Atmel ATtiny25, ATtiny45, ATtiny85 Datasheet

Atmel 8-bit AVR Microcontroller with 2/4/8K
Bytes In-System Programmable Flash
ATtiny25/V / ATtiny45/V / ATtiny85/V
Features
• High Performance, Low Power AVR® 8-Bit Microcontroller
• Advanced RISC Architecture
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
– 120 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution
– 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers
– Fully Static Operation
Non-volatile Program and Data Memories
– 2/4/8K Bytes of In-System Programmable Program Memory Flash
• Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
– 128/256/512 Bytes In-System Programmable EEPROM
• Endurance: 100,000 Write/Erase Cycles
– 128/256/512 Bytes Internal SRAM
– Programming Lock for Self-Programming Flash Program and EEPROM Data Security
Peripheral Features
– 8-bit Timer/Counter with Prescaler and Two PWM Channels
– 8-bit High Speed Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler
• 2 High Frequency PWM Outputs with Separate Output Compare Registers
• Programmable Dead Time Generator
– USI – Universal Serial Interface with Start Condition Detector
– 10-bit ADC
• 4 Single Ended Channels
• 2 Differential ADC Channel Pairs with Programmable Gain (1x, 20x)
• Temperature Measurement
– Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
– On-chip Analog Comparator
Special Microcontroller Features
– debugWIRE On-chip Debug System
– In-System Programmable via SPI Port
– External and Internal Interrupt Sources
– Low Power Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, and Power-down Modes
– Enhanced Power-on Reset Circuit
– Programmable Brown-out Detection Circuit
– Internal Calibrated Oscillator
I/O and Packages
– Six Programmable I/O Lines
– 8-pin PDIP, 8-pin SOIC, 20-pad QFN/MLF, and 8-pin TSSOP (only ATtiny45/V)
Operating Voltage
– 1.8 - 5.5V for ATtiny25V/45V/85V
– 2.7 - 5.5V for ATtiny25/45/85
Speed Grade
– ATtiny25V/45V/85V: 0 – 4 MHz @ 1.8 - 5.5V, 0 - 10 MHz @ 2.7 - 5.5V
– ATtiny25/45/85: 0 – 10 MHz @ 2.7 - 5.5V, 0 - 20 MHz @ 4.5 - 5.5V
Industrial Temperature Range
Low Power Consumption
– Active Mode:
• 1 MHz, 1.8V: 300 µA
– Power-down Mode:
• 0.1 µA at 1.8V
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1. Pin Configurations
Figure 1-1.
Pinout ATtiny25/45/85
PDIP/SOIC/TSSOP
(PCINT5/RESET/ADC0/dW) PB5
(PCINT3/XTAL1/CLKI/OC1B/ADC3) PB3
(PCINT4/XTAL2/CLKO/OC1B/ADC2) PB4
GND
1
2
3
4
8
7
6
5
VCC
PB2 (SCK/USCK/SCL/ADC1/T0/INT0/PCINT2)
PB1 (MISO/DO/AIN1/OC0B/OC1A/PCINT1)
PB0 (MOSI/DI/SDA/AIN0/OC0A/OC1A/AREF/PCINT0)
NOTE: TSSOP only for ATtiny45/V
15
14
13
12
11
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
VCC
PB2 (SCK/USCK/SCL/ADC1/T0/INT0/PCINT2)
DNC
PB1 (MISO/DO/AIN1/OC0B/OC1A/PCINT1)
PB0 (MOSI/DI/SDA/AIN0/OC0A/OC1A/AREF/PCINT0)
DNC
DNC
GND
DNC
DNC
(PCINT5/RESET/ADC0/dW) PB5
(PCINT3/XTAL1/CLKI/OC1B/ADC3) PB3
DNC
DNC
(PCINT4/XTAL2/CLKO/OC1B/ADC2) PB4
20
19
18
17
16
DNC
DNC
DNC
DNC
DNC
QFN/MLF
NOTE: Bottom pad should be soldered to ground.
DNC: Do Not Connect
1.1
Pin Descriptions
1.1.1
VCC
Supply voltage.
1.1.2
GND
Ground.
1.1.3
Port B (PB5:PB0)
Port B is a 6-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port B output buffers
have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are
externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a
reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
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Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the ATtiny25/45/85 as listed in “Alternate Functions
of Port B” on page 60.
On ATtiny25, the programmable I/O ports PB3 and PB4 (pins 2 and 3) are exchanged in ATtiny15 Compatibility
Mode for supporting the backward compatibility with ATtiny15.
1.1.4
RESET
Reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset, even if the clock
is not running and provided the reset pin has not been disabled. The minimum pulse length is given in Table 21-4
on page 165. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset.
The reset pin can also be used as a (weak) I/O pin.
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2. Overview
The ATtiny25/45/85 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By
executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATtiny25/45/85 achieves throughputs approaching 1
MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.
2.1
Block Diagram
Figure 2-1.
Block Diagram
8-BIT DATABUS
CALIBRATED
INTERNAL
OSCILLATOR
PROGRAM
COUNTER
STACK
POINTER
PROGRAM
FLASH
SRAM
WATCHDOG
TIMER
TIMING AND
CONTROL
VCC
MCU CONTROL
REGISTER
MCU STATUS
REGISTER
GND
INSTRUCTION
REGISTER
INSTRUCTION
DECODER
CONTROL
LINES
GENERAL
PURPOSE
REGISTERS
TIMER/
COUNTER0
X
Y
Z
TIMER/
COUNTER1
ALU
UNIVERSAL
SERIAL
INTERFACE
STATUS
REGISTER
INTERRUPT
UNIT
PROGRAMMING
LOGIC
DATA
EEPROM
DATA REGISTER
PORT B
DATA DIR.
REG.PORT B
OSCILLATORS
ADC /
ANALOG COMPARATOR
PORT B DRIVERS
RESET
PB[0:5]
The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All 32 registers are
directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one
single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving
throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers.
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The ATtiny25/45/85 provides the following features: 2/4/8K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash, 128/256/512
bytes EEPROM, 128/256/256 bytes SRAM, 6 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, one
8-bit Timer/Counter with compare modes, one 8-bit high speed Timer/Counter, Universal Serial Interface, Internal
and External Interrupts, a 4-channel, 10-bit ADC, a programmable Watchdog Timer with internal Oscillator, and
three software selectable power saving modes. Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counter,
ADC, Analog Comparator, and Interrupt system to continue functioning. Power-down mode saves the register contents, disabling all chip functions until the next Interrupt or Hardware Reset. ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the
CPU and all I/O modules except ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions.
The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology. The On-chip ISP Flash
allows the Program memory to be re-programmed In-System through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional
non-volatile memory programmer or by an On-chip boot code running on the AVR core.
The ATtiny25/45/85 AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Program Debugger/Simulators and Evaluation kits.
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3. About
3.1
Resources
A comprehensive set of development tools, application notes and datasheets are available for download on
http://www.atmel.com/avr.
3.2
Code Examples
This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use various parts of the device. These
code examples assume that the part specific header file is included before compilation. Be aware that not all C
compiler vendors include bit definitions in the header files and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent.
Please confirm with the C compiler documentation for more details.
For I/O Registers located in the extended I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions must
be replaced with instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically, this means “LDS” and “STS” combined
with “SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR”. Note that not all AVR devices include an extended I/O map.
3.3
Capacitive Touch Sensing
Atmel QTouch Library provides a simple to use solution for touch sensitive interfaces on Atmel AVR microcontrollers. The QTouch Library includes support for QTouch® and QMatrix® acquisition methods.
Touch sensing is easily added to any application by linking the QTouch Library and using the Application Programming Interface (API) of the library to define the touch channels and sensors. The application then calls the API to
retrieve channel information and determine the state of the touch sensor.
The QTouch Library is free and can be downloaded from the Atmel website. For more information and details of
implementation, refer to the QTouch Library User Guide – also available from the Atmel website.
3.4
Data Retention
Reliability Qualification results show that the projected data retention failure rate is much less than 1 PPM over 20
years at 85°C or 100 years at 25°C.
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4. AVR CPU Core
4.1
Introduction
This section discusses the AVR core architecture in general. The main function of the CPU core is to ensure correct program execution. The CPU must therefore be able to access memories, perform calculations, control
peripherals, and handle interrupts.
Architectural Overview
Figure 4-1.
Block Diagram of the AVR Architecture
Data Bus 8-bit
Flash
Program
Memory
Program
Counter
Status
and Control
32 x 8
General
Purpose
Registrers
Instruction
Decoder
Control Lines
Indirect Addressing
Instruction
Register
Direct Addressing
4.2
Interrupt
Unit
Watchdog
Timer
ALU
Analog
Comparator
I/O Module1
Data
SRAM
I/O Module 2
I/O Module n
EEPROM
I/O Lines
In order to maximize performance and parallelism, the AVR uses a Harvard architecture – with separate memories
and buses for program and data. Instructions in the Program memory are executed with a single level pipelining.
While one instruction is being executed, the next instruction is pre-fetched from the Program memory. This concept
enables instructions to be executed in every clock cycle. The Program memory is In-System Reprogrammable
Flash memory.
The fast-access Register File contains 32 x 8-bit general purpose working registers with a single clock cycle
access time. This allows single-cycle Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) operation. In a typical ALU operation, two oper-
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ands are output from the Register File, the operation is executed, and the result is stored back in the Register File
– in one clock cycle.
Six of the 32 registers can be used as three 16-bit indirect address register pointers for Data Space addressing –
enabling efficient address calculations. One of the these address pointers can also be used as an address pointer
for look up tables in Flash Program memory. These added function registers are the 16-bit X-, Y-, and Z-register,
described later in this section.
The ALU supports arithmetic and logic operations between registers or between a constant and a register. Single
register operations can also be executed in the ALU. After an arithmetic operation, the Status Register is updated
to reflect information about the result of the operation.
Program flow is provided by conditional and unconditional jump and call instructions, able to directly address the
whole address space. Most AVR instructions have a single 16-bit word format, but there are also 32-bit
instructions.
During interrupts and subroutine calls, the return address Program Counter (PC) is stored on the Stack. The Stack
is effectively allocated in the general data SRAM, and consequently the Stack size is only limited by the total
SRAM size and the usage of the SRAM. All user programs must initialize the SP in the Reset routine (before subroutines or interrupts are executed). The Stack Pointer (SP) is read/write accessible in the I/O space. The data
SRAM can easily be accessed through the five different addressing modes supported in the AVR architecture.
The memory spaces in the AVR architecture are all linear and regular memory maps.
A flexible interrupt module has its control registers in the I/O space with an additional Global Interrupt Enable bit in
the Status Register. All interrupts have a separate Interrupt Vector in the Interrupt Vector table. The interrupts have
priority in accordance with their Interrupt Vector position. The lower the Interrupt Vector address, the higher the
priority.
The I/O memory space contains 64 addresses for CPU peripheral functions as Control Registers, SPI, and other
I/O functions. The I/O memory can be accessed directly, or as the Data Space locations following those of the Register File, 0x20 - 0x5F.
4.3
ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit
The high-performance AVR ALU operates in direct connection with all the 32 general purpose working registers.
Within a single clock cycle, arithmetic operations between general purpose registers or between a register and an
immediate are executed. The ALU operations are divided into three main categories – arithmetic, logical, and bitfunctions. Some implementations of the architecture also provide a powerful multiplier supporting both
signed/unsigned multiplication and fractional format. See the “Instruction Set” section for a detailed description.
4.4
Status Register
The Status Register contains information about the result of the most recently executed arithmetic instruction. This
information can be used for altering program flow in order to perform conditional operations. Note that the Status
Register is updated after all ALU operations, as specified in the Instruction Set Reference. This will in many cases
remove the need for using the dedicated compare instructions, resulting in faster and more compact code.
The Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine and restored when returning
from an interrupt. This must be handled by software.
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4.4.1
SREG – AVR Status Register
The AVR Status Register – SREG – is defined as:
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x3F
I
T
H
S
V
N
Z
C
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SREG
• Bit 7 – I: Global Interrupt Enable
The Global Interrupt Enable bit must be set for the interrupts to be enabled. The individual interrupt enable control
is then performed in separate control registers. If the Global Interrupt Enable Register is cleared, none of the interrupts are enabled independent of the individual interrupt enable settings. The I-bit is cleared by hardware after an
interrupt has occurred, and is set by the RETI instruction to enable subsequent interrupts. The I-bit can also be set
and cleared by the application with the SEI and CLI instructions, as described in the instruction set reference.
• Bit 6 – T: Bit Copy Storage
The Bit Copy instructions BLD (Bit LoaD) and BST (Bit STore) use the T-bit as source or destination for the operated bit. A bit from a register in the Register File can be copied into T by the BST instruction, and a bit in T can be
copied into a bit in a register in the Register File by the BLD instruction.
• Bit 5 – H: Half Carry Flag
The Half Carry Flag H indicates a Half Carry in some arithmetic operations. Half Carry is useful in BCD arithmetic.
See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 4 – S: Sign Bit, S = N V
The S-bit is always an exclusive or between the Negative Flag N and the Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V. See
the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 3 – V: Two’s Complement Overflow Flag
The Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V supports two’s complement arithmetics. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 2 – N: Negative Flag
The Negative Flag N indicates a negative result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set
Description” for detailed information.
• Bit 1 – Z: Zero Flag
The Zero Flag Z indicates a zero result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Description” for
detailed information.
• Bit 0 – C: Carry Flag
The Carry Flag C indicates a carry in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Description” for
detailed information.
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4.5
General Purpose Register File
The Register File is optimized for the AVR Enhanced RISC instruction set. In order to achieve the required performance and flexibility, the following input/output schemes are supported by the Register File:
• One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input
• Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input
• Two 8-bit output operands and one 16-bit result input
• One 16-bit output operand and one 16-bit result input
Figure 4-2 shows the structure of the 32 general purpose working registers in the CPU.
Figure 4-2.
AVR CPU General Purpose Working Registers
7
0
Addr.
R0
0x00
R1
0x01
R2
0x02
…
R13
0x0D
General
R14
0x0E
Purpose
R15
0x0F
Working
R16
0x10
Registers
R17
0x11
…
R26
0x1A
R27
0x1B
X-register Low Byte
X-register High Byte
R28
0x1C
Y-register Low Byte
R29
0x1D
Y-register High Byte
R30
0x1E
Z-register Low Byte
R31
0x1F
Z-register High Byte
Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all registers, and most of them are single cycle instructions.
As shown in Figure 4-2, each register is also assigned a Data memory address, mapping them directly into the first
32 locations of the user Data Space. Although not being physically implemented as SRAM locations, this memory
organization provides great flexibility in access of the registers, as the X-, Y- and Z-pointer registers can be set to
index any register in the file.
4.5.1
The X-register, Y-register, and Z-register
The registers R26..R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage. These registers are 16-bit
address pointers for indirect addressing of the data space. The three indirect address registers X, Y, and Z are
defined as described in Figure 4-3.
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Figure 4-3.
The X-, Y-, and Z-registers
15
X-register
XH
XL
7
0
R27 (0x1B)
YH
YL
7
0
R29 (0x1D)
Z-register
0
R26 (0x1A)
15
Y-register
0
7
0
7
0
R28 (0x1C)
15
ZH
7
0
ZL
7
R31 (0x1F)
0
0
R30 (0x1E)
In the different addressing modes these address registers have functions as fixed displacement, automatic increment, and automatic decrement (see the instruction set reference for details).
4.6
Stack Pointer
The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing return addresses
after interrupts and subroutine calls. The Stack Pointer Register always points to the top of the Stack. Note that the
Stack is implemented as growing from higher memory locations to lower memory locations. This implies that a
Stack PUSH command decreases the Stack Pointer.
The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine and Interrupt Stacks are located. This
Stack space in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before any subroutine calls are executed or interrupts are enabled. The Stack Pointer must be set to point above 0x60. The Stack Pointer is decremented by one
when data is pushed onto the Stack with the PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by two when the return
address is pushed onto the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt. The Stack Pointer is incremented by one when
data is popped from the Stack with the POP instruction, and it is incremented by two when data is popped from the
Stack with return from subroutine RET or return from interrupt RETI.
The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of bits actually used is
implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementations of the AVR architecture is so small
that only SPL is needed. In this case, the SPH Register will not be present.
4.6.1
SPH and SPL — Stack Pointer Register
Bit
4.7
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0x3E
SP15
SP14
SP13
SP12
SP11
SP10
SP9
SP8
SPH
0x3D
SP7
SP6
SP5
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
SPL
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
RAMEND
RAMEND
RAMEND
RAMEND
RAMEND
RAMEND
RAMEND
RAMEND
Initial Value
RAMEND
RAMEND
RAMEND
RAMEND
RAMEND
RAMEND
RAMEND
RAMEND
Instruction Execution Timing
This section describes the general access timing concepts for instruction execution. The AVR CPU is driven by the
CPU clock clkCPU, directly generated from the selected clock source for the chip. No internal clock division is used.
