIT,...) must be cleared by the software application. This operation is made writing a logical one
in these interrupt flags (writing a logical zero doesn’t change the interrupt flag value).
OVRTIM interrupt flag is reset as the other interrupt sources of CANGIT register and is also
reset entering in its dedicated interrupt handler.
When the CAN node is in transmission and detects a Form Error in its frame, a bit Error will also
be raised. Consequently, two consecutive interrupts can occur, both due to the same error.
When a MOb error occurs and is set in its own CANSTMOB register, no general error is set in
CANGIT register.
250
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
19.9
CAN Register Description
Figure 19-15. Registers Organization
AVR Registers
Registers in Pages
General Control
General Status
General Interrupt
Bit Timing 1
Bit Timing 2
Bit Timing 3
Enable MOb 2
Enable MOb 1
Enable Interrupt
Enable Interrupt MOb 2
Enable Interrupt MOb 1
Status Interrupt MOb 2
Status Interrupt MOb 1
CAN Timer Control
CAN Timer Low
CAN Timer High
CAN TTC Low
CAN TTC High
TEC Counter
REC Counter
Hightest Priority MOb
Page MOb
MOb Number
Me
(i+1)
Page MOb
MOb Status
MOb Control & DLC
MOb0 - MOb Status
MOb0 - MOb Ctrl & DLC
ID Tag 4
ID Tag 3
ID Tag 2
ID Tag 1
MOb0 - ID Tag 4
MOb0 - ID Tag 3
MOb0 - ID Tag 2
MOb0 - ID Tag 1
ID Mask 4
ID Mask 3
ID Mask 2
ID Mask 1
MOb0 - ID Mask 4
MOb0 - ID Mask 3
MOb0 - ID Mask 2
Time Stamp Low
Time Stamp High
MOb0 - Time Stamp Low
MOb0 - Time Stamp High
Message Data
MOb0 - Mess. Data - byte 0
MOb0 - ID Mask 1
jects
e Ob
ssag
Data Index
MOb(i) - MOb Status
MOb(i) - MOb Ctrl & DLC
MOb(i) - ID Tag 4
MOb(i) - ID Tag 3
MOb(i) - ID Tag 2
MOb(i) - ID Tag 1
MOb(i) - ID Mask 4
MOb(i) - ID Mask 3
MOb(i) - ID Mask 2
MOb(i) - ID Mask 1
MOb(i) - Time Stamp Low
MOb(i) - Time Stamp High
MOb(i) - Mess. Data - byte 0
8 bytes
251
7679H–CAN–08/08
19.10 General CAN Registers
19.10.1
CAN General Control Register - CANGCON
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ABRQ
OVRQ
TTC
SYNTTC
LISTEN
TEST
ENA/STB
SWRES
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CANGCON
• Bit 7 – ABRQ: Abort Request
This is not an auto resettable bit.
– 0 - no request.
– 1 - abort request: a reset of CANEN1 and CANEN2 registers is done. The pending
communications are immediately disabled and the on-going one will be normally
terminated, setting the appropriate status flags.
Note that CANCDMOB register remain unchanged.
• Bit 6 – OVRQ: Overload Frame Request
This is not an auto resettable bit.
– 0 - no request.
– 1 - overload frame request: send an overload frame after the next received frame.
The overload frame can be traced observing OVFG in CANGSTA register (c.f. Figure 19-9 on
page 243).
• Bit 5 – TTC: Time Trigger Communication
– 0 - no TTC.
– 1 - TTC mode.
• Bit 4 – SYNTTC: Synchronization of TTC
This bit is only used in TTC mode.
– 0 - the TTC timer is caught on SOF.
– 1 - the TTC timer is caught on the last bit of the EOF.
• Bit 3 – LISTEN: Listening Mode
– 0 - no listening mode.
– 1 - listening mode.
• Bit 2 – TEST: Test Mode
– 0 - no test mode
– 1 - test mode: intend for factory testing and not for customer use.
Note:
CAN may malfunction if this bit is set.
• Bit 1 – ENA/STB: Enable / Standby Mode
Because this bit is a command and is not immediately effective, the ENFG bit in CANGSTA register gives the true state of the chosen mode.
252
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
– 0 - standby mode: The on-going transmission (if exists) is normally terminated and the
CAN channel is frozen (the CONMOB bits of every MOb do not change). The transmitter
constantly provides a recessive level. In this mode, the receiver is not enabled but all the
registers and mailbox remain accessible from CPU.
Note:
A standby mode applied during a reception may corrupt the on-going reception or set the
controller in a wrong state. The controller will restart correctly from this state if a software
reset (SWRES) is applied. If no reset is considered, a possible solution is to wait for a
lake of a receiver busy (RXBSY) before to enter in stand-by mode. The best solution is
first to apply an abort request command (ABRQ) and then wait for the lake of the receiver
busy (RXBSY) before to enter in stand-by mode. In any cases, this standby mode behavior has no effect on the CAN bus integrity.
– 1 - enable mode: The CAN channel enters in enable mode once 11 recessive bits
has been read.
• Bit 0 – SWRES: Software Reset Request
This auto resettable bit only resets the CAN controller.
– 0 - no reset
– 1 - reset: this reset is “ORed” with the hardware reset.
19.10.2
CAN General Status Register - CANGSTA
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
OVRG
-
TXBSY
RXBSY
ENFG
BOFF
ERRP
Read/Write
-
R
-
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
-
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
CANGSTA
• Bit 7 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use.
• Bit 6 – OVRG: Overload Frame Flag
This flag does not generate an interrupt.
– 0 - no overload frame.
– 1 - overload frame: set by hardware as long as the produced overload frame is sent.
• Bit 5 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use.
• Bit 4 – TXBSY: Transmitter Busy
This flag does not generate an interrupt.
– 0 - transmitter not busy.
– 1 - transmitter busy: set by hardware as long as a frame (data, remote, overload or
error frame) or an ACK field is sent. Also set when an inter frame space is sent.
• Bit 3 – RXBSY: Receiver Busy
This flag does not generate an interrupt.
– 0 - receiver not busy
– 1 - receiver busy: set by hardware as long as a frame is received or monitored.
• Bit 2 – ENFG: Enable Flag
253
7679H–CAN–08/08
This flag does not generate an interrupt.
– 0 - CAN controller disable: because an enable/standby command is not immediately
effective, this status gives the true state of the chosen mode.
– 1 - CAN controller enable.
• Bit 1 – BOFF: Bus Off Mode
BOFF gives the information of the state of the CAN channel. Only entering in bus off mode generates the BOFFIT interrupt.
– 0 - no bus off mode.
– 1 - bus off mode.
• Bit 0 – ERRP: Error Passive Mode
ERRP gives the information of the state of the CAN channel. This flag does not generate an
interrupt.
– 0 - no error passive mode.
– 1 - error passive mode.
19.10.3
CAN General Interrupt Register - CANGIT
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CANIT
BOFFIT
OVRTIM
BXOK
SERG
CERG
FERG
AERG
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CANGIT
• Bit 7 – CANIT: General Interrupt Flag
This is a read only bit.
– 0 - no interrupt.
– 1 - CAN interrupt: image of all the CAN controller interrupts except for OVRTIM
interrupt. This bit can be used for polling method.
• Bit 6 – BOFFIT: Bus Off Interrupt Flag
Writing a logical one resets this interrupt flag. BOFFIT flag is only set when the CAN enters in
bus off mode (coming from error passive mode).
– 0 - no interrupt.
– 1 - bus off interrupt when the CAN enters in bus off mode.
• Bit 5 – OVRTIM: Overrun CAN Timer
Writing a logical one resets this interrupt flag. Entering in CAN timer overrun interrupt handler
also reset this interrupt flag
– 0 - no interrupt.
– 1 - CAN timer overrun interrupt: set when the CAN timer switches from 0xFFFF to 0.
• Bit 4 – BXOK: Frame Buffer Receive Interrupt
Writing a logical one resets this interrupt flag. BXOK flag can be cleared only if all CONMOB
fields of the MOb’s of the buffer have been re-written before.
– 0 - no interrupt.
254
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
– 1 - burst receive interrupt: set when the frame buffer receive is completed.
• Bit 3 – SERG: Stuff Error General
Writing a logical one resets this interrupt flag.
– 0 - no interrupt.
– 1 - stuff error interrupt: detection of more than 5 consecutive bits with the same
polarity.
• Bit 2 – CERG: CRC Error General
Writing a logical one resets this interrupt flag.
– 0 - no interrupt.
– 1 - CRC error interrupt: the CRC check on destuffed message does not fit with the
CRC field.
• Bit 1 – FERG: Form Error General
Writing a logical one resets this interrupt flag.
– 0 - no interrupt.
– 1 - form error interrupt: one or more violations of the fixed form in the CRC delimiter,
acknowledgment delimiter or EOF.
• Bit 0 – AERG: Acknowledgment Error General
Writing a logical one resets this interrupt flag.
– 0 - no interrupt.
– 1 - acknowledgment error interrupt: no detection of the dominant bit in acknowledge
slot.
19.10.4
CAN General Interrupt Enable Register - CANGIE
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ENIT
ENBOFF
ENRX
ENTX
ENERR
ENBX
ENERG
ENOVRT
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CANGIE
• Bit 7 – ENIT: Enable all Interrupts (Except for CAN Timer Overrun Interrupt)
– 0 - interrupt disabled.
– 1- CANIT interrupt enabled.
• Bit 6 – ENBOFF: Enable Bus Off Interrupt
– 0 - interrupt disabled.
– 1- bus off interrupt enabled.
• Bit 5 – ENRX: Enable Receive Interrupt
– 0 - interrupt disabled.
– 1- receive interrupt enabled.
• Bit 4 – ENTX: Enable Transmit Interrupt
– 0 - interrupt disabled.
255
7679H–CAN–08/08
– 1- transmit interrupt enabled.
• Bit 3 – ENERR: Enable MOb Errors Interrupt
– 0 - interrupt disabled.
– 1- MOb errors interrupt enabled.
• Bit 2 – ENBX: Enable Frame Buffer Interrupt
– 0 - interrupt disabled.
– 1- frame buffer interrupt enabled.
• Bit 1 – ENERG: Enable General Errors Interrupt
– 0 - interrupt disabled.
– 1- general errors interrupt enabled.
• Bit 0 – ENOVRT: Enable CAN Timer Overrun Interrupt
– 0 - interrupt disabled.
– 1- CAN timer interrupt overrun enabled.
19.10.5
CAN Enable MOb Registers CANEN2 and CANEN1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ENMOB7
ENMOB6
ENMOB5
ENMOB4
ENMOB3
ENMOB2
ENMOB1
ENMOB0
CANEN2
ENMOB14 ENMOB13 ENMOB12 ENMOB11 ENMOB10 ENMOB9
ENMOB8
CANEN1
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
R
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
-
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bits 14:0 - ENMOB14:0: Enable MOb
This bit provides the availability of the MOb.
It is set to one when the MOb is enabled (i.e. CONMOB1:0 of CANCDMOB register).
Once TXOK or RXOK is set to one (TXOK for automatic reply), the corresponding ENMOB is
reset. ENMOB is also set to zero configuring the MOb in disabled mode, applying abortion or
standby mode.
– 0 - message object disabled: MOb available for a new transmission or reception.
– 1 - message object enabled: MOb in use.
• Bit 15 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use.
256
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
19.10.6
CAN Enable Interrupt MOb Registers CANIE2 and CANIE1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
IEMOB7
IEMOB6
IEMOB5
IEMOB4
IEMOB3
IEMOB2
IEMOB1
IEMOB0
CANIE2
IEMOB14 IEMOB13 IEMOB12 IEMOB11 IEMOB10
IEMOB9
IEMOB8
CANIE1
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
R/W
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
-
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bits 14:0 - IEMOB14:0: Interrupt Enable by MOb
– 0 - interrupt disabled.
– 1 - MOb interrupt enabled
Note:
Example: CANIE2 = 0000 1100b : enable of interrupts on MOb 2 & 3.
• Bit 15 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, it must be written to zero
when CANIE1 is written.
19.10.7
CAN Status Interrupt MOb Registers - CANSIT2 and CANSIT1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SIT7
SIT6
SIT5
SIT4
SIT3
SIT2
SIT1
SIT0
CANSIT2
-
SIT14
SIT13
SIT12
SIT11
SIT10
SIT9
SIT8
CANSIT1
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
R
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
-
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bits 14:0 - SIT14:0: Status of Interrupt by MOb
– 0 - no interrupt.
– 1- MOb interrupt.
Note:
Example: CANSIT2 = 0010 0001b : MOb 0 & 5 interrupts.
• Bit 15 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use.
19.10.8
CAN Bit Timing Register 1 - CANBT1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
BRP5
BRP4
BRP3
BRP2
BRP1
BRP0
-
Read/Write
-
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
-
Initial Value
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
CANBT1
• Bit 7– Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, it must be written to zero
when CANBT1 is written.
• Bit 6:1 – BRP5:0: Baud Rate Prescaler
257
7679H–CAN–08/08
The period of the CAN controller system clock Tscl is programmable and determines the individual bit timing.
BRP[5:0] + 1
Tscl =
clkIO frequency
If BRP[5..0]=0, see Section 19.4.3 ”Baud Rate” on page 242 and Section • ”Bit 0 – SMP: Sample
Point(s)” on page 259.
• Bit 0 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, it must be written to zero
when CANBT1 is written.
19.10.9
CAN Bit Timing Register 2 - CANBT2
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
SJW1
SJW0
-
PRS2
PRS1
PRS0
-
Read/Write
-
R/W
R/W
-
R/W
R/W
R/W
-
Initial Value
-
0
0
-
0
0
0
-
CANBT2
• Bit 7– Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, it must be written to zero
when CANBT2 is written.
• Bit 6:5 – SJW1:0: Re-Synchronization Jump Width
To compensate for phase shifts between clock oscillators of different bus controllers, the controller must re-synchronize on any relevant signal edge of the current transmission.
The synchronization jump width defines the maximum number of clock cycles. A bit period may
be shortened or lengthened by a re-synchronization.
Tsjw = Tscl x (SJW [1:0] +1)
• Bit 4 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, it must be written to zero
when CANBT2 is written.
• Bit 3:1 – PRS2:0: Propagation Time Segment
This part of the bit time is used to compensate for the physical delay times within the network. It
is twice the sum of the signal propagation time on the bus line, the input comparator delay and
the output driver delay.
Tprs = Tscl x (PRS [2:0] + 1)
• Bit 0 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, it must be written to zero
when CANBT2 is written.
19.10.10 CAN Bit Timing Register 3 - CANBT3
Bit
258
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
PHS22
PHS21
PHS20
PHS12
PHS11
PHS10
SMP
Read/Write
-
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CANBT3
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
• Bit 7– Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, it must be written to zero
when CANBT3 is written.
• Bit 6:4 – PHS22:0: Phase Segment 2
This phase is used to compensate for phase edge errors. This segment may be shortened by
the re-synchronization jump width. PHS2[2..0] shall be ≥1 and ≤PHS1[2..0] (c.f. Section 19.2.3
”CAN Bit Timing” on page 236 and Section 19.4.3 ”Baud Rate” on page 242).
Tphs2 = Tscl x (PHS2 [2:0] + 1)
• Bit 3:1 – PHS12:0: Phase Segment 1
This phase is used to compensate for phase edge errors. This segment may be lengthened by
the re-synchronization jump width.
Tphs1 = Tscl x (PHS1 [2:0] + 1)
• Bit 0 – SMP: Sample Point(s)
This option allows to filter possible noise on TxCAN input pin.
– 0 - the sampling will occur once at the user configured sampling point - SP.
– 1 - with three-point sampling configuration the first sampling will occur two TclkIO
clocks before the user configured sampling point - SP, again at one TclkIO clock
before SP and finally at SP. Then the bit level will be determined by a majority vote of
the three samples.
‘SMP=1’ configuration is not compatible with ‘BRP[5:0]=0’ because TQ = TclkIO.
If BRP = 0, SMP must be cleared.
19.10.11 CAN Timer Control Register - CANTCON
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TPRSC7
TPRSC6
TPRSC5
TPRSC4
TPRSC3
TPRSC2
TRPSC1
TPRSC0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CANTCON
• Bit 7:0 – TPRSC7:0: CAN Timer Prescaler
Prescaler for the CAN timer upper counter range 0 to 255. It provides the clock to the CAN timer
if the CAN controller is enabled.
TclkCANTIM = TclkIO x 8 x (CANTCON [7:0] + 1)
19.10.12 CAN Timer Registers - CANTIML and CANTIMH
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
CANTIM7
CANTIM6
CANTIM5
CANTIM4
CANTIM3
2
1
0
CANTIM2 CANTIM1 CANTIM0 CANTIML
CANTIM15 CANTIM14 CANTIM13 CANTIM12 CANTIM11 CANTIM10 CANTIM9 CANTIM8 CANTIMH
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bits 15:0 - CANTIM15:0: CAN Timer Count
CAN timer counter range 0 to 65,535.
259
7679H–CAN–08/08
19.10.13 CAN TTC Timer Registers - CANTTCL and CANTTCH
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
TIMTTC7
TIMTTC6
TIMTTC5
TIMTTC4
TIMTTC3
TIMTTC2
1
0
TIMTTC1 TIMTTC0 CANTTCL
TIMTTC15 TIMTTC14 TIMTTC13 TIMTTC12 TIMTTC11 TIMTTC10 TIMTTC9 TIMTTC8 CANTTCH
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
• Bits 15:0 - TIMTTC15:0: TTC Timer Count
CAN TTC timer counter range 0 to 65,535.
19.10.14 CAN Transmit Error Counter Register - CANTEC
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TEC7
TEC6
TEC5
TEC4
TEC3
TEC2
TEC1
TEC0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CANTEC
• Bit 7:0 – TEC7:0: Transmit Error Count
CAN transmit error counter range 0 to 255.
19.10.15 CAN Receive Error Counter Register - CANREC
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
REC7
REC6
REC5
REC4
REC3
REC2
REC1
REC0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CANREC
• Bit 7:0 – REC7:0: Receive Error Count
CAN receive error counter range 0 to 255.
19.10.16 CAN Highest Priority MOb Register - CANHPMOB
Bit
7
6
5
4
HPMOB3 HPMOB2 HPMOB1 HPMOB0
3
2
1
0
CGP3
CGP2
CGP1
CGP0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
CANHPMOB
• Bit 7:4 – HPMOB3:0: Highest Priority MOb Number
MOb having the highest priority in CANSIT registers.
If CANSIT = 0 (no MOb), the return value is 0xF.
Note:
Do not confuse “MOb priority” and “Message ID priority”.See “Message Objects” on page 243.
• Bit 3:0 – CGP3:0: CAN General Purpose Bits
These bits can be pre-programmed to match with the wanted configuration of the CANPAGE
register (i.e., AINC and INDX2:0 setting).
19.10.17 CAN Page MOb Register - CANPAGE
Bit
7
6
5
4
2
1
0
AINC
INDX2
INDX1
INDX0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MOBNB3 MOBNB2 MOBNB1 MOBNB0
260
3
CANPAGE
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
• Bit 7:4 – MOBNB3:0: MOb Number
Selection of the MOb number, the available numbers are from 0 to 14.
• Bit 3 – AINC: Auto Increment of the FIFO CAN Data Buffer Index (Active Low)
– 0 - auto increment of the index (default value).
– 1- no auto increment of the index.
• Bit 2:0 – INDX2:0: FIFO CAN Data Buffer Index
Byte location of the CAN data byte into the FIFO for the defined MOb.
19.11 MOb Registers
The MOb registers has no initial (default) value after RESET.
19.11.1
CAN MOb Status Register - CANSTMOB
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DLCW
TXOK
RXOK
BERR
SERR
CERR
FERR
AERR
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
CANSTMOB
• Bit 7 – DLCW: Data Length Code Warning
The incoming message does not have the DLC expected. Whatever the frame type, the DLC
field of the CANCDMOB register is updated by the received DLC.
• Bit 6 – TXOK: Transmit OK
This flag can generate an interrupt. It must be cleared using a read-modify-write software routine
on the whole CANSTMOB register.
The communication enabled by transmission is completed.
TxOK rises at the end of EOF field and then, the MOb is disabled (the corresponding ENMOB-bit
of CANEN registers is cleared). When the controller is ready to send a frame, if two or more
message objects are enabled as producers, the lower MOb index is supplied first.
• Bit 5 – RXOK: Receive OK
This flag can generate an interrupt. It must be cleared using a read-modify-write software routine
on the whole CANSTMOB register.
The communication enabled by reception is completed.
RxOK rises at the end of the 6th bit of EOF field and then, the MOb is disabled (the corresponding ENMOB-bit of CANEN registers is cleared). In case of two or more message object reception
hits, the lower MOb index is updated first.
• Bit 4 – BERR: Bit Error (Only in Transmission)
This flag can generate an interrupt. It must be cleared using a read-modify-write software routine
on the whole CANSTMOB register.
The bit value monitored is different from the bit value sent.
Exceptions: the monitored recessive bit sent as a dominant bit during the arbitration field and the
acknowledge slot detecting a dominant bit during the sending of an error frame.
261
7679H–CAN–08/08
The rising of this flag does not disable the MOb (the corresponding ENMOB-bit of CANEN registers is not cleared). The next matching frame will update the BERR flag.
• Bit 3 – SERR: Stuff Error
This flag can generate an interrupt. It must be cleared using a read-modify-write software routine
on the whole CANSTMOB register.
Detection of more than five consecutive bits with the same polarity. This flag can generate an
interrupt.
The rising of this flag does not disable the MOb (the corresponding ENMOB-bit of CANEN registers is not cleared). The next matching frame will update the SERR flag.
• Bit 2 – CERR: CRC Error
This flag can generate an interrupt. It must be cleared using a read-modify-write software routine
on the whole CANSTMOB register.
The receiver performs a CRC check on every de-stuffed received message from the start of
frame up to the data field. If this checking does not match with the de-stuffed CRC field, a CRC
error is set.
The rising of this flag does not disable the MOb (the corresponding ENMOB-bit of CANEN registers is not cleared). The next matching frame will update the CERR flag.
• Bit 1 – FERR: Form Error
This flag can generate an interrupt. It must be cleared using a read-modify-write software routine
on the whole CANSTMOB register.
The form error results from one or more violations of the fixed form in the following bit fields:
• CRC delimiter.
• Acknowledgment delimiter.
• EOF
The rising of this flag does not disable the MOb (the corresponding ENMOB-bit of CANEN registers is not cleared). The next matching frame will update the FERR flag.
• Bit 0 – AERR: Acknowledgment Error
This flag can generate an interrupt. It must be cleared using a read-modify-write software routine
on the whole CANSTMOB register.
No detection of the dominant bit in the acknowledge slot.
The rising of this flag does not disable the MOb (the corresponding ENMOB-bit of CANEN registers is not cleared). The next matching frame will update the AERR flag.
19.11.2
CAN MOb Control and DLC Register - CANCDMOB
Bit
7
6
CONMOB1 CONMOB0
5
4
3
2
1
0
RPLV
IDE
DLC3
DLC2
DLC1
DLC0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
CANCDMOB
• Bit 7:6 – CONMOB1:0: Configuration of Message Object
These bits set the communication to be performed (no initial value after RESET).
262
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
– 00 - disable.
– 01 - enable transmission.
– 10 - enable reception.
– 11 - enable frame buffer reception
These bits are not cleared once the communication is performed. The user must re-write the
configuration to enable a new communication.
• This operation is necessary to be able to reset the BXOK flag.
• This operation also set the corresponding bit in the CANEN registers.
• Bit 5 – RPLV: Reply Valid
Used in the automatic reply mode after receiving a remote frame.
– 0 - reply not ready.
– 1 - reply ready and valid.
• Bit 4 – IDE: Identifier Extension
IDE bit of the remote or data frame to send.
This bit is updated with the corresponding value of the remote or data frame received.
– 0 - CAN standard rev 2.0 A (identifiers length = 11 bits).
– 1 - CAN standard rev 2.0 B (identifiers length = 29 bits).
• Bit 3:0 – DLC3:0: Data Length Code
Number of Bytes in the data field of the message.
DLC field of the remote or data frame to send. The range of DLC is from 0 up to 8. If DLC field >8
then effective DLC=8.
This field is updated with the corresponding value of the remote or data frame received. If the
expected DLC differs from the incoming DLC, a DLC warning appears in the CANSTMOB
register.
19.11.3
CAN Identifier Tag Registers CANIDT1, CANIDT2, CANIDT3, and CANIDT4
V2.0 part A
Bit
15/7
14/6
13/5
12/4
11/3
10/2
9/1
8/0
-
-
-
-
-
RTRTAG
-
RB0TAG
CANIDT4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
CANIDT3
IDT2
IDT1
IDT0
-
-
-
-
-
CANIDT2
IDT10
IDT9
IDT8
IDT7
IDT6
IDT5
IDT4
IDT3
CANIDT1
Bit
31/23
30/22
29/21
28/20
27/19
26/18
25/17
24/16
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
V2.0 part B
Bit
15/7
14/6
13/5
12/4
11/3
10/2
9/1
8/0
IDT4
IDT3
IDT2
IDT1
IDT0
RTRTAG
RB1TAG
RB0TAG
CANIDT4
IDT12
IDT11
IDT10
IDT9
IDT8
IDT7
IDT6
IDT5
CANIDT3
IDT20
IDT19
IDT18
IDT17
IDT16
IDT15
IDT14
IDT13
CANIDT2
IDT28
IDT27
IDT26
IDT25
IDT24
IDT23
IDT22
IDT21
CANIDT1
263
7679H–CAN–08/08
Bit
31/23
30/22
29/21
28/20
27/19
26/18
25/17
24/16
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
V2.0 part A
• Bit 31:21 – IDT10:0: Identifier Tag
Identifier field of the remote or data frame to send.
This field is updated with the corresponding value of the remote or data frame received.
• Bit 20:3 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, they must be written
to zero when CANIDTn are written.
When a remote or data frame is received, these bits do not operate in the comparison but they
are updated with un-predicted values.
• Bit 2 – RTRTAG: Remote Transmission Request Tag
RTR bit of the remote or data frame to send.
This tag is updated with the corresponding value of the remote or data frame received. In case
of Automatic Reply mode, this bit is automatically reset before sending the response.
• Bit 1 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, it must be written to zero
when CANIDTn are written.
When a remote or data frame is received, this bit does not operate in the comparison but it is
updated with un-predicted values.
• Bit 0 – RB0TAG: Reserved Bit 0 Tag
RB0 bit of the remote or data frame to send.
This tag is updated with the corresponding value of the remote or data frame received.
V2.0 part B
• Bit 31:3 – IDT28:0: Identifier Tag
Identifier field of the remote or data frame to send.
This field is updated with the corresponding value of the remote or data frame received.
• Bit 2 – RTRTAG: Remote Transmission Request Tag
RTR bit of the remote or data frame to send.
This tag is updated with the corresponding value of the remote or data frame received. In case
of Automatic Reply mode, this bit is automatically reset before sending the response.
• Bit 1 – RB1TAG: Reserved Bit 1 Tag
RB1 bit of the remote or data frame to send.
This tag is updated with the corresponding value of the remote or data frame received.
264
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
• Bit 0 – RB0TAG: Reserved Bit 0 Tag
RB0 bit of the remote or data frame to send.
This tag is updated with the corresponding value of the remote or data frame received.
19.11.4
CAN Identifier Mask Registers CANIDM1, CANIDM2, CANIDM3, and CANIDM4
V2.0 part A
Bit
15/7
14/6
13/5
12/4
11/3
10/2
9/1
8/0
-
-
-
-
-
RTRMSK
-
IDEMSK
CANIDM4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
CANIDM3
IDMSK2
IDMSK1
IDMSK0
-
-
-
-
-
CANIDM2
IDMSK10
IDMSK9
IDMSK8
IDMSK7
IDMSK6
IDMSK5
IDMSK4
IDMSK3
CANIDM1
Bit
31/23
30/22
29/21
28/20
27/19
26/18
25/17
24/16
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
V2.0 part B
Bit
15/7
14/6
13/5
12/4
11/3
10/2
9/1
8/0
IDMSK4
IDMSK3
IDMSK2
IDMSK1
IDMSK0
RTRMSK
-
IDEMSK
IDMSK12
IDMSK11
IDMSK10
IDMSK9
IDMSK8
IDMSK7
IDMSK6
IDMSK5
CANIDM3
IDMSK20
IDMSK19
IDMSK18
IDMSK17
IDMSK16
IDMSK15
IDMSK14
IDMSK13
CANIDM2
CANIDM1
IDMSK28
IDMSK27
IDMSK26
IDMSK25
IDMSK24
IDMSK23
IDMSK22
IDMSK21
Bit
31/23
30/22
29/21
28/20
27/19
26/18
25/17
24/16
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
CANIDM4
V2.0 part A
• Bit 31:21 – IDMSK10:0: Identifier Mask
– 0 - comparison true forced - See “Acceptance Filter” on page 246.
– 1 - bit comparison enabled - See “Acceptance Filter” on page 246.
• Bit 20:3 – Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, they must be written
to zero when CANIDMn are written.
• Bit 2 – RTRMSK: Remote Transmission Request Mask
– 0 - comparison true forced.
– 1 - bit comparison enabled.
• Bit 1 – Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, it must be written to zero
when CANIDTn are written.
• Bit 0 – IDEMSK: Identifier Extension Mask
– 0 - comparison true forced.
– 1 - bit comparison enabled.
V2.0 part B
265
7679H–CAN–08/08
• Bit 31:3 – IDMSK28:0: Identifier Mask
– 0 - comparison true forced - See “Acceptance Filter” on page 246.
– 1 - bit comparison enabled - See “Acceptance Filter” on page 246.
• Bit 2 – RTRMSK: Remote Transmission Request Mask
– 0 - comparison true forced
– 1 - bit comparison enabled.
• Bit 1 – Reserved Bit
Writing zero in this bit is recommended.
• Bit 0 – IDEMSK: Identifier Extension Mask
– 0 - comparison true forced
– 1 - bit comparison enabled.
19.11.5
CAN Time Stamp Registers - CANSTML and CANSTMH
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TIMSTM7 TIMSTM6 TIMSTM5 TIMSTM4 TIMSTM3 TIMSTM2 TIMSTM1 TIMSTM0
CANSTML
TIMSTM15 TIMSTM14 TIMSTM13 TIMSTM12 TIMSTM11 TIMSTM10 TIMSTM9 TIMSTM8 CANSTMH
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
• Bits 15:0 - TIMSTM15:0: Time Stamp Count
CAN time stamp counter range 0 to 65,535.
19.11.6
CAN Data Message Register - CANMSG
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MSG 7
MSG 6
MSG 5
MSG 4
MSG 3
MSG 2
MSG 1
MSG 0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
CANMSG
• Bit 7:0 – MSG7:0: Message Data
This register contains the CAN data byte pointed at the page MOb register.
After writing in the page MOb register, this byte is equal to the specified message location of the
pre-defined identifier + index. If auto-incrementation is used, at the end of the data register writing or reading cycle, the index is auto-incremented.
The range of the counting is 8 with no end of loop (0, 1,..., 7, 0,...).
19.12 Examples of CAN Baud Rate Setting
The CAN bus requires very accurate timing especially for high baud rates. It is recommended to
use only an external crystal for CAN operations.
(Refer to “Bit Timing” on page 241 and “Baud Rate” on page 242 for timing description and page
257 to page 258 for “CAN Bit Timing Registers”).
266
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Table 19-2.
fclkio
(MHz)
Examples of CAN Baud Rate Settings for Commonly Frequencies
CAN
Baudrate
(Kbps)
1000
Description
Sampling
Point
69 %
(1)
75 %
500
75 %
250
75 %
200
75 %
125
75 %
100
75 %
1000
67 % (1)
500
75 %
250
75 %
200
75 %
125
75 %
100
75 %
16.000
12.000
Segments
Registers
TQ
(µs)
Tbit
(TQ)
Tprs
(TQ)
Tph1
(TQ)
Tph2
(TQ)
Tsjw
(TQ)
CANBT1
CANBT2
CANBT3
0.0625
16
7
4
4
1
0x00
0x0C
0x36 (2)
0.125
8
3
2
2
1
0x02
0x04
0x13
0.125
16
7
4
4
1
0x02
0x0C
0x37
0.250
8
3
2
2
1
0x06
0x04
0x13
0.250
16
7
4
4
1
0x06
0x0C
0x37
0.500
8
3
2
2
1
0x0E
0x04
0x13
0.3125
16
7
4
4
1
0x08
0x0C
0x37
0.625
8
3
2
2
1
0x12
0x04
0x13
0.500
16
7
4
4
1
0x0E
0x0C
0x37
1.000
8
3
2
2
1
0x1E
0x04
0x13
0.625
16
7
4
4
1
0x12
0x0C
0x37
1.250
8
3
2
2
1
0x26
0x04
0x13
0.083333
12
5
3
3
1
0x00
0x08
0x24 (2)
x
- - - no
data- - -
0.166666
12
5
3
3
1
0x02
0x08
0x25
0.250
8
3
2
2
1
0x04
0x04
0x13
0.250
16
7
4
4
1
0x04
0x0C
0x37
0.500
8
3
2
2
1
0x0A
0x04
0x13
0.250
20
8
6
5
1
0x04
0x0E
0x4B
0.416666
12
5
3
3
1
0x08
0x08
0x25
0.500
16
7
4
4
1
0x0A
0x0C
0x37
1.000
8
3
2
2
1
0x16
0x04
0x13
0.500
20
8
6
5
1
0x0A
0x0E
0x4B
0.833333
12
5
3
3
1
0x12
0x08
0x25
267
7679H–CAN–08/08
Table 19-2.
fclkio
(MHz)
Examples of CAN Baud Rate Settings for Commonly Frequencies (Continued)
CAN
Baudrate
(Kbps)
1000
500
250
Description
Sampling
Point
63 % (1)
TQ
(µs)
Segments
Tbit
(TQ)
Note:
data- - -
1
0x00
0x04
0x12 (2)
69 % (1)
0.125
16
7
4
4
1
0x00
0x0C
0x36 (2)
75 %
0.250
8
3
2
2
1
0x02
0x04
0x13
0.250
16
7
4
4
1
0x02
0x0C
0x37
75 %
75 %
100
75 %
0.500
8
3
2
2
1
0x06
0x04
0x13
0.250
20
8
6
5
1
0x02
0x0E
0x4B
0.625
8
3
2
2
1
0x08
0x04
0x13
0.500
16
7
4
4
1
0x06
0x0C
0x37
1.000
8
3
2
2
1
0x0E
0x04
0x13
0.625
16
7
4
4
1
0x08
0x0C
0x37
1.250
8
3
2
2
1
0x12
0x04
0x13
0x00
0x08
0x24 (2)
- - - not
67 % (1)
250
75 %
200
80 %
125
75 %
200
CANBT3
2
75 %
0.166666
12
0.333333
0.500
applicable- - -
5
3
3
12
5
3
3
1
0x02
0x08
0x25
8
3
2
2
1
0x04
0x04
0x13
x
- - - no
data- - -
15
7
4
3
1
0x02
0x0C
0x35
0.500
10
4
3
2
1
0x04
0x06
0x23
0.500
16
7
4
4
1
0x04
0x0C
0x37
1.000
8
3
2
2
1
0x0A
0x04
0x13
0.500
20
8
6
5
1
0x04
0x0E
0x4B
0.833333
12
5
3
3
1
0x08
0x08
0x25
- - - not
63 % (1)
1
0.333333
1000
4.000
CANBT2
2
125
250
- - - no
CANBT1
3
75 %
500
Tsjw
(TQ)
8
200
100
Tph2
(TQ)
x
1000
6.000
Tph1
(TQ)
0.125
8.000
500
Tprs
(TQ)
Registers
applicable- - -
x
- - - no
data- - -
0.250
8
3
2
2
1
0x00
0x04
0x12 (2)
69 % (1)
0.250
16
7
4
4
1
0x00
0x0C
0x36 (2)
75 %
0.500
8
3
2
2
1
0x02
0x04
0x13
0.250
20
8
6
5
1
0x00
0x0E
0x4A (2)
0.500
16
7
4
4
1
0x02
0x0C
0x37
1.000
8
3
2
2
1
0x06
0x04
0x13
0.500
20
8
6
5
1
0x02
0x0E
0x4B
1.250
8
3
2
2
1
0x08
0x04
0x13
70 % (1)
125
75 %
100
75 %
x
- - - no
data- - -
1. See Section 19.4.3 ”Baud Rate” on page 242.
2. See Section • ”Bit 0 – SMP: Sample Point(s)” on page 259
268
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
20. Analog Comparator
The Analog Comparator compares the input values on the positive pin AIN0 and negative pin
AIN1.
20.1
Overview
When the voltage on the positive pin AIN0 is higher than the voltage on the negative pin AIN1,
the Analog Comparator output, ACO, is set. The comparator’s output can be set to trigger the
Timer/Counter1 Input Capture function. In addition, the comparator can trigger a separate interrupt, exclusive to the Analog Comparator. The user can select Interrupt triggering on comparator
output rise, fall or toggle. A block diagram of the comparator and its surrounding logic is shown
in Figure 20-1.
Figure 20-1. Analog Comparator Block Diagram(1)(2)
BANDGAP
REFERENCE
ACBG
ACME
ADEN
T/C1 INPUT CAPTURE
ADC
MULTIPLEXER
OUTPUT
Notes:
1. ADC multiplexer output: see Table 20-2 on page 271.
2. Refer to Figure 1-2 on page 5 or Figure 1-3 on page 6 and Table 9-15 on page 83 for Analog
Comparator pin placement.
20.2
20.2.1
Analog Comparator Register Description
ADC Control and Status Register B – ADCSRB
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-
ACME
–
–
–
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Read/Write
R
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADCSRB
• Bit 6 – ACME: Analog Comparator Multiplexer Enable
When this bit is written logic one and the ADC is switched off (ADEN in ADCSRA is zero), the
ADC multiplexer selects the negative input to the Analog Comparator. When this bit is written
logic zero, AIN1 is applied to the negative input of the Analog Comparator. For a detailed
description of this bit, see “Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input” on page 271.
269
7679H–CAN–08/08
20.2.2
Analog Comparator Control and Status Register – ACSR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ACD
ACBG
ACO
ACI
ACIE
ACIC
ACIS1
ACIS0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
N/A
0
0
0
0
0
ACSR
• Bit 7 – ACD: Analog Comparator Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the power to the Analog Comparator is switched off. This bit
can be set at any time to turn off the Analog Comparator. This will reduce power consumption in
Active and Idle mode. When changing the ACD bit, the Analog Comparator Interrupt must be
disabled by clearing the ACIE bit in ACSR. Otherwise an interrupt can occur when the bit is
changed.
• Bit 6 – ACBG: Analog Comparator Bandgap Select
When this bit is set, a fixed bandgap reference voltage replaces the positive input to the Analog
Comparator. When this bit is cleared, AIN0 is applied to the positive input of the Analog Comparator. See “Internal Voltage Reference” on page 56.
• Bit 5 – ACO: Analog Comparator Output
The output of the Analog Comparator is synchronized and then directly connected to ACO. The
synchronization introduces a delay of 1 - 2 clock cycles.
• Bit 4 – ACI: Analog Comparator Interrupt Flag
This bit is set by hardware when a comparator output event triggers the interrupt mode defined
by ACIS1 and ACIS0. The Analog Comparator interrupt routine is executed if the ACIE bit is set
and the I-bit in SREG is set. ACI is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, ACI is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag.
• Bit 3 – ACIE: Analog Comparator Interrupt Enable
When the ACIE bit is written logic one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the Analog Comparator interrupt is activated. When written logic zero, the interrupt is disabled.