Figure 4-4 shows the parallel instruction fetches and instruction executions enabled by the Harvard architecture
and the fast access Register File concept. This is the basic pipelining concept to obtain up to 1 MIPS per MHz with
the corresponding unique results for functions per cost, functions per clocks, and functions per power-unit.
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Figure 4-4.
The Parallel Instruction Fetches and Instruction Executions
T1
T2
T3
T4
clkCPU
1st Instruction Fetch
1st Instruction Execute
2nd Instruction Fetch
2nd Instruction Execute
3rd Instruction Fetch
3rd Instruction Execute
4th Instruction Fetch
Figure 4-5 shows the internal timing concept for the Register File. In a single clock cycle an ALU operation using
two register operands is executed, and the result is stored back to the destination register.
Figure 4-5.
Single Cycle ALU Operation
T1
T2
T3
T4
clkCPU
Total Execution Time
Register Operands Fetch
ALU Operation Execute
Result Write Back
4.8
Reset and Interrupt Handling
The AVR provides several different interrupt sources. These interrupts and the separate Reset Vector each have a
separate Program Vector in the Program memory space. All interrupts are assigned individual enable bits which
must be written logic one together with the Global Interrupt Enable bit in the Status Register in order to enable the
interrupt.
The lowest addresses in the Program memory space are by default defined as the Reset and Interrupt Vectors.
The complete list of vectors is shown in “Interrupts” on page 48. The list also determines the priority levels of the
different interrupts. The lower the address the higher is the priority level. RESET has the highest priority, and next
is INT0 – the External Interrupt Request 0.
When an interrupt occurs, the Global Interrupt Enable I-bit is cleared and all interrupts are disabled. The user software can write logic one to the I-bit to enable nested interrupts. All enabled interrupts can then interrupt the current
interrupt routine. The I-bit is automatically set when a Return from Interrupt instruction – RETI – is executed.
There are basically two types of interrupts. The first type is triggered by an event that sets the Interrupt Flag. For
these interrupts, the Program Counter is vectored to the actual Interrupt Vector in order to execute the interrupt
handling routine, and hardware clears the corresponding Interrupt Flag. Interrupt Flags can also be cleared by writing a logic one to the flag bit position(s) to be cleared. If an interrupt condition occurs while the corresponding
interrupt enable bit is cleared, the Interrupt Flag will be set and remembered until the interrupt is enabled, or the
flag is cleared by software. Similarly, if one or more interrupt conditions occur while the Global Interrupt Enable bit
is cleared, the corresponding Interrupt Flag(s) will be set and remembered until the Global Interrupt Enable bit is
set, and will then be executed by order of priority.
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The second type of interrupts will trigger as long as the interrupt condition is present. These interrupts do not necessarily have Interrupt Flags. If the interrupt condition disappears before the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt will
not be triggered.
When the AVR exits from an interrupt, it will always return to the main program and execute one more instruction
before any pending interrupt is served.
Note that the Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine, nor restored when
returning from an interrupt routine. This must be handled by software.
When using the CLI instruction to disable interrupts, the interrupts will be immediately disabled. No interrupt will be
executed after the CLI instruction, even if it occurs simultaneously with the CLI instruction. The following example
shows how this can be used to avoid interrupts during the timed EEPROM write sequence.
Assembly Code Example
in r16, SREG
cli
; store SREG value
; disable interrupts during timed sequence
sbi EECR, EEMPE
; start EEPROM write
sbi EECR, EEPE
out SREG, r16
; restore SREG value (I-bit)
C Code Example
char cSREG;
cSREG = SREG; /* store SREG value */
/* disable interrupts during timed sequence */
_CLI();
EECR |= (1<<EEMPE); /* start EEPROM write */
EECR |= (1<<EEPE);
SREG = cSREG; /* restore SREG value (I-bit) */
When using the SEI instruction to enable interrupts, the instruction following SEI will be executed before any pending interrupts, as shown in this example.
Assembly Code Example
sei
; set Global Interrupt Enable
sleep; enter sleep, waiting for interrupt
; note: will enter sleep before any pending
; interrupt(s)
C Code Example
_SEI(); /* set Global Interrupt Enable */
_SLEEP(); /* enter sleep, waiting for interrupt */
/* note: will enter sleep before any pending interrupt(s) */
4.8.1
Interrupt Response Time
The interrupt execution response for all the enabled AVR interrupts is four clock cycles minimum. After four clock
cycles the Program Vector address for the actual interrupt handling routine is executed. During this four clock cycle
period, the Program Counter is pushed onto the Stack. The vector is normally a jump to the interrupt routine, and
this jump takes three clock cycles. If an interrupt occurs during execution of a multi-cycle instruction, this instruction
is completed before the interrupt is served. If an interrupt occurs when the MCU is in sleep mode, the interrupt execution response time is increased by four clock cycles. This increase comes in addition to the start-up time from the
selected sleep mode.
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A return from an interrupt handling routine takes four clock cycles. During these four clock cycles, the Program
Counter (two bytes) is popped back from the Stack, the Stack Pointer is incremented by two, and the I-bit in SREG
is set.
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5. AVR Memories
This section describes the different memories in the ATtiny25/45/85. The AVR architecture has two main memory
spaces, the Data memory and the Program memory space. In addition, the ATtiny25/45/85 features an EEPROM
Memory for data storage. All three memory spaces are linear and regular.
5.1
In-System Re-programmable Flash Program Memory
The ATtiny25/45/85 contains 2/4/8K bytes On-chip In-System Reprogrammable Flash memory for program storage. Since all AVR instructions are 16 or 32 bits wide, the Flash is organized as 1024/2048/4096 x 16.
The Flash memory has an endurance of at least 10,000 write/erase cycles. The ATtiny25/45/85 Program Counter
(PC) is 10/11/12 bits wide, thus addressing the 1024/2048/4096 Program memory locations. “Memory Programming” on page 147 contains a detailed description on Flash data serial downloading using the SPI pins.
Constant tables can be allocated within the entire Program memory address space (see the LPM – Load Program
memory instruction description).
Timing diagrams for instruction fetch and execution are presented in “Instruction Execution Timing” on page 11.
Figure 5-1.
Program Memory Map
Program Memory
0x0000
0x03FF/0x07FF/0x0FFF
5.2
SRAM Data Memory
Figure 5-2 shows how the ATtiny25/45/85 SRAM Memory is organized.
The lower 224/352/607 Data memory locations address both the Register File, the I/O memory and the internal
data SRAM. The first 32 locations address the Register File, the next 64 locations the standard I/O memory, and
the last 128/256/512 locations address the internal data SRAM.
The five different addressing modes for the Data memory cover: Direct, Indirect with Displacement, Indirect, Indirect with Pre-decrement, and Indirect with Post-increment. In the Register File, registers R26 to R31 feature the
indirect addressing pointer registers.
The direct addressing reaches the entire data space.
The Indirect with Displacement mode reaches 63 address locations from the base address given by the Y- or Zregister.
When using register indirect addressing modes with automatic pre-decrement and post-increment, the address
registers X, Y, and Z are decremented or incremented.
The 32 general purpose working registers, 64 I/O Registers, and the 128/256/512 bytes of internal data SRAM in
the ATtiny25/45/85 are all accessible through all these addressing modes. The Register File is described in “General Purpose Register File” on page 10.
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Figure 5-2.
Data Memory Map
Data Memory
32 Registers
64 I/O Registers
0x0000 - 0x001F
0x0020 - 0x005F
0x0060
Internal SRAM
(128/256/512 x 8)
0x0DF/0x015F/0x025F
5.2.1
Data Memory Access Times
This section describes the general access timing concepts for internal memory access. The internal data SRAM
access is performed in two clkCPU cycles as described in Figure 5-3.
Figure 5-3.
On-chip Data SRAM Access Cycles
T1
T2
T3
clkCPU
Address
Compute Address
Address valid
Write
Data
WR
Read
Data
RD
Memory Access Instruction
5.3
Next Instruction
EEPROM Data Memory
The ATtiny25/45/85 contains 128/256/512 bytes of data EEPROM memory. It is organized as a separate data
space, in which single bytes can be read and written. The EEPROM has an endurance of at least 100,000
write/erase cycles. The access between the EEPROM and the CPU is described in the following, specifying the
EEPROM Address Registers, the EEPROM Data Register, and the EEPROM Control Register. For details see
“Serial Downloading” on page 151.
5.3.1
EEPROM Read/Write Access
The EEPROM Access Registers are accessible in the I/O space.
The write access times for the EEPROM are given in Table 5-1 on page 21. A self-timing function, however, lets
the user software detect when the next byte can be written. If the user code contains instructions that write the
EEPROM, some precautions must be taken. In heavily filtered power supplies, VCC is likely to rise or fall slowly on
Power-up/down. This causes the device for some period of time to run at a voltage lower than specified as minimum for the clock frequency used. See “Preventing EEPROM Corruption” on page 19 for details on how to avoid
problems in these situations.
In order to prevent unintentional EEPROM writes, a specific write procedure must be followed. Refer to “Atomic
Byte Programming” on page 17 and “Split Byte Programming” on page 17 for details on this.
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When the EEPROM is read, the CPU is halted for four clock cycles before the next instruction is executed. When
the EEPROM is written, the CPU is halted for two clock cycles before the next instruction is executed.
5.3.2
Atomic Byte Programming
Using Atomic Byte Programming is the simplest mode. When writing a byte to the EEPROM, the user must write
the address into the EEAR Register and data into EEDR Register. If the EEPMn bits are zero, writing EEPE (within
four cycles after EEMPE is written) will trigger the erase/write operation. Both the erase and write cycle are done in
one operation and the total programming time is given in Table 5-1 on page 21. The EEPE bit remains set until the
erase and write operations are completed. While the device is busy with programming, it is not possible to do any
other EEPROM operations.
5.3.3
Split Byte Programming
It is possible to split the erase and write cycle in two different operations. This may be useful if the system requires
short access time for some limited period of time (typically if the power supply voltage falls). In order to take advantage of this method, it is required that the locations to be written have been erased before the write operation. But
since the erase and write operations are split, it is possible to do the erase operations when the system allows
doing time-critical operations (typically after Power-up).
5.3.4
Erase
To erase a byte, the address must be written to EEAR. If the EEPMn bits are 0b01, writing the EEPE (within four
cycles after EEMPE is written) will trigger the erase operation only (programming time is given in Table 5-1 on
page 21). The EEPE bit remains set until the erase operation completes. While the device is busy programming, it
is not possible to do any other EEPROM operations.
5.3.5
Write
To write a location, the user must write the address into EEAR and the data into EEDR. If the EEPMn bits are
0b10, writing the EEPE (within four cycles after EEMPE is written) will trigger the write operation only (programming time is given in Table 5-1 on page 21). The EEPE bit remains set until the write operation completes. If the
location to be written has not been erased before write, the data that is stored must be considered as lost. While
the device is busy with programming, it is not possible to do any other EEPROM operations.
The calibrated Oscillator is used to time the EEPROM accesses. Make sure the Oscillator frequency is within the
requirements described in “OSCCAL – Oscillator Calibration Register” on page 31.
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The following code examples show one assembly and one C function for erase, write, or atomic write of the
EEPROM. The examples assume that interrupts are controlled (e.g., by disabling interrupts globally) so that no
interrupts will occur during execution of these functions.
Assembly Code Example
EEPROM_write:
; Wait for completion of previous write
sbic EECR,EEPE
rjmp EEPROM_write
; Set Programming mode
ldi
r16, (0<<EEPM1)|(0<<EEPM0)
out
EECR, r16
; Set up address (r18:r17) in address register
out EEARH, r18
out EEARL, r17
; Write data (r19) to data register
out EEDR, r19
; Write logical one to EEMPE
sbi EECR,EEMPE
; Start eeprom write by setting EEPE
sbi EECR,EEPE
ret
C Code Example
void EEPROM_write(unsigned char ucAddress, unsigned char ucData)
{
/* Wait for completion of previous write */
while(EECR & (1<<EEPE))
;
/* Set Programming mode */
EECR = (0<<EEPM1)|(0<<EEPM0);
/* Set up address and data registers */
EEAR = ucAddress;
EEDR = ucData;
/* Write logical one to EEMPE */
EECR |= (1<<EEMPE);
/* Start eeprom write by setting EEPE */
EECR |= (1<<EEPE);
}
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The next code examples show assembly and C functions for reading the EEPROM. The examples assume that
interrupts are controlled so that no interrupts will occur during execution of these functions.
Assembly Code Example
EEPROM_read:
; Wait for completion of previous write
sbic EECR,EEPE
rjmp EEPROM_read
; Set up address (r18:r17) in address register
out EEARH, r18
out EEARL, r17
; Start eeprom read by writing EERE
sbi EECR,EERE
; Read data from data register
in
r16,EEDR
ret
C Code Example
unsigned char EEPROM_read(unsigned char ucAddress)
{
/* Wait for completion of previous write */
while(EECR & (1<<EEPE))
;
/* Set up address register */
EEAR = ucAddress;
/* Start eeprom read by writing EERE */
EECR |= (1<<EERE);
/* Return data from data register */
return EEDR;
}
5.3.6
Preventing EEPROM Corruption
During periods of low VCC, the EEPROM data can be corrupted because the supply voltage is too low for the CPU
and the EEPROM to operate properly. These issues are the same as for board level systems using EEPROM, and
the same design solutions should be applied.
An EEPROM data corruption can be caused by two situations when the voltage is too low. First, a regular write
sequence to the EEPROM requires a minimum voltage to operate correctly. Secondly, the CPU itself can execute
instructions incorrectly, if the supply voltage is too low.
EEPROM data corruption can easily be avoided by following this design recommendation:
Keep the AVR RESET active (low) during periods of insufficient power supply voltage. This can be done by
enabling the internal Brown-out Detector (BOD). If the detection level of the internal BOD does not match the
needed detection level, an external low VCC reset protection circuit can be used. If a reset occurs while a write
operation is in progress, the write operation will be completed provided that the power supply voltage is sufficient.
5.4
I/O Memory
The I/O space definition of the ATtiny25/45/85 is shown in “Register Summary” on page 200.
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All ATtiny25/45/85 I/Os and peripherals are placed in the I/O space. All I/O locations may be accessed by the
LD/LDS/LDD and ST/STS/STD instructions, transferring data between the 32 general purpose working registers
and the I/O space. I/O Registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and
CBI instructions. In these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions. Refer to the instruction set section for more details. When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the
I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O Registers as data space using LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses.
For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory
addresses should never be written.
Some of the Status Flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that the CBI and SBI instructions will
only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such Status Flags. The CBI
and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
The I/O and Peripherals Control Registers are explained in later sections.
5.5
5.5.1
Register Description
EEARH – EEPROM Address Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x1F
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
EEAR8
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
X/0
EEARH
• Bits 7:1 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved for future use and will always read as zero.
• Bits 0 – EEAR8: EEPROM Address
This is the most significant EEPROM address bit of ATtiny85. In devices with less EEPROM, i.e.
ATtiny25/ATtiny45, this bit is reserved and will always read zero. The initial value of the EEPROM Address Register (EEAR) is undefined and a proper value must therefore be written before the EEPROM is accessed.
5.5.2
EEARL – EEPROM Address Register
Bit
EEAR7
EEAR6
EEAR5
EEAR4
EEAR3
EEAR2
EEAR1
EEAR0
Rear/Write
0x1E
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
EEARL
• Bit 7 – EEAR7: EEPROM Address
This is the most significant EEPROM address bit of ATtiny45. In devices with less EEPROM, i.e. ATtiny25, this bit
is reserved and will always read zero. The initial value of the EEPROM Address Register (EEAR) is undefined and
a proper value must therefore be written before the EEPROM is accessed.
• Bits 6:0 – EEAR[6:0]: EEPROM Address
These are the (low) bits of the EEPROM Address Register. The EEPROM data bytes are addressed linearly in the
range 0...(128/256/512-1). The initial value of EEAR is undefined and a proper value must be therefore be written
before the EEPROM may be accessed.
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5.5.3
EEDR – EEPROM Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
EEDR7
EEDR6
EEDR5
EEDR4
EEDR3
EEDR2
EEDR1
EEDR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x1D
EEDR
• Bits 7:0 – EEDR[7:0]: EEPROM Data
For the EEPROM write operation the EEDR Register contains the data to be written to the EEPROM in the address
given by the EEAR Register. For the EEPROM read operation, the EEDR contains the data read out from the
EEPROM at the address given by EEAR.
5.5.4
EECR – EEPROM Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x1C
–
–
EEPM1
EEPM0
EERIE
EEMPE
EEPE
EERE
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
X
X
0
0
X
0
EECR
• Bit 7 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use and will always read as 0 in ATtiny25/45/85. For compatibility with future AVR
devices, always write this bit to zero. After reading, mask out this bit.
• Bit 6 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved in the ATtiny25/45/85 and will always read as zero.
• Bits 5:4 – EEPM[1:0]: EEPROM Programming Mode Bits
The EEPROM Programming mode bits setting defines which programming action that will be triggered when writing EEPE. It is possible to program data in one atomic operation (erase the old value and program the new value)
or to split the Erase and Write operations in two different operations. The Programming times for the different
modes are shown in Table 5-1. While EEPE is set, any write to EEPMn will be ignored. During reset, the EEPMn
bits will be reset to 0b00 unless the EEPROM is busy programming.
Table 5-1.
EEPROM Mode Bits
EEPM1
EEPM0
Programming
Time
0
0
3.4 ms
Erase and Write in one operation (Atomic Operation)
0
1
1.8 ms
Erase Only
1
0
1.8 ms
Write Only
1
1
–
Operation
Reserved for future use
• Bit 3 – EERIE: EEPROM Ready Interrupt Enable
Writing EERIE to one enables the EEPROM Ready Interrupt if the I-bit in SREG is set. Writing EERIE to zero disables the interrupt. The EEPROM Ready Interrupt generates a constant interrupt when Non-volatile memory is
ready for programming.
• Bit 2 – EEMPE: EEPROM Master Program Enable
The EEMPE bit determines whether writing EEPE to one will have effect or not.
When EEMPE is set, setting EEPE within four clock cycles will program the EEPROM at the selected address. If
EEMPE is zero, setting EEPE will have no effect. When EEMPE has been written to one by software, hardware
clears the bit to zero after four clock cycles.
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• Bit 1 – EEPE: EEPROM Program Enable
The EEPROM Program Enable Signal EEPE is the programming enable signal to the EEPROM. When EEPE is
written, the EEPROM will be programmed according to the EEPMn bits setting. The EEMPE bit must be written to
one before a logical one is written to EEPE, otherwise no EEPROM write takes place. When the write access time
has elapsed, the EEPE bit is cleared by hardware. When EEPE has been set, the CPU is halted for two cycles
before the next instruction is executed.
• Bit 0 – EERE: EEPROM Read Enable
The EEPROM Read Enable Signal – EERE – is the read strobe to the EEPROM. When the correct address is set
up in the EEAR Register, the EERE bit must be written to one to trigger the EEPROM read. The EEPROM read
access takes one instruction, and the requested data is available immediately. When the EEPROM is read, the
CPU is halted for four cycles before the next instruction is executed. The user should poll the EEPE bit before starting the read operation. If a write operation is in progress, it is neither possible to read the EEPROM, nor to change
the EEAR Register.
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6. System Clock and Clock Options
6.1
Clock Systems and their Distribution
Figure 6-1 presents the principal clock systems in the AVR and their distribution. All of the clocks need not be
active at a given time. In order to reduce power consumption, the clocks to modules not being used can be halted
by using different sleep modes, as described in “Power Management and Sleep Modes” on page 34. The clock
systems are detailed below.
Figure 6-1.
Clock Distribution
General I/O
Modules
ADC
CPU Core
Flash and
EEPROM
RAM
clkPCK
clkI/O
clkCPU
AVR Clock
Control Unit
clkFLASH
clkADC
Reset Logic
Watchdog Timer
Source clock
Watchdog clock
Clock
Multiplexer
External Clock
Calibrated
Crystal RC
Oscillator
clkPCK
System Clock
Prescaler
Watchdog
Oscillator
Low-Frequency
Crystal Oscillator
PLL
Oscillator
Calibrated RC
Oscillator
6.1.1
CPU Clock – clkCPU
The CPU clock is routed to parts of the system concerned with operation of the AVR core. Examples of such modules are the General Purpose Register File, the Status Register and the Data memory holding the Stack Pointer.
Halting the CPU clock inhibits the core from performing general operations and calculations.
6.1.2
I/O Clock – clkI/O
The I/O clock is used by the majority of the I/O modules, like Timer/Counter. The I/O clock is also used by the
External Interrupt module, but note that some external interrupts are detected by asynchronous logic, allowing
such interrupts to be detected even if the I/O clock is halted.
6.1.3
Flash Clock – clkFLASH
The Flash clock controls operation of the Flash interface. The Flash clock is usually active simultaneously with the
CPU clock.
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6.1.4
ADC Clock – clkADC
The ADC is provided with a dedicated clock domain. This allows halting the CPU and I/O clocks in order to reduce
noise generated by digital circuitry. This gives more accurate ADC conversion results.
6.1.5
Internal PLL for Fast Peripheral Clock Generation - clkPCK
The internal PLL in ATtiny25/45/85 generates a clock frequency that is 8x multiplied from a source input. By
default, the PLL uses the output of the internal, 8.0 MHz RC oscillator as source. Alternatively, if bit LSM of
PLLCSR is set the PLL will use the output of the RC oscillator divided by two. Thus the output of the PLL, the fast
peripheral clock is 64 MHz. The fast peripheral clock, or a clock prescaled from that, can be selected as the clock
source for Timer/Counter1 or as a system clock. See Figure 6-2. The frequency of the fast peripheral clock is
divided by two when LSM of PLLCSR is set, resulting in a clock frequency of 32 MHz. Note, that LSM can not be
set if PLLCLK is used as system clock.
Figure 6-2.
PCK Clocking System.
OSCCAL
LSM
PLLE
CKSEL[3:0]
CLKPS[3:0]
LOCK
DETECTOR
1/2
8.0 MHz
OSCILLATOR
4 MHz
PCK
8 MHz
PLL
8x
64 / 32 MHz
XTAL1
XTAL2
PLOCK
1/4
16 MHz
8 MHz
PRESCALER
SYSTEM
CLOCK
OSCILLATORS
The PLL is locked on the RC oscillator and adjusting the RC oscillator via OSCCAL register will adjust the fast
peripheral clock at the same time. However, even if the RC oscillator is taken to a higher frequency than 8 MHz,
the fast peripheral clock frequency saturates at 85 MHz (worst case) and remains oscillating at the maximum frequency. It should be noted that the PLL in this case is not locked any longer with the RC oscillator clock. Therefore,
it is recommended not to take the OSCCAL adjustments to a higher frequency than 8 MHz in order to keep the PLL
in the correct operating range.
The internal PLL is enabled when:
• The PLLE bit in the register PLLCSR is set.
• The CKSEL fuse is programmed to ‘0001’.
• The CKSEL fuse is programmed to ‘0011’.
The PLLCSR bit PLOCK is set when PLL is locked.
Both internal RC oscillator and PLL are switched off in power down and stand-by sleep modes.
6.1.6
Internal PLL in ATtiny15 Compatibility Mode
Since ATtiny25/45/85 is a migration device for ATtiny15 users there is an ATtiny15 compatibility mode for backward compatibility. The ATtiny15 compatibility mode is selected by programming the CKSEL fuses to ‘0011’.
In the ATtiny15 compatibility mode the frequency of the internal RC oscillator is calibrated down to 6.4 MHz and the
multiplication factor of the PLL is set to 4x. See Figure 6-3. With these adjustments the clocking system is
ATtiny15-compatible and the resulting fast peripheral clock has a frequency of 25.6 MHz (same as in ATtiny15).
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Figure 6-3.
PCK Clocking System in ATtiny15 Compatibility Mode.
OSCCAL
PLLE
PLL
8x
1/2
25.6 MHz
PCK
3.2 MHz
LOCK
DETECTOR
6.4 MHz
OSCILLATOR
1/4
1.6 MHz
PLOCK
SYSTEM
CLOCK
Note that low speed mode is not implemented in ATtiny15 compatibility mode.
6.2
Clock Sources
The device has the following clock source options, selectable by Flash Fuse bits as shown below. The clock from
the selected source is input to the AVR clock generator, and routed to the appropriate modules.
Table 6-1.
Device Clocking Options Select
CKSEL[3:0](1)
Device Clocking Option
External Clock (see page 26)
0000
High Frequency PLL Clock (see page 26)
0001
Calibrated Internal Oscillator (see page 27)
0010(2)
Calibrated Internal Oscillator (see page 27)
0011(3)
Internal 128 kHz Oscillator (see page 28)
0100
Low-Frequency Crystal Oscillator (see page 29)
0110
Crystal Oscillator / Ceramic Resonator (see page 29)
1000 – 1111
Reserved
0101, 0111
Note:
1. For all fuses “1” means unprogrammed while “0” means programmed.
2. The device is shipped with this option selected.
3. This will select ATtiny15 Compatibility Mode, where system clock is divided by four, resulting in a 1.6 MHz clock frequency. For more inormation, see “Calibrated Internal Oscillator” on page 27.
The various choices for each clocking option is given in the following sections. When the CPU wakes up from
Power-down, the selected clock source is used to time the start-up, ensuring stable Oscillator operation before
instruction execution starts. When the CPU starts from reset, there is an additional delay allowing the power to
reach a stable level before commencing normal operation. The Watchdog Oscillator is used for timing this real-time
part of the start-up time. The number of WDT Oscillator cycles used for each time-out is shown in Table 6-2.
Table 6-2.
Number of Watchdog Oscillator Cycles
Typ Time-out
Number of Cycles
4 ms
512
64 ms
8K (8,192)
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6.2.1
External Clock
To drive the device from an external clock source, CLKI should be driven as shown in Figure 6-4. To run the device
on an external clock, the CKSEL Fuses must be programmed to “00”.
Figure 6-4.
External Clock Drive Configuration
EXTERNAL
CLOCK
SIGNAL
CLKI
GND
When this clock source is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as shown in Table 6-3.
Table 6-3.
Start-up Times for the External Clock Selection
SUT[1:0]
Start-up Time from
Power-down
Additional Delay from
Reset
00
6 CK
14CK
01
6 CK
14CK + 4 ms
Fast rising power
10
6 CK
14CK + 64 ms
Slowly rising power
11
Recommended Usage
BOD enabled
Reserved
When applying an external clock, it is required to avoid sudden changes in the applied clock frequency to ensure
stable operation of the MCU. A variation in frequency of more than 2% from one clock cycle to the next can lead to
unpredictable behavior. It is required to ensure that the MCU is kept in Reset during such changes in the clock
frequency.
Note that the System Clock Prescaler can be used to implement run-time changes of the internal clock frequency
while still ensuring stable operation. Refer to “System Clock Prescaler” on page 31 for details.
6.2.2
High Frequency PLL Clock
There is an internal PLL that provides nominally 64 MHz clock rate locked to the RC Oscillator for the use of the
Peripheral Timer/Counter1 and for the system clock source. When selected as a system clock source, by programming the CKSEL fuses to ‘0001’, it is divided by four like shown in Table 6-4.
Table 6-4.
High Frequency PLL Clock Operating Modes
CKSEL[3:0]
Nominal Frequency
0001
16 MHz
When this clock source is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT fuses as shown in Table 6-5.
Table 6-5.
Start-up Times for the High Frequency PLL Clock
SUT[1:0]
Start-up Time from
Power Down
Additional Delay from
Power-On Reset (VCC = 5.0V)
00
14CK + 1K (1024) CK + 4 ms
4 ms
Recommended
usage
BOD enabled
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Table 6-5.
6.2.3
Start-up Times for the High Frequency PLL Clock
SUT[1:0]
Start-up Time from
Power Down
Additional Delay from
Power-On Reset (VCC = 5.0V)
Recommended
usage
01
14CK + 16K (16384) CK + 4 ms
4 ms
Fast rising power
10
14CK + 1K (1024) CK + 64 ms
4 ms
Slowly rising power
11
14CK + 16K (16384) CK + 64 ms
4 ms
Slowly rising power
Calibrated Internal Oscillator
By default, the Internal RC Oscillator provides an approximate 8.0 MHz clock. Though voltage and temperature
dependent, this clock can be very accurately calibrated by the user. See “Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator Accuracy” on page 164 and “Internal Oscillator Speed” on page 192 for more details. The device is shipped with the
CKDIV8 Fuse programmed. See “System Clock Prescaler” on page 31 for more details.
This clock may be selected as the system clock by programming the CKSEL Fuses as shown in Table 6-6 on page
27. If selected, it will operate with no external components. During reset, hardware loads the pre-programmed calibration value into the OSCCAL Register and thereby automatically calibrates the RC Oscillator. The accuracy of
this calibration is shown as Factory calibration in Table 21-2 on page 164.
By changing the OSCCAL register from SW, see “OSCCAL – Oscillator Calibration Register” on page 31, it is possible to get a higher calibration accuracy than by using the factory calibration. The accuracy of this calibration is
shown as User calibration in Table 21-2 on page 164.
When this Oscillator is used as the chip clock, the Watchdog Oscillator will still be used for the Watchdog Timer
and for the Reset Time-out. For more information on the pre-programmed calibration value, see the section “Calibration Bytes” on page 150.
The internal oscillator can also be set to provide a 6.4 MHz clock by writing CKSEL fuses to “0011”, as shown in
Table 6-6 below. This setting is reffered to as ATtiny15 Compatibility Mode and is intended to provide a calibrated
clock source at 6.4 MHz, as in ATtiny15. In ATtiny15 Compatibility Mode the PLL uses the internal oscillator running at 6.4 MHz to generate a 25.6 MHz peripheral clock signal for Timer/Counter1 (see “8-bit Timer/Counter1 in
ATtiny15 Mode” on page 95). Note that in this mode of operation the 6.4 MHz clock signal is always divided by
four, providing a 1.6 MHz system clock.
Table 6-6.
Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator Operating Modes
CKSEL[3:0]
Note:
Nominal Frequency
(1)
0010
8.0 MHz
0011(2)
6.4 MHz
1. The device is shipped with this option selected.
2. This setting will select ATtiny15 Compatibility Mode, where system clock is divided by four, resulting in a 1.6 MHz
clock frequency.
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When the calibrated 8 MHz internal oscillator is selected as clock source the start-up times are determined by the
SUT Fuses as shown in Table 6-7 below.
Table 6-7.
SUT[1:0]
Start-up Times for Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator Clock
Start-up Time
from Power-down
Additional Delay from
Reset (VCC = 5.0V)
Recommended Usage
00
6 CK
01
6 CK
14CK + 4 ms
Fast rising power
6 CK
14CK + 64 ms
Slowly rising power
(2)
10
11
Note:
14CK
(1)
BOD enabled
Reserved
1. If the RSTDISBL fuse is programmed, this start-up time will be increased to 14CK + 4 ms to ensure programming
mode can be entered.
2. The device is shipped with this option selected.
In ATtiny15 Compatibility Mode start-up times are determined by SUT fuses as shown in Table 6-8 below.
Table 6-8.
Start-up Times for Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator Clock (in ATtiny15 Mode)
SUT[1:0]
Start-up Time
from Power-down
Additional Delay from
Reset (VCC = 5.0V)
00
6 CK
14CK + 64 ms
01
6 CK
14CK + 64 ms
10
6 CK
14CK + 4 ms
11
1 CK
14CK(1)
Note:
Recommended Usage
1. If the RSTDISBL fuse is programmed, this start-up time will be increased to 14CK + 4 ms to ensure programming
mode can be entered.
In summary, more information on ATtiny15 Compatibility Mode can be found in sections “Port B (PB5:PB0)” on
page 2, “Internal PLL in ATtiny15 Compatibility Mode” on page 24, “8-bit Timer/Counter1 in ATtiny15 Mode” on
page 95, “Limitations of debugWIRE” on page 140, “Calibration Bytes” on page 150 and in table “Clock Prescaler
Select” on page 33.
6.2.4
Internal 128 kHz Oscillator
The 128 kHz internal Oscillator is a low power Oscillator providing a clock of 128 kHz. The frequency is nominal at
3V and 25C. This clock may be select as the system clock by programming the CKSEL Fuses to “0100”.
When this clock source is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as shown in Table 6-9.
Table 6-9.
SUT[1:0]
Start-up Times for the 128 kHz Internal Oscillator
Start-up Time from
Power-down
Additional Delay from
Reset
Recommended Usage
BOD enabled
00
6 CK
01
6 CK
14CK + 4 ms
Fast rising power
10
6 CK
14CK + 64 ms
Slowly rising power
11
14CK
(1)
Reserved
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Note:
6.2.5
1. If the RSTDISBL fuse is programmed, this start-up time will be increased to 14CK + 4 ms to ensure programming
mode can be entered.
Low-Frequency Crystal Oscillator
To use a 32.768 kHz watch crystal as the clock source for the device, the Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator must be
selected by setting CKSEL fuses to ‘0110’. The crystal should be connected as shown in Figure 6-5. To find suitable load capacitance for a 32.768 kHz crysal, please consult the manufacturer’s datasheet.