• Bit 2 – ACIC: Analog Comparator Input Capture Enable
When written logic one, this bit enables the input capture function in Timer/Counter1 to be triggered by the Analog Comparator. The comparator output is in this case directly connected to the
input capture front-end logic, making the comparator utilize the noise canceler and edge select
features of the Timer/Counter1 Input Capture interrupt. When written logic zero, no connection
between the Analog Comparator and the input capture function exists. To make the comparator
trigger the Timer/Counter1 Input Capture interrupt, the ICIE1 bit in the Timer Interrupt Mask
Register (TIMSK1) must be set.
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• Bits 1, 0 – ACIS1, ACIS0: Analog Comparator Interrupt Mode Select
These bits determine which comparator events that trigger the Analog Comparator interrupt. The
different settings are shown in Table 20-1.
Table 20-1.
ACIS1/ACIS0 Settings
ACIS1
ACIS0
Interrupt Mode
0
0
Comparator Interrupt on Output Toggle.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Comparator Interrupt on Falling Output Edge.
1
1
Comparator Interrupt on Rising Output Edge.
When changing the ACIS1/ACIS0 bits, the Analog Comparator Interrupt must be disabled by
clearing its Interrupt Enable bit in the ACSR Register. Otherwise an interrupt can occur when the
bits are changed.
20.3
Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input
It is possible to select any of the ADC7..0 pins to replace the negative input to the Analog Comparator. The ADC multiplexer is used to select this input, and consequently, the ADC must be
switched off to utilize this feature. If the Analog Comparator Multiplexer Enable bit (ACME in
ADCSRB) is set and the ADC is switched off (ADEN in ADCSRA is zero), MUX2..0 in ADMUX
select the input pin to replace the negative input to the Analog Comparator, as shown in Table
20-2. If ACME is cleared or ADEN is set, AIN1 is applied to the negative input to the Analog
Comparator.
Table 20-2.
Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input
ACME
ADEN
MUX2..0
Analog Comparator Negative Input
0
x
xxx
AIN1
1
1
xxx
AIN1
1
0
000
ADC0
1
0
001
ADC1
1
0
010
ADC2
1
0
011
ADC3
1
0
100
ADC4
1
0
101
ADC5
1
0
110
ADC6
1
0
111
ADC7
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20.3.1
Digital Input Disable Register 1 – DIDR1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
AIN1D
AIN0D
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DIDR1
• Bit 1, 0 – AIN1D, AIN0D: AIN1, AIN0 Digital Input Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the digital input buffer on the AIN1/0 pin is disabled. The corresponding PIN Register bit will always read as zero when this bit is set. When an analog signal is
applied to the AIN1/0 pin and the digital input from this pin is not needed, this bit should be written logic one to reduce power consumption in the digital input buffer.
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21. Analog to Digital Converter - ADC
21.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
10-bit Resolution
0.5 LSB Integral Non-linearity
± 2 LSB Absolute Accuracy
65 - 260 µs Conversion Time
Up to 15 kSPS at Maximum Resolution
Eight Multiplexed Single Ended Input Channels
Seven Differential input channels
Optional Left Adjustment for ADC Result Readout
0 - VCC ADC Input Voltage Range
Selectable 2.56 V ADC Reference Voltage
Free Running or Single Conversion Mode
ADC Start Conversion by Auto Triggering on Interrupt Sources
Interrupt on ADC Conversion Complete
Sleep Mode Noise Canceler
The AT90CAN32/64/128 features a 10-bit successive approximation ADC. The ADC is connected to an 8-channel Analog Multiplexer which allows eight single-ended voltage inputs
constructed from the pins of Port F. The single-ended voltage inputs refer to 0V (GND).
The device also supports 16 differential voltage input combinations. Two of the differential inputs
(ADC1, ADC0 and ADC3, ADC2) are equipped with a programmable gain stage, providing
amplification steps of 0 dB (1x), 20 dB (10x), or 46 dB (200x) on the differential input voltage
before the A/D conversion. Seven differential analog input channels share a common negative
terminal (ADC1), while any other ADC input can be selected as the positive input terminal. If 1x
or 10x gain is used, 8-bit resolution can be expected. If 200x gain is used, 7-bit resolution can be
expected.
The ADC contains a Sample and Hold circuit which ensures that the input voltage to the ADC is
held at a constant level during conversion. A block diagram of the ADC is shown in Figure 21-1.
The ADC has a separate analog supply voltage pin, AVCC. AVCC must not differ more than ±
0.3V from VCC. See the paragraph “ADC Noise Canceler” on page 280 on how to connect this
pin.
Internal reference voltages of nominally 2.56V or AVCC are provided On-chip. The voltage reference may be externally decoupled at the AREF pin by a capacitor for better noise performance.
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Figure 21-1. Analog to Digital Converter Block Schematic
ADC CONVERSION
COMPLETE IRQ
INTERRUPT
FLAGS
ADTS[2:0]
TRIGGER
SELECT
ADC[9:0]
ADPS1
0
ADC DATA REGISTER
(ADCH/ADCL)
ADPS0
ADPS2
ADIF
ADATE
ADEN
ADSC
MUX1
15
ADC CTRL. & STATUS
REGISTER (ADCSRA)
MUX0
MUX3
MUX2
MUX4
REFS0
ADLAR
REFS1
ADC MULTIPLEXER
SELECT (ADMUX)
ADIE
ADIF
8-BIT DATA BUS
AVCC
PRESCALER
START
GAIN SELECTION
CHANNEL SELECTION
MUX DECODER
CONVERSION LOGIC
INTERNAL
REFERENCE
SAMPLE & HOLD
COMPARATOR
AREF
10-BIT DAC
+
GND
BANDGAP
REFERENCE
ADC7
SINGLE ENDED / DIFFERENTIAL SELECTION
ADC6
ADC5
ADC MULTIPLEXER
OUTPUT
POS.
INPUT
MUX
ADC4
ADC3
+
DIFFERENTIAL
AMPLIFIER
ADC2
ADC1
ADC0
NEG.
INPUT
MUX
21.2
Operation
The ADC converts an analog input voltage to a 10-bit digital value through successive approximation. The minimum value represents GND and the maximum value represents the voltage on
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the AREF pin minus 1 LSB. Optionally, AVCC or an internal 2.56V reference voltage may be connected to the AREF pin by writing to the REFSn bits in the ADMUX Register. The internal
voltage reference may thus be decoupled by an external capacitor at the AREF pin to improve
noise immunity.
The analog input channel and differential gain are selected by writing to the MUX bits in
ADMUX. Any of the ADC input pins, as well as GND and a fixed bandgap voltage reference, can
be selected as single ended inputs to the ADC. A selection of ADC input pins can be selected as
positive and negative inputs to the differential amplifier.
The ADC is enabled by setting the ADC Enable bit, ADEN in ADCSRA. Voltage reference and
input channel selections will not go into effect until ADEN is set. The ADC does not consume
power when ADEN is cleared, so it is recommended to switch off the ADC before entering power
saving sleep modes.
The ADC generates a 10-bit result which is presented in the ADC Data Registers, ADCH and
ADCL. By default, the result is presented right adjusted, but can optionally be presented left
adjusted by setting the ADLAR bit in ADMUX.
If the result is left adjusted and no more than 8-bit precision is required, it is sufficient to read
ADCH. Otherwise, ADCL must be read first, then ADCH, to ensure that the content of the Data
Registers belongs to the same conversion. Once ADCL is read, ADC access to Data Registers
is blocked. This means that if ADCL has been read, and a conversion completes before ADCH is
read, neither register is updated and the result from the conversion is lost. When ADCH is read,
ADC access to the ADCH and ADCL Registers is re-enabled.
The ADC has its own interrupt which can be triggered when a conversion completes. The ADC
access to the Data Registers is prohibited between reading of ADCH and ADCL, the interrupt
will trigger even if the result is lost.
21.3
Starting a Conversion
A single conversion is started by writing a logical one to the ADC Start Conversion bit, ADSC.
This bit stays high as long as the conversion is in progress and will be cleared by hardware
when the conversion is completed. If a different data channel is selected while a conversion is in
progress, the ADC will finish the current conversion before performing the channel change.
Alternatively, a conversion can be triggered automatically by various sources. Auto Triggering is
enabled by setting the ADC Auto Trigger Enable bit, ADATE in ADCSRA. The trigger source is
selected by setting the ADC Trigger Select bits, ADTS in ADCSRB (See description of the ADTS
bits for a list of the trigger sources). When a positive edge occurs on the selected trigger signal,
the ADC prescaler is reset and a conversion is started. This provides a method of starting conversions at fixed intervals. If the trigger signal is still set when the conversion completes, a new
conversion will not be started. If another positive edge occurs on the trigger signal during conversion, the edge will be ignored. Note that an interrupt flag will be set even if the specific
interrupt is disabled or the Global Interrupt Enable bit in SREG is cleared. A conversion can thus
be triggered without causing an interrupt. However, the interrupt flag must be cleared in order to
trigger a new conversion at the next interrupt event.
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Figure 21-2. ADC Auto Trigger Logic
ADTS[2:0]
PRESCALER
START
CLKADC
ADATE
ADIF
SOURCE 1
.
.
.
.
CONVERSION
LOGIC
EDGE
DETECTOR
SOURCE n
ADSC
Using the ADC Interrupt Flag as a trigger source makes the ADC start a new conversion as soon
as the ongoing conversion has finished. The ADC then operates in Free Running mode, constantly sampling and updating the ADC Data Register. The first conversion must be started by
writing a logical one to the ADSC bit in ADCSRA. In this mode the ADC will perform successive
conversions independently of whether the ADC Interrupt Flag, ADIF is cleared or not.
If Auto Triggering is enabled, single conversions can be started by writing ADSC in ADCSRA to
one. ADSC can also be used to determine if a conversion is in progress. The ADSC bit will be
read as one during a conversion, independently of how the conversion was started.
21.4
Prescaling and Conversion Timing
Figure 21-3. ADC Prescaler
ADEN
START
Reset
7-BIT ADC PRESCALER
CK/64
CK/128
CK/32
CK/8
CK/16
CK/4
CK/2
CK
ADPS0
ADPS1
ADPS2
ADC CLOCK SOURCE
By default, the successive approximation circuitry requires an input clock frequency between 50
kHz and 200 kHz to get maximum resolution. If a lower resolution than 10 bits is needed, the
input clock frequency to the ADC can be higher than 200 kHz to get a higher sample rate.
The ADC module contains a prescaler, which generates an acceptable ADC clock frequency
from any CPU frequency above 100 kHz. The prescaling is set by the ADPS bits in ADCSRA.
The prescaler starts counting from the moment the ADC is switched on by setting the ADEN bit
in ADCSRA. The prescaler keeps running for as long as the ADEN bit is set, and is continuously
reset when ADEN is low.
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When initiating a single ended conversion by setting the ADSC bit in ADCSRA, the conversion
starts at the following rising edge of the ADC clock cycle. See “Differential Channels” on page
278 for details on differential conversion timing.
A normal conversion takes 13 ADC clock cycles. The first conversion after the ADC is switched
on (ADEN in ADCSRA is set) takes 25 ADC clock cycles in order to initialize the analog circuitry.
The actual sample-and-hold takes place 1.5 ADC clock cycles after the start of a normal conversion and 13.5 ADC clock cycles after the start of an first conversion. When a conversion is
complete, the result is written to the ADC Data Registers, and ADIF is set. In Single Conversion
mode, ADSC is cleared simultaneously. The software may then set ADSC again, and a new
conversion will be initiated on the first rising ADC clock edge.
When Auto Triggering is used, the prescaler is reset when the trigger event occurs. This assures
a fixed delay from the trigger event to the start of conversion. In this mode, the sample-and-hold
takes place two ADC clock cycles after the rising edge on the trigger source signal. Three additional CPU clock cycles are used for synchronization logic.
In Free Running mode, a new conversion will be started immediately after the conversion completes, while ADSC remains high. For a summary of conversion times, see Table 21-1.
Figure 21-4. ADC Timing Diagram, First Conversion (Single Conversion Mode)
Next
Conversion
First Conversion
Cycle Number
1
2
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
1
2
3
ADC Clock
ADEN
ADSC
ADIF
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCH
LSB of Result
ADCL
MUX and REFS
Update
MUX
and REFS
Update
Conversion
Complete
Sample & Hold
Figure 21-5. ADC Timing Diagram, Single Conversion
One Conversion
Cycle Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Next Conversion
10
11
12
13
1
2
3
ADC Clock
ADSC
ADIF
ADCH
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCL
LSB of Result
Sample & Hold
MUX and REFS
Update
Conversion
Complete
MUX and REFS
Update
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Figure 21-6. ADC Timing Diagram, Auto Triggered Conversion
One Conversion
1
Cycle Number
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Next Conversion
10
11
12
13
1
2
ADC Clock
Trigger
Source
ADATE
ADIF
ADCH
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCL
LSB of Result
Sample &
Hold
Prescaler
Reset
Prescaler
Reset
Conversion
Complete
MUX and REFS
Update
Figure 21-7. ADC Timing Diagram, Free Running Conversion
One Conversion
Cycle Number
11
12
13
Next Conversion
1
2
3
4
ADC Clock
ADSC
ADIF
ADCH
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCL
LSB of Result
Conversion
Complete
Table 21-1.
Sample & Hold
MUX and REFS
Update
ADC Conversion Time
Condition
Sample & Hold (Cycles from Start of
Convention)
Conversion Time (Cycles)
21.4.1
First
Conversion
Normal
Conversion,
Single Ended
Auto
Triggered
Conversion
14.5
1.5
2
25
13
13.5
Differential Channels
When using differential channels, certain aspects of the conversion need to be taken into
consideration.
Differential conversions are synchronized to the internal clock CKADC2 equal to half the ADC
clock frequency. This synchronization is done automatically by the ADC interface in such a way
that the sample-and-hold occurs at a specific phase of CKADC2. A conversion initiated by the
user (i.e., all single conversions, and the first free running conversion) when CKADC2 is low will
take the same amount of time as a single ended conversion (13 ADC clock cycles from the next
prescaled clock cycle). A conversion initiated by the user when CKADC2 is high will take 14 ADC
clock cycles due to the synchronization mechanism. In Free Running mode, a new conversion is
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initiated immediately after the previous conversion completes, and since CKADC2 is high at this
time, all automatically started (i.e., all but the first) Free Running conversions will take 14 ADC
clock cycles.
If differential channels are used and conversions are started by Auto Triggering, the ADC must
be switched off between conversions. When Auto Triggering is used, the ADC prescaler is reset
before the conversion is started. Since the stage is dependent of a stable ADC clock prior to the
conversion, this conversion will not be valid. By disabling and then re-enabling the ADC between
each conversion (writing ADEN in ADCSRA to “0” then to “1”), only extended conversions are
performed. The result from the extended conversions will be valid. See “Prescaling and Conversion Timing” on page 276 for timing details.
The gain stage is optimized for a bandwidth of 4 kHz at all gain settings. Higher frequencies may
be subjected to non-linear amplification. An external low-pass filter should be used if the input
signal contains higher frequency components than the gain stage bandwidth. Note that the ADC
clock frequency is independent of the gain stage bandwidth limitation. E.g. the ADC clock period
may be 6 µs, allowing a channel to be sampled at 12 kSPS, regardless of the bandwidth of this
channel.
21.5
Changing Channel or Reference Selection
The MUXn and REFS1:0 bits in the ADMUX Register are single buffered through a temporary
register to which the CPU has random access. This ensures that the channels and reference
selection only takes place at a safe point during the conversion. The channel and reference
selection is continuously updated until a conversion is started. Once the conversion starts, the
channel and reference selection is locked to ensure a sufficient sampling time for the ADC. Continuous updating resumes in the last ADC clock cycle before the conversion completes (ADIF in
ADCSRA is set). Note that the conversion starts on the following rising ADC clock edge after
ADSC is written. The user is thus advised not to write new channel or reference selection values
to ADMUX until one ADC clock cycle after ADSC is written.
If Auto Triggering is used, the exact time of the triggering event can be indeterministic. Special
care must be taken when updating the ADMUX Register, in order to control which conversion
will be affected by the new settings.
If both ADATE and ADEN is written to one, an interrupt event can occur at any time. If the
ADMUX Register is changed in this period, the user cannot tell if the next conversion is based
on the old or the new settings. ADMUX can be safely updated in the following ways:
1. When ADATE or ADEN is cleared.
2. During conversion, minimum one ADC clock cycle after the trigger event.
3. After a conversion, before the interrupt flag used as trigger source is cleared.
When updating ADMUX in one of these conditions, the new settings will affect the next ADC
conversion.
Special care should be taken when changing differential channels. Once a differential channel
has been selected, the stage may take as much as 125 µs to stabilize to the new value. Thus
conversions should not be started within the first 125 µs after selecting a new differential channel. Alternatively, conversion results obtained within this period should be discarded.
The same settling time should be observed for the first differential conversion after changing
ADC reference (by changing the REFS1:0 bits in ADMUX).
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21.5.1
ADC Input Channels
When changing channel selections, the user should observe the following guidelines to ensure
that the correct channel is selected:
• In Single Conversion mode, always select the channel before starting the conversion. The
channel selection may be changed one ADC clock cycle after writing one to ADSC. However,
the simplest method is to wait for the conversion to complete before changing the channel
selection.
• In Free Running mode, always select the channel before starting the first conversion. The
channel selection may be changed one ADC clock cycle after writing one to ADSC. However,
the simplest method is to wait for the first conversion to complete, and then change the
channel selection. Since the next conversion has already started automatically, the next
result will reflect the previous channel selection. Subsequent conversions will reflect the new
channel selection.
When switching to a differential gain channel, the first conversion result may have a poor accuracy due to the required settling time for the automatic offset cancellation circuitry. The user
should preferably disregard the first conversion result.
21.5.2
ADC Voltage Reference
The reference voltage for the ADC (VREF) indicates the conversion range for the ADC. Single
ended channels that exceed VREF will result in codes close to 0x3FF. VREF can be selected as
either AVCC, internal 2.56V reference, or external AREF pin.
AVCC is connected to the ADC through a passive switch. The internal 2.56V reference is generated from the internal bandgap reference (VBG) through an internal amplifier. In either case, the
external AREF pin is directly connected to the ADC, and the reference voltage can be made
more immune to noise by connecting a capacitor between the AREF pin and ground. VREF can
also be measured at the AREF pin with a high impedant voltmeter. Note that VREF is a high
impedant source, and only a capacitive load should be connected in a system.
If the user has a fixed voltage source connected to the AREF pin, the user may not use the other
reference voltage options in the application, as they will be shorted to the external voltage. If no
external voltage is applied to the AREF pin, the user may switch between AVCC and 2.56V as
reference selection. The first ADC conversion result after switching reference voltage source
may be inaccurate, and the user is advised to discard this result.
If differential channels are used, the selected reference should not be closer to AVCC than indicated in Table 26-6 on page 374.
21.6
ADC Noise Canceler
The ADC features a noise canceler that enables conversion during sleep mode to reduce noise
induced from the CPU core and other I/O peripherals. The noise canceler can be used with ADC
Noise Reduction and Idle mode. To make use of this feature, the following procedure should be
used:
1. Make sure that the ADC is enabled and is not busy converting. Single Conversion
mode must be selected and the ADC conversion complete interrupt must be enabled.
2. Enter ADC Noise Reduction mode (or Idle mode). The ADC will start a conversion once
the CPU has been halted.
3. If no other interrupts occur before the ADC conversion completes, the ADC interrupt
will wake up the CPU and execute the ADC Conversion Complete interrupt routine. If
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another interrupt wakes up the CPU before the ADC conversion is complete, that interrupt will be executed, and an ADC Conversion Complete interrupt request will be
generated when the ADC conversion completes. The CPU will remain in active mode
until a new sleep command is executed.
Note that the ADC will not be automatically turned off when entering other sleep modes than Idle
mode and ADC Noise Reduction mode. The user is advised to write zero to ADEN before entering such sleep modes to avoid excessive power consumption.
If the ADC is enabled in such sleep modes and the user wants to perform differential conversions, the user is advised to switch the ADC off and on after waking up from sleep to prompt an
extended conversion to get a valid result.
21.6.1
Analog Input Circuitry
The analog input circuitry for single ended channels is illustrated in Figure 21-8. An analog
source applied to ADCn is subjected to the pin capacitance and input leakage of that pin, regardless of whether that channel is selected as input for the ADC. When the channel is selected, the
source must drive the S/H capacitor through the series resistance (combined resistance in the
input path).
The ADC is optimized for analog signals with an output impedance of approximately 10 kΩ or
less. If such a source is used, the sampling time will be negligible. If a source with higher impedance is used, the sampling time will depend on how long time the source needs to charge the
S/H capacitor, with can vary widely. The user is recommended to only use low impedant sources
with slowly varying signals, since this minimizes the required charge transfer to the S/H
capacitor.
If differential gain channels are used, the input circuitry looks somewhat different, although
source impedances of a few hundred kΩ or less is recommended.
Signal components higher than the Nyquist frequency (fADC/2) should not be present for either
kind of channels, to avoid distortion from unpredictable signal convolution. The user is advised
to remove high frequency components with a low-pass filter before applying the signals as
inputs to the ADC.
Figure 21-8. Analog Input Circuitry
IIH
ADCn
1..100 kO
CS/H= 14 pF
IIL
VCC/2
21.6.2
Analog Noise Canceling Techniques
Digital circuitry inside and outside the device generates EMI which might affect the accuracy of
analog measurements. If conversion accuracy is critical, the noise level can be reduced by
applying the following techniques:
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1. Keep analog signal paths as short as possible. Make sure analog tracks run over the
analog ground plane, and keep them well away from high-speed switching digital
tracks.
2. The AVCC pin on the device should be connected to the digital VCC supply voltage via
an LC network as shown in Figure 21-9.
3. Use the ADC noise canceler function to reduce induced noise from the CPU.
4. If any ADC port pins are used as digital outputs, it is essential that these do not switch
while a conversion is in progress.
Figure 21-9. ADC Power Connections
VCC
51
52
GND
53
(ADC7) PF7
54
(ADC6) PF6
55
(ADC5) PF5
56
(ADC4) PF4
57
(ADC3) PF3
58
(ADC2) PF2
59
(ADC1) PF1
60
(ADC0) PF0
61
AREF
62
10uH
GND
AVCC
100nF
Analog Ground Plane
63
64
1
NC
(AD0) PA0
21.6.3
Offset Compensation Schemes
The gain stage has a built-in offset cancellation circuitry that nulls the offset of differential measurements as much as possible. The remaining offset in the analog path can be measured
directly by selecting the same channel for both differential inputs. This offset residue can be then
subtracted in software from the measurement results. Using this kind of software based offset
correction, offset on any channel can be reduced below one LSB.
21.6.4
ADC Accuracy Definitions
An n-bit single-ended ADC converts a voltage linearly between GND and V REF in 2 n steps
(LSBs). The lowest code is read as 0, and the highest code is read as 2n-1.
Several parameters describe the deviation from the ideal behavior:
• Offset: The deviation of the first transition (0x000 to 0x001) compared to the ideal transition
(at 0.5 LSB). Ideal value: 0 LSB.
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Figure 21-10. Offset Error
Output Code
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
Offset
Error
VREF Input Voltage
• Gain Error: After adjusting for offset, the Gain Error is found as the deviation of the last
transition (0x3FE to 0x3FF) compared to the ideal transition (at 1.5 LSB below maximum).
Ideal value: 0 LSB
Figure 21-11. Gain Error
Output Code
Gain
Error
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
VREF Input Voltage
• Integral Non-linearity (INL): After adjusting for offset and gain error, the INL is the maximum
deviation of an actual transition compared to an ideal transition for any code. Ideal value: 0
LSB.
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Figure 21-12. Integral Non-linearity (INL)
Output Code
INL
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
VREF
Input Voltage
• Differential Non-linearity (DNL): The maximum deviation of the actual code width (the interval
between two adjacent transitions) from the ideal code width (1 LSB). Ideal value: 0 LSB.
Figure 21-13. Differential Non-linearity (DNL)
Output Code
0x3FF
1 LSB
DNL
0x000
0
VREF Input Voltage
• Quantization Error: Due to the quantization of the input voltage into a finite number of codes,
a range of input voltages (1 LSB wide) will code to the same value. Always ± 0.5 LSB.
• Absolute Accuracy: The maximum deviation of an actual (unadjusted) transition compared to
an ideal transition for any code. This is the compound effect of offset, gain error, differential
error, non-linearity, and quantization error. Ideal value: ± 0.5 LSB.
21.7
ADC Conversion Result
After the conversion is complete (ADIF is high), the conversion result can be found in the ADC
Result Registers (ADCL, ADCH).
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For single ended conversion, the result is:
V IN ⋅ 1023
ADC = -------------------------V REF
where VIN is the voltage on the selected input pin and VREF the selected voltage reference (see
Table 21-3 on page 287 and Table 21-4 on page 288). 0x000 represents analog ground, and
0x3FF represents the selected reference voltage minus one LSB.
If differential channels are used, the result is:
( V POS – V NEG ) ⋅ GAIN ⋅ 512
ADC = -----------------------------------------------------------------------V REF
where VPOS is the voltage on the positive input pin, VNEG the voltage on the negative input pin,
GAIN the selected gain factor and VREF the selected voltage reference. The result is presented
in two’s complement form, from 0x200 (-512d) through 0x1FF (+511d). Note that if the user
wants to perform a quick polarity check of the result, it is sufficient to read the MSB of the result
(ADC9 in ADCH). If the bit is one, the result is negative, and if this bit is zero, the result is positive. Figure 21-14 shows the decoding of the differential input range.
Table 82 shows the resulting output codes if the differential input channel pair (ADCn - ADCm) is
selected with a reference voltage of VREF.
Figure 21-14. Differential Measurement Range
Output Code
0x1FF
0x000
- VREF
0x3FF
0
VREF
Differential Input
Voltage (Volts)
0x200
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Table 21-2.
Correlation Between Input Voltage and Output Codes
VADCn
Read code
Corresponding decimal value
VADCm + VREF /GAIN
0x1FF
511
VADCm + 0.999 VREF /GAIN
0x1FF
511
VADCm + 0.998 VREF /GAIN
0x1FE
510
...
...
...
VADCm + 0.001 VREF /GAIN
0x001
1
VADCm
0x000
0
VADCm - 0.001 VREF /GAIN
0x3FF
-1
...
...
...
VADCm - 0.999 VREF /GAIN
0x201
-511
VADCm - VREF /GAIN
0x200
-512
Example 1:
– ADMUX = 0xED (ADC3 - ADC2, 10x gain, 2.56V reference, left adjusted result)
– Voltage on ADC3 is 300 mV, voltage on ADC2 is 500 mV.
– ADCR = 512 * 10 * (300 - 500) / 2560 = -400 = 0x270
– ADCL will thus read 0x00, and ADCH will read 0x9C.
Writing zero to ADLAR right adjusts the result: ADCL = 0x70, ADCH = 0x02.
Example 2:
– ADMUX = 0xFB (ADC3 - ADC2, 1x gain, 2.56V reference, left adjusted result)
– Voltage on ADC3 is 300 mV, voltage on ADC2 is 500 mV.
– ADCR = 512 * 1 * (300 - 500) / 2560 = -41 = 0x029.
– ADCL will thus read 0x40, and ADCH will read 0x0A.
Writing zero to ADLAR right adjusts the result: ADCL = 0x00, ADCH = 0x29.
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21.8
21.8.1
ADC Register Description
ADC Multiplexer Selection Register – ADMUX
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
REFS1
REFS0
ADLAR
MUX4
MUX3
MUX2
MUX1
MUX0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADMUX
• Bit 7:6 – REFS1:0: Reference Selection Bits
These bits select the voltage reference for the ADC, as shown in Table 21-3. If these bits are
changed during a conversion, the change will not go in effect until this conversion is complete
(ADIF in ADCSRA is set). The internal voltage reference options may not be used if an external
reference voltage is being applied to the AREF pin.
Table 21-3.
Voltage Reference Selections for ADC
REFS1
REFS0
Voltage Reference Selection
0
0
AREF, Internal Vref turned off
0
1
AVCC with external capacitor on AREF pin
1
0
Reserved
1
1
Internal 2.56V Voltage Reference with external capacitor on AREF pin
• Bit 5 – ADLAR: ADC Left Adjust Result
The ADLAR bit affects the presentation of the ADC conversion result in the ADC Data Register.
Write one to ADLAR to left adjust the result. Otherwise, the result is right adjusted. Changing the
ADLAR bit will affect the ADC Data Register immediately, regardless of any ongoing conversions. For a complete description of this bit, see “The ADC Data Register – ADCL and ADCH” on
page 290.
• Bits 4:0 – MUX4:0: Analog Channel Selection Bits
The value of these bits selects which combination of analog inputs are connected to the ADC.
These bits also select the gain for the differential channels. See Table 21-4 for details. If these
bits are changed during a conversion, the change will not go in effect until this conversion is
complete (ADIF in ADCSRA is set).
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Table 21-4.
Input Channel and Gain Selections
MUX4..0
Single Ended
Input
00000
ADC0
00001
ADC1
00010
ADC2
00011
ADC3
00100
ADC4
00101
ADC5
00110
ADC6
00111
ADC7
Positive Differential
Input
Negative Differential
Input
Gain
ADC0
10x
ADC0
200x
ADC2
10x
N/A
01000
(ADC0 / ADC0 / 10x)
01001
ADC1
01010
(ADC0 / ADC0 / 200x)
01011
ADC1
01100
(ADC2 / ADC2 / 10x)
01101
ADC3
01110
(ADC2 / ADC2 / 200x)
01111
ADC3
ADC2
200x
10000
ADC0
ADC1
1x
10001
(ADC1 / ADC1 / 1x)
ADC2
ADC1
1x
10011
ADC3
ADC1
1x
10100
ADC4
ADC1
1x
10101
ADC5
ADC1
1x
10110
ADC6
ADC1
1x
10111
ADC7
ADC1
1x
11000
ADC0
ADC2
1x
11001
ADC1
ADC2
1x
11010
(ADC2 / ADC2 / 1x)
11011
ADC3
ADC2
1x
11100
ADC4
ADC2
1x
11101
ADC5
ADC2
1x
10010
N/A
288
11110
1.1V (VBand Gap)
11111
0V (GND)
N/A
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21.8.2
ADC Control and Status Register A – ADCSRA
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADEN
ADSC
ADATE
ADIF
ADIE
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADCSRA
• Bit 7 – ADEN: ADC Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the ADC. By writing it to zero, the ADC is turned off. Turning the
ADC off while a conversion is in progress, will terminate this conversion.
• Bit 6 – ADSC: ADC Start Conversion
In Single Conversion mode, write this bit to one to start each conversion. In Free Running mode,
write this bit to one to start the first conversion. The first conversion after ADSC has been written
after the ADC has been enabled, or if ADSC is written at the same time as the ADC is enabled,
will take 25 ADC clock cycles instead of the normal 13. This first conversion performs initialization of the ADC.
ADSC will read as one as long as a conversion is in progress. When the conversion is complete,
it returns to zero. Writing zero to this bit has no effect.
• Bit 5 – ADATE: ADC Auto Trigger Enable
When this bit is written to one, Auto Triggering of the ADC is enabled. The ADC will start a conversion on a positive edge of the selected trigger signal. The trigger source is selected by setting
the ADC Trigger Select bits, ADTS in ADCSRB.
• Bit 4 – ADIF: ADC Interrupt Flag
This bit is set when an ADC conversion completes and the Data Registers are updated. The
ADC Conversion Complete Interrupt is executed if the ADIE bit and the I-bit in SREG are set.
ADIF is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, ADIF is cleared by writing a logical one to the flag. Beware that if doing a Read-ModifyWrite on ADCSRA, a pending interrupt can be disabled. This also applies if the SBI and CBI
instructions are used.
• Bit 3 – ADIE: ADC Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one and the I-bit in SREG is set, the ADC Conversion Complete Interrupt is activated.
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• Bits 2:0 – ADPS2:0: ADC Prescaler Select Bits
These bits determine the division factor between the XTAL frequency and the input clock to the
ADC.
Table 21-5.
21.8.3
ADC Prescaler Selections
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
Division Factor
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
4
0
1
1
8
1
0
0
16
1
0
1
32
1
1
0
64
1
1
1
128
The ADC Data Register – ADCL and ADCH
ADLAR = 0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADC9
ADC8
ADCH
ADC7
ADC6
ADC5
ADC4
ADC3
ADC2
ADC1
ADC0
ADCL
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Initial Value
ADLAR = 1
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
ADC9
ADC8
ADC7
ADC6
ADC5
ADC4
ADC3
ADC2
ADCH
ADC1
ADC0
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADCL
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Initial Value
When an ADC conversion is complete, the result is found in these two registers. If differential
channels are used, the result is presented in two’s complement form.
When ADCL is read, the ADC Data Register is not updated until ADCH is read. Consequently, if
the result is left adjusted and no more than 8-bit precision (7 bit + sign bit for differential input
channels) is required, it is sufficient to read ADCH. Otherwise, ADCL must be read first, then
ADCH.
The ADLAR bit in ADMUX, and the MUXn bits in ADMUX affect the way the result is read from
the registers. If ADLAR is set, the result is left adjusted. If ADLAR is cleared (default), the result
is right adjusted.
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• ADC9:0: ADC Conversion Result
These bits represent the result from the conversion, as detailed in “ADC Conversion Result” on
page 284.
21.8.4
ADC Control and Status Register B – ADCSRB
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
ACME
–
–
–
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Read/Write
R
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADCSRB
• Bit 7– Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, it must be written to zero
when ADCSRB is written.
• Bit 5:3– Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use. For compatibility with future devices, they must be written
to zero when ADCSRB is written.
• Bit 2:0 – ADTS2:0: ADC Auto Trigger Source
If ADATE in ADCSRA is written to one, the value of these bits selects which source will trigger
an ADC conversion. If ADATE is cleared, the ADTS2:0 settings will have no effect. A conversion
will be triggered by the rising edge of the selected interrupt flag. Note that switching from a trigger source that is cleared to a trigger source that is set, will generate a positive edge on the
trigger signal. If ADEN in ADCSRA is set, this will start a conversion. Switching to Free Running
mode (ADTS[2:0]=0) will not cause a trigger event, even if the ADC Interrupt Flag is set.
Table 21-6.
ADC Auto Trigger Source Selections
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Trigger Source
0
0
0
Free Running mode
0
0
1
Analog Comparator
0
1
0
External Interrupt Request 0
0
1
1
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match
1
0
0
Timer/Counter0 Overflow
1
0
1
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match B
1
1
0
Timer/Counter1 Overflow
1
1
1
Timer/Counter1 Capture Event
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21.8.5
Digital Input Disable Register 0 – DIDR0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADC7D
ADC6D
ADC5D
ADC4D
ADC3D
ADC2D
ADC1D
ADC0D
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DIDR0
• Bit 7:0 – ADC7D..ADC0D: ADC7:0 Digital Input Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the digital input buffer on the corresponding ADC pin is disabled. The corresponding PIN Register bit will always read as zero when this bit is set. When an
analog signal is applied to the ADC7..0 pin and the digital input from this pin is not needed, this
bit should be written logic one to reduce power consumption in the digital input buffer.
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22. JTAG Interface and On-chip Debug System
22.1
Features
• JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 Compliant) Interface
• Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the IEEE std. 1149.1 (JTAG) Standard
• Debugger Access to:
– All Internal Peripheral Units
– Internal and External RAM
– The Internal Register File
– Program Counter
– EEPROM and Flash Memories
• Extensive On-chip Debug Support for Break Conditions, Including
– AVR Break Instruction
– Break on Change of Program Memory Flow
– Single Step Break
– Program Memory Break Points on Single Address or Address Range
– Data Memory Break Points on Single Address or Address Range
• Programming of Flash, EEPROM, Fuses, and Lock Bits through the JTAG Interface
• On-chip Debugging Supported by AVR Studio®
22.2
Overview
The AVR IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant JTAG interface can be used for:
• Testing PCBs by using the JTAG Boundary-scan capability
• Programming the non-volatile memories, Fuses and Lock bits
• On-chip debugging
A brief description is given in the following sections. Detailed descriptions for Programming via
the JTAG interface, and using the Boundary-scan Chain can be found in the sections “JTAG
Programming Overview” on page 352 and “Boundary-scan IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG)” on page 300,
respectively. The On-chip Debug support is considered being private JTAG instructions, and distributed within ATMEL and to selected third party vendors only.
Figure 22-1 shows a block diagram of the JTAG interface and the On-chip Debug system. The
TAP Controller is a state machine controlled by the TCK and TMS signals. The TAP Controller
selects either the JTAG Instruction Register or one of several Data Registers as the scan chain
(Shift Register) between the TDI – input and TDO – output. The Instruction Register holds JTAG
instructions controlling the behavior of a Data Register.
The ID-Register (IDentifier Register), Bypass Register, and the Boundary-scan Chain are the
Data Registers used for board-level testing. The JTAG Programming Interface (actually consisting of several physical and virtual Data Registers) is used for serial programming via the JTAG
interface. The Internal Scan Chain and Break Point Scan Chain are used for On-chip debugging
only.
22.3
Test Access Port – TAP
The JTAG interface is accessed through four of the AVR’s pins. In JTAG terminology, these pins
constitute the Test Access Port – TAP. These pins are:
• TMS: Test mode select. This pin is used for navigating through the TAP-controller state
machine.
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• TCK: Test Clock. JTAG operation is synchronous to TCK.
• TDI: Test Data In. Serial input data to be shifted in to the Instruction Register or Data Register
(Scan Chains).
• TDO: Test Data Out. Serial output data from Instruction Register or Data Register (Scan
Chains).
The IEEE std. 1149.1 also specifies an optional TAP signal; TRST – Test ReSeT – which is not
provided.
When the JTAGEN fuse is unprogrammed, these four TAP pins are normal port pins and the
TAP controller is in reset. When programmed and the JTD bit in MCUCR is cleared, the TAP
input signals are internally pulled high and the JTAG is enabled for Boundary-scan and programming. In this case, the TAP output pin (TDO) is left floating in states where the JTAG TAP
controller is not shifting data, and must therefore be connected to a pull-up resistor or other
hardware having pull-ups (for instance the TDI-input of the next device in the scan chain). The
device is shipped with this fuse programmed.
For the On-chip Debug system, in addition to the JTAG interface pins, the RESET pin is monitored by the debugger to be able to detect external reset sources. The debugger can also pull
the RESET pin low to reset the whole system, assuming only open collectors on the reset line
are used in the application.
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Figure 22-1. Block Diagram
I/O PORT 0
DEVICE BOUNDARY
BOUNDARY SCAN CHAIN
TDI
TDO
TCK
TMS
JTAG PROGRAMMING
INTERFACE
TAP
CONTROLLER
INSTRUCTION
REGISTER
FLASH
MEMORY
Address
Data
INTERNAL
SCAN
CHAIN
PC
Instruction
BYPASS
REGISTER
FLOW CONTROL
UNIT
DIGITAL
PERIPHERAL
UNITS
BREAKPOINT
SCAN CHAIN
ADDRESS
DECODER
JTAG / AVR CORE
COMMUNICATION
INTERFACE
OCD STATUS
AND CONTROL
ANALOG
PERIPHERIAL
UNITS
Control & Clock lines
M
U
X
BREAKPOINT
UNIT
Analog inputs
AVR CPU
ID
REGISTER
I/O PORT n
295
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Figure 22-2. TAP Controller State Diagram
1
Test-Logic-Reset
0
0
Run-Test/Idle
1
Select-DR Scan
1
Select-IR Scan
0
1
0
1
Capture-DR
Capture-IR
0
0
0
Shift-DR
1
1
Exit1-DR
0
0
Pause-DR
0
Pause-IR
1
1
0
Exit2-DR
Exit2-IR
1
1
Update-DR
22.4
1
Exit1-IR
0
1
0
Shift-IR
1
0
1
Update-IR
0
1
0
TAP Controller
The TAP controller is a 16-state finite state machine that controls the operation of the Boundaryscan circuitry, JTAG programming circuitry, or On-chip Debug system. The state transitions
depicted in Figure 22-2 depend on the signal present on TMS (shown adjacent to each state
transition) at the time of the rising edge at TCK. The initial state after a Power-on Reset is TestLogic-Reset.