When this oscillator is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT fuses as shown in Table 6-10.
Table 6-10.
SUT[1:0]
Start-up Times for the Low Frequency Crystal Oscillator Clock Selection
Start-up Time from
Power Down
Additional Delay from
Reset (VCC = 5.0V)
(1)
Recommended usage
00
1K (1024) CK
4 ms
Fast rising power or BOD enabled
01
1K (1024) CK(1)
64 ms
Slowly rising power
10
32K (32768) CK
64 ms
Stable frequency at start-up
11
Note:
Reserved
1. These options should be used only if frequency stability at start-up is not important.
The Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator provides an internal load capacitance, see Table 6-11 at each TOSC pin.
Table 6-11.
6.2.6
Capacitance of Low-Frequency Crystal Oscillator
Device
32 kHz Osc. Type
Cap (Xtal1/Tosc1)
ATtiny25/45/85
System Osc.
16 pF
Cap (Xtal2/Tosc2)
6 pF
Crystal Oscillator / Ceramic Resonator
XTAL1 and XTAL2 are input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as
an On-chip Oscillator, as shown in Figure 6-5. Either a quartz crystal or a ceramic resonator may be used.
Figure 6-5.
Crystal Oscillator Connections
C2
C1
XTAL2
XTAL1
GND
C1 and C2 should always be equal for both crystals and resonators. The optimal value of the capacitors depends
on the crystal or resonator in use, the amount of stray capacitance, and the electromagnetic noise of the environ-
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ment. Some initial guidelines for choosing capacitors for use with crystals are given in Table 6-12 below. For
ceramic resonators, the capacitor values given by the manufacturer should be used.
Table 6-12.
Crystal Oscillator Operating Modes
CKSEL[3:1]
Frequency Range (MHz)
Recommended Range for Capacitors C1 and
C2 for Use with Crystals (pF)
100(1)
0.4 - 0.9
–
101
0.9 - 3.0
12 - 22
110
3.0 - 8.0
12 - 22
111
8.0 -
12 - 22
Notes:
1. This option should not be used with crystals, only with ceramic resonators.
The Oscillator can operate in three different modes, each optimized for a specific frequency range. The operating
mode is selected by the fuses CKSEL[3:1] as shown in Table 6-12.
The CKSEL0 Fuse together with the SUT[1:0] Fuses select the start-up times as shown in Table 6-13.
Table 6-13.
Start-up Times for the Crystal Oscillator Clock Selection
CKSEL0
SUT[1:0]
Start-up Time from
Power-down
Additional Delay
from Reset
0
00
258 CK(1)
14CK + 4 ms
Ceramic resonator,
fast rising power
0
01
258 CK(1)
14CK + 64 ms
Ceramic resonator,
slowly rising power
0
10
1K (1024) CK(2)
14CK
Ceramic resonator,
BOD enabled
0
11
1K (1024)CK(2)
14CK + 4 ms
Ceramic resonator,
fast rising power
1
00
1K (1024)CK(2)
14CK + 64 ms
Ceramic resonator,
slowly rising power
1
01
16K (16384) CK
14CK
Crystal Oscillator,
BOD enabled
1
10
16K (16384) CK
14CK + 4 ms
Crystal Oscillator,
fast rising power
1
11
16K (16384) CK
14CK + 64 ms
Crystal Oscillator,
slowly rising power
Notes:
Recommended Usage
1. These options should only be used when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and only if
frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application. These options are not suitable for crystals.
2. These options are intended for use with ceramic resonators and will ensure frequency stability at start-up. They can
also be used with crystals when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application.
6.2.7
Default Clock Source
The device is shipped with CKSEL = “0010”, SUT = “10”, and CKDIV8 programmed. The default clock source setting is therefore the Internal RC Oscillator running at 8 MHz with longest start-up time and an initial system clock
prescaling of 8, resulting in 1.0 MHz system clock. This default setting ensures that all users can make their
desired clock source setting using an In-System or High-voltage Programmer.
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6.3
System Clock Prescaler
The ATtiny25/45/85 system clock can be divided by setting the “CLKPR – Clock Prescale Register” on page 32.
This feature can be used to decrease power consumption when the requirement for processing power is low. This
can be used with all clock source options, and it will affect the clock frequency of the CPU and all synchronous
peripherals. clkI/O, clkADC, clkCPU, and clkFLASH are divided by a factor as shown in Table 6-15 on page 33.
6.3.1
Switching Time
When switching between prescaler settings, the System Clock Prescaler ensures that no glitches occur in the clock
system and that no intermediate frequency is higher than neither the clock frequency corresponding to the previous
setting, nor the clock frequency corresponding to the new setting.
The ripple counter that implements the prescaler runs at the frequency of the undivided clock, which may be faster
than the CPU’s clock frequency. Hence, it is not possible to determine the state of the prescaler – even if it were
readable, and the exact time it takes to switch from one clock division to another cannot be exactly predicted.
From the time the CLKPS values are written, it takes between T1 + T2 and T1 + 2*T2 before the new clock frequency is active. In this interval, 2 active clock edges are produced. Here, T1 is the previous clock period, and T2
is the period corresponding to the new prescaler setting.
6.4
Clock Output Buffer
The device can output the system clock on the CLKO pin (when not used as XTAL2 pin). To enable the output, the
CKOUT Fuse has to be programmed. This mode is suitable when the chip clock is used to drive other circuits on
the system. Note that the clock will not be output during reset and that the normal operation of the I/O pin will be
overridden when the fuse is programmed. Internal RC Oscillator, WDT Oscillator, PLL, and external clock (CLKI)
can be selected when the clock is output on CLKO. Crystal oscillators (XTAL1, XTAL2) can not be used for clock
output on CLKO. If the System Clock Prescaler is used, it is the divided system clock that is output.
6.5
6.5.1
Register Description
OSCCAL – Oscillator Calibration Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x31
CAL7
CAL6
CAL5
CAL4
CAL3
CAL2
CAL1
CAL0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
OSCCAL
Device Specific Calibration Value
• Bits 7:0 – CAL[7:0]: Oscillator Calibration Value
The Oscillator Calibration Register is used to trim the Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator to remove process variations from the oscillator frequency. A pre-programmed calibration value is automatically written to this register
during chip reset, giving the Factory calibrated frequency as specified in Table 21-2 on page 164. The application
software can write this register to change the oscillator frequency. The oscillator can be calibrated to frequencies
as specified in Table 21-2 on page 164. Calibration outside that range is not guaranteed.
Note that this oscillator is used to time EEPROM and Flash write accesses, and these write times will be affected
accordingly. If the EEPROM or Flash are written, do not calibrate to more than 8.8 MHz. Otherwise, the EEPROM
or Flash write may fail.
The CAL7 bit determines the range of operation for the oscillator. Setting this bit to 0 gives the lowest frequency
range, setting this bit to 1 gives the highest frequency range. The two frequency ranges are overlapping, in other
words a setting of OSCCAL = 0x7F gives a higher frequency than OSCCAL = 0x80.
The CAL[6:0] bits are used to tune the frequency within the selected range. A setting of 0x00 gives the lowest frequency in that range, and a setting of 0x7F gives the highest frequency in the range.
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To ensure stable operation of the MCU the calibration value should be changed in small. A variation in frequency of
more than 2% from one cycle to the next can lead to unpredicatble behavior. Changes in OSCCAL should not
exceed 0x20 for each calibration. It is required to ensure that the MCU is kept in Reset during such changes in the
clock frequency
Table 6-14.
6.5.2
Internal RC Oscillator Frequency Range
OSCCAL Value
Typical Lowest Frequency
with Respect to Nominal Frequency
Typical Highest Frequency
with Respect to Nominal Frequency
0x00
50%
100%
0x3F
75%
150%
0x7F
100%
200%
CLKPR – Clock Prescale Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CLKPCE
–
–
–
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0x26
CLKPR
See Bit Description
• Bit 7 – CLKPCE: Clock Prescaler Change Enable
The CLKPCE bit must be written to logic one to enable change of the CLKPS bits. The CLKPCE bit is only updated
when the other bits in CLKPR are simultaniosly written to zero. CLKPCE is cleared by hardware four cycles after it
is written or when the CLKPS bits are written. Rewriting the CLKPCE bit within this time-out period does neither
extend the time-out period, nor clear the CLKPCE bit.
• Bits 6:4 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the ATtiny25/45/85 and will always read as zero.
• Bits 3:0 – CLKPS[3:0]: Clock Prescaler Select Bits 3 - 0
These bits define the division factor between the selected clock source and the internal system clock. These bits
can be written run-time to vary the clock frequency to suit the application requirements. As the divider divides the
master clock input to the MCU, the speed of all synchronous peripherals is reduced when a division factor is used.
The division factors are given in Table 6-15.
To avoid unintentional changes of clock frequency, a special write procedure must be followed to change the
CLKPS bits:
1. Write the Clock Prescaler Change Enable (CLKPCE) bit to one and all other bits in CLKPR to zero.
2. Within four cycles, write the desired value to CLKPS while writing a zero to CLKPCE.
Interrupts must be disabled when changing prescaler setting to make sure the write procedure is not interrupted.
The CKDIV8 Fuse determines the initial value of the CLKPS bits. If CKDIV8 is unprogrammed, the CLKPS bits will
be reset to “0000”. If CKDIV8 is programmed, CLKPS bits are reset to “0011”, giving a division factor of eight at
start up. This feature should be used if the selected clock source has a higher frequency than the maximum frequency of the device at the present operating conditions. Note that any value can be written to the CLKPS bits
regardless of the CKDIV8 Fuse setting. The Application software must ensure that a sufficient division factor is
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chosen if the selcted clock source has a higher frequency than the maximum frequency of the device at the present
operating conditions. The device is shipped with the CKDIV8 Fuse programmed.
Table 6-15.
Clock Prescaler Select
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
Clock Division Factor
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
1
0
4
0
0
1
1
8
0
1
0
0
16
0
1
0
1
32
0
1
1
0
64
0
1
1
1
128
1
0
0
0
256
1
0
0
1
Reserved
1
0
1
0
Reserved
1
0
1
1
Reserved
1
1
0
0
Reserved
1
1
0
1
Reserved
1
1
1
0
Reserved
1
1
1
1
Reserved
Note:
The prescaler is disabled in ATtiny15 compatibility mode and neither writing to CLKPR, nor programming the CKDIV8
fuse has any effect on the system clock (which will always be 1.6 MHz).
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7. Power Management and Sleep Modes
The high performance and industry leading code efficiency makes the AVR microcontrollers an ideal choise for low
power applications. In addition, sleep modes enable the application to shut down unused modules in the MCU,
thereby saving power. The AVR provides various sleep modes allowing the user to tailor the power consumption to
the application’s requirements.
7.1
Sleep Modes
Figure 6-1 on page 23 presents the different clock systems and their distribution in ATtiny25/45/85. The figure is
helpful in selecting an appropriate sleep mode. Table 7-1 shows the different sleep modes and their wake up
sources.
Table 7-1.
Active Clock Domains and Wake-up Sources in the Different Sleep Modes
ADC Noise
Reduction
clkADC
clkPCK
Main Clock
Source Enabled
INT0 and
Pin Change
SPM/EEPROM
Ready
USI Start Condition
ADC
Other I/O
Watchdog
Interrupt
Wake-up Sources
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Power-down
Note:
Oscillators
clkIO
Idle
clkFLASH
Sleep Mode
clkCPU
Active Clock Domains
X
X(1)
X
X
X
X(1)
X
X
X
1. For INT0, only level interrupt.
To enter any of the three sleep modes, the SE bit in MCUCR must be written to logic one and a SLEEP instruction
must be executed. The SM[1:0] bits in the MCUCR Register select which sleep mode (Idle, ADC Noise Reduction
or Power-down) will be activated by the SLEEP instruction. See Table 7-2 for a summary.
If an enabled interrupt occurs while the MCU is in a sleep mode, the MCU wakes up. The MCU is then halted for
four cycles in addition to the start-up time, executes the interrupt routine, and resumes execution from the instruction following SLEEP. The contents of the Register File and SRAM are unaltered when the device wakes up from
sleep. If a reset occurs during sleep mode, the MCU wakes up and executes from the Reset Vector.
Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up the changed level must be held for some time to wake up
the MCU (and for the MCU to enter the interrupt service routine). See “External Interrupts” on page 49 for details.
7.1.1
Idle Mode
When the SM[1:0] bits are written to 00, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Idle mode, stopping the CPU
but allowing Analog Comparator, ADC, USI, Timer/Counter, Watchdog, and the interrupt system to continue operating. This sleep mode basically halts clkCPU and clkFLASH, while allowing the other clocks to run.
Idle mode enables the MCU to wake up from external triggered interrupts as well as internal ones like the Timer
Overflow. If wake-up from the Analog Comparator interrupt is not required, the Analog Comparator can be powered
down by setting the ACD bit in “ACSR – Analog Comparator Control and Status Register” on page 120. This will
reduce power consumption in Idle mode. If the ADC is enabled, a conversion starts automatically when this mode
is entered.
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7.1.2
ADC Noise Reduction Mode
When the SM[1:0] bits are written to 01, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter ADC Noise Reduction mode,
stopping the CPU but allowing the ADC, the external interrupts, and the Watchdog to continue operating (if
enabled). This sleep mode halts clkI/O, clkCPU, and clkFLASH, while allowing the other clocks to run.
This improves the noise environment for the ADC, enabling higher resolution measurements. If the ADC is
enabled, a conversion starts automatically when this mode is entered. Apart form the ADC Conversion Complete
interrupt, only an External Reset, a Watchdog Reset, a Brown-out Reset, an SPM/EEPROM ready interrupt, an
external level interrupt on INT0 or a pin change interrupt can wake up the MCU from ADC Noise Reduction mode.
7.1.3
Power-down Mode
When the SM[1:0] bits are written to 10, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Power-down mode. In this
mode, the Oscillator is stopped, while the external interrupts, the USI start condition detection and the Watchdog
continue operating (if enabled). Only an External Reset, a Watchdog Reset, a Brown-out Reset, USI start condition
interupt, an external level interrupt on INT0 or a pin change interrupt can wake up the MCU. This sleep mode halts
all generated clocks, allowing operation of asynchronous modules only.
7.2
Software BOD Disable
When the Brown-out Detector (BOD) is enabled by BODLEVEL fuses (see Table 20-4 on page 148), the BOD is
actively monitoring the supply voltage during a sleep period. In some devices it is possible to save power by disabling the BOD by software in Power-Down sleep mode. The sleep mode power consumption will then be at the
same level as when BOD is globally disabled by fuses.
If BOD is disabled by software, the BOD function is turned off immediately after entering the sleep mode. Upon
wake-up from sleep, BOD is automatically enabled again. This ensures safe operation in case the VCC level has
dropped during the sleep period.
When the BOD has been disabled, the wake-up time from sleep mode will be the same as that for wakeing up from
RESET. The user must manually configure the wake up times such that the bandgap reference has time to start
and the BOD is working correctly before the MCU continues executing code. See SUT[1:0] and CKSEL[3:0] fuse
bits in table “Fuse Low Byte” on page 149
BOD disable is controlled by the BODS (BOD Sleep) bit of MCU Control Register, see “MCUCR – MCU Control
Register” on page 37. Writing this bit to one turns off BOD in Power-Down, while writing a zero keeps the BOD
active. The default setting is zero, i.e. BOD active.
Writing to the BODS bit is controlled by a timed sequence and an enable bit, see “MCUCR – MCU Control Register” on page 37.
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7.2.1
Limitations
BOD disable functionality has been implemented in the following devices, only:
• ATtiny25, revision E, and newer
• ATtiny45, revision D, and newer
• ATtiny85, revision C, and newer
Revisions are marked on the device package and can be located as follows:
• Bottom side of packages 8P3 and 8S2
• Top side of package 20M1
7.3
Power Reduction Register
The Power Reduction Register (PRR), see “PRR – Power Reduction Register” on page 38, provides a method to
reduce power consumption by stopping the clock to individual peripherals. The current state of the peripheral is frozen and the I/O registers can not be read or written. Resources used by the peripheral when stopping the clock will
remain occupied, hence the peripheral should in most cases be disabled before stopping the clock. Waking up a
module, which is done by clearing the bit in PRR, puts the module in the same state as before shutdown.
Module shutdown can be used in Idle mode and Active mode to significantly reduce the overall power consumption. In all other sleep modes, the clock is already stopped. See “Supply Current of I/O modules” on page 177 for
examples.
7.4
Minimizing Power Consumption
There are several issues to consider when trying to minimize the power consumption in an AVR controlled system.
In general, sleep modes should be used as much as possible, and the sleep mode should be selected so that as
few as possible of the device’s functions are operating. All functions not needed should be disabled. In particular,
the following modules may need special consideration when trying to achieve the lowest possible power
consumption.
7.4.1
Analog to Digital Converter
If enabled, the ADC will be enabled in all sleep modes. To save power, the ADC should be disabled before entering
any sleep mode. When the ADC is turned off and on again, the next conversion will be an extended conversion.
Refer to “Analog to Digital Converter” on page 122 for details on ADC operation.
7.4.2
Analog Comparator
When entering Idle mode, the Analog Comparator should be disabled if not used. When entering ADC Noise
Reduction mode, the Analog Comparator should be disabled. In the other sleep modes, the Analog Comparator is
automatically disabled. However, if the Analog Comparator is set up to use the Internal Voltage Reference as
input, the Analog Comparator should be disabled in all sleep modes. Otherwise, the Internal Voltage Reference will
be enabled, independent of sleep mode. Refer to “Analog Comparator” on page 119 for details on how to configure
the Analog Comparator.
7.4.3
Brown-out Detector
If the Brown-out Detector is not needed in the application, this module should be turned off. If the Brown-out Detector is enabled by the BODLEVEL Fuses, it will be enabled in all sleep modes, and hence, always consume power.
In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current consumption. See “Brown-out Detection” on page 41 and “Software BOD Disable” on page 35 for details on how to configure the Brown-out Detector.
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7.4.4
Internal Voltage Reference
The Internal Voltage Reference will be enabled when needed by the Brown-out Detection, the Analog Comparator
or the ADC. If these modules are disabled as described in the sections above, the internal voltage reference will be
disabled and it will not be consuming power. When turned on again, the user must allow the reference to start up
before the output is used. If the reference is kept on in sleep mode, the output can be used immediately. Refer to
“Internal Voltage Reference” on page 42 for details on the start-up time.
7.4.5
Watchdog Timer
If the Watchdog Timer is not needed in the application, this module should be turned off. If the Watchdog Timer is
enabled, it will be enabled in all sleep modes, and hence, always consume power. In the deeper sleep modes, this
will contribute significantly to the total current consumption. Refer to “Watchdog Timer” on page 42 for details on
how to configure the Watchdog Timer.
7.4.6
Port Pins
When entering a sleep mode, all port pins should be configured to use minimum power. The most important thing
is then to ensure that no pins drive resistive loads. In sleep modes where both the I/O clock (clkI/O) and the ADC
clock (clkADC) are stopped, the input buffers of the device will be disabled. This ensures that no power is consumed
by the input logic when not needed. In some cases, the input logic is needed for detecting wake-up conditions, and
it will then be enabled. Refer to the section “Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes” on page 57 for details on which
pins are enabled. If the input buffer is enabled and the input signal is left floating or has an analog signal level close
to VCC/2, the input buffer will use excessive power.
For analog input pins, the digital input buffer should be disabled at all times. An analog signal level close to VCC/2
on an input pin can cause significant current even in active mode. Digital input buffers can be disabled by writing to
the Digital Input Disable Register (DIDR0). Refer to “DIDR0 – Digital Input Disable Register 0” on page 121 for
details.
7.5
Register Description
7.5.1
MCUCR – MCU Control Register
The MCU Control Register contains control bits for power management.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
BODS
PUD
SE
SM1
SM0
BODSE
ISC01
ISC00
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x35
MCUCR
• Bit 7 – BODS: BOD Sleep
BOD disable functionality is available in some devices, only. See “Limitations” on page 36.
In order to disable BOD during sleep (see Table 7-1 on page 34) the BODS bit must be written to logic one. This is
controlled by a timed sequence and the enable bit, BODSE in MCUCR. First, both BODS and BODSE must be set
to one. Second, within four clock cycles, BODS must be set to one and BODSE must be set to zero. The BODS bit
is active three clock cycles after it is set. A sleep instruction must be executed while BODS is active in order to turn
off the BOD for the actual sleep mode. The BODS bit is automatically cleared after three clock cycles.
In devices where Sleeping BOD has not been implemented this bit is unused and will always read zero.
• Bit 5 – SE: Sleep Enable
The SE bit must be written to logic one to make the MCU enter the sleep mode when the SLEEP instruction is executed. To avoid the MCU entering the sleep mode unless it is the programmer’s purpose, it is recommended to
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write the Sleep Enable (SE) bit to one just before the execution of the SLEEP instruction and to clear it immediately
after waking up.
• Bits 4:3 – SM[1:0]: Sleep Mode Select Bits 1 and 0
These bits select between the three available sleep modes as shown in Table 7-2.
Table 7-2.
Sleep Mode Select
SM1
SM0
Sleep Mode
0
0
Idle
0
1
ADC Noise Reduction
1
0
Power-down
1
1
Reserved
• Bit 2 – BODSE: BOD Sleep Enable
BOD disable functionality is available in some devices, only. See “Limitations” on page 36.
The BODSE bit enables setting of BODS control bit, as explained on BODS bit description. BOD disable is controlled by a timed sequence.
This bit is unused in devices where software BOD disable has not been implemented and will read as zero in those
devices.
7.5.2
PRR – Power Reduction Register
The Power Reduction Register provides a method to reduce power consumption by allowing peripheral clock signals to be disabled.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x20
–
–
–
–
PRTIM1
PRTIM0
PRUSI
PRADC
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PRR
• Bits 7:4 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the ATtiny25/45/85 and will always read as zero.
• Bit 3 – PRTIM1: Power Reduction Timer/Counter1
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter1 module. When the Timer/Counter1 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
• Bit 2 – PRTIM0: Power Reduction Timer/Counter0
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter0 module. When the Timer/Counter0 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
• Bit 1 – PRUSI: Power Reduction USI
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the USI by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the USI
again, the USI should be re initialized to ensure proper operation.
• Bit 0 – PRADC: Power Reduction ADC
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the ADC. The ADC must be disabled before shut down. Note that the ADC
clock is also used by some parts of the analog comparator, which means that the analogue comparator can not be
used when this bit is high.
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8. System Control and Reset
8.1
Resetting the AVR
During reset, all I/O Registers are set to their initial values, and the program starts execution from the Reset Vector. The instruction placed at the Reset Vector must be a RJMP – Relative Jump – instruction to the reset handling
routine. If the program never enables an interrupt source, the Interrupt Vectors are not used, and regular program
code can be placed at these locations. The circuit diagram in Figure 8-1 shows the reset logic. Electrical parameters of the reset circuitry are given in “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 165.
Figure 8-1.
Reset Logic
DATA BUS
PORF
BORF
EXTRF
WDRF
MCU Status
Register (MCUSR)
Power-on Reset
Circuit
VCC
Pull-up Resistor
RESET
SPIKE
FILTER
Reset Circuit
S
COUNTER RESET
R
Watchdog
Timer
Q
INTERNAL RESET
Brown-out
Reset Circuit
BODLEVEL[2:0]
Watchdog
Oscillator
Clock
Generator
CK
Delay Counters
TIMEOUT
CKSEL[3:0]
SUT[1:0]
The I/O ports of the AVR are immediately reset to their initial state when a reset source goes active. This does not
require any clock source to be running.
After all reset sources have gone inactive, a delay counter is invoked, stretching the internal reset. This allows the
power to reach a stable level before normal operation starts. The time-out period of the delay counter is defined by
the user through the SUT and CKSEL Fuses. The different selections for the delay period are presented in “Clock
Sources” on page 25.
8.2
Reset Sources
The ATtiny25/45/85 has four sources of reset:
• Power-on Reset. The MCU is reset when the supply voltage is below the Power-on Reset threshold (VPOT).
• External Reset. The MCU is reset when a low level is present on the RESET pin for longer than the minimum
pulse length.
• Watchdog Reset. The MCU is reset when the Watchdog Timer period expires and the Watchdog is enabled.
• Brown-out Reset. The MCU is reset when the supply voltage VCC is below the Brown-out Reset threshold (VBOT)
and the Brown-out Detector is enabled.
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8.2.1
Power-on Reset
A Power-on Reset (POR) pulse is generated by an On-chip detection circuit. The detection level is defined in “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 165. The POR is activated whenever VCC is below the detection level. The
POR circuit can be used to trigger the Start-up Reset, as well as to detect a failure in supply voltage.
A Power-on Reset (POR) circuit ensures that the device is reset from Power-on. Reaching the Power-on Reset
threshold voltage invokes the delay counter, which determines how long the device is kept in RESET after VCC rise.
The RESET signal is activated again, without any delay, when VCC decreases below the detection level.
Figure 8-2.
MCU Start-up, RESET Tied to VCC
VCC
RESET
VPOT
VRST
tTOUT
TIME-OUT
INTERNAL
RESET
Figure 8-3.
MCU Start-up, RESET Extended Externally
VCC
RESET
TIME-OUT
VPOT
VRST
tTOUT
INTERNAL
RESET
8.2.2
External Reset
An External Reset is generated by a low level on the RESET pin if enabled. Reset pulses longer than the minimum
pulse width (see “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 165) will generate a reset, even if the clock is not
running. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset. When the applied signal reaches the Reset
Threshold Voltage – VRST – on its positive edge, the delay counter starts the MCU after the Time-out period – tTOUT
– has expired.
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Figure 8-4.
External Reset During Operation
CC
8.2.3
Brown-out Detection
ATtiny25/45/85 has an On-chip Brown-out Detection (BOD) circuit for monitoring the VCC level during operation by
comparing it to a fixed trigger level. The trigger level for the BOD can be selected by the BODLEVEL Fuses. The
trigger level has a hysteresis to ensure spike free Brown-out Detection. The hysteresis on the detection level
should be interpreted as VBOT+ = VBOT + VHYST/2 and VBOT- = VBOT - VHYST/2.
When the BOD is enabled, and VCC decreases to a value below the trigger level (VBOT- in Figure 8-5), the Brownout Reset is immediately activated. When VCC increases above the trigger level (VBOT+ in Figure 8-5), the delay
counter starts the MCU after the Time-out period tTOUT has expired.
The BOD circuit will only detect a drop in VCC if the voltage stays below the trigger level for longer than tBOD given
in “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 165.
Figure 8-5.
Brown-out Reset During Operation
VCC
VBOT-
VBOT+
RESET
TIME-OUT
tTOUT
INTERNAL
RESET
8.2.4
Watchdog Reset
When the Watchdog times out, it will generate a short reset pulse of one CK cycle duration. On the falling edge of
this pulse, the delay timer starts counting the Time-out period tTOUT. Refer to “Watchdog Timer” on page 42 for
details on operation of the Watchdog Timer.
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Figure 8-6.
Watchdog Reset During Operation
CC
CK
8.3
Internal Voltage Reference
ATtiny25/45/85 features an internal bandgap reference. This reference is used for Brown-out Detection, and it can
be used as an input to the Analog Comparator or the ADC.
8.3.1
Voltage Reference Enable Signals and Start-up Time
The voltage reference has a start-up time that may influence the way it should be used. The start-up time is given
in “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 165. To save power, the reference is not always turned on. The reference is on during the following situations:
1. When the BOD is enabled (by programming the BODLEVEL[2:0] Fuse Bits).
2. When the bandgap reference is connected to the Analog Comparator (by setting the ACBG bit in ACSR).
3. When the ADC is enabled.
Thus, when the BOD is not enabled, after setting the ACBG bit or enabling the ADC, the user must always allow
the reference to start up before the output from the Analog Comparator or ADC is used. To reduce power consumption in Power-down mode, the user can avoid the three conditions above to ensure that the reference is
turned off before entering Power-down mode.
8.4
Watchdog Timer
The Watchdog Timer is clocked from an On-chip Oscillator which runs at 128 kHz. By controlling the Watchdog
Timer prescaler, the Watchdog Reset interval can be adjusted as shown in Table 8-3 on page 46. The WDR –
Watchdog Reset – instruction resets the Watchdog Timer. The Watchdog Timer is also reset when it is disabled
and when a Chip Reset occurs. Ten different clock cycle periods can be selected to determine the reset period. If
the reset period expires without another Watchdog Reset, the ATtiny25/45/85 resets and executes from the Reset
Vector. For timing details on the Watchdog Reset, refer to Table 8-3 on page 46.
The Wathdog Timer can also be configured to generate an interrupt instead of a reset. This can be very helpful
when using the Watchdog to wake-up from Power-down.
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To prevent unintentional disabling of the Watchdog or unintentional change of time-out period, two different safety
levels are selected by the fuse WDTON as shown in Table 8-1 Refer to “Timed Sequences for Changing the Configuration of the Watchdog Timer” on page 43 for details.
Table 8-1.
WDT Configuration as a Function of the Fuse Settings of WDTON
Safety
Level
WDTON
WDT Initial
State
How to Disable the
WDT
How to Change Timeout
Unprogrammed
1
Disabled
Timed sequence
No limitations
Programmed
2
Enabled
Always enabled
Timed sequence
Watchdog Timer
OSC/512K
OSC/1024K
OSC/256K
OSC/64K
OSC/128K
OSC/8K
OSC/4K
OSC/2K
WATCHDOG
RESET
OSC/32K
WATCHDOG
PRESCALER
128 kHz
OSCILLATOR
OSC/16K
Figure 8-7.
WDP0
WDP1
WDP2
WDP3
WDE
MCU RESET
8.4.1
Timed Sequences for Changing the Configuration of the Watchdog Timer
The sequence for changing configuration differs slightly between the two safety levels. Separate procedures are
described for each level.
8.4.1.1
Safety Level 1
In this mode, the Watchdog Timer is initially disabled, but can be enabled by writing the WDE bit to one without any
restriction. A timed sequence is needed when disabling an enabled Watchdog Timer. To disable an enabled
Watchdog Timer, the following procedure must be followed:
1. In the same operation, write a logic one to WDCE and WDE. A logic one must be written to WDE regardless of the previous value of the WDE bit.
2. Within the next four clock cycles, in the same operation, write the WDE and WDP bits as desired, but with
the WDCE bit cleared.
8.4.1.2
Safety Level 2
In this mode, the Watchdog Timer is always enabled, and the WDE bit will always read as one. A timed sequence
is needed when changing the Watchdog Time-out period. To change the Watchdog Time-out, the following procedure must be followed:
1. In the same operation, write a logical one to WDCE and WDE. Even though the WDE always is set, the
WDE must be written to one to start the timed sequence.
2. Within the next four clock cycles, in the same operation, write the WDP bits as desired, but with the
WDCE bit cleared. The value written to the WDE bit is irrelevant.
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8.4.2
Code Example
The following code example shows one assembly and one C function for turning off the WDT. The example
assumes that interrupts are controlled (e.g., by disabling interrupts globally) so that no interrupts will occur during
execution of these functions.
Assembly Code Example(1)
WDT_off:
wdr
; Clear WDRF in MCUSR
ldi
r16, (0<<WDRF)
out
MCUSR, r16
; Write logical one to WDCE and WDE
; Keep old prescaler setting to prevent unintentional Watchdog Reset
in
r16, WDTCR
ori r16, (1<<WDCE)|(1<<WDE)
out WDTCR, r16
; Turn off WDT
ldi r16, (0<<WDE)
out WDTCR, r16
ret
C Code Example(1)
void WDT_off(void)
{
_WDR();
/* Clear WDRF in MCUSR */
MCUSR = 0x00
/* Write logical one to WDCE and WDE */
WDTCR |= (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE);
/* Turn off WDT */
WDTCR = 0x00;
}
Note:
1. See “Code Examples” on page 6.
8.5
Register Description
8.5.1
MCUSR – MCU Status Register
The MCU Status Register provides information on which reset source caused an MCU Reset.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x34
–
–
–
–
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
MCUSR
See Bit Description
• Bits 7:4 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the ATtiny25/45/85 and will always read as zero.
• Bit 3 – WDRF: Watchdog Reset Flag
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This bit is set if a Watchdog Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a logic zero to the
flag.
• Bit 2 – BORF: Brown-out Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Brown-out Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a logic zero to the
flag.
• Bit 1 – EXTRF: External Reset Flag
This bit is set if an External Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a logic zero to the flag.
• Bit 0 – PORF: Power-on Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Power-on Reset occurs. The bit is reset only by writing a logic zero to the flag.
To make use of the Reset Flags to identify a reset condition, the user should read and then reset the MCUSR as
early as possible in the program. If the register is cleared before another reset occurs, the source of the reset can
be found by examining the Reset Flags.
8.5.2
WDTCR – Watchdog Timer Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x21
WDIF
WDIE
WDP3
WDCE
WDE
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
X
0
0
0
WDTCR
• Bit 7 – WDIF: Watchdog Timeout Interrupt Flag
This bit is set when a time-out occurs in the Watchdog Timer and the Watchdog Timer is configured for interrupt.
WDIF is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, WDIF is
cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG and WDIE are set, the Watchdog Time-out Interrupt is executed.