As a definition in this document, the LSB is shifted in and out first for all Shift Registers.
Assuming Run-Test/Idle is the present state, a typical scenario for using the JTAG interface is:
• At the TMS input, apply the sequence 1, 1, 0, 0 at the rising edges of TCK to enter the Shift
Instruction Register – Shift-IR state. While in this state, shift the four bits of the JTAG
instructions into the JTAG Instruction Register from the TDI input at the rising edge of TCK.
The TMS input must be held low during input of the 3 LSBs in order to remain in the Shift-IR
state. The MSB of the instruction is shifted in when this state is left by setting TMS high.
While the instruction is shifted in from the TDI pin, the captured IR-state 0x01 is shifted out on
the TDO pin. The JTAG Instruction selects a particular Data Register as path between TDI
and TDO and controls the circuitry surrounding the selected Data Register.
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• Apply the TMS sequence 1, 1, 0 to re-enter the Run-Test/Idle state. The instruction is latched
onto the parallel output from the Shift Register path in the Update-IR state. The Exit-IR,
Pause-IR, and Exit2-IR states are only used for navigating the state machine.
• At the TMS input, apply the sequence 1, 0, 0 at the rising edges of TCK to enter the Shift
Data Register – Shift-DR state. While in this state, upload the selected data register (selected
by the present JTAG instruction in the JTAG Instruction Register) from the TDI input at the
rising edge of TCK. In order to remain in the Shift-DR state, the TMS input must be held low
during input of all bits except the MSB. The MSB of the data is shifted in when this state is left
by setting TMS high. While the data register is shifted in from the TDI pin, the parallel inputs
to the data register captured in the Capture-DR state is shifted out on the TDO pin.
• Apply the TMS sequence 1, 1, 0 to re-enter the Run-Test/Idle state. If the selected data
register has a latched parallel-output, the latching takes place in the Update-DR state. The
Exit-DR, Pause-DR, and Exit2-DR states are only used for navigating the state machine.
As shown in the state diagram, the Run-Test/Idle state need not be entered between selecting
JTAG instruction and using data registers, and some JTAG instructions may select certain functions to be performed in the Run-Test/Idle, making it unsuitable as an Idle state.
Note:
Independent of the initial state of the TAP Controller, the Test-Logic-Reset state can always be
entered by holding TMS high for five TCK clock periods.
For detailed information on the JTAG specification, refer to the literature listed in “Bibliography”
on page 299.
22.5
Using the Boundary-scan Chain
A complete description of the Boundary-scan capabilities are given in the section “Boundaryscan IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG)” on page 300.
22.6
Using the On-chip Debug System
As shown in Figure 22-1, the hardware support for On-chip Debugging consists mainly of
• A scan chain on the interface between the internal AVR CPU and the internal peripheral
units.
• Break Point unit.
• Communication interface between the CPU and JTAG system.
All read or modify/write operations needed for implementing the Debugger are done by applying
AVR instructions via the internal AVR CPU Scan Chain. The CPU sends the result to an I/O
memory mapped location which is part of the communication interface between the CPU and the
JTAG system.
The Break Point Unit implements Break on Change of Program Flow, Single Step Break, two
Program Memory Break Points, and two combined Break Points. Together, the four Break
Points can be configured as either:
• 4 single Program Memory Break Points.
• 3 single Program Memory Break Points + 1 single Data Memory Break Point.
• 2 single Program Memory Break Points + 2 single Data Memory Break Points.
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• 2 single Program Memory Break Points + 1 Program Memory Break Point with mask (“range
Break Point”).
• 2 single Program Memory Break Points + 1 Data Memory Break Point with mask (“range
Break Point”).
A debugger, like the AVR Studio, may however use one or more of these resources for its internal purpose, leaving less flexibility to the end-user.
A list of the On-chip Debug specific JTAG instructions is given in “On-chip Debug Specific JTAG
Instructions” on page 298.
The JTAGEN Fuse must be programmed to enable the JTAG Test Access Port. In addition, the
OCDEN Fuse must be programmed and no Lock bits must be set for the On-chip debug system
to work. As a security feature, the On-chip debug system is disabled when either of the LB1 or
LB2 Lock bits are set. Otherwise, the On-chip debug system would have provided a back-door
into a secured device.
The AVR Studio enables the user to fully control execution of programs on an AVR device with
On-chip Debug capability, AVR In-Circuit Emulator, or the built-in AVR Instruction Set Simulator.
AVR Studio® supports source level execution of Assembly programs assembled with Atmel Corporation’s AVR Assembler and C programs compiled with third party vendors’ compilers.
AVR Studio runs under Microsoft® Windows® 95/98/2000/NT/XP.
For a full description of the AVR Studio, please refer to the AVR Studio User Guide. Only highlights are presented in this document.
All necessary execution commands are available in AVR Studio, both on source level and on
disassembly level. The user can execute the program, single step through the code either by
tracing into or stepping over functions, step out of functions, place the cursor on a statement and
execute until the statement is reached, stop the execution, and reset the execution target. In
addition, the user can have an unlimited number of code Break Points (using the BREAK
instruction) and up to two data memory Break Points, alternatively combined as a mask (range)
Break Point.
22.7
On-chip Debug Specific JTAG Instructions
The On-chip debug support is considered being private JTAG instructions, and distributed within
ATMEL and to selected third party vendors only. Instruction opcodes are listed for reference.
22.7.1
PRIVATE0 (0x8)
Private JTAG instruction for accessing On-chip debug system.
22.7.2
PRIVATE1 (0x9)
Private JTAG instruction for accessing On-chip debug system.
22.7.3
PRIVATE2 (0xA)
Private JTAG instruction for accessing On-chip debug system.
22.7.4
PRIVATE3 (0xB)
Private JTAG instruction for accessing On-chip debug system.
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22.8
22.8.1
On-chip Debug Related Register in I/O Memory
On-chip Debug Register – OCDR
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
IDRD/OCDR7
OCDR6
OCDR5
OCDR4
OCDR3
OCDR2
OCDR1
OCDR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
OCDR
The OCDR Register provides a communication channel from the running program in the microcontroller to the debugger. The CPU can transfer a byte to the debugger by writing to this
location. At the same time, an internal flag; I/O Debug Register Dirty – IDRD – is set to indicate
to the debugger that the register has been written. When the CPU reads the OCDR Register the
7 LSB will be from the OCDR Register, while the MSB is the IDRD bit. The debugger clears the
IDRD bit when it has read the information.
In some AVR devices, this register is shared with a standard I/O location. In this case, the OCDR
Register can only be accessed if the OCDEN Fuse is programmed, and the debugger enables
access to the OCDR Register. In all other cases, the standard I/O location is accessed.
Refer to the debugger documentation for further information on how to use this register.
22.9
Using the JTAG Programming Capabilities
Programming of AVR parts via JTAG is performed via the 4-pin JTAG port, TCK, TMS, TDI, and
TDO. These are the only pins that need to be controlled/observed to perform JTAG programming (in addition to power pins). It is not required to apply 12V externally. The JTAGEN Fuse
must be programmed and the JTD bit in the MCUCR Register must be cleared to enable the
JTAG Test Access Port.
The JTAG programming capability supports:
• Flash programming and verifying.
• EEPROM programming and verifying.
• Fuse programming and verifying.
• Lock bit programming and verifying.
The Lock bit security is exactly as in parallel programming mode. If the Lock bits LB1 or LB2 are
programmed, the OCDEN Fuse cannot be programmed unless first doing a chip erase. This is a
security feature that ensures no back-door exists for reading out the content of a secured
device.
The details on programming through the JTAG interface and programming specific JTAG
instructions are given in the section “JTAG Programming Overview” on page 352.
22.10 Bibliography
For more information about general Boundary-scan, the following literature can be consulted:
• IEEE: IEEE Std 1149.1-1990. IEEE Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-scan
Architecture, IEEE, 1993.
• Colin Maunder: The Board Designers Guide to Testable Logic Circuits, Addison-Wesley,
1992.
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23. Boundary-scan IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG)
23.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
23.2
JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant) Interface
Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard
Full Scan of all Port Functions as well as Analog Circuitry having Off-chip Connections
Supports the Optional IDCODE Instruction
Additional Public AVR_RESET Instruction to Reset the AVR
System Overview
The Boundary-scan chain has the capability of driving and observing the logic levels on the digital I/O pins, as well as the boundary between digital and analog logic for analog circuitry having
off-chip connections. At system level, all ICs having JTAG capabilities are connected serially by
the TDI/TDO signals to form a long Shift Register. An external controller sets up the devices to
drive values at their output pins, and observe the input values received from other devices. The
controller compares the received data with the expected result. In this way, Boundary-scan provides a mechanism for testing interconnections and integrity of components on Printed Circuits
Boards by using the four TAP signals only.
The four IEEE 1149.1 defined mandatory JTAG instructions IDCODE, BYPASS, SAMPLE/PRELOAD, and EXTEST, as well as the AVR specific public JTAG instruction AVR_RESET can be
used for testing the Printed Circuit Board. Initial scanning of the data register path will show the
ID-Code of the device, since IDCODE is the default JTAG instruction. It may be desirable to
have the AVR device in reset during test mode. If not reset, inputs to the device may be determined by the scan operations, and the internal software may be in an undetermined state when
exiting the test mode. Entering reset, the outputs of any port pin will instantly enter the high
impedance state, making the HIGHZ instruction redundant. If needed, the BYPASS instruction
can be issued to make the shortest possible scan chain through the device. The device can be
set in the reset state either by pulling the external RESET pin low, or issuing the AVR_RESET
instruction with appropriate setting of the Reset Data Register.
The EXTEST instruction is used for sampling external pins and loading output pins with data.
The data from the output latch will be driven out on the pins as soon as the EXTEST instruction
is loaded into the JTAG IR-Register. Therefore, the SAMPLE/PRELOAD should also be used for
setting initial values to the scan ring, to avoid damaging the board when issuing the EXTEST
instruction for the first time. SAMPLE/PRELOAD can also be used for taking a snapshot of the
external pins during normal operation of the part.
The JTAGEN Fuse must be programmed and the JTD bit in the I/O Register MCUCR must be
cleared to enable the JTAG Test Access Port.
When using the JTAG interface for Boundary-scan, using a JTAG TCK clock frequency higher
than the internal chip frequency is possible. The chip clock is not required to run.
23.3
Data Registers
The data registers relevant for Boundary-scan operations are:
• Bypass Register
• Device Identification Register
• Reset Register
• Boundary-scan Chain
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23.3.1
Bypass Register
The Bypass Register consists of a single Shift Register stage. When the Bypass Register is
selected as path between TDI and TDO, the register is reset to 0 when leaving the Capture-DR
controller state. The Bypass Register may be used to shorten the scan chain on a system when
the other devices are to be tested.
23.3.2
Device Identification Register
Figure 23-1 shows the structure of the Device Identification Register.
Figure 23-1. The Format of the Device Identification Register
MSB
Bit
Device ID
23.3.2.1
LSB
31
28 27
12 11
1
0
Version
Part Number
Manufacturer ID
1
4 bits
16 bits
11 bits
1-bit
Version
Version is a 4-bit number identifying the revision of the component. The relevant version number
is shown in Table 23-1.
Table 23-1.
JTAG Version Numbers
Version
23.3.2.2
JTAG Version Number (Hex)
AT90CAN32 revision A
0x0
AT90CAN64 revision A
0x0
AT90CAN128 revision A
0x0
Part Number
The part number is a 16-bit code identifying the component. The JTAG Part Number for
AT90CAN32/64/128 is listed in Table 23-2.
Table 23-2.
23.3.2.3
AVR JTAG Part Number
Part Number
JTAG Part Number (Hex)
AT90CAN32
0x9581
AT90CAN64
0x9681
AT90CAN128
0x9781
Manufacturer ID
The Manufacturer ID is a 11-bit code identifying the manufacturer. The JTAG manufacturer ID
for ATMEL is listed in Table 23-3.
Table 23-3.
Manufacturer
ATMEL
Manufacturer ID
JTAG Manufacturer ID (Hex)
0x01F
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23.3.2.4
Device ID
The full Device ID is listed in Table 23-4 following the AT90CAN32/64/128 version.
Table 23-4.
Device ID
Version
23.3.3
JTAG Device ID (Hex)
AT90CAN32 revision A
0x0958103F
AT90CAN64 revision A
0x0968103F
AT90CAN128 revision A
0x0978103F
Reset Register
The Reset Register is a test data register used to reset the part. Since the AVR tri-states Port
Pins when reset, the Reset Register can also replace the function of the unimplemented optional
JTAG instruction HIGHZ.
A high value in the Reset Register corresponds to pulling the external Reset low. The part is
reset as long as there is a high value present in the Reset Register. Depending on the fuse settings for the clock options, the part will remain reset for a reset time-out period (refer to “System
Clock” on page 37) after releasing the Reset Register. The output from this data register is not
latched, so the reset will take place immediately, as shown in Figure 23-2.
Figure 23-2. Reset Register
From Other Internal and
External Reset Sources
From TDI
Internal reset
D
Q
To TDO
ClockDR • AVR_RESET
23.3.4
Boundary-scan Chain
The Boundary-scan Chain has the capability of driving and observing the logic levels on the digital I/O pins, as well as the boundary between digital and analog logic for analog circuitry having
off-chip connections.
See “Boundary-scan Chain” on page 304 for a complete description.
23.4
Boundary-scan Specific JTAG Instructions
The instruction register is 4-bit wide, supporting up to 16 instructions. Listed below are the JTAG
instructions useful for Boundary-scan operation. Note that the optional HIGHZ instruction is not
implemented, but all outputs with tri-state capability can be set in high-impedant state by using
the AVR_RESET instruction, since the initial state for all port pins is tri-state.
As a definition in this datasheet, the LSB is shifted in and out first for all Shift Registers.
The OPCODE for each instruction is shown behind the instruction name in hex format. The text
describes which data register is selected as path between TDI and TDO for each instruction.
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23.4.1
EXTEST (0x0)
Mandatory JTAG instruction for selecting the Boundary-scan Chain as data register for testing
circuitry external to the AVR package. For port-pins, Pull-up Disable, Output Control, Output
Data, and Input Data are all accessible in the scan chain. For Analog circuits having off-chip
connections, the interface between the analog and the digital logic is in the scan chain. The contents of the latched outputs of the Boundary-scan chain is driven out as soon as the JTAG IRRegister is loaded with the EXTEST instruction.
The active states are:
• Capture-DR: Data on the external pins are sampled into the Boundary-scan Chain.
• Shift-DR: The Internal Scan Chain is shifted by the TCK input.
• Update-DR: Data from the scan chain is applied to output pins.
23.4.2
IDCODE (0x1)
Optional JTAG instruction selecting the 32 bit ID-Register as data register. The ID-Register consists of a version number, a device number and the manufacturer code chosen by JEDEC. This
is the default instruction after power-up.
The active states are:
• Capture-DR: Data in the IDCODE Register is sampled into the Boundary-scan Chain.
• Shift-DR: The IDCODE scan chain is shifted by the TCK input.
23.4.3
SAMPLE_PRELOAD (0x2)
Mandatory JTAG instruction for pre-loading the output latches and taking a snap-shot of the
input/output pins without affecting the system operation. However, the output latches are not
connected to the pins. The Boundary-scan Chain is selected as data register.
The active states are:
• Capture-DR: Data on the external pins are sampled into the Boundary-scan Chain.
• Shift-DR: The Boundary-scan Chain is shifted by the TCK input.
• Update-DR: Data from the Boundary-scan chain is applied to the output latches. However,
the output latches are not connected to the pins.
23.4.4
AVR_RESET (0xC)
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction for forcing the AVR device into the Reset mode or
releasing the JTAG reset source. The TAP controller is not reset by this instruction. The one bit
Reset Register is selected as data register.
Note that the reset will be active as long as there is a logic “one” in the Reset Chain.
The output from this chain is not latched.
The active states are:
• Shift-DR: The Reset Register is shifted by the TCK input.
23.4.5
BYPASS (0xF)
Mandatory JTAG instruction selecting the Bypass Register for data register.
The active states are:
• Capture-DR: Loads a logic “0” into the Bypass Register.
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• Shift-DR: The Bypass Register cell between TDI and TDO is shifted.
23.5
23.5.1
Boundary-scan Related Register in I/O Memory
MCU Control Register – MCUCR
The MCU Control Register contains control bits for general MCU functions.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
JTD
–
–
PUD
–
–
IVSEL
IVCE
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MCUCR
• Bits 7 – JTD: JTAG Interface Disable
When this bit is zero, the JTAG interface is enabled if the JTAGEN Fuse is programmed. If this
bit is one, the JTAG interface is disabled. In order to avoid unintentional disabling or enabling of
the JTAG interface, a timed sequence must be followed when changing this bit: The application
software must write this bit to the desired value twice within four cycles to change its value. Note
that this bit must not be altered when using the On-chip Debug system.
If the JTAG interface is left unconnected to other JTAG circuitry, the JTD bit should be set to
one. The reason for this is to avoid static current at the TDO pin in the JTAG interface.
23.5.2
MCU Status Register – MCUSR
The MCU Status Register provides information on which reset source caused an MCU reset.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–
–
–
JTRF
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
Read/Write
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
MCUSR
See Bit Description
• Bit 4 – JTRF: JTAG Reset Flag
This bit is set if a reset is being caused by a logic one in the JTAG Reset Register selected by
the JTAG instruction AVR_RESET. This bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a logic
zero to the flag.
23.6
Boundary-scan Chain
The Boundary-scan chain has the capability of driving and observing the logic levels on the digital I/O pins, as well as the boundary between digital and analog logic for analog circuitry having
off-chip connection.
23.6.1
Scanning the Digital Port Pins
Figure 23-3 shows the Boundary-scan Cell for a bi-directional port pin with pull-up function. The
cell consists of a standard Boundary-scan cell for the Pull-up Enable – PUExn – function, and a
bi-directional pin cell that combines the three signals Output Control – OCxn, Output Data –
ODxn, and Input Data – IDxn, into only a two-stage Shift Register. The port and pin indexes are
not used in the following description
The Boundary-scan logic is not included in the figures in the datasheet. Figure 23-4 shows a
simple digital port pin as described in the section “I/O-Ports” on page 66. The Boundary-scan
details from Figure 23-3 replaces the dashed box in Figure 23-4.
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When no alternate port function is present, the Input Data – ID – corresponds to the PINxn Register value (but ID has no synchronizer), Output Data corresponds to the PORT Register, Output
Control corresponds to the Data Direction – DD Register, and the Pull-up Enable – PUExn – corresponds to logic expression PUD · DDxn · PORTxn.
Digital alternate port functions are connected outside the dotted box in Figure 23-4 to make the
scan chain read the actual pin value. For Analog function, there is a direct connection from the
external pin to the analog circuit, and a scan chain is inserted on the interface between the digital logic and the analog circuitry.
Figure 23-3. Boundary-scan Cell for Bi-directional Port Pin with Pull-up Function.
ShiftDR
To Next Cell
EXTEST
Pullup Enable (PUE)
Vcc
0
FF2
LD2
1
0
D
Q
D
Q
1
G
Output Control (OC)
FF1
LD1
0
D
Q
D
Q
0
1
1
G
0
1
FF0
LD0
0
D
Q
D
1
Q
0
1
Port Pin (PXn)
Output Data (OD)
G
Input Data (ID)
From Last Cell
ClockDR
UpdateDR
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Figure 23-4. General Port Pin Schematic Diagram
See Boundary-scan
Description for Details!
PUExn
PUD
Q
D
DDxn
Q CLR
RESET
OCxn
WDx
Q
Pxn
ODxn
D
PORTxn
Q CLR
WPx
IDxn
DATA BUS
RDx
RESET
RRx
SLEEP
SYNCHRONIZER
D
Q
L
Q
D
RPx
Q
PINxn
Q
CLK I/O
PUD:
PUExn:
OCxn:
ODxn:
IDxn:
SLEEP:
23.6.2
PULLUP DISABLE
PULLUP ENABLE for pin Pxn
OUTPUT CONTROL for pin Pxn
OUTPUT DATA to pin Pxn
INPUT DATA from pin Pxn
SLEEP CONTROL
WDx:
RDx:
WPx:
RRx:
RPx:
CLK I/O :
WRITE DDRx
READ DDRx
WRITE PORTx
READ PORTx REGISTER
READ PORTx PIN
I/O CLOCK
Boundary-scan and the Two-wire Interface
The two Two-wire Interface pins SCL and SDA have one additional control signal in the scanchain; Two-wire Interface Enable – TWIEN. As shown in Figure 23-5, the TWIEN signal enables
a tri-state buffer with slew-rate control in parallel with the ordinary digital port pins. A general
scan cell as shown in Figure 23-9 is attached to the TWIEN signal.
Notes:
1. A separate scan chain for the 50 ns spike filter on the input is not provided. The ordinary scan
support for digital port pins suffice for connectivity tests. The only reason for having TWIEN in
the scan path, is to be able to disconnect the slew-rate control buffer when doing boundaryscan.
2. Make sure the OC and TWIEN signals are not asserted simultaneously, as this will lead to
drive contention.
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Figure 23-5. Additional Scan Signal for the Two-wire Interface
PUExn
OCxn
ODxn
TWIEN
Pxn
SRC
Slew-rate limited
IDxn
23.6.3
Scanning the RESET Pin
The RESET pin accepts 3V or 5V active low logic for standard reset operation, and 12V active
high logic for High Voltage Parallel programming. An observe-only cell as shown in Figure 23-6
is inserted both for the 3V or 5V reset signal - RSTT, and the 12V reset signal - RSTHV.
Figure 23-6. Observe-only Cell for RESET pin
To
Next
Cell
ShiftDR
From System Pin
To System Logic
FF1
0
D
Q
1
From
Previous
Cell
23.6.4
ClockDR
Scanning the Clock Pins
The AVR devices have many clock options selectable by fuses. These are: Internal RC Oscillator, External Clock, (High Frequency) Crystal Oscillator, Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator, and
Ceramic Resonator.
Figure 23-7 shows how each oscillator with external connection is supported in the scan chain.
The Enable signal is supported with a general Boundary-scan cell, while the Oscillator/clock output is attached to an observe-only cell. In addition to the main clock, the Timer2 Oscillator is
scanned in the same way. The output from the internal RC Oscillator is not scanned, as this
oscillator does not have external connections.
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Figure 23-7. Boundary-scan Cells for Oscillators and Clock Options
XTAL1 / TOSC1
To
Next
Cell
ShiftDR
XTAL2 / TOSC2
To
Next
Cell
Oscillator
EXTEST
ShiftDR
From Digital Logic
0
ENABLE
OUTPUT
To System Logic
1
FF1
0
D
Q
D
Q
1
From
Previous
Cell
ClockDR
0
D
G
Q
1
UpdateDR
From
Previous
Cell
ClockDR
Table 23-5 summaries the scan registers for the external clock pin XTAL1, oscillators with
XTAL1/XTAL2 connections as well as external Timer2 clock pin TOSC1 and 32kHz Timer2
Oscillator.
Table 23-5.
Scan Signals for the Oscillators(1)(2)(3)
Scanned Clock Line
when not Used
Enable Signal
Scanned Clock Line
Clock Option
EXTCLKEN
EXTCLK (XTAL1)
External Main Clock
0
OSCON
OSCCK
External Crystal
External Ceramic Resonator
1
OSC32EN
OSC32CK
Low Freq. External Crystal
1
TOSKON
TOSCK
32 kHz Timer2 Oscillator
1
Notes:
1. Do not enable more than one clock source as clock at a time.
2. Scanning an Oscillator output gives unpredictable results as there is a frequency drift between
the internal Oscillator and the JTAG TCK clock. If possible, scanning an external clock is
preferred.
3. The main clock configuration is programmed by fuses. As a fuse is not changed run-time, the
main clock configuration is considered fixed for a given application. The user is advised to
scan the same clock option as to be used in the final system. The enable signals are supported in the scan chain because the system logic can disable clock options in sleep modes,
thereby disconnecting the Oscillator pins from the scan path if not provided.
23.6.5
Scanning the Analog Comparator
The relevant Comparator signals regarding Boundary-scan are shown in Figure 23-8. The
Boundary-scan cell from Figure 23-9 is attached to each of these signals. The signals are
described in Table 23-6.
The Comparator need not be used for pure connectivity testing, since all analog inputs are
shared with a digital port pin as well.
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Figure 23-8. Analog Comparator
BANDGAP
REFERENCE
ACBG
ACO
AC_IDLE
ACME
ADCEN
ADC MULTIPLEXER
OUTPUT
Figure 23-9. General Boundary-scan cell Used for Signals for Comparator and ADC
To
Next
Cell
ShiftDR
EXTEST
From Digital Logic/
From Analog Ciruitry
To Analog Circuitry/
To Digital Logic
0
1
0
D
Q
D
Q
1
G
From
Previous
Cell
Table 23-6.
ClockDR
UpdateDR
Boundary-scan Signals for the Analog Comparator
Signal
Name
Direction as
Seen from the
Comparator
Description
Recommended
Input when Not
in Use
Output Values when
Recommended Inputs
are Used
AC_IDLE
input
Turns off Analog
Comparator when
true
1
Depends upon µC code
being executed
ACO
output
Analog Comparator
Output
Will become input
to µC code being
executed
0
ACME
input
Uses output signal
from ADC mux when
true
0
Depends upon µC code
being executed
ACBG
input
Bandgap Reference
enable
0
Depends upon µC code
being executed
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23.6.6
Scanning the ADC
Figure 23-10 shows a block diagram of the ADC with all relevant control and observe signals.
The Boundary-scan cell from Figure 23-9 is attached to each of these signals. The ADC need
not be used for pure connectivity testing, since all analog inputs are shared with a digital port pin
as well.
Figure 23-10. Analog to Digital Converter
VCCREN
AREF
IREFEN
2.56V
ref
To Comparator
PASSEN
MUXEN_7
ADC_7
MUXEN_6
ADC_6
MUXEN_5
ADC_5
MUXEN_4
ADC_4
ADCBGEN
SCTEST
1.22V
ref
EXTCH
MUXEN_3
ADC_3
MUXEN_2
ADC_2
MUXEN_1
ADC_1
MUXEN_0
ADC_0
PRECH
PRECH
AREF
G10
10-bit DAC
+
COMP
-
G20
ADCEN
COMP
DACOUT
DAC_9..0
ACTEN
+
10x
NEGSEL_2
-
ADC_2
NEGSEL_1
ADC_0
20x
HOLD
-
GNDEN
ADC_1
NEGSEL_0
+
ST
ACLK
AMPEN
The signals are described briefly in Table 23-7.
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Table 23-7.
Boundary-scan Signals for the ADC(1)
Signal
Name
Direction
as Seen
from the
ADC
Description
COMP
Output
Comparator Output
0
0
ACLK
Input
Clock signal to gain
stages implemented as
Switch-cap filters
0
0
ACTEN
Input
Enable path from gain
stages to the comparator
0
0
ADCBGEN
Input
Enable Band-gap
reference as negative
input to comparator
0
0
ADCEN
Input
Power-on signal to the
ADC
0
0
AMPEN
Input
Power-on signal to the
gain stages
0
0
DAC_9
Input
Bit 9 of digital value to
DAC
1
1
DAC_8
Input
Bit 8 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
DAC_7
Input
Bit 7 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
DAC_6
Input
Bit 6 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
DAC_5
Input
Bit 5 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
DAC_4
Input
Bit 4 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
DAC_3
Input
Bit 3 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
DAC_2
Input
Bit 2 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
DAC_1
Input
Bit 1 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
DAC_0
Input
Bit 0 of digital value to
DAC
0
0
EXTCH
Input
Connect ADC channels 0
- 3 to by-pass path
around gain stages
1
1
G10
Input
Enable 10x gain
0
0
G20
Input
Enable 20x gain
0
0
Recommended
Input
when not in use
Output Values when
Recommended Inputs
are Used, and CPU is
not Using the ADC
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Table 23-7.
312
Boundary-scan Signals for the ADC(1) (Continued)
Signal
Name
Direction
as Seen
from the
ADC
Description
GNDEN
Input
Ground the negative
input to comparator when
true
0
0
HOLD
Input
Sample & Hold signal.
Sample analog signal
when low. Hold signal
when high. If gain stages
are used, this signal
must go active when
ACLK is high.
1
1
IREFEN
Input
Enables Band-gap
reference as AREF
signal to DAC
0
0
MUXEN_7
Input
Input Mux bit 7
0
0
MUXEN_6
Input
Input Mux bit 6
0
0
MUXEN_5
Input
Input Mux bit 5
0
0
MUXEN_4
Input
Input Mux bit 4
0
0
MUXEN_3
Input
Input Mux bit 3
0
0
MUXEN_2
Input
Input Mux bit 2
0
0
MUXEN_1
Input
Input Mux bit 1
0
0
MUXEN_0
Input
Input Mux bit 0
1
1
NEGSEL_2
Input
Input Mux for negative
input for differential
signal, bit 2
0
0
NEGSEL_1
Input
Input Mux for negative
input for differential
signal, bit 1
0
0
NEGSEL_0
Input
Input Mux for negative
input for differential
signal, bit 0
0
0
PASSEN
Input
Enable pass-gate of gain
stages.
1
1
PRECH
Input
Precharge output latch of
comparator. (Active low)
1
1
Recommended
Input
when not in use
Output Values when
Recommended Inputs
are Used, and CPU is
not Using the ADC
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Table 23-7.
Boundary-scan Signals for the ADC(1) (Continued)
Direction
as Seen
from the
ADC
Description
Input
Switch-cap TEST
enable. Output from x10
gain stage send out to
Port Pin having ADC_4
0
0
ST
Input
Output of gain stages will
settle faster if this signal
is high first two ACLK
periods after AMPEN
goes high.
0
0
VCCREN
Input
Selects Vcc as the ACC
reference voltage.
0
0
Signal
Name
SCTEST
Note:
Recommended
Input
when not in use
Output Values when
Recommended Inputs
are Used, and CPU is
not Using the ADC
1. Incorrect setting of the switches in Figure 23-10 will make signal contention and may damage
the part. There are several input choices to the S&H circuitry on the negative input of the output comparator in Figure 23-10. Make sure only one path is selected from either one ADC pin,
Bandgap reference source, or Ground.
If the ADC is not to be used during scan, the recommended input values from Table 23-7 should
be used. The user is recommended not to use the Differential Gain stages during scan. SwitchCap based gain stages require fast operation and accurate timing which is difficult to obtain
when used in a scan chain. Details concerning operations of the differential gain stage is therefore not provided.
The AVR ADC is based on the analog circuitry shown in Figure 23-10 with a successive approximation algorithm implemented in the digital logic. When used in Boundary-scan, the problem is
usually to ensure that an applied analog voltage is measured within some limits. This can easily
be done without running a successive approximation algorithm: apply the lower limit on the digital DAC[9:0] lines, make sure the output from the comparator is low, then apply the upper limit
on the digital DAC[9:0] lines, and verify the output from the comparator to be high.
The ADC need not be used for pure connectivity testing, since all analog inputs are shared with
a digital port pin as well.
When using the ADC, remember the following
• The port pin for the ADC channel in use must be configured to be an input with pull-up
disabled to avoid signal contention.
• In Normal mode, a dummy conversion (consisting of 10 comparisons) is performed when
enabling the ADC. The user is advised to wait at least 200ns after enabling the ADC before
controlling/observing any ADC signal, or perform a dummy conversion before using the first
result.
• The DAC values must be stable at the midpoint value 0x200 when having the HOLD signal
low (Sample mode).
As an example, consider the task of verifying a 1.5V ± 5% input signal at ADC channel 3 when
the power supply is 5.0V and AREF is externally connected to VCC.
The lower limit is: [ 1024 * 1.5V * 0.95 / 5V ] = 291 = 0x123
The upper limit is: [ 1024 * 1.5V * 1.05 / 5V ] = 323 = 0x143
313
7679H–CAN–08/08
The recommended values from Table 23-7 are used unless other values are given in the algorithm in Table 23-8. Only the DAC and port pin values of the Scan Chain are shown. The column
“Actions” describes what JTAG instruction to be used before filling the Boundary-scan Register
with the succeeding columns. The verification should be done on the data scanned out when
scanning in the data on the same row in the table.
Table 23-8.
Algorithm for Using the ADC
MUXEN
HOLD
PRECH
PA3.
Data
PA3.
Control
PA3.
Pullup_
Enable
0x200
0x08
1
1
0
0
0
1
0x200
0x08
0
1
0
0
0
3
1
0x200
0x08
1
1
0
0
0
4
1
0x123
0x08
1
1
0
0
0
5
1
0x123
0x08
1
0
0
0
0
1
0x200
0x08
1
1
0
0
0
7
1
0x200
0x08
0
1
0
0
0
8
1
0x200
0x08
1
1
0
0
0
9
1
0x143
0x08
1
1
0
0
0
10
1
0x143
0x08
1
0
0
0
0
1
0x200
0x08
1
1
0
0
0
Step
Actions
1
SAMPLE_
PRELOAD
1
2
EXTEST
6
11
Verify the
COMP bit
scanned out
to be 0
Verify the
COMP bit
scanned out
to be 1
ADCEN
DAC
Using this algorithm, the timing constraint on the HOLD signal constrains the TCK clock frequency. As the algorithm keeps HOLD high for five steps, the TCK clock frequency has to be at
least five times the number of scan bits divided by the maximum hold time, thold,max
23.7
AT90CAN32/64/128 Boundary-scan Order
Table 23-9 shows the Scan order between TDI and TDO when the Boundary-scan chain is
selected as data path. Bit 0 is the LSB; the first bit scanned in, and the first bit scanned out. The
scan order follows the pin-out order as far as possible. Therefore, the bits of Port A is scanned in
the opposite bit order of the other ports. Exceptions from the rules are the Scan chains for the
analog circuits, which constitute the most significant bits of the scan chain regardless of which
physical pin they are connected to. In Figure 23-3, PXn. Data corresponds to FF0, PXn. Control
314
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
corresponds to FF1, and PXn. Pullup_enable corresponds to FF2. Bit 2, 3, 4, and 5 of Port C is
not in the scan chain, since these pins constitute the TAP pins when the JTAG is enabled.
Table 23-9.
AT90CAN32/64/128 Boundary-scan Order
Bit Number
Signal Name
200
AC_IDLE
199
ACO
198
ACME
197
AINBG
196
COMP
195
ACLK
194
ACTEN
193
PRIVATE_SIGNAL(1)
192
ADCBGEN
191
ADCEN
190
AMPEN
189
DAC_9
188
DAC_8
187
DAC_7
186
DAC_6
185
DAC_5
184
DAC_4
183
DAC_3
182
DAC_2
181
DAC_1
180
DAC_0
179
EXTCH
178
G10
177
G20
176
GNDEN
175
HOLD
174
IREFEN
173
MUXEN_7
172
MUXEN_6
171
MUXEN_5
170
MUXEN_4
169
MUXEN_3
168
MUXEN_2
167
MUXEN_1
166
MUXEN_0
165
NEGSEL_2
Comment
Module
Comparator
ADC
315
7679H–CAN–08/08
Table 23-9.
316
AT90CAN32/64/128 Boundary-scan Order (Continued)
Bit Number
Signal Name
164
NEGSEL_1
163
NEGSEL_0
162
PASSEN
161
PRECH
160
SCTEST
159
ST
158
VCCREN
157
PE0.Data
156
PE0.Control
155
PE0.Pullup_Enable
154
PE1.Data
153
PE1.Control
152
PE1.Pullup_Enable
151
PE2.Data
150
PE2.Control
149
PE2.Pullup_Enable
148
PE3.Data
147
PE3.Control
146
PE3.Pullup_Enable
145
PE4.Data
144
PE4.Control
143
PE4.Pullup_Enable
142
PE5.Data
141
PE5.Control
140
PE5.Pullup_Enable
139
PE6.Data
138
PE6.Control
137
PE6.Pullup_Enable
136
PE7.Data
135
PE7.Control
134
PE7.Pullup_Enable
133
PB0.Data
132
PB0.Control
131
PB0.Pullup_Enable
130
PB1.Data
129
PB1.Control
128
PB1.Pullup_Enable
127
PB2.Data
Comment
Module
ADC
Port E
Port B
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Table 23-9.
AT90CAN32/64/128 Boundary-scan Order (Continued)
Bit Number
Signal Name
126
PB2.Control
125
PB2.Pullup_Enable
124
PB3.Data
123
PB3.Control
122
PB3.Pullup_Enable
121
PB4.Data
120
PB4.Control
119
PB4.Pullup_Enable
118
PB5.Data
117
PB5.Control
116
PB5.Pullup_Enable
115
PB6.Data
114
PB6.Control
113
PB6.Pullup_Enable
112
PB7.Data
111
PB7.Control
110
PB7.Pullup_Enable
109
PG3.Data
108
PG3.Control
107
PG3.Pullup_Enable
106
PG4.Data
105
PG4.Control
104
PG4.Pullup_Enable
103
PRIVATE_SIGNAL(1)
102
RSTT
101
RSTHV
100
EXTCLKEN
99
OSCON
98
OSC32EN
97
TOSKON
96
EXTCLK
95
OSCCK
94
OSC32CK
93
TOSK
92
PD0.Data
91
PD0.Control
90
PD0.Pullup_Enable
89
PD1.Data
Comment
Module
Port B
Port G
–
(Observe Only)
RESET Logic
Oscillators
(XTAL1)
Port D
317
7679H–CAN–08/08
Table 23-9.
318
AT90CAN32/64/128 Boundary-scan Order (Continued)
Bit Number
Signal Name
88
PD1.Control
87
PD1.Pullup_Enable
86
PD2.Data
85
PD2.Control
84
PD2.Pullup_Enable
83
PD3.Data
82
PD3.Control
81
PD3.Pullup_Enable
80
PD4.Data
79
PD4.Control
78
PD4.Pullup_Enable
77
PD5.Data
76
PD5.Control
75
PD5.Pullup_Enable
74
PD6.Data
73
PD6.Control
72
PD6.Pullup_Enable
71
PD7.Data
70
PD7.Control
69
PD7.Pullup_Enable
68
PG0.Data
67
PG0.Control
66
PG0.Pullup_Enable
65
PG1.Data
64
PG1.Control
63
PG1.Pullup_Enable
62
PC0.Data
61
PC0.Control
60
PC0.Pullup_Enable
59
PC1.Data
58
PC1.Control
57
PC1.Pullup_Enable
56
PC2.Data
55
PC2.Control
54
PC2.Pullup_Enable
53
PC3.Data
52
PC3.Control
51
PC3.Pullup_Enable
Comment
Module
Port D
Port G
Port C
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Table 23-9.
AT90CAN32/64/128 Boundary-scan Order (Continued)
Bit Number
Signal Name
50
PC4.Data
49
PC4.Control
48
PC4.Pullup_Enable
47
PC5.Data
46
PC5.Control
45
PC5.Pullup_Enable
44
PC6.Data
43
PC6.Control
42
PC6.Pullup_Enable
41
PC7.Data
40
PC7.Control
39
PC7.Pullup_Enable
38
PG2.Data
37
PG2.Control
36
PG2.Pullup_Enable
35
PA7.Data
34
PA7.Control
33
PA7.Pullup_Enable
32
PA6.Data
31
PA6.Control
30
PA6.Pullup_Enable
29
PA5.Data
28
PA5.Control
27
PA5.Pullup_Enable
26
PA4.Data
25
PA4.Control
24
PA4.Pullup_Enable
23
PA3.Data
22
PA3.Control
21
PA3.Pullup_Enable
20
PA2.Data
19
PA2.Control
18
PA2.Pullup_Enable
17
PA1.Data
16
PA1.Control
15
PA1.Pullup_Enable
14
PA0.Data
13
PA0.Control
Comment
Module
Port C
Port G
Port A
319
7679H–CAN–08/08
Table 23-9.
Bit Number
Signal Name
12
PA0.Pullup_Enable
Port A
11
PF3.Data
Port F
10
PF3.Control
9
PF3.Pullup_Enable
8
PF2.Data
7
PF2.Control
6
PF2.Pullup_Enable
5
PF1.Data
4
PF1.Control
3
PF1.Pullup_Enable
2
PF0.Data
1
PF0.Control
0
PF0.Pullup_Enable
Notes:
23.8
AT90CAN32/64/128 Boundary-scan Order (Continued)
Comment
Module
1. PRIVATE_SIGNAL should always be scanned-in as zero.
Boundary-scan Description Language Files
Boundary-scan Description Language (BSDL) files describe Boundary-scan capable devices in
a standard format used by automated test-generation software. The order and function of bits in
the Boundary-scan Data Register are included in this description. A BSDL file for
AT90CAN32/64/128 is available.
320
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
24. Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming
The Boot Loader Support provides a real Read-While-Write Self-Programming mechanism for
downloading and uploading program code by the MCU itself. This feature allows flexible application software updates controlled by the MCU using a Flash-resident Boot Loader program. The
Boot Loader program can use any available data interface and associated protocol to read code
and write (program) that code into the Flash memory, or read the code from the program memory. The program code within the Boot Loader section has the capability to write into the entire
Flash, including the Boot Loader memory. The Boot Loader can thus even modify itself, and it
can also erase itself from the code if the feature is not needed anymore. The size of the Boot
Loader memory is configurable with fuses and the Boot Loader has two separate sets of Boot
Lock bits which can be set independently. This gives the user a unique flexibility to select different levels of protection.
24.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Read-While-Write Self-Programming
Flexible Boot Memory Size
High Security (Separate Boot Lock Bits for a Flexible Protection)
Separate Fuse to Select Reset Vector
Optimized Page(1) Size
Code Efficient Algorithm
Efficient Read-Modify-Write Support
Note:
24.2
1. A page is a section in the Flash consisting of several bytes (see Table 25-11 on page 341)
used during programming. The page organization does not affect normal operation.
Application and Boot Loader Flash Sections
The Flash memory is organized in two main sections, the Application section and the Boot
Loader section (see Figure 24-2). The size of the different sections is configured by the
BOOTSZ Fuses as shown in Table 24-6 on page 334 and Figure 24-2. These two sections can
have different level of protection since they have different sets of Lock bits.
24.2.1
AS - Application Section
The Application section is the section of the Flash that is used for storing the application code.
The protection level for the Application section can be selected by the application Boot Lock bits
(BLB02 and BLB01 bits), see Table 24-2 on page 325. The Application section can never store
any Boot Loader code since the SPM instruction is disabled when executed from the Application
section.
24.2.2
BLS – Boot Loader Section
While the Application section is used for storing the application code, the The Boot Loader software must be located in the BLS since the SPM instruction can initiate a programming when
executing from the BLS only. The SPM instruction can access the entire Flash, including the
BLS itself. The protection level for the Boot Loader section can be selected by the Boot Loader
Lock bits (BLB12 and BLB11 bits), see Table 24-3 on page 325.
24.3
Read-While-Write and No Read-While-Write Flash Sections
Whether the CPU supports Read-While-Write or if the CPU is halted during a Boot Loader software update is dependent on which address that is being programmed. In addition to the two
321
7679H–CAN–08/08
sections that are configurable by the BOOTSZ Fuses as described above, the Flash is also
divided into two fixed sections, the Read-While-Write (RWW) section and the No Read-WhileWrite (NRWW) section. The limit between the RWW- and NRWW sections is given in Table 247 on page 334 and Figure 24-2 on page 324. The main difference between the two sections is:
• When erasing or writing a page located inside the RWW section, the NRWW section can be
read during the operation.
• When erasing or writing a page located inside the NRWW section, the CPU is halted during
the entire operation.
Note that the user software can never read any code that is located inside the RWW section during a Boot Loader software operation. The syntax “Read-While-Write section” refers to which
section that is being programmed (erased or written), not which section that actually is being
read during a Boot Loader software update.
24.3.1
RWW – Read-While-Write Section
If a Boot Loader software update is programming a page inside the RWW section, it is possible
to read code from the Flash, but only code that is located in the NRWW section. During an ongoing programming, the software must ensure that the RWW section never is being read. If the
user software is trying to read code that is located inside the RWW section (i.e., by a
call/jmp/lpm or an interrupt) during programming, the software might end up in an unknown
state. To avoid this, the interrupts should either be disabled or moved to the Boot Loader section. The Boot Loader section is always located in the NRWW section. The RWW Section Busy
bit (RWWSB) in the Store Program Memory Control and Status Register (SPMCSR) will be read
as logical one as long as the RWW section is blocked for reading. After a programming is completed, the RWWSB must be cleared by software before reading code located in the RWW
section. See “Store Program Memory Control and Status Register – SPMCSR” on page 326. for
details on how to clear RWWSB.
24.3.2
NRWW – No Read-While-Write Section
The code located in the NRWW section can be read when the Boot Loader software is updating
a page in the RWW section. When the Boot Loader code updates the NRWW section, the CPU
is halted during the entire Page Erase or Page Write operation.
Table 24-1.
322
Read-While-Write Features
Which Section does the Z-pointer
Address During the Programming?
Which Section Can
be Read During
Programming?
Is the CPU
Halted?
Read-While-Write
Supported?
RWW Section
NRWW Section
No
Yes
NRWW Section
None
Yes
No
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 24-1. Read-While-Write vs. No Read-While-Write
Read-While-Write
(RWW) Section
Z-pointer
Addresses RWW
Section
Z-pointer
Addresses NRWW
Section
No Read-While-Write
(NRWW) Section
CPU is Halted
During the Operation
Code Located in
NRWW Section
Can be Read During
the Operation
323
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 24-2. Memory Sections
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = ’10’
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = ’11’
0x0000
Read-While-Write
Section
Application Flash Section
End RWW
Start NRWW
Application Flash Section
Boot Loader Flash Section
End Application
Start Boot Loader
Flashend
No Read-While-Write
Section
No Read-While-Write
Section
Read-While-Write
Section
0x0000
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = ’01’
Application Flash Section
End RWW
Start NRWW
Application Flash Section
End Application
Start Boot Loader
Boot Loader Flash Section
Flashend
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = ’00’
0x0000
End RWW
Start NRWW
Application Flash Section
End Application
Start Boot Loader
Boot Loader Flash Section
Flash end
Note:
24.4
Read-While-Write
Section
Application Flash Section
No Read-While-Write
Section
No Read-While-Write
Section
Read-While-Write
Section
0x0000
Application Flash Section
End RWW, End Application
Start NRWW, Start Boot Loader
Boot Loader Flash Section
Flash end
The parameters in the figure above are given in Table 24-6 on page 334.
Boot Loader Lock Bits
If no Boot Loader capability is needed, the entire Flash is available for application code. The
Boot Loader has two separate sets of Boot Lock bits which can be set independently. This gives
the user a unique flexibility to select different levels of protection.
The user can select:
• To protect the entire Flash from a software update by the MCU.
• To protect only the Boot Loader Flash section from a software update by the MCU.
• To protect only the Application Flash section from a software update by the MCU.
324
AT90CAN32/64/128
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AT90CAN32/64/128
• Allow software update in the entire Flash.
See Table 24-2 and Table 24-3 for further details. The Boot Lock bits can be set in software and
in Serial or Parallel Programming mode, but they can be cleared by a Chip Erase command
only. The general Write Lock (Lock Bit mode 2) does not control the programming of the Flash
memory by SPM instruction. Similarly, the general Read/Write Lock (Lock Bit mode 1) does not
control reading nor writing by LPM/SPM (Load Program Memory / Store Program Memory)
instructions, if it is attempted.
Table 24-2.
Lock Bit
Mode
BLB02
BLB01
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or LPM accessing the Application section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Application section.
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Application section, and LPM
executing from the Boot Loader section is not allowed to read
from the Application section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the
Boot Loader section, interrupts are disabled while executing from
the Application section.
1
LPM executing from the Boot Loader section is not allowed to
read from the Application section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed
in the Boot Loader section, interrupts are disabled while executing
from the Application section.
3
0
4
Note:
0
Protection
1. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
Table 24-3.
Boot Lock Bit1 Protection Modes (Boot Loader Section)(1)
Lock Bit
Mode
BLB12
BLB11
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or LPM accessing the Boot Loader
section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Boot Loader section.
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Boot Loader section, and LPM
executing from the Application section is not allowed to read from
the Boot Loader section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the
Application section, interrupts are disabled while executing from
the Boot Loader section.
1
LPM executing from the Application section is not allowed to read
from the Boot Loader section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the
Application section, interrupts are disabled while executing from
the Boot Loader section.
3
4
Note:
24.5
Boot Lock Bit0 Protection Modes (Application Section)(1)
0
0
Protection
1. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
Entering the Boot Loader Program
Entering the Boot Loader takes place by a jump or call from the application program. This may
be initiated by a trigger such as a command received via USART, or SPI interface. Alternatively,
the Boot Reset Fuse can be programmed so that the Reset Vector is pointing to the Boot Flash
start address after a reset. In this case, the Boot Loader is started after a reset. After the application code is loaded, the program can start executing the application code. Note that the fuses
cannot be changed by the MCU itself. This means that once the Boot Reset Fuse is pro-
325
7679H–CAN–08/08
grammed, the Reset Vector will always point to the Boot Loader Reset and the fuse can only be
changed through the serial or parallel programming interface.
Table 24-4.
Boot Reset Fuse(1)
BOOTRST
Note:
24.5.1
Reset Address
1
Reset Vector = Application Reset (address 0x0000)
0
Reset Vector = Boot Loader Reset (see Table 24-6 on page 334)
1. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
Store Program Memory Control and Status Register – SPMCSR
The Store Program Memory Control and Status Register contains the control bits needed to control the Boot Loader operations.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPMIE
RWWSB
–
RWWSRE
BLBSET
PGWRT
PGERS
SPMEN
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SPMCSR
• Bit 7 – SPMIE: SPM Interrupt Enable
When the SPMIE bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the SPM
ready interrupt will be enabled. The SPM ready Interrupt will be executed as long as the SPMEN
bit in the SPMCSR Register is cleared.
• Bit 6 – RWWSB: Read-While-Write Section Busy
When a Self-Programming (Page Erase or Page Write) operation to the RWW section is initiated, the RWWSB will be set (one) by hardware. When the RWWSB bit is set, the RWW section
cannot be accessed. The RWWSB bit will be cleared if the RWWSRE bit is written to one after a
Self-Programming operation is completed. Alternatively the RWWSB bit will automatically be
cleared if a page load operation is initiated.
• Bit 5 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is a reserved bit in the AT90CAN32/64/128 and always read as zero.
• Bit 4 – RWWSRE: Read-While-Write Section Read Enable
When programming (Page Erase or Page Write) to the RWW section, the RWW section is
blocked for reading (the RWWSB will be set by hardware). To re-enable the RWW section, the
user software must wait until the programming is completed (SPMEN will be cleared). Then, if
the RWWSRE bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within
four clock cycles re-enables the RWW section. The RWW section cannot be re-enabled while
the Flash is busy with a Page Erase or a Page Write (SPMEN is set). If the RWWSRE bit is written while the Flash is being loaded, the Flash load operation will abort and the data loaded will
be lost.
• Bit 3 – BLBSET: Boot Lock Bit Set
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock
cycles sets Boot Lock bits, according to the data in R0. The data in R1 and the address in the Zpointer are ignored. The BLBSET bit will automatically be cleared upon completion of the Lock
bit set, or if no SPM instruction is executed within four clock cycles.
326
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AT90CAN32/64/128
An LPM instruction within three cycles after BLBSET and SPMEN are set in the SPMCSR Register, will read either the Lock bits or the Fuse bits (depending on Z0 in the Z-pointer) into the
destination register. See “Reading the Fuse and Lock Bits from Software” on page 330 for
details.
• Bit 2 – PGWRT: Page Write
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock
cycles executes Page Write, with the data stored in the temporary buffer. The page address is
taken from the high part of the Z-pointer. The data in R1 and R0 are ignored. The PGWRT bit
will auto-clear upon completion of a Page Write, or if no SPM instruction is executed within four
clock cycles. The CPU is halted during the entire Page Write operation if the NRWW section is
addressed.
• Bit 1 – PGERS: Page Erase
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock
cycles executes Page Erase. The page address is taken from the high part of the Z-pointer. The
data in R1 and R0 are ignored. The PGERS bit will auto-clear upon completion of a Page Erase,
or if no SPM instruction is executed within four clock cycles. The CPU is halted during the entire
Page Write operation if the NRWW section is addressed.
• Bit 0 – SPMEN: Store Program Memory Enable
This bit enables the SPM instruction for the next four clock cycles. If written to one together with
either RWWSRE, BLBSET, PGWRT’ or PGERS, the following SPM instruction will have a special meaning, see description above. If only SPMEN is written, the following SPM instruction will
store the value in R1:R0 in the temporary page buffer addressed by the Z-pointer. The LSB of
the Z-pointer is ignored. The SPMEN bit will auto-clear upon completion of an SPM instruction,
or if no SPM instruction is executed within four clock cycles. During Page Erase and Page Write,
the SPMEN bit remains high until the operation is completed.
Writing any other combination than “10001”, “01001”, “00101”, “00011” or “00001” in the lower
five bits will have no effect.
24.6
Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming
The Z-pointer is used to address the SPM commands. The Z pointer consists of the Z-registers
ZL and ZH in the register file, and RAMPZ in the I/O space. The number of bits actually used is
implementation dependent. Note that the RAMPZ register is only implemented when the program space is larger than 64K bytes.
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
16
8
RAMPZ
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
RAMPZ0
ZH (R31)
Z15
Z14
Z13
Z12
Z11
Z10
Z9
Z8
ZL (R30)
Z7
Z6
Z5
Z4
Z3
Z2
Z1
Z0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Since the Flash is organized in pages (see Table 25-11 on page 341), the Program Counter can
be treated as having two different sections. One section, consisting of the least significant bits, is
addressing the words within a page, while the most significant bits are addressing the pages.
This is shown in Figure 24-3. Note that the page erase and page write operations are addressed
independently. Therefore it is of major importance that the Boot Loader software addresses the
327
7679H–CAN–08/08
same page in both the page erase and page write operation. Once a programming operation is
initiated, the address is latched and the Z-pointer can be used for other operations.
The (E)LPM instruction use the Z-pointer to store the address. Since this instruction addresses
the Flash byte-by-byte, also bit Z0 of the Z-pointer is used.
Figure 24-3. Addressing the Flash During SPM(1)
BIT
23
ZPCMSB
ZPAGEMSB
1 0
0
PCMSB
PROGRAM COUNTER
Z - POINTER
PAGEMSB
PCPAGE
PCWORD
PAGE ADDRESS
WITHIN THE FLASH
WORD ADDRESS
WITHIN A PAGE
PROGRAM MEMORY
PAGE
PAGE
INSTRUCTION WORD
PCWORD[PAGEMSB:0]:
00
01
02
PAGEEND
Note:
24.7
1. The different variables used in Figure 24-3 are listed in Table 24-8 on page 335.
Self-Programming the Flash
The program memory is updated in a page by page fashion. Before programming a page with
the data stored in the temporary page buffer, the page must be erased. The temporary page
buffer is filled one word at a time using SPM and the buffer can be filled either before the Page
Erase command or between a Page Erase and a Page Write operation:
Alternative 1: fill the buffer before a Page Erase
• Fill temporary page buffer
• Perform a Page Erase
• Perform a Page Write
Alternative 2: fill the buffer after Page Erase
• Perform a Page Erase
• Fill temporary page buffer
• Perform a Page Write
328
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
If only a part of the page needs to be changed, the rest of the page must be stored (for example
in the temporary page buffer) before the erase, and then be rewritten. When using alternative 1,
the Boot Loader provides an effective Read-Modify-Write feature which allows the user software
to first read the page, do the necessary changes, and then write back the modified data. If alternative 2 is used, it is not possible to read the old data while loading since the page is already
erased. The temporary page buffer can be accessed in a random sequence. It is essential that
the page address used in both the Page Erase and Page Write operation is addressing the
same page. See “Simple Assembly Code Example for a Boot Loader” on page 332 for an
assembly code example.
24.7.1
Performing Page Erase by SPM
To execute Page Erase, set up the address in the Z-pointer, write “X0000011” to SPMCSR and
execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The data in R1 and R0 is ignored.
The page address must be written to PCPAGE in the Z-register. Other bits in the Z-pointer will
be ignored during this operation.
• Page Erase to the RWW section: The NRWW section can be read during the Page Erase.
• Page Erase to the NRWW section: The CPU is halted during the operation.
24.7.2
Filling the Temporary Buffer (Page Loading)
To write an instruction word, set up the address in the Z-pointer and data in R1:R0, write
“00000001” to SPMCSR and execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The
content of PCWORD in the Z-register is used to address the data in the temporary buffer. The
temporary buffer will auto-erase after a Page Write operation or by writing the RWWSRE bit in
SPMCSR. It is also erased after a system reset. Note that it is not possible to write more than
one time to each address without erasing the temporary buffer.
If the EEPROM is written in the middle of an SPM Page Load operation, all data loaded will be
lost.
24.7.3
Performing a Page Write
To execute Page Write, set up the address in the Z-pointer, write “X0000101” to SPMCSR and
execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The data in R1 and R0 is ignored.
The page address must be written to PCPAGE. Other bits in the Z-pointer will be ignored during
this operation.
• Page Write to the RWW section: The NRWW section can be read during the Page Write.
• Page Write to the NRWW section: The CPU is halted during the operation.
24.7.4
Using the SPM Interrupt
If the SPM interrupt is enabled, the SPM interrupt will generate a constant interrupt when the
SPMEN bit in SPMCSR is cleared. This means that the interrupt can be used instead of polling
the SPMCSR Register in software. When using the SPM interrupt, the Interrupt Vectors should
be moved to the BLS section to avoid that an interrupt is accessing the RWW section when it is
blocked for reading. How to move the interrupts is described in “Interrupts” on page 60.
24.7.5
Consideration While Updating BLS
Special care must be taken if the user allows the Boot Loader section to be updated by leaving
Boot Lock bit11 unprogrammed. An accidental write to the Boot Loader itself can corrupt the
entire Boot Loader, and further software updates might be impossible. If it is not necessary to
329
7679H–CAN–08/08
change the Boot Loader software itself, it is recommended to program the Boot Lock bit11 to
protect the Boot Loader software from any internal software changes.
24.7.6
Prevent Reading the RWW Section During Self-Programming
During Self-Programming (either Page Erase or Page Write), the RWW section is always
blocked for reading. The user software itself must prevent that this section is addressed during
the self programming operation. The RWWSB in the SPMCSR will be set as long as the RWW
section is busy. During Self-Programming the Interrupt Vector table should be moved to the BLS
as described in “Interrupts” on page 60, or the interrupts must be disabled. Before addressing
the RWW section after the programming is completed, the user software must clear the
RWWSB by writing the RWWSRE. See “Simple Assembly Code Example for a Boot Loader” on
page 332 for an example.
24.7.7
Setting the Boot Loader Lock Bits by SPM
To set the Boot Loader Lock bits, write the desired data to R0, write “X0001001” to SPMCSR
and execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The only accessible Lock bits
are the Boot Lock bits that may prevent the Application and Boot Loader section from any software update by the MCU.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R0
1
1
BLB12
BLB11
BLB02
BLB01
1
1
See Table 24-2 and Table 24-3 for how the different settings of the Boot Loader bits affect the
Flash access.
If bits 5..2 in R0 are cleared (zero), the corresponding Boot Lock bit will be programmed if an
SPM instruction is executed within four cycles after BLBSET and SPMEN are set in SPMCSR.
The Z-pointer is don’t care during this operation, but for future compatibility it is recommended to
load the Z-pointer with 0x0001 (same as used for reading the Lock bits). For future compatibility
it is also recommended to set bits 7, 6, 1, and 0 in R0 to “1” when writing the Lock bits. When
programming the Lock bits the entire Flash can be read during the operation.
24.7.8
EEPROM Write Prevents Writing to SPMCSR
Note that an EEPROM write operation will block all software programming to Flash. Reading the
Fuses and Lock bits from software will also be prevented during the EEPROM write operation. It
is recommended that the user checks the status bit (EEWE) in the EECR Register and verifies
that the bit is cleared before writing to the SPMCSR Register.
24.7.9
Reading the Fuse and Lock Bits from Software
It is possible to read both the Fuse and Lock bits from software. To read the Lock bits, load the
Z-pointer with 0x0001 and set the BLBSET and SPMEN bits in SPMCSR. When an LPM instruction is executed within three CPU cycles after the BLBSET and SPMEN bits are set in SPMCSR,
the value of the Lock bits will be loaded in the destination register. The BLBSET and SPMEN
bits will auto-clear upon completion of reading the Lock bits or if no LPM instruction is executed
within three CPU cycles or no SPM instruction is executed within four CPU cycles. When BLBSET and SPMEN are cleared, LPM will work as described in the Instruction set Manual.
330
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd (Z=0x0001)
–
–
BLB12
BLB11
BLB02
BLB01
LB2
LB1
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
The algorithm for reading the Fuse Low byte is similar to the one described above for reading
the Lock bits. To read the Fuse Low byte, load the Z-pointer with 0x0000 and set the BLBSET
and SPMEN bits in SPMCSR. When an LPM instruction is executed within three cycles after the
BLBSET and SPMEN bits are set in the SPMCSR, the value of the Fuse Low byte (FLB) will be
loaded in the destination register as shown below. Refer to Table 25-5 on page 338 for a
detailed description and mapping of the Fuse Low byte.
Bit
Rd (Z=0x0000)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FLB7
FLB6
FLB5
FLB4
FLB3
FLB2
FLB1
FLB0
Similarly, when reading the Fuse High byte, load 0x0003 in the Z-pointer. When an LPM instruction is executed within three cycles after the BLBSET and SPMEN bits are set in the SPMCSR,
the value of the Fuse High byte (FHB) will be loaded in the destination register as shown below.
Refer to Table 25-4 on page 337 for detailed description and mapping of the Fuse High byte.
Bit
Rd (Z=0x0003)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FHB7
FHB6
FHB5
FHB4
FHB3
FHB2
FHB1
FHB0
When reading the Extended Fuse byte, load 0x0002 in the Z-pointer. When an LPM instruction
is executed within three cycles after the BLBSET and SPMEN bits are set in the SPMCSR, the
value of the Extended Fuse byte (EFB) will be loaded in the destination register as shown below.
Refer to Table 25-3 on page 337 for detailed description and mapping of the Extended Fuse
byte.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd (Z=0x0002)
–
–
–
–
EFB3
EFB2
EFB1
EFB0
Fuse and Lock bits that are programmed, will be read as zero. Fuse and Lock bits that are
unprogrammed, will be read as one.
24.7.10
Preventing Flash Corruption
During periods of low VCC, the Flash program can be corrupted because the supply voltage is
too low for the CPU and the Flash to operate properly. These issues are the same as for board
level systems using the Flash, and the same design solutions should be applied.
A Flash program corruption can be caused by two situations when the voltage is too low.
• First, a regular write sequence to the Flash requires a minimum voltage to operate correctly.
• Secondly, the CPU itself can execute instructions incorrectly, if the supply voltage for
executing instructions is too low.
Flash corruption can easily be avoided by following these design recommendations (one is
sufficient):
1. If there is no need for a Boot Loader update in the system, program the Boot Loader
Lock bits to prevent any Boot Loader software updates.
2. Keep the AVR RESET active (low) during periods of insufficient power supply voltage.
This can be done by enabling the internal Brown-out Detector (BOD) if the operating
voltage matches the detection level. If not, an external low VCC reset protection circuit
can be used. If a reset occurs while a write operation is in progress, the write operation
will be completed provided that the power supply voltage is sufficient.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
3. Keep the AVR core in Power-down sleep mode during periods of low VCC. This will prevent the CPU from attempting to decode and execute instructions, effectively protecting
the SPMCSR Register and thus the Flash from unintentional writes.
24.7.11
Programming Time for Flash when Using SPM
The calibrated RC Oscillator is used to time Flash accesses. Table 24-5 shows the typical programming time for Flash accesses from the CPU.
Table 24-5.
24.7.12
SPM Programming Time
Symbol
Min Programming Time
Max Programming Time
Flash write (Page Erase, Page Write, and
write Lock bits by SPM)
3.7 ms
4.5 ms
Simple Assembly Code Example for a Boot Loader
;- the routine writes one page of data from RAM to Flash
; the first data location in RAM is pointed to by the Y-pointer
; the first data location in Flash is pointed to by the Z-pointer
;- error handling is not included
;- the routine must be placed inside the Boot space
; (at least the Do_spm sub routine). Only code inside NRWW section can
; be read during Self-Programming (Page Erase and Page Write).
;- registers used: r0, r1, temp1 (r16), temp2 (r17), looplo (r24),
; loophi (r25), spmcsrval (r20)
; storing and restoring of registers is not included in the routine
; register usage can be optimized at the expense of code size
;- it is assumed that either the interrupt table is moved to the Boot
; loader section or that the interrupts are disabled.
.equ PAGESIZEB = PAGESIZE*2
.org SMALLBOOTSTART
;PAGESIZEB is page size in BYTES, not words
Write_page:
; Page Erase
ldi spmcsrval, (1<<PGERS) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
; re-enable the RWW section
ldi spmcsrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
; transfer data from RAM to Flash page buffer
ldi looplo, low(PAGESIZEB)
;init loop variable
ldi loophi, high(PAGESIZEB) ;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
Wrloop:
ld
r0, Y+
ld
r1, Y+
ldi spmcsrval, (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
adiw ZH:ZL, 2
sbiw loophi:looplo, 2
brne Wrloop
; execute Page Write
subi ZL, low(PAGESIZEB)
332
;use subi for PAGESIZEB<=256
;restore pointer
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
sbci ZH, high(PAGESIZEB)
;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
ldi spmcsrval, (1<<PGWRT) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
; re-enable the RWW section
ldi spmcsrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
; read back and check, optional
ldi looplo, low(PAGESIZEB)
;init loop variable
ldi loophi, high(PAGESIZEB) ;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
subi YL, low(PAGESIZEB)
;restore pointer
sbci YH, high(PAGESIZEB)
Rdloop:
lpm r0, Z+
ld
r1, Y+
cpse r0, r1
jmp Error
sbiw loophi:looplo, 1
brne Rdloop
;use subi for PAGESIZEB<=256
; return to RWW section
; verify that RWW section is safe to read
Return:
in
temp1, SPMCSR
sbrs temp1, RWWSB
; If RWWSB is set, the RWW section is not ready yet
ret
; re-enable the RWW section
ldi spmcsrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
rjmp Return
Do_spm:
; check for previous SPM complete
Wait_spm:
in
temp1, SPMCSR
sbrc temp1, SPMEN
rjmp Wait_spm
; input: spmcsrval determines SPM action
; disable interrupts if enabled, store status
in
temp2, SREG
cli
; check that no EEPROM write access is present
Wait_ee:
sbic EECR, EEWE
rjmp Wait_ee
; SPM timed sequence
out SPMCSR, spmcsrval
spm
; restore SREG (to enable interrupts if originally enabled)
out SREG, temp2
ret
333
7679H–CAN–08/08
Boot Loader Parameters
In Table 24-6 through Table 24-8, the parameters used in the description of the Self-Programming are given.
(Start Boot
Loader Section)
Boot
Reset Address
4
0x0000 - 0x3DFF
0x3E00 - 0x3FFF
0x3DFF
0x3E00
1
0
1024 words
8
0x0000 - 0x3BFF
0x3C00 - 0x3FFF
0x3BFF
0x3C00
0
1
2048 words
16
0x0000 - 0x37FF
0x3800 - 0x3FFF
0x37FF
0x3800
0
0
4096 words
32
0x0000 - 0x2FFF
0x3000 - 0x3FFF
0x2FFF
0x3000
AT90CAN64
End
Application
Section
Boot Loader
Flash Section
BOOTSZ0
512 words
1
1
512 words
4
0x0000 - 0x7DFF
0x7E00 - 0x7FFF
0x7DFF
0x7E00
1
0
1024 words
8
0x0000 - 0x7BFF
0x7C00 - 0x7FFF
0x7BFF
0x7C00
0
1
2048 words
16
0x0000 - 0x77FF
0x7800 - 0x7FFF
0x77FF
0x7800
0
0
4096 words
32
0x0000 - 0x6FFF
0x7000 - 0x7FFF
0x6FFF
0x7000
1
1
512 words
4
0x0000 - 0xFDFF
0xFE00 - 0xFFFF
0xFDFF
0xFE00
1
0
1024 words
8
0x0000 - 0xFBFF
0xFC00 - 0xFFFF
0xFBFF
0xFC00
0
1
2048 words
16
0x0000 - 0xF7FF
0xF800 - 0xFFFF
0xF7FF
0xF800
0
0
4096 words
32
0x0000 - 0xEFFF
0xF000 - 0xFFFF
0xEFFF
0xF000
Notes:
Boot Size
BOOTSZ1
1
Device
AT90CAN32
1
AT90CAN128
Application
Flash Section
Boot Size Configuration (Word Addresses)(1)
Table 24-6.
Pages
24.7.13
1. The different BOOTSZ Fuse configurations are shown in Figure 24-2
Table 24-7.
Read-While-Write Limit (Word Addresses)(1)
Device
Section
Pages
Address
Read-While-Write section (RWW)
96
0x0000 - 0x2FFF
No Read-While-Write section (NRWW)
32
0x3000 - 0x3FFF
Read-While-Write section (RWW)
224
0x0000 - 0x6FFF
No Read-While-Write section (NRWW)
32
0x7000 - 0x7FFF
Read-While-Write section (RWW)
480
0x0000 - 0xEFFF
No Read-While-Write section (NRWW)
32
0xF000 - 0xFFFF
AT90CAN32
AT90CAN64
AT90CAN128
Notes:
334
1. For details about these two section, see “NRWW – No Read-While-Write Section” on page
322 and “RWW – Read-While-Write Section” on page 322.
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
AT90CAN128
AT90CAN64
AT90CAN32
Variable
Value
Explanation of Different Variables Used in Figure 24-3 on page 328 and the Mapping to the Z-Pointer(1)
Variable
Name
Device
Table 24-8.
PCMSB
13
Most significant bit in the program counter. (The program counter is 14 bits PC[13:0])
PAGEMSB
6
Most significant bit which is used to address the words within one page (128 words in a page
requires 7 bits PC [6:0]).
Corresponding
Z-value
Description(2)
ZPCMSB
Z14
Bit in Z-register that is mapped to PCMSB. Because Z0 is not used, the ZPCMSB equals
PCMSB + 1.
ZPAGEMSB
Z7
Bit in Z-register that is mapped to PAGEMSB. Because Z0 is not used, the ZPAGEMSB
equals PAGEMSB + 1.
PCPAGE
PC[13:7]
Z14:Z7
Program counter page address: Page select, for Page Erase and Page Write.
PCWORD
PC[6:0]
Z7:Z1
Program counter word address: Word select, for filling temporary buffer (must be zero during
PAGE WRITE operation).
PCMSB
14
Most significant bit in the program counter. (The program counter is 15 bits PC[14:0])
PAGEMSB
6
Most significant bit which is used to address the words within one page (128 words in a page
requires 7 bits PC [6:0]).
ZPCMSB
Z15
Bit in Z-register that is mapped to PCMSB. Because Z0 is not used, the ZPCMSB equals
PCMSB + 1.
ZPAGEMSB
Z7
Bit in Z-register that is mapped to PAGEMSB. Because Z0 is not used, the ZPAGEMSB
equals PAGEMSB + 1.
PCPAGE
PC[14:7]
Z15:Z7
Program counter page address: Page select, for Page Erase and Page Write.
PCWORD
PC[6:0]
Z7:Z1
Program counter word address: Word select, for filling temporary buffer (must be zero during
PAGE WRITE operation).
PCMSB
15
Most significant bit in the program counter. (The program counter is 16 bits PC[15:0])
PAGEMSB
6
Most significant bit which is used to address the words within one page (128 words in a page
requires 7 bits PC [6:0]).
ZPCMSB
Z16(3)
Bit in Z-register that is mapped to PCMSB. Because Z0 is not used, the ZPCMSB equals
PCMSB + 1.
ZPAGEMSB
Z7
Bit in Z-register that is mapped to PAGEMSB. Because Z0 is not used, the ZPAGEMSB
equals PAGEMSB + 1.
PCPAGE
PC[15:7]
Z16(3):Z7
PCWORD
PC[6:0]
Z7:Z1
Notes:
Program counter page address: Page select, for Page Erase and Page Write.
Program counter word address: Word select, for filling temporary buffer (must be zero during
PAGE WRITE operation).
1. See “Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming” on page 327 for details about the use of
Z-pointer during self-programming.
2. Z0: should be zero for all SPM commands, byte select for the (E)LPM instruction.
3. The Z-register is only 16 bits wide. Bit 16 is located in RAMPZ register in I/O map.
335
7679H–CAN–08/08
25. Memory Programming
25.1
Program and Data Memory Lock Bits
The AT90CAN32/64/128 provides six Lock bits which can be left unprogrammed (“1”) or can be
programmed (“0”) to obtain the additional features listed in Table 25-2. The Lock bits can only be
erased to “1” with the Chip Erase command.
Table 25-1.
Lock Bit Byte(1)
Lock Bit Byte
Note:
Bit No
Description
Default Value
7
–
1 (unprogrammed)
6
–
1 (unprogrammed)
BLB12
5
Boot Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
BLB11
4
Boot Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
BLB02
3
Boot Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
BLB01
2
Boot Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
LB2
1
Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
LB1
0
Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
1. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed.
Table 25-2.
Lock Bit Protection Modes(1)(2)
Memory Lock Bits
336
Protection Type
LB Mode
LB2
LB1
1
1
1
No memory lock features enabled.
2
1
0
Further programming of the Flash and EEPROM is disabled in Parallel and
Serial Programming mode. The Fuse bits are locked in both Serial and
Parallel Programming mode.(1)
3
0
0
Further programming and verification of the Flash and EEPROM is disabled
in Parallel and Serial Programming mode. The Boot Lock bits and Fuse bits
are locked in both Serial and Parallel Programming mode.(1)
BLB0 Mode
BLB02
BLB01
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM (Store Program Memory) or LPM (Load Program
Memory) accessing the Application section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Application section.
3
0
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Application section, and LPM executing
from the Boot Loader section is not allowed to read from the Application
section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Boot Loader section, interrupts
are disabled while executing from the Application section.
4
0
1
LPM executing from the Boot Loader section is not allowed to read from the
Application section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Boot Loader
section, interrupts are disabled while executing from the Application section.
BLB1 Mode
BLB12
BLB11
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or LPM accessing the Boot Loader section.
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Table 25-2.
Lock Bit Protection Modes(1)(2) (Continued)
Memory Lock Bits
Protection Type
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Boot Loader section.
3
0
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Boot Loader section, and LPM executing
from the Application section is not allowed to read from the Boot Loader
section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Application section, interrupts
are disabled while executing from the Boot Loader section.
1
LPM executing from the Application section is not allowed to read from the
Boot Loader section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Application
section, interrupts are disabled while executing from the Boot Loader
section.
4
0
Notes:
1. Program the Fuse bits and Boot Lock bits before programming the LB1 and LB2.
2. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
25.2
Fuse Bits
The AT90CAN32/64/128 has three Fuse bytes. Table 25-3, Table 25-4 and Table 25-5 describe
briefly the functionality of all the fuses and how they are mapped into the Fuse bytes. Note that
the fuses are read as logical zero, “0”, if they are programmed.
Table 25-3.
Extended Fuse Byte
Fuse Extended Byte
Bit No
Description
Default Value
–
7
–
1
–
6
–
1
–
5
–
1
–
4
–
1
BODLEVEL2(1)
3
Brown-out Detector trigger level
1 (unprogrammed)
BODLEVEL1(1)
2
Brown-out Detector trigger level
1 (unprogrammed)
BODLEVEL0(1)
1
Brown-out Detector trigger level
1 (unprogrammed)
TA0SEL
0
(Reserved for factory tests)
1 (unprogrammed)
Note:
1. See Table 7-2 on page 54 for BODLEVEL Fuse decoding.
Table 25-4.
Fuse High Byte
Fuse High Byte
Bit No
Description
Default Value
(4)
7
Enable OCD
1 (unprogrammed, OCD disabled)
JTAGEN
6
Enable JTAG
0 (programmed, JTAG enabled)
SPIEN(1)
5
Enable Serial Program and
Data Downloading
0 (programmed, SPI prog. enabled)
WDTON(3)
4
Watchdog Timer always on
1 (unprogrammed)
EESAVE
3
EEPROM memory is preserved
through the Chip Erase
1 (unprogrammed, EEPROM not preserved)
OCDEN
(5)
337
7679H–CAN–08/08
Table 25-4.
Fuse High Byte (Continued)
Fuse High Byte
Bit No
Description
Default Value
(6)
BOOTSZ1
2
Select Boot Size
(see Table 24-6 for details)
0 (programmed)(2)
BOOTSZ0
1
Select Boot Size(6)
(see Table 24-6 for details)
0 (programmed)(2)
BOOTRST
0
Select Reset Vector(7)
(see Table 24-6 for details)
1 (unprogrammed)
Notes:
1. The SPIEN Fuse is not accessible in serial programming mode.
2. The default value of BOOTSZ1..0 results in maximum Boot Size. See Table 24-6 on page 334
for details.
3. See “Watchdog Timer Control Register – WDTCR” on page 58 for details.
4. Never ship a product with the OCDEN Fuse programmed regardless of the setting of Lock bits
and JTAGEN Fuse. A programmed OCDEN Fuse enables some parts of the clock system to
be running in all sleep modes. This may increase the power consumption.
5. If the JTAG interface is left unconnected, the JTAGEN fuse should if possible be disabled. This
to avoid static current at the TDO pin in the JTAG interface.
6. The boot sizes of all the AVR CAN microcontrollers are identical.
7. Due to the flash size, the boot reset address differs from one AVR CAN microcontroller to
another.
Table 25-5.
Fuse Low Byte
Fuse Low Byte
Bit No
Description
Default Value
CKDIV8(4)
7
Divide clock by 8
0 (programmed)
CKOUT(3)
6
Clock output
1 (unprogrammed)
SUT1
5
Select start-up time
1 (unprogrammed)(1)
SUT0
4
Select start-up time
0 (programmed)(1)
CKSEL3
3
Select Clock source
0 (programmed)(2)
CKSEL2
2
Select Clock source
0 (programmed)(2)
CKSEL1
1
Select Clock source
1 (unprogrammed)(2)
CKSEL0
0
Select Clock source
0 (programmed)(2)
Notes:
1. The default value of SUT1..0 results in maximum start-up time for the default clock source.
See Table 5-8 on page 42 for details.