• Bit 6 – WDIE: Watchdog Timeout Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, WDE is cleared, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the Watchdog Time-out
Interrupt is enabled. In this mode the corresponding interrupt is executed instead of a reset if a timeout in the
Watchdog Timer occurs.
If WDE is set, WDIE is automatically cleared by hardware when a time-out occurs. This is useful for keeping the
Watchdog Reset security while using the interrupt. After the WDIE bit is cleared, the next time-out will generate a
reset. To avoid the Watchdog Reset, WDIE must be set after each interrupt.
Table 8-2.
Watchdog Timer Configuration
WDE
WDIE
Watchdog Timer State
Action on Time-out
0
0
Stopped
None
0
1
Running
Interrupt
1
0
Running
Reset
1
1
Running
Interrupt
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• Bit 4 – WDCE: Watchdog Change Enable
This bit must be set when the WDE bit is written to logic zero. Otherwise, the Watchdog will not be disabled. Once
written to one, hardware will clear this bit after four clock cycles. Refer to the description of the WDE bit for a
Watchdog disable procedure. This bit must also be set when changing the prescaler bits. See “Timed Sequences
for Changing the Configuration of the Watchdog Timer” on page 43.
• Bit 3 – WDE: Watchdog Enable
When the WDE is written to logic one, the Watchdog Timer is enabled, and if the WDE is written to logic zero, the
Watchdog Timer function is disabled. WDE can only be cleared if the WDCE bit has logic level one. To disable an
enabled Watchdog Timer, the following procedure must be followed:
1. In the same operation, write a logic one to WDCE and WDE. A logic one must be written to WDE even
though it is set to one before the disable operation starts.
2. Within the next four clock cycles, write a logic 0 to WDE. This disables the Watchdog.
In safety level 2, it is not possible to disable the Watchdog Timer, even with the algorithm described above. See
“Timed Sequences for Changing the Configuration of the Watchdog Timer” on page 43.
In safety level 1, WDE is overridden by WDRF in MCUSR. See “MCUSR – MCU Status Register” on page 44 for
description of WDRF. This means that WDE is always set when WDRF is set. To clear WDE, WDRF must be
cleared before disabling the Watchdog with the procedure described above. This feature ensures multiple resets
during conditions causing failure, and a safe start-up after the failure.
Note:
If the watchdog timer is not going to be used in the application, it is important to go through a watchdog disable procedure in the initialization of the device. If the Watchdog is accidentally enabled, for example by a runaway pointer or
brown-out condition, the device will be reset, which in turn will lead to a new watchdog reset. To avoid this situation, the
application software should always clear the WDRF flag and the WDE control bit in the initialization routine.
• Bits 5, 2:0 – WDP[3:0]: Watchdog Timer Prescaler 3, 2, 1, and 0
The WDP[3:0] bits determine the Watchdog Timer prescaling when the Watchdog Timer is enabled. The different
prescaling values and their corresponding Timeout Periods are shown in Table 8-3.
Table 8-3.
Watchdog Timer Prescale Select
WDP3
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
Number of WDT Oscillator
Cycles
Typical Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
0
0
0
0
2K (2048) cycles
16 ms
0
0
0
1
4K (4096) cycles
32 ms
0
0
1
0
8K (8192) cycles
64 ms
0
0
1
1
16K (16384) cycles
0.125 s
0
1
0
0
32K (32764) cycles
0.25 s
0
1
0
1
64K (65536) cycles
0.5 s
0
1
1
0
128K (131072) cycles
1.0 s
0
1
1
1
256K (262144) cycles
2.0 s
1
0
0
0
512K (524288) cycles
4.0 s
1
0
0
1
1024K (1048576) cycles
8.0 s
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Table 8-3.
Watchdog Timer Prescale Select (Continued)
WDP3
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
Note:
Number of WDT Oscillator
Cycles
Typical Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
Reserved(1)
1. If selected, one of the valid settings below 0b1010 will be used.
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9. Interrupts
This section describes the specifics of the interrupt handling as performed in ATtiny25/45/85. For a general explanation of the AVR interrupt handling, refer to “Reset and Interrupt Handling” on page 12.
9.1
Interrupt Vectors in ATtiny25/45/85
The interrupt vectors of ATtiny25/45/85 are described in Table 9-1below.
Table 9-1.
Reset and Interrupt Vectors
Vector No.
Program Address
Source
Interrupt Definition
1
0x0000
RESET
External Pin, Power-on Reset,
Brown-out Reset, Watchdog Reset
2
0x0001
INT0
External Interrupt Request 0
3
0x0002
PCINT0
Pin Change Interrupt Request 0
4
0x0003
TIMER1_COMPA
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match A
5
0x0004
TIMER1_OVF
Timer/Counter1 Overflow
6
0x0005
TIMER0_OVF
Timer/Counter0 Overflow
7
0x0006
EE_RDY
EEPROM Ready
8
0x0007
ANA_COMP
Analog Comparator
9
0x0008
ADC
ADC Conversion Complete
10
0x0009
TIMER1_COMPB
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match B
11
0x000A
TIMER0_COMPA
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match A
12
0x000B
TIMER0_COMPB
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match B
13
0x000C
WDT
Watchdog Time-out
14
0x000D
USI_START
USI START
15
0x000E
USI_OVF
USI Overflow
If the program never enables an interrupt source, the Interrupt Vectors are not used, and regular program code can
be placed at these locations.
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A typical and general setup for interrupt vector addresses in ATtiny25/45/85 is shown in the program example
below.
Assembly Code Example
.org 0x0000
;Set address of next statement
rjmp RESET
; Address 0x0000
rjmp INT0_ISR
; Address 0x0001
rjmp PCINT0_ISR
; Address 0x0002
rjmp TIM1_COMPA_ISR
; Address 0x0003
rjmp TIM1_OVF_ISR
; Address 0x0004
rjmp TIM0_OVF_ISR
; Address 0x0005
rjmp EE_RDY_ISR
; Address 0x0006
rjmp ANA_COMP_ISR
; Address 0x0007
rjmp ADC_ISR
; Address 0x0008
rjmp TIM1_COMPB_ISR
; Address 0x0009
rjmp TIM0_COMPA_ISR
; Address 0x000A
rjmp TIM0_COMPB_ISR
; Address 0x000B
rjmp WDT_ISR
; Address 0x000C
rjmp USI_START_ISR
; Address 0x000D
rjmp USI_OVF_ISR
; Address 0x000E
RESET:
<instr>
; Main program start
; Address 0x000F
...
Note:
9.2
See “Code Examples” on page 6.
External Interrupts
The External Interrupts are triggered by the INT0 pin or any of the PCINT[5:0] pins. Observe that, if enabled, the
interrupts will trigger even if the INT0 or PCINT[5:0] pins are configured as outputs. This feature provides a way of
generating a software interrupt. Pin change interrupts PCI will trigger if any enabled PCINT[5:0] pin toggles. The
PCMSK Register control which pins contribute to the pin change interrupts. Pin change interrupts on PCINT[5:0]
are detected asynchronously. This implies that these interrupts can be used for waking the part also from sleep
modes other than Idle mode.
The INT0 interrupts can be triggered by a falling or rising edge or a low level. This is set up as indicated in the
specification for the MCU Control Register – MCUCR. When the INT0 interrupt is enabled and is configured as
level triggered, the interrupt will trigger as long as the pin is held low. Note that recognition of falling or rising edge
interrupts on INT0 requires the presence of an I/O clock, described in “Clock Systems and their Distribution” on
page 23.
9.2.1
Low Level Interrupt
A low level interrupt on INT0 is detected asynchronously. This implies that this interrupt can be used for waking the
part also from sleep modes other than Idle mode. The I/O clock is halted in all sleep modes except Idle mode.
Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up from Power-down, the required level must be held long
enough for the MCU to complete the wake-up to trigger the level interrupt. If the level disappears before the end of
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the Start-up Time, the MCU will still wake up, but no interrupt will be generated. The start-up time is defined by the
SUT and CKSEL Fuses as described in “System Clock and Clock Options” on page 23.
If the low level on the interrupt pin is removed before the device has woken up then program execution will not be
diverted to the interrupt service routine but continue from the instruction following the SLEEP command.
9.2.2
Pin Change Interrupt Timing
An example of timing of a pin change interrupt is shown in Figure 9-1.
Figure 9-1.
Timing of pin change interrupts
pin_lat
PCINT(0)
LE
clk
D
pcint_in_(0)
Q
pin_sync
PCINT(0) in PCMSK(x)
0
pcint_syn
pcint_setflag
PCIF
x
clk
clk
PCINT(0)
pin_lat
pin_sync
pcint_in_(0)
pcint_syn
pcint_setflag
PCIF
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9.3
Register Description
9.3.1
MCUCR – MCU Control Register
The External Interrupt Control Register A contains control bits for interrupt sense control.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
BODS
PUD
SE
SM1
SM0
BODSE
ISC01
ISC00
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x35
MCUCR
• Bits 1:0 – ISC0[1:0]: Interrupt Sense Control 0 Bit 1 and Bit 0
The External Interrupt 0 is activated by the external pin INT0 if the SREG I-flag and the corresponding interrupt
mask are set. The level and edges on the external INT0 pin that activate the interrupt are defined in Table 9-2. The
value on the INT0 pin is sampled before detecting edges. If edge or toggle interrupt is selected, pulses that last longer than one clock period will generate an interrupt. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate an interrupt. If
low level interrupt is selected, the low level must be held until the completion of the currently executing instruction
to generate an interrupt.
Table 9-2.
9.3.2
Interrupt 0 Sense Control
ISC01
ISC00
Description
0
0
The low level of INT0 generates an interrupt request.
0
1
Any logical change on INT0 generates an interrupt request.
1
0
The falling edge of INT0 generates an interrupt request.
1
1
The rising edge of INT0 generates an interrupt request.
GIMSK – General Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0x3B
–
INT0
PCIE
–
–
–
–
0
–
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GIMSK
• Bits 7, 4:0 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the ATtiny25/45/85 and will always read as zero.
• Bit 6 – INT0: External Interrupt Request 0 Enable
When the INT0 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register (SREG) is set (one), the external pin interrupt is
enabled. The Interrupt Sense Control0 bits 1/0 (ISC01 and ISC00) in the MCU Control Register (MCUCR) define
whether the external interrupt is activated on rising and/or falling edge of the INT0 pin or level sensed. Activity on
the pin will cause an interrupt request even if INT0 is configured as an output. The corresponding interrupt of External Interrupt Request 0 is executed from the INT0 Interrupt Vector.
• Bit 5 – PCIE: Pin Change Interrupt Enable
When the PCIE bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register (SREG) is set (one), pin change interrupt is
enabled. Any change on any enabled PCINT[5:0] pin will cause an interrupt. The corresponding interrupt of Pin
Change Interrupt Request is executed from the PCI Interrupt Vector. PCINT[5:0] pins are enabled individually by
the PCMSK0 Register.
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9.3.3
GIFR – General Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0x3A
–
INTF0
PCIF
–
–
–
–
0
–
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GIFR
• Bits 7, 4:0 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the ATtiny25/45/85 and will always read as zero.
• Bit 6 – INTF0: External Interrupt Flag 0
When an edge or logic change on the INT0 pin triggers an interrupt request, INTF0 becomes set (one). If the I-bit in
SREG and the INT0 bit in GIMSK are set (one), the MCU will jump to the corresponding Interrupt Vector. The flag
is cleared when the interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical one to it.
This flag is always cleared when INT0 is configured as a level interrupt.
• Bit 5 – PCIF: Pin Change Interrupt Flag
When a logic change on any PCINT[5:0] pin triggers an interrupt request, PCIF becomes set (one). If the I-bit in
SREG and the PCIE bit in GIMSK are set (one), the MCU will jump to the corresponding Interrupt Vector. The flag
is cleared when the interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical one to it.
9.3.4
PCMSK – Pin Change Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x15
–
–
PCINT5
PCINT4
PCINT3
PCINT2
PCINT1
PCINT0
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PCMSK
• Bits 7:6 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the ATtiny25/45/85 and will always read as zero.
• Bits 5:0 – PCINT[5:0]: Pin Change Enable Mask 5:0
Each PCINT[5:0] bit selects whether pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT[5:0] is
set and the PCIE bit in GIMSK is set, pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT[5:0] is
cleared, pin change interrupt on the corresponding I/O pin is disabled.
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10. I/O Ports
10.1
Introduction
All AVR ports have true Read-Modify-Write functionality when used as general digital I/O ports. This means that
the direction of one port pin can be changed without unintentionally changing the direction of any other pin with the
SBI and CBI instructions. The same applies when changing drive value (if configured as output) or enabling/disabling of pull-up resistors (if configured as input). Each output buffer has symmetrical drive characteristics with
both high sink and source capability. The pin driver is strong enough to drive LED displays directly. All port pins
have individually selectable pull-up resistors with a supply-voltage invariant resistance. All I/O pins have protection
diodes to both VCC and Ground as indicated in Figure 10-1. Refer to “Electrical Characteristics” on page 161 for a
complete list of parameters.
Figure 10-1. I/O Pin Equivalent Schematic
Rpu
Pxn
Logic
See Figure
"General Digital I/O" for
Details
All registers and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case “x” represents the numbering letter for the port, and a lower case “n” represents the bit number. However, when using the register or bit
defines in a program, the precise form must be used. For example, PORTB3 for bit no. 3 in Port B, here documented generally as PORTxn. The physical I/O Registers and bit locations are listed in “Register Description” on
page 64.
Three I/O memory address locations are allocated for each port, one each for the Data Register – PORTx, Data
Direction Register – DDRx, and the Port Input Pins – PINx. The Port Input Pins I/O location is read only, while the
Data Register and the Data Direction Register are read/write. However, writing a logic one to a bit in the PINx Register, will result in a toggle in the corresponding bit in the Data Register. In addition, the Pull-up Disable – PUD bit
in MCUCR disables the pull-up function for all pins in all ports when set.
Using the I/O port as General Digital I/O is described in “Ports as General Digital I/O” on page 53. Most port pins
are multiplexed with alternate functions for the peripheral features on the device. How each alternate function interferes with the port pin is described in “Alternate Port Functions” on page 57. Refer to the individual module sections
for a full description of the alternate functions.
Note that enabling the alternate function of some of the port pins does not affect the use of the other pins in the port
as general digital I/O.
10.2
Ports as General Digital I/O
The ports are bi-directional I/O ports with optional internal pull-ups. Figure 10-2 shows a functional description of
one I/O-port pin, here generically called Pxn.
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Figure 10-2. General Digital I/O(1)
PUD
Q
D
DDxn
Q CLR
WDx
RESET
DATA BUS
RDx
1
Q
Pxn
D
0
PORTxn
Q CLR
RESET
WRx
WPx
RRx
SLEEP
SYNCHRONIZER
D
Q
L
Q
D
RPx
Q
PINxn
Q
clk I/O
PUD:
SLEEP:
clkI/O:
Note:
10.2.1
PULLUP DISABLE
SLEEP CONTROL
I/O CLOCK
WDx:
RDx:
WRx:
RRx:
RPx:
WPx:
WRITE DDRx
READ DDRx
WRITE PORTx
READ PORTx REGISTER
READ PORTx PIN
WRITE PINx REGISTER
1. WRx, WPx, WDx, RRx, RPx, and RDx are common to all pins within the same port. clkI/O, SLEEP, and PUD are
common to all ports.
Configuring the Pin
Each port pin consists of three register bits: DDxn, PORTxn, and PINxn. As shown in “Register Description” on
page 64, the DDxn bits are accessed at the DDRx I/O address, the PORTxn bits at the PORTx I/O address, and
the PINxn bits at the PINx I/O address.
The DDxn bit in the DDRx Register selects the direction of this pin. If DDxn is written logic one, Pxn is configured
as an output pin. If DDxn is written logic zero, Pxn is configured as an input pin.
If PORTxn is written logic one when the pin is configured as an input pin, the pull-up resistor is activated. To switch
the pull-up resistor off, PORTxn has to be written logic zero or the pin has to be configured as an output pin. The
port pins are tri-stated when reset condition becomes active, even if no clocks are running.
If PORTxn is written logic one when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is driven high (one). If
PORTxn is written logic zero when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is driven low (zero).
10.2.2
Toggling the Pin
Writing a logic one to PINxn toggles the value of PORTxn, independent on the value of DDRxn. Note that the SBI
instruction can be used to toggle one single bit in a port.
10.2.3
Switching Between Input and Output
When switching between tri-state ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b00) and output high ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b11), an intermediate state with either pull-up enabled {DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b01) or output low ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b10) must
occur. Normally, the pull-up enabled state is fully acceptable, as a high-impedant environment will not notice the
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difference between a strong high driver and a pull-up. If this is not the case, the PUD bit in the MCUCR Register
can be set to disable all pull-ups in all ports.