2. The default setting of CKSEL3..0 results in internal RC Oscillator @ 8 MHz. See Table 5-1 on
page 38 for details.
3. The CKOUT Fuse allow the system clock to be output on Port PC7. See “Clock Output Buffer”
on page 43 for details.
4. See “System Clock Prescaler” on page 44 for details.
The status of the Fuse bits is not affected by Chip Erase. Note that the Fuse bits are locked if
Lock bit1 (LB1) is programmed. Program the Fuse bits before programming the Lock bits.
25.2.1
338
Latching of Fuses
The fuse values are latched when the device enters programming mode and changes of the
fuse values will have no effect until the part leaves Programming mode. This does not apply to
the EESAVE Fuse which will take effect once it is programmed. The fuses are also latched on
Power-up in Normal mode.
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
25.3
Signature Bytes
All Atmel microcontrollers have a three-byte signature code which identifies the device. This
code can be read in both serial and parallel mode, also when the device is locked. The three
bytes reside in a separate address space.
Table 25-6.
Device
Signature Bytes
Address
Value
Signature Byte Description
0
0x1E
Indicates manufactured by Atmel
1
0x95
Indicates 32 KB Flash memory
2
0x81
Indicates AT90CAN32 device when address 1 contains 0x95
0
0x1E
Indicates manufactured by Atmel
1
0x96
Indicates 64 KB Flash memory
2
0x81
Indicates AT90CAN64 device when address 1 contains 0x96
0
0x1E
Indicates manufactured by Atmel
1
0x97
Indicates 128 KB Flash memory
2
0x81
Indicates AT90CAN128 device when address 1 contains 0x97
AT90CAN32
AT90CAN64
AT90CAN128
25.4
Calibration Byte
The AT90CAN32/64/128 has a byte calibration value for the internal RC Oscillator. This byte
resides in the high byte of address 0x000 in the signature address space. During reset, this byte
is automatically written into the OSCCAL Register to ensure correct frequency of the calibrated
RC Oscillator.
25.5
Parallel Programming Overview
This section describes how to parallel program and verify Flash Program memory, EEPROM
Data memory, Memory Lock bits, and Fuse bits in the AT90CAN32/64/128. Pulses are assumed
to be at least 250 ns unless otherwise noted.
25.5.1
Signal Names
In this section, some pins of the AT90CAN32/64/128 are referenced by signal names describing
their functionality during parallel programming, see Figure 25-1 and Table 25-7. Pins not
described in the following table are referenced by pin names.
The XA1/XA0 pins determine the action executed when the XTAL1 pin is given a positive pulse.
The bit coding is shown in Table 25-9.
When pulsing WR or OE, the command loaded determines the action executed. The different
Commands are shown in Table 25-10.
339
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 25-1. Parallel Programming
+2.7 - +5.5V
RDY/BSY
PD1
OE
PD2
WR
PD3
BS1
PD4
XA0
PD5
XA1
PD6
PAGEL
PD7
+12 V
VCC
+2.7 - +5.5V
AVCC
PB7 - PB0
DATA
RESET
BS2
PA0
XTAL1
GND
25.5.2
Pin Mapping
Table 25-7.
25.5.3
Signal Name in
Programming Mode
Pin Name
I/O
RDY/BSY
PD1
O
0: Device is busy programming,
1: Device is ready for new command.
OE
PD2
I
Output Enable (Active low).
WR
PD3
I
Write Pulse (Active low).
BS1
PD4
I
Byte Select 1 (“0” selects low byte, “1” selects high byte).
XA0
PD5
I
XTAL Action Bit 0
XA1
PD6
I
XTAL Action Bit 1
PAGEL
PD7
I
Program Memory and EEPROM data Page Load.
BS2
PA0
I
Byte Select 2 (“0” selects low byte, “1” selects 2’nd high byte).
DATA
PB7-0
I/O
Function
Bi-directional Data bus (Output when OE is low).
Commands
Table 25-8.
340
Pin Name Mapping
Pin Values Used to Enter Programming Mode
Pin
Symbol
Value
PAGEL
Prog_enable[3]
0
XA1
Prog_enable[2]
0
XA0
Prog_enable[1]
0
BS1
Prog_enable[0]
0
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Table 25-9.
XA1 and XA0 Coding
XA1
XA0
Action when XTAL1 is Pulsed
0
0
Load Flash or EEPROM Address (High or low address byte determined by BS1).
0
1
Load Data (High or Low data byte for Flash determined by BS1).
1
0
Load Command
1
1
No Action, Idle
Table 25-10. Command Byte Bit Coding
Command Byte
25.5.4
Command Executed
1000 0000
Chip Erase
0100 0000
Write Fuse bits
0010 0000
Write Lock bits
0001 0000
Write Flash
0001 0001
Write EEPROM
0000 1000
Read Signature bytes and Calibration byte
0000 0100
Read Fuse and Lock bits
0000 0010
Read Flash
0000 0011
Read EEPROM
Parameters
Table 25-11. No. of Words in a Page and No. of Pages in the Flash
Device
Flash Size
Page Size
PCWORD
No. of Pages
PCPAGE
PCMSB
AT90CAN32
16K words
128 words
PC[6:0]
128
PC[13:7]
13
AT90CAN64
32K words
128 words
PC[6:0]
256
PC[14:7]
14
AT90CAN128
64K words
128 words
PC[6:0]
512
PC[15:7]
15
Table 25-12. No. of Words in a Page and No. of Pages in the EEPROM
Device
EEPROM Size
Page Size
PCWORD
No. of Pages
PCPAGE
EEAMSB
AT90CAN32
1K bytes
8 bytes
EEA[2:0]
128
EEA[9:3]
9
AT90CAN64
2K bytes
8 bytes
EEA[2:0]
256
EEA[10:3]
10
AT90CAN128
4K bytes
8 bytes
EEA[2:0]
512
EEA[11:3]
11
341
7679H–CAN–08/08
25.6
25.6.1
Parallel Programming
Enter Programming Mode
The following algorithm puts the device in parallel programming mode:
1. Apply power between VCC and GND.
2. Set RESET to “0” and toggle XTAL1 at least six times.
3. Set the Prog_enable pins listed in Table 25-8 on page 340 to “0000” and wait at least
100 ns.
4. Apply 11.5 - 12.5V to RESET. Any activity on Prog_enable pins within 100 ns after
+12V has been applied to RESET, will cause the device to fail entering programming
mode.
5. Wait at least 50 µs before sending a new command.
25.6.2
Considerations for Efficient Programming
The loaded command and address are retained in the device during programming. For efficient
programming, the following should be considered.
• The command needs only be loaded once when writing or reading multiple memory
locations.
• Skip writing the data value 0xFF, that is the contents of the entire EEPROM (unless the
EESAVE Fuse is programmed) and Flash after a Chip Erase.
• Address high byte needs only be loaded before programming or reading a new 256 word
window in Flash or 256 byte EEPROM. This consideration also applies to Signature bytes
reading.
25.6.3
Chip Erase
The Chip Erase will erase the Flash and EEPROM(1) memories plus Lock bits. The Lock bits are
not reset until the program memory has been completely erased. The Fuse bits are not
changed. A Chip Erase must be performed before the Flash and/or EEPROM are
reprogrammed.
Load Command “Chip Erase”
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “10”. This enables command loading.
2. Set BS1 to “0”.
3. Set DATA to “1000 0000”. This is the command for Chip Erase.
4. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the command.
5. Give WR a negative pulse. This starts the Chip Erase. RDY/BSY goes low.
6. Wait until RDY/BSY goes high before loading a new command.
Note:
25.6.4
1. The EEPROM memory is preserved during Chip Erase if the EESAVE Fuse is programmed.
Programming the Flash
The Flash is organized in pages, see Table 25-11 on page 341. When programming the Flash,
the program data is latched into a page buffer. This allows one page of program data to be programmed simultaneously. The following procedure describes how to program the entire Flash
memory:
A: Load Command “Write Flash”
342
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “10”. This enables command loading.
2. Set BS1 to “0”.
3. Set DATA to “0001 0000”. This is the command for Write Flash.
4. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the command.
B: Load Address Low byte
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “00”. This enables address loading.
2. Set BS1 to “0”. This selects low address.
3. Set DATA = Address low byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the address low byte.
C: Load Data Low Byte
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “01”. This enables data loading.
2. Set DATA = Data low byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
3. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the data byte.
D: Load Data High Byte
1. Set BS1 to “1”. This selects high data byte.
2. Set XA1, XA0 to “01”. This enables data loading.
3. Set DATA = Data high byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the data byte.
E: Latch Data
1. Set BS1 to “1”. This selects high data byte.
2. Give PAGEL a positive pulse. This latches the data bytes. (See Figure 25-3 for signal
waveforms)
F: Repeat B through E until the entire buffer is filled or until all data within the page is loaded.
While the lower bits in the address are mapped to words within the page, the higher bits
address the pages within the FLASH. This is illustrated in Figure 25-2 on page 344. Note that
if less than eight bits are required to address words in the page (pagesize < 256), the most
significant bit(s) in the address low byte are used to address the page when performing a
Page Write.
G: Load Address High byte
1. Set XA1, XA0 to “00”. This enables address loading.
2. Set BS1 to “1”. This selects high address.
3. Set DATA = Address high byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the address high byte.
H: Program Page
1. Give WR a negative pulse. This starts programming of the entire page of data.
RDY/BSY goes low.
2. Wait until RDY/BSY goes high (See Figure 25-3 for signal waveforms).
I: Repeat B through H until the entire Flash is programmed or until all data has been
programmed.
J: End Page Programming
343
7679H–CAN–08/08
1. 1. Set XA1, XA0 to “10”. This enables command loading.
2. Set DATA to “0000 0000”. This is the command for No Operation.
3. Give XTAL1 a positive pulse. This loads the command, and the internal write signals
are reset.
Figure 25-2. Addressing the Flash Which is Organized in Pages(1)
PCMSB
PROGRAM COUNTER
PAGEMSB
PCPAGE
PCWORD
PAGE ADDRESS
WITHIN THE FLASH
WORD ADDRESS
WITHIN A PAGE
PROGRAM MEMORY
PAGE
PAGE
INSTRUCTION WORD
PCWORD[PAGEMSB:0]:
00
01
02
PAGEEND
Note:
1. PCPAGE and PCWORD are listed in Table 25-11 on page 341.
Figure 25-3. Programming the Flash Waveforms(1)
F
DATA
A
B
C
D
E
0x10
ADDR. LOW
DATA LOW
DATA HIGH
XX
B
ADDR. LOW
C
D
E
DATA LOW
DATA HIGH
XX
G
ADDR. HIGH
H
XX
XA1
XA0
BS1
XTAL1
WR
RDY/BSY
RESET +12V
OE
PAGEL
BS2
Note:
344
1. “XX” is don’t care. The letters refer to the programming description above.
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
25.6.5
Programming the EEPROM
The EEPROM is organized in pages, see Table 25-12 on page 341. When programming the
EEPROM, the program data is latched into a page buffer. This allows one page of data to be
programmed simultaneously. The programming algorithm for the EEPROM data memory is as
follows (refer to “Programming the Flash” on page 342 for details on Command, Address and
Data loading):
1. A: Load Command “0001 0001”.
2. G: Load Address High Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
3. B: Load Address Low Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. C: Load Data (0x00 - 0xFF).
5. E: Latch data (give PAGEL a positive pulse).
K: Repeat 3 through 5 until the entire buffer is filled.
L: Program EEPROM page
1. Set BS1 to “0”.
2. Give WR a negative pulse. This starts programming of the EEPROM page. RDY/BSY
goes low.
3. Wait until to RDY/BSY goes high before programming the next page (See Figure 25-4
for signal waveforms).
Figure 25-4. Programming the EEPROM Waveforms
K
DATA
A
G
0x11
ADDR. HIGH
B
ADDR. LOW
C
E
DATA
XX
B
ADDR. LOW
C
DATA
E
L
XX
XA1
XA0
BS1
XTAL1
WR
RDY/BSY
RESET +12V
OE
PAGEL
BS2
25.6.6
Reading the Flash
The algorithm for reading the Flash memory is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash” on
page 342 for details on Command and Address loading):
1. A: Load Command “0000 0010”.
2. G: Load Address High Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
3. B: Load Address Low Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. Set OE to “0”, and BS1 to “0”. The Flash word low byte can now be read at DATA.
5. Set BS1 to “1”. The Flash word high byte can now be read at DATA.
6. Set OE to “1”.
345
7679H–CAN–08/08
25.6.7
Reading the EEPROM
The algorithm for reading the EEPROM memory is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash”
on page 342 for details on Command and Address loading):
1. A: Load Command “0000 0011”.
2. G: Load Address High Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
3. B: Load Address Low Byte (0x00 - 0xFF).
4. Set OE to “0”, and BS1 to “0”. The EEPROM Data byte can now be read at DATA.
5. Set OE to “1”.
25.6.8
Programming the Fuse Low Bits
The algorithm for programming the Fuse Low bits is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash”
on page 342 for details on Command and Data loading):
1. A: Load Command “0100 0000”.
2. C: Load Data Low Byte. Bit n = “0” programs and bit n = “1” erases the Fuse bit.
3. Give WR a negative pulse and wait for RDY/BSY to go high.
25.6.9
Programming the Fuse High Bits
The algorithm for programming the Fuse High bits is as follows (refer to “Programming the
Flash” on page 342 for details on Command and Data loading):
1. A: Load Command “0100 0000”.
2. C: Load Data Low Byte. Bit n = “0” programs and bit n = “1” erases the Fuse bit.
3. Set BS1 to “1” and BS2 to “0”. This selects high data byte.
4. Give WR a negative pulse and wait for RDY/BSY to go high.
5. Set BS1 to “0”. This selects low data byte.
25.6.10
Programming the Extended Fuse Bits
The algorithm for programming the Extended Fuse bits is as follows (refer to “Programming the
Flash” on page 342 for details on Command and Data loading):
1. A: Load Command “0100 0000”.
2. C: Load Data Low Byte. Bit n = “0” programs and bit n = “1” erases the Fuse bit.
3. Set BS1 to “0” and BS2 to “1”. This selects extended data byte.
4. Give WR a negative pulse and wait for RDY/BSY to go high.
5. Set BS2 to “0”. This selects low data byte.
346
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 25-5. Programming the FUSES Waveforms
Write Fuse Low byte
DATA
A
C
0x40
DATA
XX
Write Fuse high byte
A
C
0x40
DATA
XX
Write Extended Fuse byte
A
C
0x40
DATA
XX
XA1
XA0
BS1
BS2
XTAL1
WR
RDY/BSY
RESET +12V
OE
PAGEL
25.6.11
Programming the Lock Bits
The algorithm for programming the Lock bits is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash” on
page 342 for details on Command and Data loading):
1. A: Load Command “0010 0000”.
2. C: Load Data Low Byte. Bit n = “0” programs the Lock bit. If LB mode 3 is programmed
(LB1 and LB2 is programmed), it is not possible to program the Boot Lock bits by any
External Programming mode.
3. Give WR a negative pulse and wait for RDY/BSY to go high.
The Lock bits can only be cleared by executing Chip Erase.
25.6.12
Reading the Fuse and Lock Bits
The algorithm for reading the Fuse and Lock bits is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash”
on page 342 for details on Command loading):
1. A: Load Command “0000 0100”.
2. Set OE to “0”, BS2 to “0” and BS1 to “0”. The status of the Fuse Low bits can now be
read at DATA (“0” means programmed).
3. Set OE to “0”, BS2 to “1” and BS1 to “1”. The status of the Fuse High bits can now be
read at DATA (“0” means programmed).
4. Set OE to “0”, BS2 to “1”, and BS1 to “0”. The status of the Extended Fuse bits can now
be read at DATA (“0” means programmed).
5. Set OE to “0”, BS2 to “0” and BS1 to “1”. The status of the Lock bits can now be read at
DATA (“0” means programmed).
6. Set OE to “1”.
347
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 25-6. Mapping Between BS1, BS2 and the Fuse and Lock Bits During Read
Fuse Low Byte
0
Extended Fuse Byte
1
0
DATA
BS2
Lock Bits
0
Fuse High Byte
1
1
BS1
BS2
25.6.13
Reading the Signature Bytes
The algorithm for reading the Signature bytes is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash” on
page 342 for details on Command and Address loading):
1. A: Load Command “0000 1000”.
2. B: Load Address Low Byte (0x00 - 0x02).
3. Set OE to “0”, and BS1 to “0”. The selected Signature byte can now be read at DATA.
4. Set OE to “1”.
25.6.14
Reading the Calibration Byte
The algorithm for reading the Calibration byte is as follows (refer to “Programming the Flash” on
page 342 for details on Command and Address loading):
1. A: Load Command “0000 1000”.
2. B: Load Address Low Byte, 0x00.
3. Set OE to “0”, and BS1 to “1”. The Calibration byte can now be read at DATA.
4. Set OE to “1”.
25.7
SPI Serial Programming Overview
This section describes how to serial program and verify Flash Program memory, EEPROM Data
memory, Memory Lock bits, and Fuse bits in the AT90CAN32/64/128.
25.7.1
Signal Names
Both the Flash and EEPROM memory arrays can be programmed using the serial SPI bus while
RESET is pulled to GND. The serial interface consists of pins SCK, MOSI (input) and MISO (output). After RESET is set low, the Programming Enable instruction needs to be executed first
before program/erase operations can be executed. NOTE, in Table 25-13 on page 349, the pin
mapping for SPI programming is listed. Not all parts use the SPI pins dedicated for the internal
SPI interface. Note that throughout the description about Serial downloading, MOSI and MISO
are used to describe the serial data in and serial data out respectively. For AT90CAN32/64/128
these pins are mapped to PDI (PE0) and PDO (PE1).
348
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 25-7. Serial Programming and Verify(1)
+2.7 - +5.5V
VCC
PDI
PE0
PDO
PE1
SCK
PB1
+2.7 - +5.5V
AVCC
XTAL1
RESET
GND
Notes:
1. If the device is clocked by the internal Oscillator, it is no need to connect a clock source to the
XTAL1 pin.
When programming the EEPROM, an auto-erase cycle is built into the self-timed programming
operation (in the Serial mode ONLY) and there is no need to first execute the Chip Erase
instruction. The Chip Erase operation turns the content of every memory location in both the
Program and EEPROM arrays into 0xFF.
Depending on CKSEL Fuses, a valid clock must be present. The minimum low and high periods
for the serial clock (SCK) input are defined as follows:
Low: > 2 CPU clock cycles for fck < 12 MHz, 3 CPU clock cycles for fck ≥ 12 MHz
High: > 2 CPU clock cycles for fck < 12 MHz, 3 CPU clock cycles for fck ≥ 12 MHz
25.7.2
Pin Mapping
Table 25-13. Pin Mapping Serial Programming
25.7.3
Symbol
Pins
I/O
Description
MOSI (PDI)
PE0
I
Serial Data in
MISO (PDO)
PE1
O
Serial Data out
SCK
PB1
I
Serial Clock
Parameters
The Flash parameters are given in Table 25-11 on page 341 and the EEPROM parameters in
Table 25-12 on page 341.
25.8
SPI Serial Programming
When writing serial data to the AT90CAN32/64/128, data is clocked on the rising edge of SCK.
When reading data from the AT90CAN32/64/128, data is clocked on the falling edge of SCK.
To program and verify the AT90CAN32/64/128 in the serial programming mode, the following
sequence is recommended (See four byte instruction formats in Table 25-15):
349
7679H–CAN–08/08
1. Power-up sequence:
Apply power between VCC and GND while RESET and SCK are set to “0”. In some systems, the programmer can not guarantee that SCK is held low during power-up. In this
case, RESET must be given a positive pulse of at least two CPU clock cycles duration
after SCK has been set to “0”.
2. Wait for at least 20 ms and enable serial programming by sending the Programming
Enable serial instruction to pin MOSI.
3. The serial programming instructions will not work if the communication is out of synchronization. When in sync. the second byte (0x53), will echo back when issuing the
third byte of the Programming Enable instruction. Whether the echo is correct or not, all
four bytes of the instruction must be transmitted. If the 0x53 did not echo back, give
RESET a positive pulse and issue a new Programming Enable command.
4. The Flash is programmed one page at a time. The page size is found in Table 25-11 on
page 341. The memory page is loaded one byte at a time by supplying the 7 LSB of the
address and data together with the Load Program Memory Page instruction. To ensure
correct loading of the page, the data low byte must be loaded before data high byte is
applied for given address. The Program Memory Page is stored by loading the Write
Program Memory Page instruction with the 9 MSB of the address. If polling is not used,
the user must wait at least tWD_FLASH before issuing the next page. (See Table 25-14).
Note:
If other commands than polling (read) are applied before any write operation (Flash,
EEPROM, Lock bits, Fuses) is completed, may result in incorrect programming. A delay of
1 µs is sufficient.
5. The EEPROM array is programmed one byte at a time by supplying the address and
data together with the appropriate Write instruction. An EEPROM memory location is
first automatically erased before new data is written. If polling is not used, the user must
wait at least tWD_EEPROM before issuing the next byte. (See Table 25-14.) In a chip
erased device, no 0xFFs in the data file(s) need to be programmed.
6. Any memory location can be verified by using the Read instruction which returns the
content at the selected address at serial output MISO.
7. At the end of the programming session, RESET can be set high to commence normal
operation.
8. Power-off sequence (if needed):
Set RESET to “1”.
Turn Vcc power off.
25.8.1
Data Polling Flash
When a page is being programmed into the Flash, reading an address location within the page
being programmed will give the value 0xFF. At the time the device is ready for a new page, the
programmed value will read correctly. This is used to determine when the next page can be written. Note that the entire page is written simultaneously and any address within the page can be
used for polling. Data polling of the Flash will not work for the value 0xFF, so when programming
this value, the user will have to wait for at least tWD_FLASH before programming the next page. As
a chip-erased device contains 0xFF in all locations, programming of addresses that are meant to
contain 0xFF, can be skipped. See Table 25-14 for tWD_FLASH value.
25.8.2
Data Polling EEPROM
When a new byte has been written and is being programmed into EEPROM, reading the
address location being programmed will give the value 0xFF. At the time the device is ready for
a new byte, the programmed value will read correctly. This is used to determine when the next
byte can be written. This will not work for the value 0xFF, but the user should have the following
in mind: As a chip-erased device contains 0xFF in all locations, programming of addresses that
350
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are meant to contain 0xFF, can be skipped. This does not apply if the EEPROM is re-programmed without chip erasing the device. In this case, data polling cannot be used for the value
0xFF, and the user will have to wait at least tWD_EEPROM before programming the next byte. See
Table 25-14 for tWD_EEPROM value.
Table 25-14. Minimum Wait Delay Before Writing the Next Flash or EEPROM Location
Symbol
Minimum Wait Delay
tWD_FUSE
4.5 ms
tWD_FLASH
4.5 ms
tWD_EEPROM
9.0 ms
tWD_ERASE
9.0 ms
Figure 25-8. Serial Programming Waveforms
SERIAL DATA INPUT
(MOSI-PDI)
MSB
LSB
SERIAL DATA OUTPUT
(MISO-PDO)
MSB
LSB
SERIAL CLOCK INPUT
(SCK)
Sample
Table 25-15. Serial Programming Instruction Set
Set a = address high bits, b = address low bits, H = 0 - Low byte, 1 - High Byte, o = data out, i = data in, x = don’t care
Instruction Format(1)
Instruction
Byte 1
Byte 2(2)
Byte 3
Operation(1)
Byte4
Programming
Enable
1010 1100 0101 0011 xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx Enable Serial Programming after RESET goes low.
Chip Erase
1010 1100 100x xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx Chip Erase EEPROM and Flash.
Read
Program Memory
0010 H000 aaaa aaaa bbbb bbbb oooo oooo
Load
Program Memory
Page
Write H (high or low) data i to Program Memory page
at word address b. Data low byte must be loaded
0100 H000 000x xxxx xbbb bbbb iiii iiii
before Data high byte is applied within the same
address.
Write
Program Memory
Page
0100 1100 aaaa aaaa bxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx Write Program Memory Page at address a:b.
Read
EEPROM Memory
1010 0000 000x aaaa bbbb bbbb oooo oooo Read data o from EEPROM memory at address a:b.
Write
EEPROM Memory
1100 0000 000x aaaa bbbb bbbb iiii iiii Write data i to EEPROM memory at address a:b.
Read H (high or low) data o from Program memory at
word address a:b.
351
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Table 25-15. Serial Programming Instruction Set (Continued)
Set a = address high bits, b = address low bits, H = 0 - Low byte, 1 - High Byte, o = data out, i = data in, x = don’t care
Instruction Format(1)
Instruction
Byte 1
Byte 2(2)
Byte 3
Operation(1)
Byte4
Load
EEPROM Memory
Page (page access)
1100 0001 0000 0000 0000 0bbb iiii iiii
Write
EEPROM Memory
Page (page access)
1100 0010 000x aaaa bbbb b000 xxxx xxxx Write EEPROM page at address a:b.
Read Lockbits
0101 1000 0000 0000 xxxx xxxx xxoo oooo
Read Lock bits. “0”=programmed, “1”=unprogrammed.
See Table 25-1 on page 336 for details.
Write
Lock bits
1010 1100 111x xxxx xxxx xxxx 11ii iiii
Write Lock bits. Set bits = “0” to program Lock bits.
See Table 25-1 on page 336 for details.
Read
Signature Byte
0011 0000 000x xxxx xxxx xxbb oooo oooo Read Signature Byte o at address b.
Write
Fuse Low bits
1010 1100 1010 0000 xxxx xxxx iiii iiii
Set bits = “0” to program, “1” to unprogram.
See Table 25-5 on page 338 for details.
Write
Fuse High bits
1010 1100 1010 1000 xxxx xxxx iiii iiii
Set bits = “0” to program, “1” to unprogram.
See Table 25-4 on page 337 for details.
Write
Extended Fuse Bits
1010 1100 1010 0100 xxxx xxxx xxxx iiii
Set bits = “0” to program, “1” to unprogram.
See Table 25-3 on page 337 for details.
Read
Fuse Low bits
0101 0000 0000 0000 xxxx xxxx oooo oooo
Read Fuse bits. “0”=programmed, “1”=unprogrammed.
See Table 25-5 on page 338 for details.
Read
Fuse High bits
Read Fuse High bits.
0101 1000 0000 1000 xxxx xxxx oooo oooo “0”=programmed, “1”=unprogrammed.
See Table 25-4 on page 337 for details.
Read
Extended Fuse Bits
Read Extended Fuse bits.
0101 0000 0000 1000 xxxx xxxx oooo oooo “0”=programmed, “1”=unprogrammed.
See Table 25-3 on page 337 for details.
Read
Calibration Byte
0011 1000 000x xxxx 0000 0000 oooo oooo Read Calibration Byte
Poll RDY/BSY
If o = “1”, a programming operation is still busy. Wait
1111 0000 0000 0000 xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxo until this bit returns to “0” before applying another
command.
Notes:
Load data i to EEPROM memory page buffer. After
data is loaded, program EEPROM page.
1. All bytes are represented by binary digits (0b...).
2. Address bits exceeding PCMSB and EEAMSB (see Table 25-11 on page 341 and Table 25-12 on page 341) are don’t care.
25.9
JTAG Programming Overview
Programming through the JTAG interface requires control of the four JTAG specific pins: TCK,
TMS, TDI, and TDO. Control of the reset and clock pins is not required.
To be able to use the JTAG interface, the JTAGEN Fuse must be programmed. The device is
default shipped with the fuse programmed. In addition, the JTD bit in MCUCR must be cleared.
Alternatively, if the JTD bit is set, the external reset can be forced low. Then, the JTD bit will be
cleared after two chip clocks, and the JTAG pins are available for programming. This provides a
means of using the JTAG pins as normal port pins in Running mode while still allowing In-System Programming via the JTAG interface. Note that this technique can not be used when using
352
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the JTAG pins for Boundary-scan or On-chip Debug. In these cases the JTAG pins must be dedicated for this purpose.
During programming the clock frequency of the TCK Input must be less than the maximum frequency of the chip. The System Clock Prescaler can not be used to divide the TCK Clock Input
into a sufficiently low frequency.
As a definition in this datasheet, the LSB is shifted in and out first of all Shift Registers.
25.9.1
Programming Specific JTAG Instructions
The instruction register is 4-bit wide, supporting up to 16 instructions. The JTAG instructions
useful for programming are listed below.
The OPCODE for each instruction is shown behind the instruction name in hex format. The text
describes which data register is selected as path between TDI and TDO for each instruction.
The Run-Test/Idle state of the TAP controller is used to generate internal clocks. It can also be
used as an idle state between JTAG sequences. The state machine sequence for changing the
instruction word is shown in Figure 25-9.
Figure 25-9. State Machine Sequence for Changing the Instruction Word
1
Test-Logic-Reset
0
0
Run-Test/Idle
1
Select-DR Scan
1
Select-IR Scan
0
0
1
1
Capture-DR
Capture-IR
0
0
Shift-DR
0
Shift-IR
1
1
1
Exit1-IR
0
0
0
Pause-DR
0
Pause-IR
1
1
0
Exit2-DR
Exit2-IR
1
1
Update-DR
1
0
1
Exit1-DR
0
1
Update-IR
0
1
0
353
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25.9.1.1
AVR_RESET (0xC)
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction for setting the AVR device in the Reset mode or taking
the device out from the Reset mode. The TAP controller is not reset by this instruction. The one
bit Reset Register is selected as data register. Note that the reset will be active as long as there
is a logic “one” in the Reset Chain. The output from this chain is not latched.
The active states are:
• Shift-DR: The Reset Register is shifted by the TCK input.
25.9.1.2
PROG_ENABLE (0x4)
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction for enabling programming via the JTAG port. The 16bit Programming Enable Register is selected as data register. The active states are the
following:
• Shift-DR: The programming enable signature is shifted into the data register.
• Update-DR: The programming enable signature is compared to the correct value, and
Programming mode is entered if the signature is valid.
25.9.1.3
PROG_COMMANDS (0x5)
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction for entering programming commands via the JTAG
port. The 15-bit Programming Command Register is selected as data register. The active states
are the following:
• Capture-DR: The result of the previous command is loaded into the data register.
• Shift-DR: The data register is shifted by the TCK input, shifting out the result of the previous
command and shifting in the new command.
• Update-DR: The programming command is applied to the Flash inputs
• Run-Test/Idle: One clock cycle is generated, executing the applied command (not always
required, see Table 25-16 below).
25.9.1.4
PROG_PAGELOAD (0x6)
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction to directly load the Flash data page via the JTAG port.
An 8-bit Flash Data Byte Register is selected as the data register. This is physically the 8 LSBs
of the Programming Command Register. The active states are the following:
• Shift-DR: The Flash Data Byte Register is shifted by the TCK input.
• Update-DR: The content of the Flash Data Byte Register is copied into a temporary register.
A write sequence is initiated that within 11 TCK cycles loads the content of the temporary
register into the Flash page buffer. The AVR automatically alternates between writing the low
and the high byte for each new Update-DR state, starting with the low byte for the first
Update-DR encountered after entering the PROG_PAGELOAD command. The Program
Counter is pre-incremented before writing the low byte, except for the first written byte. This
ensures that the first data is written to the address set up by PROG_COMMANDS, and
loading the last location in the page buffer does not make the program counter increment into
the next page.
25.9.1.5
354
PROG_PAGEREAD (0x7)
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction to directly capture the Flash content via the JTAG port.
An 8-bit Flash Data Byte Register is selected as the data register. This is physically the 8 LSBs
of the Programming Command Register. The active states are the following:
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
• Capture-DR: The content of the selected Flash byte is captured into the Flash Data Byte
Register. The AVR automatically alternates between reading the low and the high byte for
each new Capture-DR state, starting with the low byte for the first Capture-DR encountered
after entering the PROG_PAGEREAD command. The Program Counter is post-incremented
after reading each high byte, including the first read byte. This ensures that the first data is
captured from the first address set up by PROG_COMMANDS, and reading the last location
in the page makes the program counter increment into the next page.
• Shift-DR: The Flash Data Byte Register is shifted by the TCK input.
25.9.2
Data Registers
The data registers are selected by the JTAG instruction registers described in section “Programming Specific JTAG Instructions” on page 353. The data registers relevant for programming
operations are:
• Reset Register
• Programming Enable Register
• Programming Command Register
• Flash Data Byte Register
25.9.2.1
Reset Register
The Reset Register is a Test Data Register used to reset the part during programming. It is
required to reset the part before entering Programming mode.
A high value in the Reset Register corresponds to pulling the external reset low. The part is reset
as long as there is a high value present in the Reset Register. Depending on the Fuse settings
for the clock options, the part will remain reset for a Reset Time-out period (refer to “Clock
Sources” on page 38) after releasing the Reset Register. The output from this data register is not
latched, so the reset will take place immediately, as shown in Figure 23-2 on page 302.
25.9.2.2
Programming Enable Register
The Programming Enable Register is a 16-bit register. The contents of this register is compared
to the programming enable signature, binary code 0b1010_0011_0111_0000. When the contents of the register is equal to the programming enable signature, programming via the JTAG
port is enabled. The register is reset to 0 on Power-on Reset, and should always be reset when
leaving Programming mode.
Figure 25-10. Programming Enable Register
TDI
D
A
T
A
0xA370
=
D
Q
Programming Enable
ClockDR & PROG_ENABLE
TDO
355
7679H–CAN–08/08
25.9.2.3
Programming Command Register
The Programming Command Register is a 15-bit register. This register is used to serially shift in
programming commands, and to serially shift out the result of the previous command, if any. The
JTAG Programming Instruction Set is shown in Table 25-16. The state sequence when shifting
in the programming commands is illustrated in Figure 25-12.
Figure 25-11. Programming Command Register
TDI
S
T
R
O
B
E
S
A
D
D
R
E
S
S
/
D
A
T
A
Flash
EEPROM
Fuses
Lock Bits
TDO
Table 25-16. JTAG Programming Instruction
Set a = address high bits, b = address low bits, H = 0 - Low byte, 1 - High Byte, o = data out, i = data in, x = don’t care
Instruction
TDI Sequence(1)(2)
TDO Sequence(1)(2)
1a. Chip Erase
0100011_10000000
0110001_10000000
0110011_10000000
0110011_10000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
1b. Poll for Chip Erase Complete
0110011_10000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
2a. Enter Flash Write
0100011_00010000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
2b. Load Address High Byte
0000111_aaaaaaaa
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
2c. Load Address Low Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
2d. Load Data Low Byte
0010011_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
2e. Load Data High Byte
0010111_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
2f. Latch Data
0110111_00000000
1110111_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
356
Notes
(4)
(11)
(3)
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Table 25-16. JTAG Programming Instruction (Continued)
Set a = address high bits, b = address low bits, H = 0 - Low byte, 1 - High Byte, o = data out, i = data in, x = don’t care
Instruction
TDI Sequence(1)(2)
TDO Sequence(1)(2)
Notes
2g. Write Flash Page
0110111_00000000
0110101_00000000
0110111_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(3)
2h. Poll for Page Write Complete
0110111_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(4)
3a. Enter Flash Read
0100011_00000010
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
3b. Load Address High Byte
0000111_aaaaaaaa
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
3c. Load Address Low Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
3d. Read Data Low and High Byte
0110010_00000000
0110110_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
4a. Enter EEPROM Write
0100011_00010001
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
4b. Load Address High Byte
0000111_aaaaaaaa
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
4c. Load Address Low Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
4d. Load Data Byte
0010011_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
4e. Latch Data
0110111_00000000
1110111_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(3)
4f. Write EEPROM Page
0110011_00000000
0110001_00000000
0110011_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(3)
4g. Poll for Page Write Complete
0110011_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(4)
5a. Enter EEPROM Read
0100011_00000011
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
5b. Load Address High Byte
0000111_aaaaaaaa
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
5c. Load Address Low Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
5d. Read Data Byte
0110011_bbbbbbbb
0110010_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
0100011_01000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
0010011_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(5)
6c. Write Fuse Extended Byte
0111011_00000000
0111001_00000000
0111011_00000000
0111011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(3)
6d. Poll for Fuse Write Complete
0110111_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(4)
6e. Load Data Low Byte(9)
0010011_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(5)
6a. Enter Fuse Write
6b. Load Data Low Byte
(8)
(11)
Low byte
High byte
(11)
(11)
357
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Table 25-16. JTAG Programming Instruction (Continued)
Set a = address high bits, b = address low bits, H = 0 - Low byte, 1 - High Byte, o = data out, i = data in, x = don’t care
Instruction
TDI Sequence(1)(2)
TDO Sequence(1)(2)
Notes
6f. Write Fuse High Byte
0110111_00000000
0110101_00000000
0110111_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(3)
6g. Poll for Fuse Write Complete
0110111_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(4)
6h. Load Data Low Byte(9)
0010011_iiiiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(5)
6i. Write Fuse Low Byte
0110011_00000000
0110001_00000000
0110011_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(3)
6j. Poll for Fuse Write Complete
0110011_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(4)
7a. Enter Lock Bit Write
0100011_00100000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
7b. Load Data Byte
0010011_11iiiiii
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(6)
7c. Write Lock Bits
0110011_00000000
0110001_00000000
0110011_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(3)
7d. Poll for Lock Bit Write complete
0110011_00000000
xxxxxox_xxxxxxxx
(4)
8a. Enter Fuse/Lock Bit Read
0100011_00000100
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
8b. Read Extended Fuse Byte(8)
0111010_00000000
0111011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
8c. Read Fuse High Byte(9)
0111110_00000000
0111111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
8d. Read Fuse Low Byte(10)
0110010_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
8e. Read Lock Bits(11)
0110110_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxoooooo
8f. Read Fuses and Lock Bits
0111010_00000000
0111110_00000000
0110010_00000000
0110110_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
9a. Enter Signature Byte Read
0100011_00001000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
9b. Load Address Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
9c. Read Signature Byte
0110010_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
10a. Enter Calibration Byte Read
0100011_00001000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
(11)
358
(7)
(7)
Fuse Ext. byte
Fuse High byte
Fuse Low byte
Lock bits
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Table 25-16. JTAG Programming Instruction (Continued)
Set a = address high bits, b = address low bits, H = 0 - Low byte, 1 - High Byte, o = data out, i = data in, x = don’t care
Instruction
TDI Sequence(1)(2)
TDO Sequence(1)(2)
10b. Load Address Byte
0000011_bbbbbbbb
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
10c. Read Calibration Byte
0110110_00000000
0110111_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_oooooooo
11a. Load No Operation Command
0100011_00000000
0110011_00000000
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx_xxxxxxxx
Notes:
Notes
1. Address bits exceeding PCMSB and EEAMSB (Table 25-11 and Table 25-12) are don’t care.
2. All TDI and TDO sequences are represented by binary digits (0b...).
3. This command sequence is not required if the seven MSB are correctly set by the previous command sequence (which is
normally the case).
4. Repeat until o = “1”.
5. Set bits to “0” to program the corresponding Fuse, “1” to unprogram the Fuse.
6. Set bits to “0” to program the corresponding Lock bit, “1” to leave the Lock bit unchanged.
7. “0” = programmed, “1” = unprogrammed.
8. The bit mapping for Fuses Extended byte is listed in Table 25-3 on page 337.
9. The bit mapping for Fuses High byte is listed in Table 25-4 on page 337.
10. The bit mapping for Fuses Low byte is listed in Table 25-5 on page 338.
11. The bit mapping for Lock bits byte is listed in Table 25-1 on page 336.
359
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 25-12. State Machine Sequence for Changing/Reading the Data Word
1
Test-Logic-Reset
0
0
Run-Test/Idle
1
Select-DR Scan
1
Select-IR Scan
0
0
1
1
Capture-DR
Capture-IR
0
0
Shift-DR
0
Shift-IR
1
Exit1-DR
0
0
Pause-DR
0
Pause-IR
1
1
0
Exit2-DR
Exit2-IR
1
1
Update-DR
25.9.2.4
1
Exit1-IR
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
Update-IR
0
1
0
Flash Data Byte Register
The Flash Data Byte Register provides an efficient way to load the entire Flash page buffer
before executing Page Write, or to read out/verify the content of the Flash. A state machine sets
up the control signals to the Flash and senses the strobe signals from the Flash, thus only the
data words need to be shifted in/out.
The Flash Data Byte Register actually consists of the 8-bit scan chain and a 8-bit temporary register. During page load, the Update-DR state copies the content of the scan chain over to the
temporary register and initiates a write sequence that within 11 TCK cycles loads the content of
the temporary register into the Flash page buffer. The AVR automatically alternates between
writing the low and the high byte for each new Update-DR state, starting with the low byte for the
first Update-DR encountered after entering the PROG_PAGELOAD command. The Program
Counter is pre-incremented before writing the low byte, except for the first written byte. This
ensures that the first data is written to the address set up by PROG_COMMANDS, and loading
the last location in the page buffer does not make the Program Counter increment into the next
page.
During Page Read, the content of the selected Flash byte is captured into the Flash Data Byte
Register during the Capture-DR state. The AVR automatically alternates between reading the
low and the high byte for each new Capture-DR state, starting with the low byte for the first Cap-
360
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7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
ture-DR encountered after entering the PROG_PAGEREAD command. The Program Counter is
post-incremented after reading each high byte, including the first read byte. This ensures that
the first data is captured from the first address set up by PROG_COMMANDS, and reading the
last location in the page makes the program counter increment into the next page.
Figure 25-13. Flash Data Byte Register
STROBES
State
Machine
ADDRESS
TDI
Flash
EEPROM
Fuses
Lock Bits
D
A
T
A
TDO
The state machine controlling the Flash Data Byte Register is clocked by TCK. During normal
operation in which eight bits are shifted for each Flash byte, the clock cycles needed to navigate
through the TAP controller automatically feeds the state machine for the Flash Data Byte Register with sufficient number of clock pulses to complete its operation transparently for the user.
However, if too few bits are shifted between each Update-DR state during page load, the TAP
controller should stay in the Run-Test/Idle state for some TCK cycles to ensure that there are at
least 11 TCK cycles between each Update-DR state.
25.9.3
25.9.3.1
Programming Algorithm
All references below of type “1a”, “1b”, and so on, refer to Table 25-16 on page 356.
Entering Programming Mode
1. Enter JTAG instruction AVR_RESET and shift 1 in the Reset Register.
2. Enter instruction PROG_ENABLE and shift 0b1010_0011_0111_0000 in the Programming Enable Register.
25.9.3.2
Leaving Programming Mode
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Disable all programming instructions by using no operation instruction 11a.
3. Enter instruction PROG_ENABLE and shift 0b0000_0000_0000_0000 in the programming Enable Register.
4. Enter JTAG instruction AVR_RESET and shift 0 in the Reset Register.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
25.9.3.3
Performing Chip Erase
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Start Chip Erase using programming instruction 1a.
3. Poll for Chip Erase complete using programming instruction 1b, or wait for tWLRH_CE
(refer to Table 26-15 on page 382).
25.9.3.4
Programming the Flash
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Flash write using programming instruction 2a.
3. Load address High byte using programming instruction 2b.
4. Load address Low byte using programming instruction 2c.
5. Load data using programming instructions 2d, 2e and 2f.
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for all instruction words in the page.
7. Write the page using programming instruction 2g.
8. Poll for Flash write complete using programming instruction 2h, or wait for tWLRH (refer
to ).
9. Repeat steps 3 to 7 until all data have been programmed.
A more efficient data transfer can be achieved using the PROG_PAGELOAD instruction:
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Flash write using programming instruction 2a.
3. Load the page address using programming instructions 2b and 2c. PCWORD (refer to
Table 25-11 on page 341) is used to address within one page and must be written as 0.
4. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_PAGELOAD.
5. Load the entire page by shifting in all instruction words in the page byte-by-byte, starting with the LSB of the first instruction in the page and ending with the MSB of the last
instruction in the page. Use Update-DR to copy the contents of the Flash Data Byte
Register into the Flash page location and to auto-increment the Program Counter
before each new word.
6. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
7. Write the page using programming instruction 2g.
8. Poll for Flash write complete using programming instruction 2h, or wait for tWLRH (refer
to Table 26-15 on page 382).
9. Repeat steps 3 to 8 until all data have been programmed.
25.9.3.5
Reading the Flash
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Flash read using programming instruction 3a.
3. Load address using programming instructions 3b and 3c.
4. Read data using programming instruction 3d.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until all data have been read.
A more efficient data transfer can be achieved using the PROG_PAGEREAD instruction:
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Flash read using programming instruction 3a.
3. Load the page address using programming instructions 3b and 3c. PCWORD (refer to
Table 25-11 on page 341) is used to address within one page and must be written as 0.
362
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4. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_PAGEREAD.
5. Read the entire page (or Flash) by shifting out all instruction words in the page (or
Flash), starting with the LSB of the first instruction in the page (Flash) and ending with
the MSB of the last instruction in the page (Flash). The Capture-DR state both captures
the data from the Flash, and also auto-increments the program counter after each word
is read. Note that Capture-DR comes before the shift-DR state. Hence, the first byte
which is shifted out contains valid data.
6. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
7. Repeat steps 3 to 6 until all data have been read.
25.9.3.6
Programming the EEPROM
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable EEPROM write using programming instruction 4a.
3. Load address High byte using programming instruction 4b.
4. Load address Low byte using programming instruction 4c.
5. Load data using programming instructions 4d and 4e.
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for all data bytes in the page.
7. Write the data using programming instruction 4f.
8. Poll for EEPROM write complete using programming instruction 4g, or wait for tWLRH
(refer to Table 26-15 on page 382).
9. Repeat steps 3 to 8 until all data have been programmed.
Note that the PROG_PAGELOAD instruction can not be used when programming the EEPROM.
25.9.3.7
Reading the EEPROM
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable EEPROM read using programming instruction 5a.
3. Load address using programming instructions 5b and 5c.
4. Read data using programming instruction 5d.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until all data have been read.
Note that the PROG_PAGEREAD instruction can not be used when reading the EEPROM.
25.9.3.8
Programming the Fuses
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Fuse write using programming instruction 6a.
3. Load data high byte using programming instructions 6b. A bit value of “0” will program
the corresponding fuse, a “1” will unprogram the fuse.
4. Write Fuse High byte using programming instruction 6c.
5. Poll for Fuse write complete using programming instruction 6d, or wait for tWLRH (refer to
Table 26-15 on page 382).
6. Load data low byte using programming instructions 6e. A “0” will program the fuse, a
“1” will unprogram the fuse.
7. Write Fuse low byte using programming instruction 6f.
8. Poll for Fuse write complete using programming instruction 6g, or wait for tWLRH (refer to
Table 26-15 on page 382).
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7679H–CAN–08/08
25.9.3.9
Programming the Lock Bits
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Lock bit write using programming instruction 7a.
3. Load data using programming instructions 7b. A bit value of “0” will program the corresponding lock bit, a “1” will leave the lock bit unchanged.
4. Write Lock bits using programming instruction 7c.
5. Poll for Lock bit write complete using programming instruction 7d, or wait for tWLRH
(refer to Table 26-15 on page 382).
25.9.3.10
Reading the Fuses and Lock Bits
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Fuse/Lock bit read using programming instruction 8a.
3. To read all Fuses and Lock bits, use programming instruction 8f.
To only read Extended Fuse byte, use programming instruction 8b.
To only read Fuse High byte, use programming instruction 8c.
To only read Fuse Low byte, use programming instruction 8d.
To only read Lock bits, use programming instruction 8e.
25.9.3.11
Reading the Signature Bytes
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Signature byte read using programming instruction 9a.
3. Load address 0x00 using programming instruction 9b.
4. Read first signature byte using programming instruction 9c.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 with address 0x01 and address 0x02 to read the second and third
signature bytes, respectively.
25.9.3.12
Reading the Calibration Byte
1. Enter JTAG instruction PROG_COMMANDS.
2. Enable Calibration byte read using programming instruction 10a.
3. Load address 0x00 using programming instruction 10b.
4. Read the calibration byte using programming instruction 10c.
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AT90CAN32/64/128
26. Electrical Characteristics (1)
26.1
Absolute Maximum Ratings*
Industrial Operating Temperature ...................– 40°C to +85°C
Storage Temperature ....................................– 65°C to +150°C
Voltage on any Pin except RESET
with respect to Ground .............................. – 0.5V to VCC+0.5V
Voltage on RESET with respect to Ground.... – 0.5V to +13.0V
Voltage on VCC with respect to Ground............. – 0.5V to 6.0V
*NOTICE:
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute
Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and
functional operation of the device at these or
other conditions beyond those indicated in the
operational sections of this specification is not
implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating
conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
DC Current per I/O Pin ............................................... 40.0 mA
DC Current VCC and GND Pins................................ 200.0 mA
Note:
1. Electrical Characteristics for this product have not yet been finalized. Please consider all values listed herein as preliminary
and non-contractual.
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7679H–CAN–08/08
26.2
DC Characteristics
TA = -40°C to +85°C, VCC = 2.7V to 5.5V (unless otherwise noted)
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
Min.
VIL
Input Low Voltage
Except XTAL1 and
RESET pins
VIL1
Input Low Voltage
VIL2
Max.
Units
– 0.5
0.2 Vcc (1)
V
XTAL1 pin - External
Clock Selected
– 0.5
0.1 Vcc (1)
V
Input Low Voltage
RESET pin
– 0.5
0.2 Vcc (1)
V
VIH
Input High Voltage
Except XTAL1 and
RESET pins
0.6 Vcc (2)
Vcc + 0.5
V
VIH1
Input High Voltage
XTAL1 pin - External
Clock Selected
0.7 Vcc (2)
Vcc + 0.5
V
VIH2
Input High Voltage
RESET pin
0.85 Vcc (2)
Vcc + 0.5
V
VOL
Output Low Voltage (3)
(Ports A, B, C, D, E, F, G)
IOL = 20 mA, VCC = 5V
IOL = 10 mA, VCC = 3V
0.7
0.5
V
VOH
Output High Voltage (4)
(Ports A, B, C, D, E, F, G)
IOH = – 20 mA, VCC = 5V
IOH = – 10 mA, VCC = 3V
IIL
Input Leakage
Current I/O Pin
VCC = 5.5V, pin low
(absolute value)
1.0
µA
IIH
Input Leakage
Current I/O Pin
VCC = 5.5V, pin high
(absolute value)
1.0
µA
RRST
Reset Pull-up Resistor
30
100
kΩ
Rpu
I/O Pin Pull-up Resistor
20
50
kΩ
8 MHz, VCC = 5V
15
mA
16 MHz, VCC = 5V
29
mA
4 MHz, VCC = 3V
4
mA
8 MHz, VCC = 3V
8
mA
8 MHz, VCC = 5V
9
mA
16 MHz, VCC = 5V
17
mA
4 MHz, VCC = 3V
3
mA
8 MHz, VCC = 3V
5
mA
WDT enabled, VCC = 5V
40
µA
WDT disabled, VCC = 5V
18
µA
WDT enabled, VCC = 3V
25
µA
WDT disabled, VCC = 3V
10
µA
20
mV
Power Supply Current
Active Mode
(external clock)
ICC
Power Supply Current
Idle Mode
(external clock)
Power Supply Current
Power-down Mode
VACIO
366
Analog Comparator
Input Offset Voltage
VCC = 5V
Vin = VCC/2
Typ.
4.2
2.4
1.0
V
8.0
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
TA = -40°C to +85°C, VCC = 2.7V to 5.5V (unless otherwise noted) (Continued)
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
Min.
IACLK
Analog Comparator
Input Leakage Current
VCC = 5V
Vin = VCC/2
– 50
Analog Comparator
Propagation Delay
Common Mode Vcc/2
VCC = 2.7V
170
ns
tACID
VCC = 5.0V
180
ns
Notes:
Typ.
Max.
Units
50
nA
1. “Max” means the highest value where the pin is guaranteed to be read as low
2. “Min” means the lowest value where the pin is guaranteed to be read as high
3. Although each I/O port can sink more than the test conditions (20 mA at VCC = 5V, 10 mA at VCC = 3V) under steady state
conditions (non-transient), the following must be observed:
TQFP and QFN Package:
1] The sum of all IOL, for all ports, should not exceed 400 mA.
2] The sum of all IOL, for ports A0 - A7, G2, C3 - C7 should not exceed 300 mA.
3] The sum of all IOL, for ports C0 - C2, G0 - G1, D0 - D7, XTAL2 should not exceed 150 mA.
4] The sum of all IOL, for ports B0 - B7, G3 - G4, E0 - E7 should not exceed 150 mA.
5] The sum of all IOL, for ports F0 - F7, should not exceed 200 mA.
If IOL exceeds the test condition, VOL may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to sink current greater
than the listed test condition.
4. Although each I/O port can source more than the test conditions (-20 mA at VCC = 5V, -10 mA at VCC = 3V) under steady
state conditions (non-transient), the following must be observed:
TQFP and QFN Package:
1] The sum of all IOH, for all ports, should not exceed -400 mA.
2] The sum of all IOH, for ports A0 - A7, G2, C3 - C7 should not exceed -300 mA.
3] The sum of all IOH, for ports C0 - C2, G0 - G1, D0 - D7, XTAL2 should not exceed 1-50 mA.
4] The sum of all IOH, for ports B0 - B7, G3 - G4, E0 - E7 should not exceed -150 mA.
5] The sum of all IOH, for ports F0 - F7, should not exceed -200 mA.
If IOH exceeds the test condition, VOH may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to source current
greater than the listed test condition.
26.3
External Clock Drive Characteristics
Figure 26-1. External Clock Drive Waveforms
V IH1
V IL1
Table 26-1.
Symbol
External Clock Drive
Parameter
VCC = 2.7 - 5.5V
VCC = 4.5 - 5.5V
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
0
8
0
16
Units
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
MHz
tCLCL
Clock Period
125
62.5
ns
tCHCX
High Time
50
25
ns
367
7679H–CAN–08/08
Table 26-1.
Symbol
26.4
External Clock Drive (Continued)
Parameter
VCC = 2.7 - 5.5V
VCC = 4.5 - 5.5V
Min.
Min.
Max.
50
Units
Max.
tCLCX
Low Time
25
ns
tCLCH
Rise Time
1.6
0.5
μs
tCHCL
Fall Time
1.6
0.5
μs
ΔtCLCL
Change in period from one clock cycle
to the next
2
2
%
Maximum Speed vs. VCC
Maximum frequency is depending on VCC. As shown in Figure 26-2., the Maximum Frequency
vs. VCC curve is linear between 1.8V < VCC < 4.5V. To calculate the maximum frequency at a
given voltage in this interval, use this equation:
Frequency = a • ( V – Vx ) + Fy
To calculate required voltage for a given frequency, use this equation:
Voltage = b • ( F – Fy ) + Vx
Table 26-2.
Constants used to calculate maximum speed vs. VCC
Voltage and Frequency range
a
b
Vx
Fy
2.7 < VCC < 4.5 or 8 < Frequency < 16
8/1.8
1.8/8
2.7
8
At 3 Volt, this gives:
8
1.8
Frequency = -------- • ( 3 – 2.7 ) + 8 = 9.33
Thus, when VCC = 3V, maximum frequency will be 9.33 MHz.
At 8 MHz this gives:
1.8
8
Voltage = -------- • ( 8 – 8 ) + 2.7 = 2.7
Thus, a maximum frequency of 8 MHz requires VCC = 2.7V.
Figure 26-2. Maximum Frequency vs. VCC, AT90CAN32/64/128
Frequency
16 MHz
8 MHz
Safe Operating Area
Voltage
2.7V
368
4.5V
5.5V
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
26.5
Two-wire Serial Interface Characteristics
Table 26-3 describes the requirements for devices connected to the Two-wire Serial Bus. The
AT90CAN32/64/128 Two-wire Serial Interface meets or exceeds these requirements under the
noted conditions.
Timing symbols refer to Figure 26-3.
Table 26-3.
Two-wire Serial Bus Requirements
Symbol
Parameter
VIL
VIH
tr
Max
Units
Input Low-voltage
– 0.5
0.3 Vcc
V
Input High-voltage
0.7 Vcc
Vcc + 0.5
V
–
V
0
0.4
V
20 + 0.1Cb
300
ns
20 + 0.1Cb
(3)(2)
250
ns
0
50 (2)
ns
– 10
10
µA
–
10
pF
0
400
kHz
fSCL ≤ 100 kHz
V CC – 0,4V
---------------------------3mA
1000ns
------------------Cb
Ω
fSCL > 100 kHz
V CC – 0,4V
---------------------------3mA
300ns
---------------Cb
Ω
fSCL ≤ 100 kHz
4.0
–
µs
Hysteresis of Schmitt Trigger Inputs
(1)
Output Low-voltage
Vhys
VOL
Min
(1)
(1)
Output Fall Time from VIHmin to VILmax
(1)
tSP
Spikes Suppressed by Input Filter
Ii
Input Current each I/O Pin
Ci(1)
Capacitance for each I/O Pin
Rp
tHD;STA
SCL Clock Frequency
3 mA sink current
Hold Time (repeated) START Condition
10 pF < Cb < 400 pF (3)
0.1 VCC < Vi < 0.9 VCC
fCK
(4)
> max(16fSCL, 250kHz)
(5)
fSCL > 100 kHz
Low Period of the SCL Clock
tHIGH
High period of the SCL clock
tSU;STA
Set-up time for a repeated START
condition
tHD;DAT
Data hold time
tSU;DAT
Data setup time
tSU;STO
Setup time for STOP condition
tBUF
Bus free time between a STOP and
START condition
(2)
(3)(2)
Value of Pull-up resistor
tLOW
Notes:
0.05 Vcc
Rise Time for both SDA and SCL
(1)
tof
fSCL
Condition
0.6
–
µs
fSCL ≤ 100 kHz
(6)
4.7
–
µs
fSCL > 100 kHz
(7)
1.3
–
µs
fSCL ≤ 100 kHz
4.0
–
µs
fSCL > 100 kHz
0.6
–
µs
fSCL ≤ 100 kHz
4.7
–
µs
fSCL > 100 kHz
0.6
–
µs
fSCL ≤ 100 kHz
0
3.45
µs
fSCL > 100 kHz
0
0.9
µs
fSCL ≤ 100 kHz
250
–
ns
fSCL > 100 kHz
100
–
ns
fSCL ≤ 100 kHz
4.0
–
µs
fSCL > 100 kHz
0.6
–
µs
fSCL ≤ 100 kHz
4.7
–
µs
1. In AT90CAN32/64/128, this parameter is characterized and not 100% tested.
369
7679H–CAN–08/08
2. Required only for fSCL > 100 kHz.
3. Cb = capacitance of one bus line in pF.
4. fCK = CPU clock frequency
5. This requirement applies to all AT90CAN32/64/128 Two-wire Serial Interface operation. Other devices connected to the
Two-wire Serial Bus need only obey the general fSCL requirement.
6. The actual low period generated by the AT90CAN32/64/128 Two-wire Serial Interface is (1/fSCL - 2/fCK), thus fCK must be
greater than 6 MHz for the low time requirement to be strictly met at fSCL = 100 kHz.
7. The actual low period generated by the AT90CAN32/64/128 Two-wire Serial Interface is (1/fSCL - 2/fCK), thus the low time
requirement will not be strictly met for fSCL > 308 kHz when fCK = 8 MHz. Still, AT90CAN32/64/128 devices connected to the
bus may communicate at full speed (400 kHz) with other AT90CAN32/64/128 devices, as well as any other device with a
proper tLOW acceptance margin.
Figure 26-3. Two-wire Serial Bus Timing
tHIGH
tof
tLOW
tr
tLOW
SCL
tSU;STA
tHD;STA
tHD;DAT
tSU;DAT
tSU;STO
SDA
tBUF
26.6
SPI Timing Characteristics
See Figure 26-4 and Figure 26-5 for details.
Table 26-4.
Description
Mode
1
SCK period
Master
See Table 16-4
2
SCK high/low
Master
50% duty cycle
3
Rise/Fall time
Master
3.6
4
Setup
Master
10
5
Hold
Master
10
6
Out to SCK
Master
0.5 • tsck
7
SCK to out
Master
10
8
SCK to out high
Master
10
9
SS low to out
Slave
15
10
SCK period
Slave
4 • tck
Slave
2 • tck
11
12
370
SPI Timing Parameters
SCK high/low
(1)
Rise/Fall time
Slave
Min.
Typ.
Max.
ns
1.6
µs
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Table 26-4.
SPI Timing Parameters (Continued)
Description
Mode
Min.
13
Setup
Slave
10
14
Hold
Slave
tck
15
SCK to out
Slave
16
SCK to SS high
Slave
17
SS high to tri-state
Slave
18
SS low to SCK
Slave
Note:
Typ.
Max.
15
ns
20
10
2 • tck
In SPI Programming mode the minimum SCK high/low period is:
- 2 tCLCL for fCK < 12 MHz
- 3 tCLCL for fCK >12 MHz
Figure 26-4. SPI Interface Timing Requirements (Master Mode)
SS
6
1
SCK
(CPOL = 0)
2
2
SCK
(CPOL = 1)
4
MISO
(Data Input)
5
3
MSB
...
LSB
7
MOSI
(Data Output)
MSB
8
...
LSB
Figure 26-5. SPI Interface Timing Requirements (Slave Mode)
18
SS
10
9
16
SCK
(CPOL = 0)
11
11
SCK
(CPOL = 1)
13
MOSI
(Data Input)
14
12
MSB
...
LSB
17
15
MISO
(Data Output)
MSB
...
LSB
X
371
7679H–CAN–08/08
26.7
CAN Physical Layer Characteristics
Only pads dedicated to the CAN communication belong to the physical layer.
Table : CAN Physical Layer Characteristics (1)
Parameter
1
2
Notes:
TxCAN output delay
RxCAN input delay
Condition
Min.
Max.
Units
Vcc=2.7 V
Load=20 pF
VOL/VOH=VCC/2
9
Vcc=4.5 V
Load=20 pF
VOL/VOH=VCC/2
5.3
ns
Vcc=2.7 V
VIL/VIH=VCC/2
9+
Vcc=4.5 V
VIL/VIH=VCC/2
7.2 +
1
/ fCLKIO(2)
1
/ fCLKIO(2)
1. Characteristics for CAN physical layer have not yet been finalized.
2. Metastable immunity flip-flop.
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AT90CAN32/64/128
26.8
ADC Characteristics
Table 26-5.
Symbol
ADC Characteristics, Single Ended Channels
Min(1)
Typ(1)
Max(1)
Parameter
Condition
Resolution
Single Ended Conversion
10
Bits
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, Vcc = 4V
ADC clock = 200 kHz
1.5
LSB
Absolute accuracy
(Included INL, DNL,
Quantization Error, Gain and
Offset Error)
Units
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, Vcc = 4V
ADC clock = 1 MHz
LSB
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, Vcc = 4V
ADC clock = 200 kHz
Noise Reduction Mode
1.5
LSB
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, Vcc = 4V
ADC clock = 1 MHz
Noise Reduction Mode
Integral Non-linearity (INL)
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, Vcc = 4V
ADC clock = 200 kHz
0.5
1
LSB
Differential Non-linearity (DNL)
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, Vcc = 4V
ADC clock = 200 kHz
0.3
1
LSB
Gain Error
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, Vcc = 4V
ADC clock = 200 kHz
–2
0
+2
LSB
Offset Error
Single Ended Conversion
VREF = 4V, Vcc = 4V
ADC clock = 200 kHz
–2
1
+2
LSB
Clock Frequency
Free Running Conversion
50
1000
kHz
Conversion Time
Free Running Conversion
65
AVCC
Analog Supply Voltage
VREF
External Reference Voltage
VIN
LSB
Input voltage
VCC – 0.3
260
(2)
VCC + 0.3
µs
(3)
V
2.0
AVCC
V
GND
VREF
V
Input bandwidth
38.5
VINT
Internal Voltage Reference
RREF
Reference Input Resistance
32
kΩ
RAIN
Analog Input Resistance
100
MΩ
Notes:
2.4
2.56
kHz
2.7
V
1. Values are guidelines only.
2. Minimum for AVCC is 2.7 V.
3. Maximum for AVCC is 5.5 V
373
7679H–CAN–08/08
Table 26-6.
Symbol
ADC Characteristics, Differential Channels
Parameter
Condition
Min(1)
Typ(1)
Max(1)
Units
Differential Conversion
Gain = 1x or 10x
8
Bits
Differential Conversion
Gain = 200x
7
Bits
Absolute accuracy
Gain = 1x, 10x or 200x
VREF = 4V, Vcc = 5V
ADC clock = 50 - 200 kHz
1
LSB
Integral Non-linearity (INL)
(Accuracy after Calibration
for Offset and Gain Error)
Gain = 1x, 10x or 200x
VREF = 4V, Vcc = 5V
ADC clock = 50 - 200 kHz
0.5
1
LSB
Gain Error
Gain = 1x, 10x or 200x
–2
0
+2
LSB
Offset Error
Gain = 1x, 10x or 200x
VREF = 4V, Vcc = 5V
ADC clock = 50 - 200 kHz
–1
0
+1
LSB
Clock Frequency
Free Running Conversion
50
200
kHz
Conversion Time
Free Running Conversion
65
Resolution
Analog Supply Voltage
VREF
External Reference Voltage
Differential Conversion
2.0
AVCC - 0.5
V
Input voltage
Differential Conversion
0
AVCC
V
Input Differential Voltage
–VREF/Gain
+VREF/Gain
V
ADC Conversion Output
–511
511
LSB
VDIFF
Input bandwidth
Differential Conversion
VCC + 0.3
µs
(3)
AVCC
VIN
VCC – 0.3
260
(2)
4
2.56
kHz
VINT
Internal Voltage Reference
RREF
Reference Input Resistance
32
kΩ
RAIN
Analog Input Resistance
100
MΩ
Notes:
2.4
V
2.7
V
1. Values are guidelines only.
2. Minimum for AVCC is 2.7 V.
3. Maximum for AVCC is 5.5 V
374
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
26.9
External Data Memory Characteristics
Table 26-7.
External Data Memory Characteristics, VCC = 4.5 - 5.5 Volts, No Wait-state
8 MHz Oscillator
Symbol
Variable Oscillator
Parameter
Unit
Min.
0
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
1
tLHLL
ALE Pulse Width
Max.
115
Min.
Max.
0.0
16
MHz
1.0 tCLCL – 10
ns
(1)
2
tAVLL
Address Valid A to ALE Low
57.5
3a
tLLAX_ST
Address Hold After ALE Low,
write access
5
5
ns
3b
tLLAX_LD
Address Hold after ALE Low,
read access
5
5
ns
4
tAVLLC
Address Valid C to ALE Low
57.5
0.5 tCLCL – 5 (1)
ns
5
tAVRL
Address Valid to RD Low
115
1.0 tCLCL – 10
ns
6
tAVWL
Address Valid to WR Low
115
1.0 tCLCL – 10
7
tLLWL
ALE Low to WR Low
8
tLLRL
ALE Low to RD Low
9
tDVRH
Data Setup to RD High
10
tRLDV
Read Low to Data Valid
11
tRHDX
Data Hold After RD High
12
tRLRH
13
47.5
47.5
0.5 tCLCL – 5
67.5
67.5
40
0.5 tCLCL – 15
(2)
0.5 tCLCL – 15
(2)
ns
ns
0.5 tCLCL + 5
(2)
ns
0.5 tCLCL + 5
(2)
ns
40
ns
75
1.0 tCLCL – 50
ns
0
0
ns
RD Pulse Width
115
1.0 tCLCL – 10
ns
tDVWL
Data Setup to WR Low
42.5
0.5 tCLCL – 20 (1)
ns
14
tWHDX
Data Hold After WR High
115
1.0 tCLCL – 10
ns
15
tDVWH
Data Valid to WR High
125
1.0 tCLCL
ns
16
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
115
1.0 tCLCL – 10
ns
Notes:
1. This assumes 50% clock duty cycle. The half period is actually the high time of the external clock, XTAL1.
2. This assumes 50% clock duty cycle. The half period is actually the low time of the external clock, XTAL1.
Table 26-8.
External Data Memory Characteristics, VCC = 4.5 - 5.5 Volts, 1 Cycle Wait-state
8 MHz Oscillator
Symbol
Variable Oscillator
Parameter
Unit
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
0.0
16
0
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
10
tRLDV
Read Low to Data Valid
12
tRLRH
RD Pulse Width
240
2.0 tCLCL – 10
ns
15
tDVWH
Data Valid to WR High
240
2.0 tCLCL
ns
16
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
240
2.0 tCLCL – 10
ns
200
2.0 tCLCL – 50
MHz
ns
375
7679H–CAN–08/08
Table 26-9.
External Data Memory Characteristics, VCC = 4.5 - 5.5 Volts, SRWn1 = 1, SRWn0 = 0
8 MHz Oscillator
Symbol
Variable Oscillator
Parameter
Unit
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
0.0
16
0
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
10
tRLDV
Read Low to Data Valid
12
tRLRH
RD Pulse Width
365
3.0 tCLCL – 10
ns
15
tDVWH
Data Valid to WR High
375
3.0 tCLCL
ns
16
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
365
3.0 tCLCL – 10
ns
325
MHz
3.0 tCLCL – 50
ns
Table 26-10. External Data Memory Characteristics, VCC = 4.5 - 5.5 Volts, SRWn1 = 1, SRWn0 = 1
8 MHz Oscillator
Symbol
Variable Oscillator
Parameter
Unit
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
0.0
16
0
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
10
tRLDV
Read Low to Data Valid
12
tRLRH
RD Pulse Width
365
3.0 tCLCL – 10
ns
14
tWHDX
Data Hold After WR High
240
2.0 tCLCL – 10
ns
15
tDVWH
Data Valid to WR High
375
3.0 tCLCL
ns
16
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
365
3.0 tCLCL – 10
ns
200
MHz
3.0 tCLCL – 50
ns
Table 26-11. External Data Memory Characteristics, VCC = 2.7 - 5.5 Volts, No Wait-state
4 MHz Oscillator
Symbol
Variable Oscillator
Parameter
Unit
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
0.0
16
0
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
1
tLHLL
ALE Pulse Width
235
tCLCL – 15
ns
2
tAVLL
Address Valid A to ALE Low
115
0.5 tCLCL – 10 (1)
ns
3a
tLLAX_ST
Address Hold After ALE Low,
write access
5
5
ns
3b
tLLAX_LD
Address Hold after ALE Low,
read access
5
5
ns
4
tAVLLC
Address Valid C to ALE Low
115
0.5 tCLCL – 10 (1)
ns
5
tAVRL
Address Valid to RD Low
235
1.0 tCLCL – 15
ns
6
tAVWL
Address Valid to WR Low
235
1.0 tCLCL – 15
7
tLLWL
ALE Low to WR Low
115
8
tLLRL
ALE Low to RD Low
115
9
tDVRH
Data Setup to RD High
45
10
tRLDV
Read Low to Data Valid
376
130
130
0.5 tCLCL – 10
(2)
0.5 tCLCL – 10
(2)
MHz
ns
0.5 tCLCL + 5
(2)
ns
0.5 tCLCL + 5
(2)
ns
45
190
ns
1.0 tCLCL – 60
ns
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Table 26-11. External Data Memory Characteristics, VCC = 2.7 - 5.5 Volts, No Wait-state (Continued)
4 MHz Oscillator
Symbol
Variable Oscillator
Parameter
Unit
Min.
11
tRHDX
Data Hold After RD High
12
tRLRH
13
Max.
Min.
Max.
0
0
ns
RD Pulse Width
235
1.0 tCLCL – 15
ns
tDVWL
Data Setup to WR Low
105
0.5 tCLCL – 20 (1)
ns
14
tWHDX
Data Hold After WR High
235
1.0 tCLCL – 15
ns
15
tDVWH
Data Valid to WR High
250
1.0 tCLCL
ns
16
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
235
1.0 tCLCL – 15
ns
Notes:
1. This assumes 50% clock duty cycle. The half period is actually the high time of the external clock, XTAL1.
2. This assumes 50% clock duty cycle. The half period is actually the low time of the external clock, XTAL1.
Table 26-12. External Data Memory Characteristics, VCC = 2.7 - 5.5 Volts, SRWn1 = 0, SRWn0 = 1
4 MHz Oscillator
Symbol
Variable Oscillator
Parameter
Unit
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
0.0
8
0
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
10
tRLDV
Read Low to Data Valid
12
tRLRH
RD Pulse Width
485
2.0 tCLCL – 15
ns
15
tDVWH
Data Valid to WR High
500
2.0 tCLCL
ns
16
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
485
2.0 tCLCL – 15
ns
440
2.0 tCLCL – 60
MHz
ns
Table 26-13. External Data Memory Characteristics, VCC = 2.7 - 5.5 Volts, SRWn1 = 1, SRWn0 = 0
4 MHz Oscillator
Symbol
Variable Oscillator
Parameter
Unit
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
0.0
8
0
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
10
tRLDV
Read Low to Data Valid
12
tRLRH
RD Pulse Width
735
3.0 tCLCL – 15
ns
15
tDVWH
Data Valid to WR High
750
3.0 tCLCL
ns
16
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
735
3.0 tCLCL – 15
ns
690
3.0 tCLCL – 60
MHz
ns
Table 26-14. External Data Memory Characteristics, VCC = 2.7 - 5.5 Volts, SRWn1 = 1, SRWn0 = 1
4 MHz Oscillator
Symbol
Variable Oscillator
Parameter
Unit
Min.
0
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
10
tRLDV
Read Low to Data Valid
12
tRLRH
RD Pulse Width
Max.
Min.
Max.
0.0
8
690
735
3.0 tCLCL – 60
3.0 tCLCL – 15
MHz
ns
ns
377
7679H–CAN–08/08
Table 26-14. External Data Memory Characteristics, VCC = 2.7 - 5.5 Volts, SRWn1 = 1, SRWn0 = 1 (Continued)
4 MHz Oscillator
Symbol
Variable Oscillator
Parameter
Unit
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
14
tWHDX
Data Hold After WR High
485
2.0 tCLCL – 15
ns
15
tDVWH
Data Valid to WR High
750
3.0 tCLCL
ns
16
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
735
3.0 tCLCL – 15
ns
Figure 26-6. External Memory Timing (SRWn1 = 0, SRWn0 = 0)
T1
T2
T3
T4
System Clock (CLKCPU )
1
ALE
4
A15:8
7
Prev. addr.
Address
15
DA7:0
Prev. data
13
3a
Address
XX
Data
14
16
6
Write
2
WR
9
3b
Address
Data
5
Read
DA7:0 (XMBK = 0)
11
10
8
12
RD
378
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 26-7. External Memory Timing (SRWn1 = 0, SRWn0 = 1)
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
System Clock (CLKCPU )
1
ALE
4
A15:8
7
Prev. addr.
Address
15
DA7:0
Prev. data
13
3a
Address
Data
XX
14
16
6
Write
2
WR
9
3b
DA7:0 (XMBK = 0)
Data
5
Read
Address
11
10
8
12
RD
Figure 26-8. External Memory Timing (SRWn1 = 1, SRWn0 = 0)
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
System Clock (CLKCPU )
1
ALE
4
A15:8
7
Address
Prev. addr.
15
DA7:0
Prev. data
13
3a
Address
XX
Data
14
16
6
Write
2
WR
9
3b
Address
11
Data
5
Read
DA7:0 (XMBK = 0)
10
8
12
RD
379
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 26-9. External Memory Timing (SRWn1 = 1, SRWn0 = 1)(1)
T1
T2
T3
T6
T5
T4
T7
System Clock (CLKCPU )
1
ALE
4
A15:8
7
Address
Prev. addr.
15
DA7:0
Prev. data
13
3a
Address
XX
Data
14
16
6
Write
2
WR
9
3b
Address
11
Data
5
Read
DA7:0 (XMBK = 0)
10
8
12
RD
Note:
1. The ALE pulse in the last period (T4-T7) is only present if the next instruction accesses the
RAM (internal or external).
26.10 Parallel Programming Characteristics
Figure 26-10. Parallel Programming Timing, Including some General Timing Requirements
tXLWL
tXHXL
XTAL1
tDVXH
tXLDX
tBVPH
tPLBX t BVWL
Data & Contol
(DATA, XA0/1, BS1, BS2)
PAGEL
tWLBX
tPHPL
tWLWH
WR
tPLWL
WLRL
RDY/BSY
tWLRH
380
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 26-11. Parallel Programming Timing, Loading Sequence with Timing Requirements(1)
LOAD ADDRESS
(LOW BYTE)
LOAD DATA LOAD DATA
(HIGH BYTE)
LOAD DATA
(LOW BYTE)
tXLPH
t XLXH
LOAD ADDRESS
(LOW BYTE)
tPLXH
XTAL1
BS1
PAGEL
DATA
ADDR0 (Low Byte)
DATA (Low Byte)
DATA (High Byte)
ADDR1 (Low Byte)
XA0
XA1
Note:
1. The timing requirements shown in Figure 26-10 (i.e., tDVXH, tXHXL, and tXLDX) also apply to
loading operation.
Figure 26-12. Parallel Programming Timing, Reading Sequence (within the Same Page) with
Timing Requirements(1)
LOAD ADDRESS
(LOW BYTE)
READ DATA
(LOW BYTE)
READ DATA
(HIGH BYTE)
LOAD ADDRESS
(LOW BYTE)
tXLOL
XTAL1
tBVDV
BS1
tOLDV
OE
DATA
tOHDZ
ADDR0 (Low Byte)
DATA (Low Byte)
DATA (High Byte)
ADDR1 (Low Byte)
XA0
XA1
381
7679H–CAN–08/08
Note:
1. The timing requirements shown in Figure 26-10 (i.e., tDVXH, tXHXL, and tXLDX) also apply to
reading operation.
Table 26-15. Parallel Programming Characteristics, VCC = 5V ± 10%
Symbol
Parameter
Min.
VPP
Programming Enable Voltage
11.5
IPP
Programming Enable Current
tDVXH
Data and Control Valid before XTAL1 High
67
ns
tXLXH
XTAL1 Low to XTAL1 High
200
ns
tXHXL
XTAL1 Pulse Width High
150
ns
tXLDX
Data and Control Hold after XTAL1 Low
67
ns
tXLWL
XTAL1 Low to WR Low
0
ns
tXLPH
XTAL1 Low to PAGEL high
0
ns
tPLXH
PAGEL low to XTAL1 high
150
ns
tBVPH
BS1 Valid before PAGEL High
67
ns
tPHPL
PAGEL Pulse Width High
150
ns
tPLBX
BS1 Hold after PAGEL Low
67
ns
tWLBX
BS2/1 Hold after WR Low
67
ns
tPLWL
PAGEL Low to WR Low
67
ns
tBVWL
BS1 Valid to WR Low
67
ns
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width Low
150
ns
tWLRL
WR Low to RDY/BSY Low
(1)
WR Low to RDY/BSY High
tWLRH
Max.