Switching between input with pull-up and output low generates the same problem. The user must use either the tristate ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b00) or the output high state ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b10) as an intermediate step.
Table 10-1 summarizes the control signals for the pin value.
Table 10-1.
10.2.4
Port Pin Configurations
DDxn
PORTxn
PUD
(in MCUCR)
I/O
Pull-up
0
0
X
Input
No
Tri-state (Hi-Z)
0
1
0
Input
Yes
Pxn will source current if ext. pulled low.
0
1
1
Input
No
Tri-state (Hi-Z)
1
0
X
Output
No
Output Low (Sink)
1
1
X
Output
No
Output High (Source)
Comment
Reading the Pin Value
Independent of the setting of Data Direction bit DDxn, the port pin can be read through the PINxn Register bit. As
shown in Figure 10-2, the PINxn Register bit and the preceding latch constitute a synchronizer. This is needed to
avoid metastability if the physical pin changes value near the edge of the internal clock, but it also introduces a
delay. Figure 10-3 shows a timing diagram of the synchronization when reading an externally applied pin value.
The maximum and minimum propagation delays are denoted tpd,max and tpd,min respectively.
Figure 10-3. Synchronization when Reading an Externally Applied Pin value
SYSTEM CLK
INSTRUCTIONS
XXX
XXX
in r17, PINx
SYNC LATCH
PINxn
r17
0x00
0xFF
t pd, max
t pd, min
Consider the clock period starting shortly after the first falling edge of the system clock. The latch is closed when
the clock is low, and goes transparent when the clock is high, as indicated by the shaded region of the “SYNC
LATCH” signal. The signal value is latched when the system clock goes low. It is clocked into the PINxn Register at
the succeeding positive clock edge. As indicated by the two arrows tpd,max and tpd,min, a single signal transition
on the pin will be delayed between ½ and 1½ system clock period depending upon the time of assertion.
When reading back a software assigned pin value, a nop instruction must be inserted as indicated in Figure 10-4.
The out instruction sets the “SYNC LATCH” signal at the positive edge of the clock. In this case, the delay tpd
through the synchronizer is one system clock period.
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Figure 10-4. Synchronization when Reading a Software Assigned Pin Value
SYSTEM CLK
r16
INSTRUCTIONS
0xFF
out PORTx, r16
nop
in r17, PINx
SYNC LATCH
PINxn
r17
0x00
0xFF
t pd
The following code example shows how to set port B pins 0 and 1 high, 2 and 3 low, and define the port pins from
4 to 5 as input with a pull-up assigned to port pin 4. The resulting pin values are read back again, but as previously
discussed, a nop instruction is included to be able to read back the value recently assigned to some of the pins.
Assembly Code Example(1)
...
; Define pull-ups and set outputs high
; Define directions for port pins
ldi
r16,(1<<PB4)|(1<<PB1)|(1<<PB0)
ldi
r17,(1<<DDB3)|(1<<DDB2)|(1<<DDB1)|(1<<DDB0)
out
PORTB,r16
out
DDRB,r17
; Insert nop for synchronization
nop
; Read port pins
in
r16,PINB
...
Note:
1. For the assembly program, two temporary registers are used to minimize the time from pull-ups are set on pins 0, 1
and 4, until the direction bits are correctly set, defining bit 2 and 3 as low and redefining bits 0 and 1 as strong high
drivers.
C Code Example
unsigned char i;
...
/* Define pull-ups and set outputs high */
/* Define directions for port pins */
PORTB = (1<<PB4)|(1<<PB1)|(1<<PB0);
DDRB = (1<<DDB3)|(1<<DDB2)|(1<<DDB1)|(1<<DDB0);
/* Insert nop for synchronization*/
_NOP();
/* Read port pins */
i = PINB;
...
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10.2.5
Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes
As shown in Figure 10-2, the digital input signal can be clamped to ground at the input of the schmitt-trigger. The
signal denoted SLEEP in the figure, is set by the MCU Sleep Controller in Power-down mode to avoid high power
consumption if some input signals are left floating, or have an analog signal level close to VCC/2.
SLEEP is overridden for port pins enabled as external interrupt pins. If the external interrupt request is not enabled,
SLEEP is active also for these pins. SLEEP is also overridden by various other alternate functions as described in
“Alternate Port Functions” on page 57.
If a logic high level (“one”) is present on an asynchronous external interrupt pin configured as “Interrupt on Rising
Edge, Falling Edge, or Any Logic Change on Pin” while the external interrupt is not enabled, the corresponding
External Interrupt Flag will be set when resuming from the above mentioned Sleep mode, as the clamping in these
sleep mode produces the requested logic change.
10.2.6
Unconnected Pins
If some pins are unused, it is recommended to ensure that these pins have a defined level. Even though most of
the digital inputs are disabled in the deep sleep modes as described above, floating inputs should be avoided to
reduce current consumption in all other modes where the digital inputs are enabled (Reset, Active mode and Idle
mode).
The simplest method to ensure a defined level of an unused pin, is to enable the internal pull-up. In this case, the
pull-up will be disabled during reset. If low power consumption during reset is important, it is recommended to use
an external pull-up or pulldown. Connecting unused pins directly to VCC or GND is not recommended, since this
may cause excessive currents if the pin is accidentally configured as an output.
10.3
Alternate Port Functions
Most port pins have alternate functions in addition to being general digital I/Os. Figure 10-5 shows how the port pin
control signals from the simplified Figure 10-2 can be overridden by alternate functions. The overriding signals may
not be present in all port pins, but the figure serves as a generic description applicable to all port pins in the AVR
microcontroller family.
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Figure 10-5. Alternate Port Functions(1)
PUOExn
PUOVxn
1
PUD
0
DDOExn
DDOVxn
1
Q D
DDxn
0
Q CLR
WDx
PVOExn
RESET
RDx
1
DATA BUS
PVOVxn
1
Pxn
Q
0
D
0
PORTxn
PTOExn
Q CLR
DIEOExn
WPx
RESET
DIEOVxn
WRx
1
0
RRx
SLEEP
SYNCHRONIZER
D
SET
Q
D
RPx
Q
PINxn
L
CLR
Q
CLR
Q
clk I/O
DIxn
AIOxn
PUOExn:
PUOVxn:
DDOExn:
DDOVxn:
PVOExn:
PVOVxn:
DIEOExn:
DIEOVxn:
SLEEP:
PTOExn:
Note:
Pxn PULL-UP OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn PULL-UP OVERRIDE VALUE
Pxn DATA DIRECTION OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn DATA DIRECTION OVERRIDE VALUE
Pxn PORT VALUE OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn PORT VALUE OVERRIDE VALUE
Pxn DIGITAL INPUT-ENABLE OVERRIDE ENABLE
Pxn DIGITAL INPUT-ENABLE OVERRIDE VALUE
SLEEP CONTROL
Pxn, PORT TOGGLE OVERRIDE ENABLE
PUD:
WDx:
RDx:
RRx:
WRx:
RPx:
WPx:
clkI/O:
DIxn:
AIOxn:
PULLUP DISABLE
WRITE DDRx
READ DDRx
READ PORTx REGISTER
WRITE PORTx
READ PORTx PIN
WRITE PINx
I/O CLOCK
DIGITAL INPUT PIN n ON PORTx
ANALOG INPUT/OUTPUT PIN n ON PORTx
1. WRx, WPx, WDx, RRx, RPx, and RDx are common to all pins within the same port. clkI/O, SLEEP, and PUD are
common to all ports. All other signals are unique for each pin.
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Table 10-2 summarizes the function of the overriding signals. The pin and port indexes from Figure 10-5 are not
shown in the succeeding tables. The overriding signals are generated internally in the modules having the alternate
function.
Table 10-2.
Generic Description of Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions
Signal Name
Full Name
Description
PUOE
Pull-up Override
Enable
If this signal is set, the pull-up enable is controlled by the PUOV
signal. If this signal is cleared, the pull-up is enabled when
{DDxn, PORTxn, PUD} = 0b010.
PUOV
Pull-up Override
Value
If PUOE is set, the pull-up is enabled/disabled when PUOV is
set/cleared, regardless of the setting of the DDxn, PORTxn,
and PUD Register bits.
DDOE
Data Direction
Override Enable
If this signal is set, the Output Driver Enable is controlled by the
DDOV signal. If this signal is cleared, the Output driver is
enabled by the DDxn Register bit.
DDOV
Data Direction
Override Value
If DDOE is set, the Output Driver is enabled/disabled when
DDOV is set/cleared, regardless of the setting of the DDxn
Register bit.
PVOE
Port Value
Override Enable
If this signal is set and the Output Driver is enabled, the port
value is controlled by the PVOV signal. If PVOE is cleared, and
the Output Driver is enabled, the port Value is controlled by the
PORTxn Register bit.
PVOV
Port Value
Override Value
If PVOE is set, the port value is set to PVOV, regardless of the
setting of the PORTxn Register bit.
PTOE
Port Toggle
Override Enable
If PTOE is set, the PORTxn Register bit is inverted.
DIEOE
Digital Input
Enable Override
Enable
If this bit is set, the Digital Input Enable is controlled by the
DIEOV signal. If this signal is cleared, the Digital Input Enable
is determined by MCU state (Normal mode, sleep mode).
DIEOV
Digital Input
Enable Override
Value
If DIEOE is set, the Digital Input is enabled/disabled when
DIEOV is set/cleared, regardless of the MCU state (Normal
mode, sleep mode).
DI
Digital Input
This is the Digital Input to alternate functions. In the figure, the
signal is connected to the output of the schmitt-trigger but
before the synchronizer. Unless the Digital Input is used as a
clock source, the module with the alternate function will use its
own synchronizer.
AIO
Analog
Input/Output
This is the Analog Input/Output to/from alternate functions. The
signal is connected directly to the pad, and can be used bidirectionally.
The following subsections shortly describe the alternate functions for each port, and relate the overriding signals to
the alternate function. Refer to the alternate function description for further details.
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10.3.1
Alternate Functions of Port B
The Port B pins with alternate function are shown in Table 10-3.
Table 10-3.
Port B Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PB5
RESET: Reset Pin
dW:
debugWIRE I/O
ADC0: ADC Input Channel 0
PCINT5: Pin Change Interrupt, Source 5
PB4
XTAL2: Crystal Oscillator Output
CLKO: System Clock Output
ADC2: ADC Input Channel 2
OC1B: Timer/Counter1 Compare Match B Output
PCINT4: Pin Change Interrupt 0, Source 4
PB3
XTAL1: Crystal Oscillator Input
CLKI:
External Clock Input
ADC3: ADC Input Channel 3
OC1B: Complementary Timer/Counter1 Compare Match B Output
PCINT3: Pin Change Interrupt 0, Source 3
PB2
SCK:
Serial Clock Input
ADC1: ADC Input Channel 1
T0:
Timer/Counter0 Clock Source
USCK: USI Clock (Three Wire Mode)
SCL :
USI Clock (Two Wire Mode)
INT0:
External Interrupt 0 Input
PCINT2: Pin Change Interrupt 0, Source 2
PB1
MISO: SPI Master Data Input / Slave Data Output
AIN1:
Analog Comparator, Negative Input
OC0B: Timer/Counter0 Compare Match B Output
OC1A: Timer/Counter1 Compare Match A Output
DO:
USI Data Output (Three Wire Mode)
PCINT1:Pin Change Interrupt 0, Source 1
PB0
MOSI:: SPI Master Data Output / Slave Data Input
AIN0:
Analog Comparator, Positive Input
OC0A: Timer/Counter0 Compare Match A output
OC1A: Complementary Timer/Counter1 Compare Match A Output
DI:
USI Data Input (Three Wire Mode)
SDA:
USI Data Input (Two Wire Mode)
AREF: External Analog Reference
PCINT0: Pin Change Interrupt 0, Source 0
• Port B, Bit 5 – RESET/dW/ADC0/PCINT5
• RESET: External Reset input is active low and enabled by unprogramming (“1”) the RSTDISBL Fuse. Pullup is
activated and output driver and digital input are deactivated when the pin is used as the RESET pin.
• dW: When the debugWIRE Enable (DWEN) Fuse is programmed and Lock bits are unprogrammed, the
debugWIRE system within the target device is activated. The RESET port pin is configured as a wire-AND
(open-drain) bi-directional I/O pin with pull-up enabled and becomes the communication gateway between
target and emulator.
• ADC0: Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 0.
• PCINT5: Pin Change Interrupt source 5.
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• Port B, Bit 4 – XTAL2/CLKO/ADC2/OC1B/PCINT4
• XTAL2: Chip Clock Oscillator pin 2. Used as clock pin for all chip clock sources except internal calibrateble RC
Oscillator and external clock. When used as a clock pin, the pin can not be used as an I/O pin. When using
internal calibratable RC Oscillator or External clock as a Chip clock sources, PB4 serves as an ordinary I/O pin.
• CLKO: The devided system clock can be output on the pin PB4. The divided system clock will be output if the
CKOUT Fuse is programmed, regardless of the PORTB4 and DDB4 settings. It will also be output during reset.
• ADC2: Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 2.
• OC1B: Output Compare Match output: The PB4 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter1
Compare Match B when configured as an output (DDB4 set). The OC1B pin is also the output pin for the PWM
mode timer function.
• PCINT4: Pin Change Interrupt source 4.
• Port B, Bit 3 – XTAL1/CLKI/ADC3/OC1B/PCINT3
• XTAL1: Chip Clock Oscillator pin 1. Used for all chip clock sources except internal calibrateble RC oscillator.
When used as a clock pin, the pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
• CLKI: Clock Input from an external clock source, see “External Clock” on page 26.
• ADC3: Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 3.
• OC1B: Inverted Output Compare Match output: The PB3 pin can serve as an external output for the
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match B when configured as an output (DDB3 set). The OC1B pin is also the inverted
output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• PCINT3: Pin Change Interrupt source 3.
• Port B, Bit 2 – SCK/ADC1/T0/USCK/SCL/INT0/PCINT2
• SCK: Master Clock output, Slave Clock input pin for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a Slave, this pin
is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB2. When the SPI is enabled as a Master, the data
direction of this pin is controlled by DDPB2. When the pin is forced by the SPI to be an input, the pull-up can still
be controlled by the PORTB2 bit.
• ADC1: Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 1.
• T0: Timer/Counter0 counter source.
• USCK: Three-wire mode Universal Serial Interface Clock.
• SCL: Two-wire mode Serial Clock for USI Two-wire mode.
• INT0: External Interrupt source 0.
• PCINT2: Pin Change Interrupt source 2.
• Port B, Bit 1 – MISO/AIN1/OC0B/OC1A/DO/PCINT1
• MISO: Master Data input, Slave Data output pin for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a Master, this pin
is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB1. When the SPI is enabled as a Slave, the data
direction of this pin is controlled by DDB1. When the pin is forced by the SPI to be an input, the pull-up can still
be controlled by the PORTB1 bit.
• AIN1: Analog Comparator Negative Input. Configure the port pin as input with the internal pull-up switched off to
avoid the digital port function from interfering with the function of the Analog Comparator.
• OC0B: Output Compare Match output. The PB1 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter0
Compare Match B. The PB1 pin has to be configured as an output (DDB1 set (one)) to serve this function. The
OC0B pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
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• OC1A: Output Compare Match output: The PB1 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter1
Compare Match B when configured as an output (DDB1 set). The OC1A pin is also the output pin for the PWM
mode timer function.
• DO: Three-wire mode Universal Serial Interface Data output. Three-wire mode Data output overrides PORTB1
value and it is driven to the port when data direction bit DDB1 is set (one). PORTB1 still enables the pull-up, if
the direction is input and PORTB1 is set (one).
• PCINT1: Pin Change Interrupt source 1.
• Port B, Bit 0 – MOSI/AIN0/OC0A/OC1A/DI/SDA/AREF/PCINT0
• MOSI: SPI Master Data output, Slave Data input for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a Slave, this pin
is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB0. When the SPI is enabled as a Master, the data
direction of this pin is controlled by DDB0. When the pin is forced by the SPI to be an input, the pull-up can still
be controlled by the PORTB0 bit.
• AIN0: Analog Comparator Positive Input. Configure the port pin as input with the internal pull-up switched off to
avoid the digital port function from interfering with the function of the Analog Comparator.
• OC0A: Output Compare Match output. The PB0 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter0
Compare Match A when configured as an output (DDB0 set (one)). The OC0A pin is also the output pin for the
PWM mode timer function.
• OC1A: Inverted Output Compare Match output: The PB0 pin can serve as an external output for the
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match B when configured as an output (DDB0 set). The OC1A pin is also the inverted
output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
• SDA: Two-wire mode Serial Interface Data.
• AREF: External Analog Reference for ADC. Pullup and output driver are disabled on PB0 when the pin is used
as an external reference or Internal Voltage Reference with external capacitor at the AREF pin.