Units
12.5
V
250
μA
0
1
μs
3.7
5
ms
7.5
10
ms
tWLRH_CE
WR Low to RDY/BSY High for Chip Erase
tXLOL
XTAL1 Low to OE Low
0
tBVDV
BS1 Valid to DATA valid
0
tOLDV
tOHDZ
Notes:
382
(2)
Typ.
ns
250
ns
OE Low to DATA Valid
250
ns
OE High to DATA Tri-stated
250
ns
1.
tWLRH is valid for the Write Flash, Write EEPROM, Write Fuse bits and Write Lock bits
commands.
2.
tWLRH_CE is valid for the Chip Erase command.
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
27. Decoupling Capacitors
The operating frequency (i.e. system clock) of the processor determines in 95% of cases the
value needed for microcontroller decoupling capacitors.
The hypotheses used as first evaluation for decoupling capacitors are:
• The operating frequency (fop) supplies itself the maximum peak levels of noise. The main
peaks are located at fop and 2 • fop.
• An SMC capacitor connected to 2 micro-vias on a PCB has the following characteristics:
– 1.5 nH from the connection of the capacitor to the PCB,
– 1.5 nH from the capacitor intrinsic inductance.
Figure 27-1. Capacitor description
1.5 nH
0.75 nH
Capacitor
0.75 nH
PCB
According to the operating frequency of the product, the decoupling capacitances are chosen
considering the frequencies to filter, fop and 2 • fop.
The relation between frequencies to cut and decoupling characteristics are defined by:
f op
where:
1
= ----------------------2Π LC 1
and
1
2 • f op = ----------------------2Π LC 2
– L: the inductance equivalent to the global inductance on the Vcc/Gnd lines.
– C1 & C2: decoupling capacitors (C1 = 4 • C2).
Then, in normalized value range, the decoupling capacitors become:
Table 27-1.
Decoupling Capacitors vs. Frequency
fop , operating frequency
C1
C2
16 MHz
33 nF
10 nF
12 MHz
56 nF
15 nF
10 MHz
82 nF
22 nF
8 MHz
120 nF
33 nF
6 MHz
220 nF
56 nF
4 MHz
560 nF
120 nF
These decoupling capacitors must to be implemented as close as possible to each pair of power
supply pins:
– 21-22 and 52-53 for logic sub-system,
– 64-63 for analogical sub-system.
Nevertheless, a bulk capacitor of 10-47 µF is also needed on the power distribution network of
the PCB, near the power source.
For further information, please refer to Application Notes AVR040 “EMC Design Considerations“
and AVR042 “Hardware Design Considerations“ on the Atmel web site.
383
7679H–CAN–08/08
28. AT90CAN32/64/128 Typical Characteristics
• The following charts show typical behavior. These figures are not tested during
manufacturing. All current consumption measurements are performed with all I/O pins
configured as inputs and with internal pull-ups enabled. A sine wave generator with rail-to-rail
output is used as clock source.
• The power consumption in Power-down mode is independent of clock selection.
• The current consumption is a function of several factors such as: operating voltage, operating
frequency, loading of I/O pins, switching rate of I/O pins, code executed and ambient
temperature. The dominating factors are operating voltage and frequency.
• The current drawn from capacitive loaded pins may be estimated (for one pin) as CL*VCC*f
where CL = load capacitance, VCC = operating voltage and f = average switching frequency of
I/O pin.
• The parts are characterized at frequencies higher than test limits. Parts are not guaranteed to
function properly at frequencies higher than the ordering code indicates.
• The difference between current consumption in Power-down mode with Watchdog Timer
enabled and Power-down mode with Watchdog Timer disabled represents the differential
current drawn by the Watchdog Timer.
28.1
Active Supply Current
Figure 28-1. Active Supply Current vs. Frequency (0.1 - 1.0 MHz)
ACTIVE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. FREQUENCY (25°C, 0.1 - 1 MHz)
3
Icc (mA)
2.5
2
5.50V
5.00V
4.50V
1.5
4.00V
1
3.30V
3.00V
2.70V
0.5
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Frequency (MHz)
384
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 28-2. Active Supply Current vs. Frequency (1 - 16 MHz)
ACTIVE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. FREQUENCY (25°C, 1 - 16 MHz)
40
35
30
5.50V
5.00V
4.50V
4.00V
3.30V
3.00V
2.70V
Icc (mA)
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 28-3. Active Supply Current vs. Vcc (Internal RC Oscillator 8 MHz)
ACTIVE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. Vcc (Internal RC Oscillator 8 MHz)
20
18
16
Icc (mA)
14
12
85°C
25°C
-40°C
10
8
6
4
2
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
385
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 28-4. Active Supply Current vs. Vcc (Internal RC Oscillator 1 MHz)
ACTIVE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. Vcc (Internal RC Oscillator 1 MHz)
3
2.5
Icc (mA)
2
85°C
1.5
25°C
-40°C
1
0.5
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
Figure 28-5. Active Supply Current vs. Vcc (32 kHz Watch Crystal)
ACTIVE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. Vcc (32 kHz Watch Crystal)
140
120
Icc (uA)
100
80
25°C
60
40
20
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
386
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
28.2
Idle Supply Current
Figure 28-6. Idle Supply Current vs. Frequency (0.1 - 1.0 MHz)
IDLE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. FREQUENCY (25°C, 0.1 - 1 MHz)
1.6
1.4
1.2
5.50V
5.00V
4.50V
4.00V
3.30V
3.00V
2.70V
Icc (mA)
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 28-7. Idle Supply Current vs. Frequency (1 - 16 MHz)
IDLE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. FREQUENCY (25°C, 1 - 16 MHz)
25
Icc (mA)
20
5.50V
5.00V
4.50V
4.00V
3.30V
3.00V
2.70V
15
10
5
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Frequency (MHz)
387
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 28-8. Idle Supply Current vs. Vcc (Internal RC Oscillator 8 MHz)
IDLE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. Vcc (Internal RC Oscillator 8 MHz)
14
12
Icc (mA)
10
85°C
25°C
-40°C
8
6
4
2
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
Figure 28-9. Idle Supply Current vs. Vcc (Internal RC Oscillator 1 MHz)
IDLE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. Vcc (Internal RC Oscillator 1 MHz)
1.8
1.6
1.4
Icc (mA)
1.2
85°C
1
25°C
0.8
-40°C
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
388
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 28-10. Idle Supply Current vs. Vcc (32 kHz Watch Crystal)
IDLE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. Vcc (32 KHz Watch Crystal)
60
50
Icc (uA)
40
30
25°C
20
10
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
28.3
Power-down Supply Current
Figure 28-11. Power-down Supply Current vs. Vcc (Watchdog Timer Disabled)
POWER-DOWN SUPPLY CURRENT vs. Vcc (Watchdog Timer Disabled)
9
8
7
Icc (uA)
6
85°C
25°C
-40°C
5
4
3
2
1
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
389
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 28-12. Power-down Supply Current vs. Vcc (Watchdog Timer Enabled)
POWER-DOWN SUPPLY CURRENT vs. Vcc (Watchdog Timer Enabled)
25
22.5
20
Icc (uA)
17.5
15
85°C
25°C
-40°C
12.5
10
7.5
5
2.5
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
28.4
Power-save Supply Current
Figure 28-13. Power-save Supply Current vs. Vcc (Watchdog Timer Disabled)
POWER-SAVE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. Vcc (Watchdog Timer Disabled)
25
22.5
20
Icc (uA)
17.5
15
12.5
25°C
10
7.5
5
2.5
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
390
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
28.5
Standby Supply Current
Figure 28-14. Power-save Supply Current vs. Vcc (25°C, Watchdog Timer Disabled)
STANDBY SUPPLY CURRENT vs. Vcc (25°C, Watchdog Timer Disabled)
0.2
0.18
0.16
Icc (mA)
0.14
6 MHZ Xtal
4 MHZ Res
2 MHZ Xtal
2 MHZ Res
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
28.6
Pin Pull-up
Figure 28-15. I/O Pin Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Input Voltage (Vcc = 5V)
I/O PIN PULL-UP RESISTOR CURRENT vs. INPUT VOLTAGE (Vcc = 5V)
0
-20
-40
I IO (uA)
-60
85°C
25°C
-40°C
-80
-100
-120
-140
-160
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
V IO (V)
391
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 28-16. I/O Pin Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Input Voltage (Vcc = 2.7V)
I/O PIN PULL-UP RESISTOR CURRENT vs. INPUT VOLTAGE (Vcc = 2.7V)
0
-10
-20
I IO (uA)
-30
85°C
25°C
-40°C
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
V IO (V)
Figure 28-17. Reset Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Reset Pin Voltage (Vcc = 5V)
RESET PULL-UP RESISTOR CURRENT vs. RESET PIN VOLTAGE (Vcc = 5V)
0
-20
I RESET (uA)
-40
85°C
25°C
-40°C
-60
-80
-100
-120
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
V RESET (V)
392
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 28-18. Reset Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Reset Pin Voltage (Vcc = 2.7V)
RESET PULL-UP RESISTOR CURRENT vs. RESET PIN VOLTAGE (Vcc = 2.7V)
0
-10
I RESET (uA)
-20
85°C
25°C
-40°C
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
V RESET (V)
28.7
Pin Driver Strength
Figure 28-19. I/O Pin Source Current vs. Output Voltage (Vcc = 5V)
I/O PIN SOURCE CURRENT vs. OUTPUT VOLTAGE (Vcc = 5V)
0
-10
-20
I OH (mA)
-30
85°C
25°C
-40°C
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
V OH (V)
393
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 28-20. I/O Pin Source Current vs. Output Voltage (Vcc = 2.7V)
I/O PIN SOURCE CURRENT vs. OUTPUT VOLTAGE (Vcc = 2.7V)
0
-5
I OH (mA)
-10
85°C
25°C
-40°C
-15
-20
-25
-30
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
V OH (V)
Figure 28-21. I/O Pin Sink Current vs. Output Voltage (Vcc = 5V)
I/O PIN SINK CURRENT vs. OUTPUT VOLTAGE (Vcc = 5V)
90
80
70
I OL (mA)
60
85°C
25°C
-40°C
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
V OL (V)
394
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 28-22. I/O Pin Sink Current vs. Output Voltage (Vcc = 2.7V)
I/O PIN SINK CURRENT vs. OUTPUT VOLTAGE (Vcc = 2.7V)
35
30
I OL (mA)
25
85°C
25°C
-40°C
20
15
10
5
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
V OL (V)
28.8
Pin Thresholds and Hysteresis
Figure 28-23. I/O Input Threshold Voltage vs. Vcc (VIH, I/O Pin Read as “1”)
I/O PIN INPUT THRESHOLD VOLTAGE vs. VCC (VIH, I/O PIN READ AS "1")
2
Threshold (V)
1.75
1.5
85°C
1.25
25°C
-40°C
1
0.75
0.5
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
395
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 1. I/O Input Threshold Voltage vs. Vcc (VIL, I/O Pin Read as “0”)
I/O PIN INPUT THRESHOLD VOLTAGE vs. VCC (VIL, I/O PIN READ AS "0")
2
Threshold (V)
1.75
1.5
85°C
1.25
25°C
-40°C
1
0.75
0.5
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
Figure 2. I/O Input Hysteresis vs. Vcc
I/O PIN INPUT HYSTERESIS vs. VCC
0.6
Threshold (V)
0.5
0.4
85°C
0.3
25°C
-40°C
0.2
0.1
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
396
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
28.9
BOD Thresholds and Analog Comparator Offset
Figure 28-24. BOD Thresholds vs. Temperature (BOD level is 4.1V)
BOD THRESHOLDS vs. TEMPERATURE (BOD level is 4.1V)
4.4
Threshold (V)
4.2
4
Rising Vcc
Falling Vcc
3.8
3.6
3.4
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
Temp (°C)
Figure 28-25. BOD Thresholds vs. Temperature (BOD level is 2.7V)
BOD THRESHOLDS vs. TEMPERATURE (BOD level is 2.7V)
3
Threshold (V)
2.8
2.6
Rising Vcc
Falling Vcc
2.4
2.2
2
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
Temp (°C)
397
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 28-26. Bandgap Voltage vs. Operating Voltage
BANDGAP VOLTAGE vs. OPERATING VOLTAGE
1.14
Bandgap Voltage (V)
1.13
1.12
85°C
1.11
25°C
-40°C
1.1
1.09
1.08
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
Figure 28-27. Analog Comparator Offset vs. Common Mode Voltage (Vcc = 5V)
ANALOG COMPARATOR OFFSET vs. COMMON MODE VOLTAGE (Vcc = 5V)
Comparator Offset Voltage (V)
0.012
0.01
0.008
85°C
0.006
25°C
0.004
-40°C
0.002
0
-0.002
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Common Voltage Mode (V)
398
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
28.10 Internal Oscillator Speed
Figure 28-28. Watchdog Oscillator Frequency vs. Operating Voltage
WATCHDOG OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. VCC
1200
1150
F WATCHDOG (kHz)
1100
1050
85°C
1000
25°C
-40°C
950
900
850
800
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
Figure 28-29. Calibrated 8 MHz RC Oscillator Frequency vs. Temperature
CALIBRATED 8MHz RC OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. TEMPERATURE
8.8
8.6
F RC (MHz)
8.4
8.2
2.7V
8
4.0V
5.5V
7.8
7.6
7.4
7.2
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
Temp (°C)
399
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 28-30. Calibrated 8 MHz RC Oscillator Frequency vs. Operating Voltage
CALIBRATED 8MHz RC OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. VCC
10
9.5
F RC (MHz)
9
8.5
85°C
8
25°C
-40°C
7.5
7
6.5
6
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
Figure 28-31. Calibrated 8 MHz RC Oscillator Frequency vs. OSCCAL Value
CALIBRATED 8MHz RC OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. OSCCAL VALUE
16
15
14
13
F RC (MHz)
12
11
85°C
10
25°C
-40°C
9
8
7
6
5
4
0
16
32
48
64
80
96
112
128
OSCCAL Value
400
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
28.11 Current Consumption of Peripheral Units
Figure 28-32. Brownout Detector Current vs. Operating Voltage
BROWNOUT DETECTOR CURRENT vs. Vcc
35
30
Icc (uA)
25
85°C
25°C
-40°C
20
15
10
5
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
Figure 28-33. ADC Current vs. Operating Voltage (ADC at 1 MHz)
ADC CURRENT vs. Vcc (ADC at 1 MHz)
300
250
Icc (uA)
200
85°C
25°C
-40°C
150
100
50
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
401
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 28-34. AREF External Reference Current vs. Operating Voltage
AREF EXTERNAL REFERENCE CURRENT vs. Vcc
200
180
IAREF (uA)
160
140
85°C
25°C
-40°C
120
100
80
60
40
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
Figure 28-35. Analog Comparator Current vs. Operating Voltage
ANALOG COMPARATOR CURRENT vs. Vcc
120
100
I CC (uA)
80
85°C
25°C
-40°C
60
40
20
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
402
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Figure 28-36. Programming Current vs. Operating Voltage
PROGRAMMING CURRENT vs. Vcc
25
I CC (mA)
20
15
85°C
25°C
-40°C
10
5
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
28.12 Current Consumption in Reset and Reset Pulse Width
Figure 28-37. Reset Supply Current vs. Operating Voltage (0.1 - 1.0 MHz)
(Excluding Current Through the Reset Pull-up)
RESET SUPPLY CURRENT vs. FREQUENCY (25°C, 0.1 - 1 MHz)
(EXCLUDING CURRENT THROUGH THE RESET PULL-UP)
0.25
Icc (mA)
0.2
5.50V
5.00V
4.50V
4.00V
3.30V
3.00V
2.70V
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Frequency (MHz)
403
7679H–CAN–08/08
Figure 28-38. Reset Supply Current vs. Operating Voltage (1 - 16 MHz)
(Excluding Current Through the Reset Pull-up)
RESET SUPPLY CURRENT vs. FREQUENCY (1 - 16 MHz)
(EXCLUDING CURRENT THROUGH THE RESET PULL-UP)
3.5
3
5.50V
2.5
Icc (mA)
5.00V
4.50V
2
4.00V
1.5
3.30V
3.00V
1
2.70V
0.5
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 28-39. Minimum Reset Pulse Width vs. Operating Voltage
MINIMUM RESET PULSE WIDTH vs. Vcc
1500
Pulse Width (ns)
1250
1000
85°C
25°C
-40°C
750
500
250
0
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
Vcc (V)
404
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
29. Register Summary
Address
Name
(0xFF)
Reserved
(0xFE)
Reserved
(0xFD)
Reserved
(0xFC)
Reserved
(0xFB)
Reserved
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
(0xFA)
CANMSG
MSG 7
MSG 6
MSG 5
MSG 4
MSG 3
MSG 2
MSG 1
MSG 0
page 266
(0xF9)
CANSTMH
TIMSTM15
TIMSTM14
TIMSTM13
TIMSTM12
TIMSTM11
TIMSTM10
TIMSTM9
TIMSTM8
page 266
(0xF8)
CANSTML
TIMSTM7
TIMSTM6
TIMSTM5
TIMSTM4
TIMSTM3
TIMSTM2
TIMSTM1
TIMSTM0
page 266
(0xF7)
CANIDM1
IDMSK28
IDMSK27
IDMSK26
IDMSK25
IDMSK24
IDMSK23
IDMSK22
IDMSK21
page 265
(0xF6)
CANIDM2
IDMSK20
IDMSK19
IDMSK18
IDMSK17
IDMSK16
IDMSK15
IDMSK14
IDMSK13
page 265
(0xF5)
CANIDM3
IDMSK12
IDMSK11
IDMSK10
IDMSK9
IDMSK8
IDMSK7
IDMSK6
IDMSK5
page 265
(0xF4)
CANIDM4
IDMSK4
IDMSK3
IDMSK2
IDMSK1
IDMSK0
RTRMSK
–
IDEMSK
page 265
(0xF3)
CANIDT1
IDT28
IDT27
IDT26
IDT25
IDT24
IDT23
IDT22
IDT21
page 263
(0xF2)
CANIDT2
IDT20
IDT19
IDT18
IDT17
IDT16
IDT15
IDT14
IDT13
page 263
(0xF1)
CANIDT3
IDT12
IDT11
IDT10
IDT9
IDT8
IDT7
IDT6
IDT5
page 263
(0xF0)
CANIDT4
IDT4
IDT3
IDT2
IDT1
IDT0
RTRTAG
RB1TAG
RB0TAG
page 263
(0xEF)
CANCDMOB
CONMOB1
CONMOB0
RPLV
IDE
DLC3
DLC2
DLC1
DLC0
page 262
(0xEE)
CANSTMOB
DLCW
TXOK
RXOK
BERR
SERR
CERR
FERR
AERR
page 261
(0xED)
CANPAGE
MOBNB3
MOBNB2
MOBNB1
MOBNB0
AINC
INDX2
INDX1
INDX0
page 260
(0xEC)
CANHPMOB
HPMOB3
HPMOB2
HPMOB1
HPMOB0
CGP3
CGP2
CGP1
CGP0
page 260
(0xEB)
CANREC
REC7
REC6
REC5
REC4
REC3
REC2
REC1
REC0
page 260
(0xEA)
CANTEC
TEC7
TEC6
TEC5
TEC4
TEC3
TEC2
TEC1
TEC0
page 260
(0xE9)
CANTTCH
TIMTTC15
TIMTTC14
TIMTTC13
TIMTTC12
TIMTTC11
TIMTTC10
TIMTTC9
TIMTTC8
page 260
(0xE8)
CANTTCL
TIMTTC7
TIMTTC6
TIMTTC5
TIMTTC4
TIMTTC3
TIMTTC2
TIMTTC1
TIMTTC0
page 260
(0xE7)
CANTIMH
CANTIM15
CANTIM14
CANTIM13
CANTIM12
CANTIM11
CANTIM10
CANTIM9
CANTIM8
page 259
(0xE6)
CANTIML
CANTIM7
CANTIM6
CANTIM5
CANTIM4
CANTIM3
CANTIM2
CANTIM1
CANTIM0
page 259
(0xE5)
CANTCON
TPRSC7
TPRSC6
TPRSC5
TPRSC4
TPRSC3
TPRSC2
TRPSC1
TPRSC0
page 259
(0xE4)
CANBT3
–
PHS22
PHS21
PHS20
PHS12
PHS11
PHS10
SMP
page 258
(0xE3)
CANBT2
–
SJW1
SJW0
–
PRS2
PRS1
PRS0
–
page 258
(0xE2)
CANBT1
–
BRP5
BRP4
BRP3
BRP2
BRP1
BRP0
–
page 257
(0xE1)
CANSIT1
–
SIT14
SIT13
SIT12
SIT11
SIT10
SIT9
SIT8
page 257
(0xE0)
CANSIT2
SIT7
SIT6
SIT5
SIT4
SIT3
SIT2
SIT1
SIT0
page 257
(0xDF)
CANIE1
–
IEMOB14
IEMOB13
IEMOB12
IEMOB11
IEMOB10
IEMOB9
IEMOB8
page 257
(0xDE)
CANIE2
IEMOB7
IEMOB6
IEMOB5
IEMOB4
IEMOB3
IEMOB2
IEMOB1
IEMOB0
page 257
(0xDD)
CANEN1
–
ENMOB14
ENMOB13
ENMOB12
ENMOB11
ENMOB10
ENMOB9
ENMOB8
page 256
(0xDC)
CANEN2
ENMOB7
ENMOB6
ENMOB5
ENMOB4
ENMOB3
ENMOB2
ENMOB1
ENMOB0
page 256
(0xDB)
CANGIE
ENIT
ENBOFF
ENRX
ENTX
ENERR
ENBX
ENERG
ENOVRT
page 255
(0xDA)
CANGIT
CANIT
BOFFIT
OVRTIM
BXOK
SERG
CERG
FERG
AERG
page 254
(0xD9)
CANGSTA
–
OVRG
–
TXBSY
RXBSY
ENFG
BOFF
ERRP
page 253
(0xD8)
CANGCON
ABRQ
OVRQ
TTC
SYNTTC
LISTEN
TEST
ENA/STB
SWRES
page 252
(0xD7)
Reserved
(0xD6)
Reserved
(0xD5)
Reserved
(0xD4)
Reserved
(0xD3)
Reserved
(0xD2)
Reserved
(0xD1)
Reserved
(0xD0)
Reserved
(0xCF)
Reserved
(0xCE)
UDR1
UDR17
UDR16
UDR15
UDR14
UDR13
UDR12
UDR11
UDR10
page 195
(0xCD)
UBRR1H
–
–
–
–
UBRR111
UBRR110
UBRR19
UBRR18
page 199
(0xCC)
UBRR1L
UBRR17
UBRR16
UBRR15
UBRR14
UBRR13
UBRR12
UBRR11
UBRR10
page 199
(0xCB)
Reserved
(0xCA)
UCSR1C
–
UMSEL1
UPM11
UPM10
USBS1
UCSZ11
UCSZ10
UCPOL1
page 198
(0xC9)
UCSR1B
RXCIE1
TXCIE1
UDRIE1
RXEN1
TXEN1
UCSZ12
RXB81
TXB81
page 197
(0xC8)
UCSR1A
RXC1
TXC1
UDRE1
FE1
DOR1
UPE1
U2X1
MPCM1
page 195
(0xC7)
Reserved
(0xC6)
UDR0
UDR07
UDR06
UDR05
UDR04
UDR03
UDR02
UDR01
UDR00
page 195
(0xC5)
UBRR0H
–
–
–
–
UBRR011
UBRR010
UBRR09
UBRR08
page 199
(0xC4)
UBRR0L
UBRR07
UBRR06
UBRR05
UBRR04
UBRR03
UBRR02
UBRR01
UBRR00
page 199
(0xC3)
Reserved
(0xC2)
UCSR0C
–
UMSEL0
UPM01
UPM00
USBS0
UCSZ01
UCSZ00
UCPOL0
page 197
(0xC1)
UCSR0B
RXCIE0
TXCIE0
UDRIE0
RXEN0
TXEN0
UCSZ02
RXB80
TXB80
page 196
(0xC0)
UCSR0A
RXC0
TXC0
UDRE0
FE0
DOR0
UPE0
U2X0
MPCM0
page 195
(0xBF)
Reserved
405
7679H–CAN–08/08
Address
Name
(0xBE)
Reserved
(0xBD)
Reserved
(0xBC)
TWCR
TWINT
(0xBB)
TWDR
TWDR7
(0xBA)
TWAR
TWAR6
(0xB9)
TWSR
(0xB8)
TWBR
(0xB7)
Reserved
406
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
TWDR6
TWDR5
TWDR4
TWDR3
TWDR2
–
TWIE
page 212
TWDR1
TWDR0
TWAR5
TWAR4
TWAR3
TWAR2
TWAR1
TWAR0
TWGCE
page 214
page 214
TWS7
TWS6
TWS5
TWS4
TWS3
–
TWPS1
TWPS0
page 213
TWBR7
TWBR6
TWBR5
TWBR4
TWBR3
TWBR2
TWBR1
TWBR0
page 212
–
–
–
EXCLK
AS2
TCN2UB
OCR2UB
TCR2UB
page 160
(0xB6)
ASSR
(0xB5)
Reserved
(0xB4)
Reserved
(0xB3)
OCR2A
OCR2A7
OCR2A6
OCR2A5
OCR2A4
OCR2A3
OCR2A2
OCR2A1
OCR2A0
page 159
(0xB2)
TCNT2
TCNT27
TCNT26
TCNT25
TCNT24
TCNT23
TCNT22
TCNT21
TCNT20
page 159
(0xB1)
Reserved
FOC2A
WGM20
COM2A1
COM2A0
WGM21
CS22
CS21
CS20
page 164
(0xB0)
TCCR2A
(0xAF)
Reserved
(0xAE)
Reserved
(0xAD)
Reserved
(0xAC)
Reserved
(0xAB)
Reserved
(0xAA)
Reserved
(0xA9)
Reserved
(0xA8)
Reserved
(0xA7)
Reserved
(0xA6)
Reserved
(0xA5)
Reserved
(0xA4)
Reserved
(0xA3)
Reserved
(0xA2)
Reserved
(0xA1)
Reserved
(0xA0)
Reserved
(0x9F)
Reserved
(0x9E)
Reserved
(0x9D)
OCR3CH
OCR3C15
OCR3C14
OCR3C13
OCR3C12
OCR3C11
OCR3C10
OCR3C9
OCR3C8
page 141
(0x9C)
OCR3CL
OCR3C7
OCR3C6
OCR3C5
OCR3C4
OCR3C3
OCR3C2
OCR3C1
OCR3C0
page 141
(0x9B)
OCR3BH
OCR3B15
OCR3B14
OCR3B13
OCR3B12
OCR3B11
OCR3B10
OCR3B9
OCR3B8
page 141
(0x9A)
OCR3BL
OCR3B7
OCR3B6
OCR3B5
OCR3B4
OCR3B3
OCR3B2
OCR3B1
OCR3B0
page 141
(0x99)
OCR3AH
OCR3A15
OCR3A14
OCR3A13
OCR3A12
OCR3A11
OCR3A10
OCR3A9
OCR3A8
page 141
(0x98)
OCR3AL
OCR3A7
OCR3A6
OCR3A5
OCR3A4
OCR3A3
OCR3A2
OCR3A1
OCR3A0
page 141
(0x97)
ICR3H
ICR315
ICR314
ICR313
ICR312
ICR311
ICR310
ICR39
ICR38
page 142
(0x96)
ICR3L
ICR37
ICR36
ICR35
ICR34
ICR33
ICR32
ICR31
ICR30
page 142
(0x95)
TCNT3H
TCNT315
TCNT314
TCNT313
TCNT312
TCNT311
TCNT310
TCNT39
TCNT38
page 140
(0x94)
TCNT3L
TCNT37
TCNT36
TCNT35
TCNT34
TCNT33
TCNT32
TCNT31
TCNT30
page 140
(0x93)
Reserved
(0x92)
TCCR3C
FOC3A
FOC3B
FOC3C
–
–
–
–
(0x91)
TCCR3B
ICNC3
ICES3
–
WGM33
WGM32
CS32
CS31
CS30
page 138
(0x90)
TCCR3A
COM3A1
COM3A0
COM3B1
COM3B0
COM3C1
COM3C0
WGM31
WGM30
page 135
page 140
(0x8F)
Reserved
(0x8E)
Reserved
(0x8D)
OCR1CH
OCR1C15
OCR1C14
OCR1C13
OCR1C12
OCR1C11
OCR1C10
OCR1C9
OCR1C8
page 141
(0x8C)
OCR1CL
OCR1C7
OCR1C6
OCR1C5
OCR1C4
OCR1C3
OCR1C2
OCR1C1
OCR1C0
page 141
(0x8B)
OCR1BH
OCR1B15
OCR1B14
OCR1B13
OCR1B12
OCR1B11
OCR1B10
OCR1B9
OCR1B8
page 141
(0x8A)
OCR1BL
OCR1B7
OCR1B6
OCR1B5
OCR1B4
OCR1B3
OCR1B2
OCR1B1
OCR1B0
page 141
(0x89)
OCR1AH
OCR1A15
OCR1A14
OCR1A13
OCR1A12
OCR1A11
OCR1A10
OCR1A9
OCR1A8
page 141
(0x88)
OCR1AL
OCR1A7
OCR1A6
OCR1A5
OCR1A4
OCR1A3
OCR1A2
OCR1A1
OCR1A0
page 141
(0x87)
ICR1H
ICR115
ICR114
ICR113
ICR112
ICR111
ICR110
ICR19
ICR18
page 142
(0x86)
ICR1L
ICR17
ICR16
ICR15
ICR14
ICR13
ICR12
ICR11
ICR10
page 142
(0x85)
TCNT1H
TCNT115
TCNT114
TCNT113
TCNT112
TCNT111
TCNT110
TCNT19
TCNT18
page 140
(0x84)
TCNT1L
TCNT17
TCNT16
TCNT15
TCNT14
TCNT13
TCNT12
TCNT11
TCNT10
page 140
(0x83)
Reserved
page 139
(0x82)
TCCR1C
FOC1A
FOC1B
FOC1C
–
–
–
–
–
(0x81)
TCCR1B
ICNC1
ICES1
–
WGM13
WGM12
CS12
CS11
CS10
page 138
(0x80)
TCCR1A
COM1A1
COM1A0
COM1B1
COM1B0
COM1C1
COM1C0
WGM11
WGM10
page 135
(0x7F)
DIDR1
–
–
–
–
–
–
AIN1D
AIN0D
page 272
(0x7E)
DIDR0
ADC7D
ADC6D
ADC5D
ADC4D
ADC3D
ADC2D
ADC1D
ADC0D
page 292
(0x7D)
Reserved
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
(0x7C)
ADMUX
REFS1
REFS0
ADLAR
MUX4
MUX3
MUX2
MUX1
MUX0
page 287
(0x7B)
ADCSRB
–
ACME
–
–
–
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
page 291, 269
(0x7A)
ADCSRA
ADEN
ADSC
ADATE
ADIF
ADIE
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
page 289
(0x79)
ADCH
- / ADC9
- / ADC8
- / ADC7
- / ADC6
- / ADC5
- / ADC4
ADC9 / ADC3
ADC8 / ADC2
page 290
(0x78)
ADCL
ADC7 / ADC1
ADC6 / ADC0
ADC5 / -
ADC4 / -
ADC3 / -
ADC2 / -
ADC1 / -
ADC0 /
page 290
(0x77)
Reserved
(0x76)
Reserved
(0x75)
XMCRB
XMBK
–
–
–
–
XMM2
XMM1
XMM0
page 33
(0x74)
XMCRA
SRE
SRL2
SRL1
SRL0
SRW11
SRW10
SRW01
SRW00
page 32
(0x73)
Reserved
(0x72)
Reserved
(0x71)
TIMSK3
–
–
ICIE3
–
OCIE3C
OCIE3B
OCIE3A
TOIE3
page 142
(0x70)
TIMSK2
–
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE2A
TOIE2
page 162
(0x6F)
TIMSK1
–
–
ICIE1
–
OCIE1C
OCIE1B
OCIE1A
TOIE1
page 142
(0x6E)
TIMSK0
–
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE0A
TOIE0
page 112
(0x6D)
Reserved
(0x6C)
Reserved
(0x6B)
Reserved
(0x6A)
EICRB
ISC71
ISC70
ISC61
ISC60
ISC51
ISC50
ISC41
ISC40
page 94
(0x69)
EICRA
ISC31
ISC30
ISC21
ISC20
ISC11
ISC10
ISC01
ISC00
page 93
(0x68)
Reserved
(0x67)
Reserved
–
CAL6
CAL5
CAL4
CAL3
CAL2
CAL1
CAL0
page 42
(0x66)
OSCCAL
(0x65)
Reserved
(0x64)
Reserved
(0x63)
Reserved
(0x62)
Reserved
(0x61)
CLKPR
CLKPCE
–
–
–
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
page 44
(0x60)
WDTCR
–
–
–
WDCE
WDE
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
page 58
0x3F (0x5F)
SREG
I
T
H
S
V
N
Z
C
page 11
0x3E (0x5E)
SPH
SP15
SP14
SP13
SP12
SP11
SP10
SP9
SP8
page 14
0x3D (0x5D)
SPL
SP7
SP6
SP5
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
page 14
0x3C (0x5C)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
RAMPZ0
page 13
page 326
0x3B (0x5B)
RAMPZ(1)
0x3A (0x5A)
Reserved
0x39 (0x59)
Reserved
0x38 (0x58)
Reserved
0x37 (0x57)
SPMCSR
SPMIE
RWWSB
–
RWWSRE
BLBSET
PGWRT
PGERS
SPMEN
0x36 (0x56)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x35 (0x55)
MCUCR
JTD
–
–
PUD
–
–
IVSEL
IVCE
page 64, 73, 304
0x34 (0x54)
MCUSR
–
–
–
JTRF
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
page 56, 304
0x33 (0x53)
SMCR
–
–
–
–
SM2
SM1
SM0
SE
page 46
0x32 (0x52)
Reserved
0x31 (0x51)
OCDR
IDRD/OCDR7
OCDR6
OCDR5
OCDR4
OCDR3
OCDR2
OCDR1
OCDR0
page 299
0x30 (0x50)
ACSR
ACD
ACBG
ACO
ACI
ACIE
ACIC
ACIS1
ACIS0
page 270
0x2F (0x4F)
Reserved
page 175
0x2E (0x4E)
SPDR
SPD7
SPD6
SPD5
SPD4
SPD3
SPD2
SPD1
SPD0
0x2D (0x4D)
SPSR
SPIF
WCOL
–
–
–
–
–
SPI2X
page 175
0x2C (0x4C)
SPCR
SPIE
SPE
DORD
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
page 173
0x2B (0x4B)
GPIOR2
GPIOR27
GPIOR26
GPIOR25
GPIOR24
GPIOR23
GPIOR22
GPIOR21
GPIOR20
page 36
0x2A (0x4A)
GPIOR1
GPIOR17
GPIOR16
GPIOR15
GPIOR14
GPIOR13
GPIOR12
GPIOR11
GPIOR10
page 36
0x29 (0x49)
Reserved
0x28 (0x48)
Reserved
0x27 (0x47)
OCR0A
OCR0A7
OCR0A6
OCR0A5
OCR0A4
OCR0A3
OCR0A2
OCR0A1
OCR0A0
page 112
0x26 (0x46)
TCNT0
TCNT07
TCNT06
TCNT05
TCNT04
TCNT03
TCNT02
TCNT01
TCNT00
page 111
0x25 (0x45)
Reserved
0x24 (0x44)
TCCR0A
FOC0A
WGM00
COM0A1
COM0A0
WGM01
CS02
CS01
CS00
page 109
0x23 (0x43)
GTCCR
TSM
–
–
–
–
–
PSR2
PSR310
page 98, 164
0x22 (0x42)
EEARH(2)
–
–
–
–
EEAR11
EEAR10
EEAR9
EEAR8
page 22
0x21 (0x41)
EEARL
EEAR7
EEAR6
EEAR5
EEAR4
EEAR3
EEAR2
EEAR1
EEAR0
page 22
0x20 (0x40)
EEDR
EEDR7
EEDR6
EEDR5
EEDR4
EEDR3
EEDR2
EEDR1
EEDR0
page 23
0x1F (0x3F)
EECR
–
–
–
–
EERIE
EEMWE
EEWE
EERE
page 23
0x1E (0x3E)
GPIOR0
GPIOR07
GPIOR06
GPIOR05
GPIOR04
GPIOR03
GPIOR02
GPIOR01
GPIOR00
page 36
0x1D (0x3D)
EIMSK
INT7
INT6
INT5
INT4
INT3
INT2
INT1
INT0
page 95
0x1C (0x3C)
0x1B (0x3B)
EIFR
INTF7
INTF6
INTF5
INTF4
INTF3
INTF2
INTF1
INTF0
page 95
Reserved
407
7679H–CAN–08/08
Address
Name
0x1A (0x3A)
Reserved
0x19 (0x39)
Reserved
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
0x18 (0x38)
TIFR3
–
–
ICF3
–
OCF3C
OCF3B
OCF3A
TOV3
page 143
0x17 (0x37)
TIFR2
–
–
–
–
–
–
OCF2A
TOV2
page 162
0x16 (0x36)
TIFR1
–
–
ICF1
–
OCF1C
OCF1B
OCF1A
TOV1
page 143
0x15 (0x35)
TIFR0
–
–
–
–
–
–
OCF0A
TOV0
page 112
0x14 (0x34)
PORTG
–
–
–
PORTG4
PORTG3
PORTG2
PORTG1
PORTG0
page 92
0x13 (0x33)
DDRG
–
–
–
DDG4
DDG3
DDG2
DDG1
DDG0
page 92
0x12 (0x32)
PING
–
–
–
PING4
PING3
PING2
PING1
PING0
page 92
0x11 (0x31)
PORTF
PORTF7
PORTF6
PORTF5
PORTF4
PORTF3
PORTF2
PORTF1
PORTF0
page 91
0x10 (0x30)
DDRF
DDF7
DDF6
DDF5
DDF4
DDF3
DDF2
DDF1
DDF0
page 91
0x0F (0x2F)
PINF
PINF7
PINF6
PINF5
PINF4
PINF3
PINF2
PINF1
PINF0
page 92
0x0E (0x2E)
PORTE
PORTE7
PORTE6
PORTE5
PORTE4
PORTE3
PORTE2
PORTE1
PORTE0
page 91
0x0D (0x2D)
DDRE
DDE7
DDE6
DDE5
DDE4
DDE3
DDE2
DDE1
DDE0
page 91
0x0C (0x2C)
PINE
PINE7
PINE6
PINE5
PINE4
PINE3
PINE2
PINE1
PINE0
page 91
0x0B (0x2B)
PORTD
PORTD7
PORTD6
PORTD5
PORTD4
PORTD3
PORTD2
PORTD1
PORTD0
page 91
0x0A (0x2A)
DDRD
DDD7
DDD6
DDD5
DDD4
DDD3
DDD2
DDD1
DDD0
page 91
0x09 (0x29)
PIND
PIND7
PIND6
PIND5
PIND4
PIND3
PIND2
PIND1
PIND0
page 91
0x08 (0x28)
PORTC
PORTC7
PORTC6
PORTC5
PORTC4
PORTC3
PORTC2
PORTC1
PORTC0
page 90
0x07 (0x27)
DDRC
DDC7
DDC6
DDC5
DDC4
DDC3
DDC2
DDC1
DDC0
page 90
0x06 (0x26)
PINC
PINC7
PINC6
PINC5
PINC4
PINC3
PINC2
PINC1
PINC0
page 90
0x05 (0x25)
PORTB
PORTB7
PORTB6
PORTB5
PORTB4
PORTB3
PORTB2
PORTB1
PORTB0
page 90
0x04 (0x24)
DDRB
DDB7
DDB6
DDB5
DDB4
DDB3
DDB2
DDB1
DDB0
page 90
0x03 (0x23)
PINB
PINB7
PINB6
PINB5
PINB4
PINB3
PINB2
PINB1
PINB0
page 90
0x02 (0x22)
PORTA
PORTA7
PORTA6
PORTA5
PORTA4
PORTA3
PORTA2
PORTA1
PORTA0
page 89
0x01 (0x21)
DDRA
DDA7
DDA6
DDA5
DDA4
DDA3
DDA2
DDA1
DDA0
page 90
0x00 (0x20)
PINA
PINA7
PINA6
PINA5
PINA4
PINA3
PINA2
PINA1
PINA0
page 90
Notes:
1. Address bits exceeding PCMSB (Table 25-11 on page 341) are don’t care.
2. Address bits exceeding EEAMSB (Table 25-12 on page 341) are don’t care.
3. For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory addresses
should never be written.
4. I/O Registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In these
registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions.
5. Some of the status flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVRs, the CBI and SBI
instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such status flags. The
CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
6. When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O
Registers as data space using LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The AT90CAN32/64/128 is
a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 location reserved in Opcode for
the IN and OUT instructions. For the Extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and
LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
408
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
30. Instruction Set Summary
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC INSTRUCTIONS
ADD
Rd, Rr
Add two Registers
Rd ← Rd + Rr
Z,C,N,V,H
1
ADC
Rd, Rr
Add with Carry two Registers
Rd ← Rd + Rr + C
Z,C,N,V,H
1
ADIW
Rdl,K
Add Immediate to Word
Rdh:Rdl ← Rdh:Rdl + K
Z,C,N,V,S
2
SUB
Rd, Rr
Subtract two Registers
Rd ← Rd - Rr
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SUBI
Rd, K
Subtract Constant from Register
Rd ← Rd - K
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBC
Rd, Rr
Subtract with Carry two Registers
Rd ← Rd - Rr - C
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBCI
Rd, K
Subtract with Carry Constant from Reg.
Rd ← Rd - K - C
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBIW
Rdl,K
Subtract Immediate from Word
Rdh:Rdl ← Rdh:Rdl - K
Z,C,N,V,S
2
AND
Rd, Rr
Logical AND Registers
Rd ← Rd • Rr
Z,N,V
1
ANDI
Rd, K
Logical AND Register and Constant
Rd ← Rd • K
Z,N,V
1
OR
Rd, Rr
Logical OR Registers
Rd ← Rd v Rr
Z,N,V
1
ORI
Rd, K
Logical OR Register and Constant
Rd ← Rd v K
Z,N,V
1
EOR
Rd, Rr
Exclusive OR Registers
Rd ← Rd ⊕ Rr
Z,N,V
1
COM
Rd
One’s Complement
Rd ← 0xFF − Rd
Z,C,N,V
1
NEG
Rd
Two’s Complement
Rd ← 0x00 − Rd
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBR
Rd,K
Set Bit(s) in Register
Rd ← Rd v K
Z,N,V
1
CBR
Rd,K
Clear Bit(s) in Register
Rd ← Rd • (0xFF - K)
Z,N,V
1
INC
Rd
Increment
Rd ← Rd + 1
Z,N,V
1
DEC
Rd
Decrement
Rd ← Rd − 1
Z,N,V
1
TST
Rd
Test for Zero or Minus
Rd ← Rd • Rd
Z,N,V
1
CLR
Rd
Clear Register
Rd ← Rd ⊕ Rd
Z,N,V
1
SER
Rd
Set Register
Rd ← 0xFF
None
1
MUL
Rd, Rr
Multiply Unsigned
R1:R0 ← Rd x Rr
Z,C
2
MULS
Rd, Rr
Multiply Signed
R1:R0 ← Rd x Rr
Z,C
2
MULSU
Rd, Rr
Multiply Signed with Unsigned
R1:R0 ← Rd x Rr
Z,C
2
FMUL
Rd, Rr
Fractional Multiply Unsigned
R1:R0 ← (Rd x Rr) << 1
Z,C
2
FMULS
Rd, Rr
Fractional Multiply Signed
R1:R0 ← (Rd x Rr) << 1
Z,C
2
FMULSU
Rd, Rr
Fractional Multiply Signed with Unsigned
R1:R0 ← (Rd x Rr) << 1
Z,C
2
RJMP
k
2
BRANCH INSTRUCTIONS
IJMP
Relative Jump
PC ← PC + k + 1
None
Indirect Jump to (Z)
PC ← Z
None
2
JMP
k
Direct Jump
PC ← k
None
3
RCALL
k
Relative Subroutine Call
PC ← PC + k + 1
None
3
Indirect Call to (Z)
PC ← Z
None
3
Direct Subroutine Call
PC ← k
None
4
4
ICALL
CALL
k
RET
Subroutine Return
PC ← STACK
None
RETI
Interrupt Return
PC ← STACK
I
4
Compare, Skip if Equal
if (Rd = Rr) PC ← PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
CPSE
Rd,Rr
CP
Rd,Rr
Compare
Rd − Rr
Z, N,V,C,H
1
CPC
Rd,Rr
Compare with Carry
Rd − Rr − C
Z, N,V,C,H
1
CPI
Rd,K
Compare Register with Immediate
Rd − K
Z, N,V,C,H
1
SBRC
Rr, b
Skip if Bit in Register Cleared
if (Rr(b)=0) PC ← PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBRS
Rr, b
Skip if Bit in Register is Set
if (Rr(b)=1) PC ← PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBIC
P, b
Skip if Bit in I/O Register Cleared
if (P(b)=0) PC ← PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBIS
P, b
Skip if Bit in I/O Register is Set
if (P(b)=1) PC ← PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
BRBS
s, k
Branch if Status Flag Set
if (SREG(s) = 1) then PC←PC+k + 1
None
1/2
BRBC
s, k
Branch if Status Flag Cleared
if (SREG(s) = 0) then PC←PC+k + 1
None
1/2
BREQ
k
Branch if Equal
if (Z = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRNE
k
Branch if Not Equal
if (Z = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRCS
k
Branch if Carry Set
if (C = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRCC
k
Branch if Carry Cleared
if (C = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRSH
k
Branch if Same or Higher
if (C = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRLO
k
Branch if Lower
if (C = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRMI
k
Branch if Minus
if (N = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRPL
k
Branch if Plus
if (N = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRGE
k
Branch if Greater or Equal, Signed
if (N ⊕ V= 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRLT
k
Branch if Less Than Zero, Signed
if (N ⊕ V= 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRHS
k
Branch if Half Carry Flag Set
if (H = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRHC
k
Branch if Half Carry Flag Cleared
if (H = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRTS
k
Branch if T Flag Set
if (T = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRTC
k
Branch if T Flag Cleared
if (T = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRVS
k
Branch if Overflow Flag is Set
if (V = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRVC
k
Branch if Overflow Flag is Cleared
if (V = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
409
7679H–CAN–08/08
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
BRIE
k
Branch if Interrupt Enabled
if ( I = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
#Clocks
1/2
BRID
k
Branch if Interrupt Disabled
if ( I = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1
None
1/2
SBI
P,b
Set Bit in I/O Register
I/O(P,b) ← 1
None
2
CBI
P,b
Clear Bit in I/O Register
I/O(P,b) ← 0
None
2
LSL
Rd
Logical Shift Left
Rd(n+1) ← Rd(n), Rd(0) ← 0
Z,C,N,V
1
LSR
Rd
Logical Shift Right
Rd(n) ← Rd(n+1), Rd(7) ← 0
Z,C,N,V
1
ROL
Rd
Rotate Left Through Carry
Rd(0)←C,Rd(n+1)← Rd(n),C←Rd(7)
Z,C,N,V
1
ROR
Rd
Rotate Right Through Carry
Rd(7)←C,Rd(n)← Rd(n+1),C←Rd(0)
Z,C,N,V
1
ASR
Rd
Arithmetic Shift Right
Rd(n) ← Rd(n+1), n=0..6
Z,C,N,V
1
SWAP
Rd
Swap Nibbles
Rd(3..0)←Rd(7..4),Rd(7..4)←Rd(3..0)
None
1
BSET
s
Flag Set
SREG(s) ← 1
SREG(s)
1
BCLR
s
Flag Clear
SREG(s) ← 0
SREG(s)
1
BST
Rr, b
Bit Store from Register to T
T ← Rr(b)
T
1
BLD
Rd, b
Bit load from T to Register
Rd(b) ← T
None
1
1
BIT AND BIT-TEST INSTRUCTIONS
SEC
Set Carry
C←1
C
CLC
Clear Carry
C←0
C
1
SEN
Set Negative Flag
N←1
N
1
CLN
Clear Negative Flag
N←0
N
1
SEZ
Set Zero Flag
Z←1
Z
1
CLZ
Clear Zero Flag
Z←0
Z
1
SEI
Global Interrupt Enable
I←1
I
1
CLI
Global Interrupt Disable
I←0
I
1
SES
Set Signed Test Flag
S←1
S
1
CLS
Clear Signed Test Flag
S←0
S
1
SEV
Set Twos Complement Overflow.
V←1
V
1
CLV
Clear Twos Complement Overflow
V←0
V
1
SET
Set T in SREG
T←1
T
1
CLT
Clear T in SREG
T←0
T
1
SEH
CLH
Set Half Carry Flag in SREG
Clear Half Carry Flag in SREG
H←1
H←0
H
H
1
1
DATA TRANSFER INSTRUCTIONS
MOV
Rd, Rr
Move Between Registers
1
Rd, Rr
Copy Register Word
Rd ← Rr
Rd+1:Rd ← Rr+1:Rr
None
MOVW
None
1
LDI
Rd, K
Load Immediate
Rd ← K
None
1
LD
Rd, X
Load Indirect
Rd ← (X)
None
2
LD
Rd, X+
Load Indirect and Post-Inc.
Rd ← (X), X ← X + 1
None
2
LD
Rd, - X
Load Indirect and Pre-Dec.
X ← X - 1, Rd ← (X)
None
2
LD
Rd, Y
Load Indirect
Rd ← (Y)
None
2
LD
Rd, Y+
Load Indirect and Post-Inc.
Rd ← (Y), Y ← Y + 1
None
2
2
LD
Rd, - Y
Load Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Y ← Y - 1, Rd ← (Y)
None
LDD
Rd,Y+q
Load Indirect with Displacement
Rd ← (Y + q)
None
2
LD
Rd, Z
Load Indirect
Rd ← (Z)
None
2
LD
Rd, Z+
Load Indirect and Post-Inc.
Rd ← (Z), Z ← Z+1
None
2
LD
Rd, -Z
Load Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Z ← Z - 1, Rd ← (Z)
None
2
LDD
Rd, Z+q
Load Indirect with Displacement
Rd ← (Z + q)
None
2
LDS
Rd, k
Load Direct from SRAM
Rd ← (k)
None
2
ST
X, Rr
Store Indirect
(X) ← Rr
None
2
ST
X+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Inc.
(X) ← Rr, X ← X + 1
None
2
ST
- X, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Dec.
X ← X - 1, (X) ← Rr
None
2
ST
Y, Rr
Store Indirect
(Y) ← Rr
None
2
ST
Y+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Inc.
(Y) ← Rr, Y ← Y + 1
None
2
2
ST
- Y, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Y ← Y - 1, (Y) ← Rr
None
STD
Y+q,Rr
Store Indirect with Displacement
(Y + q) ← Rr
None
2
ST
Z, Rr
Store Indirect
(Z) ← Rr
None
2
ST
Z+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Inc.
(Z) ← Rr, Z ← Z + 1
None
2
ST
-Z, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Z ← Z - 1, (Z) ← Rr
None
2
STD
Z+q,Rr
Store Indirect with Displacement
(Z + q) ← Rr
None
2
STS
k, Rr
Store Direct to SRAM
(k) ← Rr
None
2
Load Program Memory
R0 ← (Z)
None
3
3
LPM
LPM
Rd, Z
Load Program Memory
Rd ← (Z)
None
LPM
Rd, Z+
Load Program Memory and Post-Inc
Rd ← (Z), Z ← Z+1
None
3
Extended Load Program Memory
R0 ← (RAMPZ:Z)
None
3
ELPM
ELPM
Rd, Z
Extended Load Program Memory
Rd ← (RAMPZ:Z)
None
3
ELPM
Rd, Z+
Extended Load Program Memory and Post-Inc
Rd ← (RAMPZ:Z), RAMPZ:Z ← RAMPZ:Z+1
None
3
Store Program Memory
(Z) ← R1:R0
None
-
SPM
410
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
IN
Rd, P
In Port
Rd ← P
None
1
OUT
P, Rr
Out Port
P ← Rr
None
1
PUSH
Rr
Push Register on Stack
STACK ← Rr
None
2
POP
Rd
Pop Register from Stack
Rd ← STACK
None
2
None
1
MCU CONTROL INSTRUCTIONS
NOP
No Operation
SLEEP
Sleep
(see specific descr. for Sleep function)
None
1
WDR
BREAK
Watchdog Reset
Break
(see specific descr. for WDR/timer)
For On-chip Debug Only
None
None
1
N/A
411
7679H–CAN–08/08
31. Ordering Information
Ordering Code
(1)
Speed (MHz)
Power Supply (V)
Package
Operation Range
Product Marking
AT90CAN32-16AI
16
2.7 - 5.5
A2 64
Industrial (-40° to +85°C)
AT90CAN32-16AI
AT90CAN32-16MI
16
2.7 - 5.5
Z64-1
Industrial (-40° to +85°C)
AT90CAN32-16MI
AT90CAN32-16AU
16
2.7 - 5.5
A2 64
Industrial (-40° to +85°C)
Green
AT90CAN32-16AU
AT90CAN32-16MU
16
2.7 - 5.5
Z64-1
Industrial (-40° to +85°C)
Green
AT90CAN32-16MU
AT90CAN64-16AI
16
2.7 - 5.5
A2 64
Industrial (-40° to +85°C)
AT90CAN64-16AI
AT90CAN64-16MI
16
2.7 - 5.5
Z64-2
Industrial (-40° to +85°C)
AT90CAN64-16MI
AT90CAN64-16AU
16
2.7 - 5.5
A2 64
Industrial (-40° to +85°C)
Green
AT90CAN64-16AU
AT90CAN64-16MU
16
2.7 - 5.5
Z64-2
Industrial (-40° to +85°C)
Green
AT90CAN64-16MU
AT90CAN128-16AI
16
2.7 - 5.5
A2 64
Industrial (-40° to +85°C)
AT90CAN128-16AI
AT90CAN128-16MI
16
2.7 - 5.5
Z64-2
Industrial (-40° to +85°C)
AT90CAN128-16MI
AT90CAN128-16AU
16
2.7 - 5.5
A2 64
Industrial (-40° to +85°C)
Green
AT90CAN128-16AU
AT90CAN128-16MU
16
2.7 - 5.5
Z64-2
Industrial (-40° to +85°C)
Green
AT90CAN128-16MU
Notes:
1. These devices can also be supplied in wafer form. Please contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information and minimum quantities.
32. Packaging Information
Package Type
A2 64
64-Lead, Thin (1.0 mm / 0.03937 in) Plastic Gull Wing Quad Flat Package.
Z64-1
64-Lead, QFN, Exposed Die Attach Pad D2/E2: 5.4 ± 0.1mm / 0.212 ± 0.004 in.
Z64-2
64-Lead, QFN, Exposed Die Attach Pad D2/E2: 6.0 ± 0.1mm / 0.236 ± 0.004 in.
412
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
32.1
TQFP64
64 PINS THIN QUAD FLAT PACK
D
0O to 7O
A L
64
e
1
E E1
f
J
C
11O / 13O
TOP VIEW
SIDE VIEW
A2
DRAWINGS
NOT SCALED
0.100 mm
LEAD COPLANARITY
MM
INCH
Min
Max
Min
Max
A
----
1.20
----
0.047
A2
0.95
1.05
0.037
0.041
C
0.09
0.20
0.004
0.008
D
16.00 BSC
0.630 BSC
D1
14.00 BSC
0.551 BSC
E
16.00 BSC
0.630 BSC
E1
14.00 BSC
0.551 BSC
J
0.05
0.15
0.002
0.006
L
0.45
0.75
0.018
0.030
e
f
0.80 BSC
0.30
0.45
0.0315 BSC
0.012
0.018
413
7679H–CAN–08/08
32.2
414
QFN64
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
415
7679H–CAN–08/08
33. Errata
33.1
33.1.1
Errata Summary
AT90CAN32 RevB (Date code ≥ 0107)
• CAN acknowledge error in 3-sample mode with prescaler =1
• CAN transmission after 3-bit intermission
• Asynchronous Timer-2 wakes up without interrupt
33.1.2
AT90CAN32 RevA (Date code < 0107)
• CAN acknowledge error in 3-sample mode with prescaler =1
• CAN transmission after 3-bit intermission
• Asynchronous Timer-2 wakes up without interrupt
• Reset of Timer-2 flags in asynchronous mode
• Miss-functioning when code stack is in XRAM
33.1.3
AT90CAN64 RevA
• LPM Instruction versus Protection levels and BOOTSIZE
• CAN acknowledge error in 3-sample mode with prescaler =1
• CAN transmission after 3-bit intermission
• Asynchronous Timer-2 wakes up without interrupt
33.1.4
AT90CAN128 RevD (Date code ≥ 0107)
• CAN acknowledge error in 3-sample mode with prescaler =1
• CAN transmission after 3-bit intermission
• Asynchronous Timer-2 wakes up without interrupt
33.1.5
AT90CAN128 RevC (Date code < 4006)
• CAN acknowledge error in 3-sample mode with prescaler =1
• CAN transmission after 3-bit intermission
• Asynchronous Timer-2 wakes up without interrupt
• Reset of Timer-2 flags in asynchronous mode
• Miss-functioning when code stack is in XRAM
• Extra consumption in power reduction modes
• Power supply current in Power-down mode
33.2
Errata Description
8. AT90CAN64 : LPM Instruction versus Protection levels and BOOTSIZE
In AT90CAN64 Product, if the Bootloader and Application protection modes are programmed at level 3, the LPM instruction does not operate properly in some configuration
cases. It will not load the right constant value. The differents cases versus BOOTSIZE value
and Flash memory areas are detailed in following Tables :
416
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Let’s consider 4 sections in the Flash, described below:
Table 33-1.
Flash memory sections
Memory
space A
Application
:
Memory
space B
Application
:
Memory
space C
Application
:
Memory
space D :
Bootloader
Bootsize=4096 Words
0000h-2FFFh
3000h-3FFFh
4000h-6FFFh
7000h-7FFFh
Bootsize=2048 Words
0000h-37FFh
3800h-3FFFh
4000h-77FFh
7800h-7FFFh
Bootsize=1024 Words
0000h-3BFFh
3C00h-3FFFh
4000h-7BFFh
7C00h-7FFFh
Bootsize=512 Words
0000h-3DFFh
3E00h-3FFFh
4000h-7DFFh
7E00h-7FFFh
Failing cases :
From memory
space
T o me meo ry
space
Bug comment
LPM instruction
D
B
Allowed but should not be valid
LPM instruction
B
D
Allowed but should not be valid
LPM instruction
B
A or C
Not allowed but should be
LPM instruction
A or C
B
Not allowed but should be
Problem fix / workaround
If protection level 3 is mandatory, the LPM instruction must be moved outside the failing
sections.
7. CAN acknowledge error in 3-sample mode with prescaler =1
Some acknowledge errors can occur when the clock prescaler = 1 (BRP[5..0] = 0 in
CANBTR1 register) and the SMP bit is set (CANBTR3[0] = 1 in CANBTR3 register). That
can result in a reduction of the maximum length of the CAN bus.
Problem fix / workaround
If BRP[5..0]=0 use SMP=0.
6. CAN transmission after 3-bit intermission
If a Transmit Message Object (MOb) is enabled while the CAN bus is busy with an on going
message, the transmitter will wait for the 3-bit intermission before starting its transmission.
This is in full agreement with the CAN recommendation.
If the transmitter lost arbitration against another node, two conditions can occur:
- At least one receive MOb of the chip are programmed to accept the incoming message. In
this case, the transmitter will wait for the next 3-bit intermission to retry its transmission.
- No receive MOb of the chip are programmed to accept the incoming message. In this case
the transmitter will wait for a 4-bit intermission to retry its transmission. In this case, any
other CAN nodes ready to transmit after a 3-bit intermission will start transmit before the
chip transmitter, even if their messages have lower priority IDs.
Problem fix / workaround
Always have a receive MOb enabled ready to accept any incoming messages. Thanks to
the implementation of the CAN interface, a receive MOb must be enable at latest, before the
1st bit of the DLC field. The receive MOb status register is written (RXOK if message OK)
immediately after the 6th bit of the End of Frame field. This will leave in CAN2.0A mode a
minimum 19-bit time delay to respond to the end of message interrupt (RXOK) and reenable the receive MOb before the start of the DLC field of the next incoming message. This
417
7679H–CAN–08/08
minimum delay will be 39-bit time in CAN2.0B. See CAN2.0A CAN2.0B frame timings
below.
T1
T2
CAN 2.0A
19-bit time minimum
(RXOK)
15-bit CRC
CRC
ACK
del. ACK del.
CRC
Field
ACK
Field
7 bits
3 bits
End of Frame
Intermission
SOF
11-bit identifier
ID10..0
RTR IDE
Arbitration
Field
4-bit DLC
DLC4..0
r0
Control
Field
T1
T2
CAN 2.0B
39-bit time minimum
(RXOK)
15-bit CRC
CRC
ACK
del. ACK del.
CRC
Field
ACK
Field
7 bits
3 bits
End of Frame
Intermission
SOF
11-bit base identifier
IDT28..18
SRR IDE
18-bit identifier extension
ID17..0
Arbitration
Field
RTR
r1
r0
4-bit DLC
DLC4..0
Control
Field
Workaround implementation
The workaround is to have the last MOb (MOb14) as "spy" enabled all the time; it is the MOb
of lowest priority. If a MOb other than MOb14 is programmed in receive mode and its acceptance filter matches with the incoming message ID, this MOb will take the message. MOb14
will only take messages than no other MObs will have accepted. MOb14 will need to be reenabled fast enough to manage back to back frames. The deadline to do this is the beginning of DLC slot of incoming frames as explained above.
Minimum code to insert in CAN interrupt routine:
__interrupt void can_int_handler(void)
{
if ((CANSIT1 & 0x40) == 0x40 )
/* MOb14 interrupt (SIT14=1) */
{
CANPAGE = (0x0E << 4);
/* select MOb14 */
CANSTMOB = 0x00;
/* reset MOb14 status */
CANCDMOB = 0x88;
/* reception enable */
}
........
........
}
5. Asynchronous Timer-2 wakes up without interrupt
The asynchronous timer can wake from sleep without giving interrupt. The error only occurs
if the interrupt flag(s) is cleared by software less than 4 cycles before going to sleep and this
clear is done exactly when it is supposed to be set (compare match or overflow). Only the
interrupts flags are affected by the clear, not the signal witch is used to wake up the part.
Problem fix / workaround
No known workaround, try to lock the code to avoid such a timing.
418
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
4. Reset of Timer-2 flags in asynchronous mode
In asynchronous mode, a writing in any register of the TIMER-2 (TCCR2A, TCNT2 &
OCR2A) automatically clears TOV2 and OCF2A flags in TFIR register.
Problem fix / workaround
– TOV2: Do not write in Timer-2 registers if TCNT2 is equal to 0xFF, 0x00 or 0x01.
– OCF2A: Do not write in Timer-2 registers if TCNT2 and OCR2A differ from -1, 0 or 1.
3. Miss-functioning when code stack is in XRAM
If the stack pointer (SP) targets the XRAM and if the execution of an instruction is split to
serve a rising interrupt, the last operation of this instruction, executed after pushing out the
return address from XRAM, may be disturbed providing wrong data to the system.
Example: - the “OUT” instruction can be executed twice
- the “MOV” instruction can update a register with un-predictable data.
Problem fix / workaround
Map the code stack in internal SRAM.
2. Extra consumption in power reduction modes
When AVCC is selected as voltage reference for ADC (REF[1,0]=0,1), an extra consumption
close to 30 µA (5.0V/25°C) appears in power reduction modes.
Problem fix / workaround
Switch from AVCC to AREF pin (REF[1,0]=0,0) before enabling one of the power reduction
modes.
1. Power supply current in Power-down mode
The power supply current in Power-down mode of AT90CAN128 parts with lot number
before A04900 is:
TA = - 40°C to + 85°C
Symbol
ICC
Parameter
Power Supply Current
Power-down Mode
Condition
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Max.
WDT enabled, VCC = 5 V
150
µA
WDT disabled, VCC = 5 V
120
µA
WDT enabled, VCC = 3 V
50
µA
WDT disabled, VCC = 3 V
40
µA
419
7679H–CAN–08/08
34. Datasheet Revision History for AT90CAN32/64/128
Please note that the page numbers in this section refer to this document.
The revision noted in this section refer to the document revision.
34.1
Changes from 7679G - 03/08 to 7679H - 08/08
1. Minor corrections throughout the document.
34.2
Changes from 7679F - 11/07 to 7679G - 03/08
1. Added errata problem 8 on 416.
34.3
Changes from 7679E - 07/07 to 7679F - 11/07
1. Updated “Errata” on page 416.
2. Updated “Bit 0 – SMP: Sample Point(s)” on page 259 in Section “CAN Register
Description”
34.4
Changes from 7679D - 02/07 to 7679E - 07/07
1. More details on CANSTMOB register. Section 19.11.1 on page 261.
2. Update to Ordering information, product marking. Section 32. on page 412.
34.5
Changes from 7679C - 01/07 to 7679D - 02/07
1. Modified DC Characteristics - Icc Active & Idle modes. Section 26.2 on page 366.
2. Removed “SPI programming timing” errata and replaced by the note in the 4th step of
“SPI Serial Programming” on page 349.
3. Updated “Bit 1 – ENA/STB: Enable / Standby Mode” on page 252 in Section “CAN Register Description”
4. Updated POR characteristics in Table 7-1 on page 52.
5. Updated “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on page 153.
6. Updated SPI Features . Section 16.1 on page 168.
7. Updated “Errata” on page 416.
34.6
Changes from 7679B - 11/06 to 7679C - 01/07
1. Modified QFN64 package drawing. Section 32.2 on page 414 and Section 32. on page
412.
34.7
Changes from 7679A - 10/06 to 7679B - 11/06
1. CAN Sampling point position when the prescaler is bypassed in Section 19.4.3 ”Baud
Rate” on page 242 and update of Table 19-2 on page 267.
34.8
Document Creation
1. 7679A - 10/06
420
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
Features ..................................................................................................... 1
1
Description ............................................................................................... 2
1.1
Comparison Between AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64 and AT90CAN128 ................2
1.2
Part Description ..................................................................................................2
1.3
Disclaimer ...........................................................................................................3
1.4
Block Diagram ....................................................................................................4
1.5
Pin Configurations ..............................................................................................5
1.6
Pin Descriptions ..................................................................................................6
2
About Code Examples ............................................................................. 8
3
AVR CPU Core .......................................................................................... 9
4
5
3.1
Introduction .........................................................................................................9
3.2
Architectural Overview ........................................................................................9
3.3
ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit ..............................................................................10
3.4
Status Register .................................................................................................11
3.5
General Purpose Register File .........................................................................12
3.6
Stack Pointer ....................................................................................................14
3.7
Instruction Execution Timing .............................................................................14
3.8
Reset and Interrupt Handling ............................................................................15
Memories ................................................................................................ 18
4.1
In-System Reprogrammable Flash Program Memory ......................................18
4.2
SRAM Data Memory .........................................................................................19
4.3
EEPROM Data Memory ....................................................................................22
4.4
I/O Memory .......................................................................................................27
4.5
External Memory Interface ................................................................................27
4.6
General Purpose I/O Registers .........................................................................36
System Clock ......................................................................................... 37
5.1
Clock Systems and their Distribution ................................................................37
5.2
Clock Sources ...................................................................................................38
5.3
Default Clock Source ........................................................................................38
5.4
Crystal Oscillator ...............................................................................................39
5.5
Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator ......................................................................40
5.6
Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator ......................................................................41
5.7
External Clock ...................................................................................................42
5.8
Clock Output Buffer ..........................................................................................43
421
7679H–CAN–08/08
6
7
8
9
5.9
Timer/Counter2 Oscillator .................................................................................43
5.10
System Clock Prescaler ....................................................................................44
Power Management and Sleep Modes ................................................. 46
6.1
Idle Mode ..........................................................................................................47
6.2
ADC Noise Reduction Mode .............................................................................47
6.3
Power-down Mode ............................................................................................47
6.4
Power-save Mode .............................................................................................47
6.5
Standby Mode ...................................................................................................48
6.6
Minimizing Power Consumption .......................................................................48
System Control and Reset .................................................................... 51
7.1
Reset ................................................................................................................51
7.2
Internal Voltage Reference ...............................................................................56
7.3
Watchdog Timer ...............................................................................................57
7.4
Timed Sequences for Changing the Configuration of the Watchdog Timer .....59
Interrupts ................................................................................................ 60
8.1
Interrupt Vectors in AT90CAN32/64/128 ..........................................................60
8.2
Moving Interrupts Between Application and Boot Space ..................................64
I/O-Ports .................................................................................................. 66
9.1
Introduction .......................................................................................................66
9.2
Ports as General Digital I/O ..............................................................................67
9.3
Alternate Port Functions ...................................................................................71
9.4
Register Description for I/O-Ports .....................................................................89
10 External Interrupts ................................................................................. 93
10.1
External Interrupt Register Description .............................................................93
11 Timer/Counter3/1/0 Prescalers ............................................................. 96
11.1
Overview ...........................................................................................................96
11.2
Timer/Counter0/1/3 Prescalers Register Description .......................................98
12 8-bit Timer/Counter0 with PWM ............................................................ 99
422
12.1
Features ............................................................................................................99
12.2
Overview ...........................................................................................................99
12.3
Timer/Counter Clock Sources .........................................................................100
12.4
Counter Unit ....................................................................................................100
12.5
Output Compare Unit ......................................................................................101
12.6
Compare Match Output Unit ...........................................................................103
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12.7
Modes of Operation ........................................................................................104
12.8
Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams .....................................................................108
12.9
8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description .......................................................109
13 16-bit Timer/Counter (Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter3) ........... 113
13.1
Features ..........................................................................................................113
13.2
Overview .........................................................................................................113
13.3
Accessing 16-bit Registers .............................................................................116
13.4
Timer/Counter Clock Sources .........................................................................119
13.5
Counter Unit ....................................................................................................120
13.6
Input Capture Unit ...........................................................................................121
13.7
Output Compare Units ....................................................................................123
13.8
Compare Match Output Unit ...........................................................................125
13.9
Modes of Operation ........................................................................................126
13.10 Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams .....................................................................134
13.11 16-bit Timer/Counter Register Description .....................................................135
14 8-bit Timer/Counter2 with PWM and Asynchronous Operation ...... 145
14.1
Features ..........................................................................................................145
14.2
Overview .........................................................................................................145
14.3
Timer/Counter Clock Sources .........................................................................147
14.4
Counter Unit ....................................................................................................147
14.5
Output Compare Unit ......................................................................................148
14.6
Compare Match Output Unit ...........................................................................149
14.7
Modes of Operation ........................................................................................150
14.8
Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams .....................................................................155
14.9
8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description .......................................................157
14.10 Asynchronous operation of the Timer/Counter2 .............................................160
14.11 Timer/Counter2 Prescaler ...............................................................................163
15 Output Compare Modulator - OCM ..................................................... 165
15.1
Overview .........................................................................................................165
15.2
Description ......................................................................................................165
16 Serial Peripheral Interface – SPI ......................................................... 168
16.1
Features ..........................................................................................................168
16.2
SS Pin Functionality ........................................................................................172
16.3
Data Modes ....................................................................................................175
423
7679H–CAN–08/08
17 USART (USART0 and USART1) .......................................................... 177
17.1
Features ..........................................................................................................177
17.2
Overview .........................................................................................................177
17.3
Dual USART ...................................................................................................177
17.4
Clock Generation ............................................................................................179
17.5
Serial Frame ...................................................................................................181
17.6
USART Initialization ........................................................................................182
17.7
Data Transmission – USART Transmitter ......................................................183
17.8
Data Reception – USART Receiver ................................................................186
17.9
Asynchronous Data Reception .......................................................................190
17.10 Multi-processor Communication Mode ...........................................................193
17.11 USART Register Description ..........................................................................195
17.12 Examples of Baud Rate Setting ......................................................................200
18 Two-wire Serial Interface ..................................................................... 204
18.1
Features ..........................................................................................................204
18.2
Two-wire Serial Interface Bus Definition .........................................................204
18.3
Data Transfer and Frame Format ...................................................................205
18.4
Multi-master Bus Systems, Arbitration and Synchronization ..........................207
18.5
Overview of the TWI Module ..........................................................................209
18.6
TWI Register Description ................................................................................212
18.7
Using the TWI .................................................................................................215
18.8
Transmission Modes .......................................................................................218
18.9
Multi-master Systems and Arbitration .............................................................232
19 Controller Area Network - CAN ........................................................... 234
19.1
Features ..........................................................................................................234
19.2
CAN Protocol ..................................................................................................234
19.3
CAN Controller ................................................................................................240
19.4
CAN Channel ..................................................................................................241
19.5
Message Objects ............................................................................................243
19.6
CAN Timer ......................................................................................................247
19.7
Error Management ..........................................................................................248
19.8
Interrupts .........................................................................................................249
19.9
CAN Register Description ...............................................................................251
19.10 General CAN Registers ..................................................................................252
19.11 MOb Registers ................................................................................................261
424
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19.12 Examples of CAN Baud Rate Setting .............................................................266
20 Analog Comparator ............................................................................. 269
20.1
Overview .........................................................................................................269
20.2
Analog Comparator Register Description .......................................................269
20.3
Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input ............................................................271
21 Analog to Digital Converter - ADC ..................................................... 273
21.1
Features ..........................................................................................................273
21.2
Operation ........................................................................................................274
21.3
Starting a Conversion .....................................................................................275
21.4
Prescaling and Conversion Timing .................................................................276
21.5
Changing Channel or Reference Selection ....................................................279
21.6
ADC Noise Canceler .......................................................................................280
21.7
ADC Conversion Result ..................................................................................284
21.8
ADC Register Description ...............................................................................287
22 JTAG Interface and On-chip Debug System ..................................... 293
22.1
Features ..........................................................................................................293
22.2
Overview .........................................................................................................293
22.3
Test Access Port – TAP ..................................................................................293
22.4
TAP Controller ................................................................................................296
22.5
Using the Boundary-scan Chain .....................................................................297
22.6
Using the On-chip Debug System ..................................................................297
22.7
On-chip Debug Specific JTAG Instructions ....................................................298
22.8
On-chip Debug Related Register in I/O Memory ............................................299
22.9
Using the JTAG Programming Capabilities ....................................................299
22.10 Bibliography ....................................................................................................299
23 Boundary-scan IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) ................................................... 300
23.1
Features ..........................................................................................................300
23.2
System Overview ............................................................................................300
23.3
Data Registers ................................................................................................300
23.4
Boundary-scan Specific JTAG Instructions ....................................................302
23.5
Boundary-scan Related Register in I/O Memory ............................................304
23.6
Boundary-scan Chain .....................................................................................304
23.7
AT90CAN32/64/128 Boundary-scan Order ....................................................314
23.8
Boundary-scan Description Language Files ...................................................320
425
7679H–CAN–08/08
24 Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming ......... 321
24.1
Features ..........................................................................................................321
24.2
Application and Boot Loader Flash Sections ..................................................321
24.3
Read-While-Write and No Read-While-Write Flash Sections .........................321
24.4
Boot Loader Lock Bits .....................................................................................324
24.5
Entering the Boot Loader Program .................................................................325
24.6
Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming ............................................327
24.7
Self-Programming the Flash ...........................................................................328
25 Memory Programming ......................................................................... 336
25.1
Program and Data Memory Lock Bits .............................................................336
25.2
Fuse Bits .........................................................................................................337
25.3
Signature Bytes ..............................................................................................339
25.4
Calibration Byte ..............................................................................................339
25.5
Parallel Programming Overview .....................................................................339
25.6
Parallel Programming .....................................................................................342
25.7
SPI Serial Programming Overview .................................................................348
25.8
SPI Serial Programming .................................................................................349
25.9
JTAG Programming Overview ........................................................................352
26 Electrical Characteristics (1) ............................................................................................... 365
26.1
Absolute Maximum Ratings* ...........................................................................365
26.2
DC Characteristics ..........................................................................................366
26.3
External Clock Drive Characteristics ..............................................................367
26.4
Maximum Speed vs. VCC ...............................................................................368
26.5
Two-wire Serial Interface Characteristics .......................................................369
26.6
SPI Timing Characteristics .............................................................................370
26.7
CAN Physical Layer Characteristics ...............................................................372
26.8
ADC Characteristics .......................................................................................373
26.9
External Data Memory Characteristics ...........................................................375
26.10 Parallel Programming Characteristics ............................................................380
27 Decoupling Capacitors ........................................................................ 383
28 AT90CAN32/64/128 Typical Characteristics ...................................... 384
426
28.1
Active Supply Current .....................................................................................384
28.2
Idle Supply Current .........................................................................................387
28.3
Power-down Supply Current ...........................................................................389
28.4
Power-save Supply Current ............................................................................390
AT90CAN32/64/128
7679H–CAN–08/08
AT90CAN32/64/128
28.5
Standby Supply Current ..................................................................................391
28.6
Pin Pull-up ......................................................................................................391
28.7
Pin Driver Strength .........................................................................................393
28.8
Pin Thresholds and Hysteresis .......................................................................395
28.9
BOD Thresholds and Analog Comparator Offset ...........................................397
28.10 Internal Oscillator Speed ................................................................................399
28.11 Current Consumption of Peripheral Units .......................................................401
28.12 Current Consumption in Reset and Reset Pulse Width ..................................403
29 Register Summary ............................................................................... 405
30 Instruction Set Summary .................................................................... 409
31 Ordering Information ........................................................................... 412
32 Packaging Information ........................................................................ 412
32.1
TQFP64 ..........................................................................................................413
32.2
QFN64 ............................................................................................................414
33 Errata ..................................................................................................... 416
33.1
Errata Summary ..............................................................................................416
33.2
Errata Description ...........................................................................................416
34 Datasheet Revision History for AT90CAN32/64/128 ......................... 420
34.1
Changes from 7679G - 03/08 to 7679H - 08/08 .............................................420
34.2
Changes from 7679F - 11/07 to 7679G - 03/08 ..............................................420
34.3
Changes from 7679E - 07/07 to 7679F - 11/07 ..............................................420
34.4
Changes from 7679D - 02/07 to 7679E - 07/07 ..............................................420
34.5
Changes from 7679C - 01/07 to 7679D - 02/07 ..............................................420
34.6
Changes from 7679B - 11/06 to 7679C - 01/07 ..............................................420
34.7
Changes from 7679A - 10/06 to 7679B - 11/06 ..............................................420
34.8
Document Creation .........................................................................................420
427
7679H–CAN–08/08
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7679H–CAN–08/08