• DI: Data Input in USI Three-wire mode. USI Three-wire mode does not override normal port functions, so pin
must be configure as an input for DI function.
• PCINT0: Pin Change Interrupt source 0.
Table 10-4 and Table 10-5 relate the alternate functions of Port B to the overriding signals shown in Figure 10-5 on
page 58.
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Table 10-4.
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PB[5:3]
Signal
Name
PB5/RESET/
ADC0/PCINT5
PB4/ADC2/XTAL2/
OC1B/PCINT4
PB3/ADC3/XTAL1/
OC1B/PCINT3
PUOE
RSTDISBL(1) • DWEN(1)
0
0
PUOV
1
0
0
DDOE
RSTDISBL(1) • DWEN(1)
0
0
DDOV
debugWire Transmit
0
0
PVOE
0
OC1B Enable
OC1B Enable
PVOV
0
OC1B
OC1B
PTOE
0
0
0
(1)
DIEOE
RSTDISBL + (PCINT5 •
PCIE + ADC0D)
PCINT4 • PCIE + ADC2D
PCINT3 • PCIE + ADC3D
DIEOV
ADC0D
ADC2D
ADC3D
DI
PCINT5 Input
PCINT4 Input
PCINT3 Input
AIO
RESET Input, ADC0 Input
ADC2 Input
ADC3 Input
Note:
1. 1 when the Fuse is “0” (Programmed).
Table 10-5.
Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PB[2:0]
Signal
Name
PB2/SCK/ADC1/T0/
USCK/SCL/INT0/PCINT2
PB1/MISO/DO/AIN1/
OC1A/OC0B/PCINT1
PB0/MOSI/DI/SDA/AIN0/AR
EF/OC1A/OC0A/
PCINT0
PUOE
USI_TWO_WIRE
0
USI_TWO_WIRE
PUOV
0
0
0
DDOE
USI_TWO_WIRE
0
USI_TWO_WIRE
DDOV
(USI_SCL_HOLD +
PORTB2) • DDB2
0
(SDA + PORTB0) • DDB0
PVOE
USI_TWO_WIRE • DDB2
OC0B Enable + OC1A
Enable +
USI_THREE_WIRE
OC0A Enable + OC1A
Enable + (USI_TWO_WIRE
• DDB0)
PVOV
0
OC0B + OC1A + DO
OC0A + OC1A
PTOE
USITC
0
0
DIEOE
PCINT2 • PCIE + ADC1D +
USISIE
PCINT1 • PCIE + AIN1D
PCINT0 • PCIE + AIN0D +
USISIE
DIEOV
ADC1D
AIN1D
AIN0D
DI
T0/USCK/SCL/INT0/
PCINT2 Input
PCINT1 Input
DI/SDA/PCINT0 Input
AIO
ADC1 Input
Analog Comparator
Negative Input
Analog Comparator Positive
Input
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10.4
10.4.1
Register Description
MCUCR – MCU Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
BODS
PUD
SE
SM1
SM0
BODSE
ISC01
ISC00
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x35
MCUCR
• Bit 6 – PUD: Pull-up Disable
When this bit is written to one, the pull-ups in the I/O ports are disabled even if the DDxn and PORTxn Registers
are configured to enable the pull-ups ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b01). See “Configuring the Pin” on page 54 for more
details about this feature.
10.4.2
10.4.3
10.4.4
PORTB – Port B Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x18
–
–
PORTB5
PORTB4
PORTB3
PORTB2
PORTB1
PORTB0
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PORTB
DDRB – Port B Data Direction Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x17
–
–
DDB5
DDB4
DDB3
DDB2
DDB1
DDB0
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DDRB
PINB – Port B Input Pins Address
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x16
–
–
PINB5
PINB4
PINB3
PINB2
PINB1
PINB0
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
PINB
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11. 8-bit Timer/Counter0 with PWM
11.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
11.2
Two Independent Output Compare Units
Double Buffered Output Compare Registers
Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload)
Glitch Free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
Variable PWM Period
Frequency Generator
Three Independent Interrupt Sources (TOV0, OCF0A, and OCF0B)
Overview
Timer/Counter0 is a general purpose 8-bit Timer/Counter module, with two independent Output Compare Units,
and with PWM support. It allows accurate program execution timing (event management) and wave generation.
A simplified block diagram of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 11-1. For the actual placement of I/O pins,
refer to “Pinout ATtiny25/45/85” on page 2. CPU accessible I/O Registers, including I/O bits and I/O pins, are
shown in bold. The device-specific I/O Register and bit locations are listed in the “Register Description” on page 77.
Figure 11-1. 8-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram
Count
Clear
Direction
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
Control Logic
clkTn
Clock Select
Edge
Detector
TOP
Tn
BOTTOM
( From Prescaler )
Timer/Counter
TCNTn
=
=0
OCnA
(Int.Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnA
DATA BUS
OCRnA
Fixed
TOP
Value
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnB
OCRnB
TCCRnA
11.2.1
OCnB
(Int.Req.)
TCCRnB
Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNT0) and Output Compare Registers (OCR0A and OCR0B) are 8-bit registers. Interrupt
request (abbreviated to Int.Req. in the figure) signals are all visible in the Timer Interrupt Flag Register (TIFR). All
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interrupts are individually masked with the Timer Interrupt Mask Register (TIMSK). TIFR and TIMSK are not shown
in the figure.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, or by an external clock source on the T0 pin. The
Clock Select logic block controls which clock source and edge the Timer/Counter uses to increment (or decrement)
its value. The Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source is selected. The output from the Clock Select logic is
referred to as the timer clock (clkT0).
The double buffered Output Compare Registers (OCR0A and OCR0B) is compared with the Timer/Counter value
at all times. The result of the compare can be used by the Waveform Generator to generate a PWM or variable frequency output on the Output Compare pins (OC0A and OC0B). See “Output Compare Unit” on page 69. for details.
The Compare Match event will also set the Compare Flag (OCF0A or OCF0B) which can be used to generate an
Output Compare interrupt request.
11.2.2
Definitions
Many register and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case “n” replaces the
Timer/Counter number, in this case 0. A lower case “x” replaces the Output Compare Unit, in this case Compare
Unit A or Compare Unit B. However, when using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be
used, i.e., TCNT0 for accessing Timer/Counter0 counter value and so on.
The definitions in Table 11-1 are also used extensively throughout the document.
Table 11-1.
11.3
Definitions
Constant
Description
BOTTOM
The counter reaches BOTTOM when it becomes 0x00
MAX
The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFF (decimal 255)
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the count
sequence. The TOP value can be assigned to be the fixed value 0xFF (MAX) or the
value stored in the OCR0A Register. The assignment depends on the mode of operation
Timer/Counter0 Prescaler and Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal or an external clock source. The clock source is selected by the
Clock Select logic which is controlled by the Clock Select (c) bits located in the Timer/Counter0 Control Register
(TCCR0B).
11.3.1
Internal Clock Source with Prescaler
Timer/Counter0 can be clocked directly by the system clock (by setting the CS0[2:0] = 1). This provides the fastest
operation, with a maximum timer/counter clock frequency equal to system clock frequency (fCLK_I/O). Alternatively,
one of four taps from the prescaler can be used as a clock source. The prescaled clock has a frequency of either
fCLK_I/O/8, fCLK_I/O/64, fCLK_I/O/256, or fCLK_I/O/1024.
11.3.2
Prescaler Reset
The prescaler is free running, i.e. it operates independently of the Clock Select logic of Timer/Counter0. Since the
prescaler is not affected by the timer/counter’s clock select, the state of the prescaler will have implications for situations where a prescaled clock is used. One example of a prescaling artifact is when the timer/counter is enabled
and clocked by the prescaler (6 > CS0[2:0] > 1). The number of system clock cycles from when the timer is
enabled to the first count occurs can be from 1 to N+1 system clock cycles, where N equals the prescaler divisor
(8, 64, 256, or 1024).
It is possible to use the Prescaler Reset for synchronizing the Timer/Counter to program execution.
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11.3.3
External Clock Source
An external clock source applied to the T0 pin can be used as timer/counter clock (clkT0). The T0 pin is sampled
once every system clock cycle by the pin synchronization logic. The synchronized (sampled) signal is then passed
through the edge detector. Figure 11-2 shows a functional equivalent block diagram of the T0 synchronization and
edge detector logic. The registers are clocked at the positive edge of the internal system clock (clkI/O). The latch is
transparent in the high period of the internal system clock.
The edge detector generates one clkT0 pulse for each positive (CS0[2:0] = 7) or negative (CS0[2:0] = 6) edge it
detects.
Figure 11-2. T0 Pin Sampling
Tn
D
Q
D
Q
D
Tn_sync
(To Clock
Select Logic)
Q
LE
clk I/O
Synchronization
Edge Detector
The synchronization and edge detector logic introduces a delay of 2.5 to 3.5 system clock cycles from an edge has
been applied to the T0 pin to the counter is updated.
Enabling and disabling of the clock input must be done when T0 has been stable for at least one system clock
cycle, otherwise it is a risk that a false timer/counter clock pulse is generated.
Each half period of the external clock applied must be longer than one system clock cycle to ensure correct sampling. The external clock must be guaranteed to have less than half the system clock frequency (fExtClk < fclk_I/O/2)
given a 50/50% duty cycle. Since the edge detector uses sampling, the maximum frequency of an external clock it
can detect is half the sampling frequency (following the Nyquist sampling theorem). However, due to variation of
the system clock frequency and duty cycle caused by oscillator source (crystal, resonator, and capacitors) tolerances, it is recommended that maximum frequency of an external clock source is less than fclk_I/O/2.5.
An external clock source can not be prescaled.
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Figure 11-3. Timer/Counter0 Prescaler
clk I/O
Clear
PSR10
T0
Synchronization
clkT0
The synchronization logic on the input pins (T0) in Figure 11-3 is shown in Figure 11-2 on page 67.
11.4
Counter Unit
The main part of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable bi-directional counter unit. Figure 11-4 shows a
block diagram of the counter and its surroundings.
Figure 11-4. Counter Unit Block Diagram
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
DATA BUS
Clock Select
count
clear
TCNTn
Control Logic
clkTn
Edge
Detector
Tn
direction
( From Prescaler )
bottom
top
Signal description (internal signals):
count
direction
clear
clkTn
top
bottom
Increment or decrement TCNT0 by 1.
Select between increment and decrement.
Clear TCNT0 (set all bits to zero).
Timer/Counter clock, referred to as clkT0 in the following.
Signalize that TCNT0 has reached maximum value.
Signalize that TCNT0 has reached minimum value (zero).
Depending of the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or decremented at each timer clock
(clk T0 ). clk T0 can be generated from an external or internal clock source, selected by the Clock Select bits
(CS0[2:0]). When no clock source is selected (CS0[2:0] = 0) the timer is stopped. However, the TCNT0 value can
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be accessed by the CPU, regardless of whether clkT0 is present or not. A CPU write overrides (has priority over) all
counter clear or count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the WGM01 and WGM00 bits located in the Timer/Counter
Control Register (TCCR0A) and the WGM02 bit located in the Timer/Counter Control Register B (TCCR0B). There
are close connections between how the counter behaves (counts) and how waveforms are generated on the Output Compare output OC0A. For more details about advanced counting sequences and waveform generation, see
“Modes of Operation” on page 71.
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set according to the mode of operation selected by the WGM0[1:0]
bits. TOV0 can be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
11.5
Output Compare Unit
The 8-bit comparator continuously compares TCNT0 with the Output Compare Registers (OCR0A and OCR0B).
Whenever TCNT0 equals OCR0A or OCR0B, the comparator signals a match. A match will set the Output Compare Flag (OCF0A or OCF0B) at the next timer clock cycle. If the corresponding interrupt is enabled, the Output
Compare Flag generates an Output Compare interrupt. The Output Compare Flag is automatically cleared when
the interrupt is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by software by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location. The Waveform Generator uses the match signal to generate an output according to operating mode set by the
WGM0[2:0] bits and Compare Output mode (COM0x[1:0]) bits. The max and bottom signals are used by the Waveform Generator for handling the special cases of the extreme values in some modes of operation (See “Modes of
Operation” on page 71.).
Figure 11-5 shows a block diagram of the Output Compare unit.
Figure 11-5. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
DATA BUS
OCRnx
TCNTn
= (8-bit Comparator )
OCFnx (Int.Req.)
top
bottom
Waveform Generator
OCnx
FOCn
WGMn[1:0]
COMnX[1:0]
The OCR0x Registers are double buffered when using any of the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. For the
normal and Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) modes of operation, the double buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes the update of the OCR0x Compare Registers to either top or bottom of the counting sequence.
The synchronization prevents the occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical PWM pulses, thereby making the
output glitch-free.
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The OCR0x Register access may seem complex, but this is not case. When the double buffering is enabled, the
CPU has access to the OCR0x Buffer Register, and if double buffering is disabled the CPU will access the OCR0x
directly.
11.5.1
Force Output Compare
In non-PWM waveform generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be forced by writing a one to
the Force Output Compare (FOC0x) bit. Forcing Compare Match will not set the OCF0x Flag or reload/clear the
timer, but the OC0x pin will be updated as if a real Compare Match had occurred (the COM0x[1:0] bits settings
define whether the OC0x pin is set, cleared or toggled).
11.5.2
Compare Match Blocking by TCNT0 Write
All CPU write operations to the TCNT0 Register will block any Compare Match that occur in the next timer clock
cycle, even when the timer is stopped. This feature allows OCR0x to be initialized to the same value as TCNT0
without triggering an interrupt when the Timer/Counter clock is enabled.
11.5.3
Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNT0 in any mode of operation will block all Compare Matches for one timer clock cycle, there are
risks involved when changing TCNT0 when using the Output Compare Unit, independently of whether the
Timer/Counter is running or not. If the value written to TCNT0 equals the OCR0x value, the Compare Match will be
missed, resulting in incorrect waveform generation. Similarly, do not write the TCNT0 value equal to BOTTOM
when the counter is down-counting.
The setup of the OC0x should be performed before setting the Data Direction Register for the port pin to output.
The easiest way of setting the OC0x value is to use the Force Output Compare (FOC0x) strobe bits in Normal
mode. The OC0x Registers keep their values even when changing between Waveform Generation modes.
Be aware that the COM0x[1:0] bits are not double buffered together with the compare value. Changing the
COM0x[1:0] bits will take effect immediately.
11.6
Compare Match Output Unit
The Compare Output mode (COM0x[1:0]) bits have two functions. The Waveform Generator uses the COM0x[1:0]
bits for defining the Output Compare (OC0x) state at the next Compare Match. Also, the COM0x[1:0] bits control
the OC0x pin output source. Figure 11-6 shows a simplified schematic of the logic affected by the COM0x[1:0] bit
setting. The I/O Registers, I/O bits, and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the parts of the general I/O
Port Control Registers (DDR and PORT) that are affected by the COM0x[1:0] bits are shown. When referring to the
OC0x state, the reference is for the internal OC0x Register, not the OC0x pin. If a system reset occur, the OC0x
Register is reset to “0”.
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Figure 11-6. Compare Match Output Unit, Schematic
COMnx1
COMnx0
FOCn
Waveform
Generator
D
Q
1
OCnx
DATA BUS
D
0
OCn
Pin
Q
PORT
D
Q
DDR
clk I/O
The general I/O port function is overridden by the Output Compare (OC0x) from the Waveform Generator if either
of the COM0x[1:0] bits are set. However, the OC0x pin direction (input or output) is still controlled by the Data
Direction Register (DDR) for the port pin. The Data Direction Register bit for the OC0x pin (DDR_OC0x) must be
set as output before the OC0x value is visible on the pin. The port override function is independent of the Waveform Generation mode.
The design of the Output Compare pin logic allows initialization of the OC0x state before the output is enabled.
Note that some COM0x[1:0] bit settings are reserved for certain modes of operation. See “Register Description” on
page 77.
11.6.1
Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The Waveform Generator uses the COM0x[1:0] bits differently in Normal, CTC, and PWM modes. For all modes,
setting the COM0x[1:0] = 0 tells the Waveform Generator that no action on the OC0x Register is to be performed
on the next Compare Match. For compare output actions in the non-PWM modes refer to Table 11-2 on page 78.
For fast PWM mode, refer to Table 11-3 on page 78, and for phase correct PWM refer to Table 11-4 on page 78.
A change of the COM0x[1:0] bits state will have effect at the first Compare Match after the bits are written. For nonPWM modes, the action can be forced to have immediate effect by using the FOC0x strobe bits.
11.7
Modes of Operation
The mode of operation, i.e., the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the Output Compare pins, is defined by the
combination of the Waveform Generation mode (WGM0[2:0]) and Compare Output mode (COM0x[1:0]) bits. The
Compare Output mode bits do not affect the counting sequence, while the Waveform Generation mode bits do.
The COM0x[1:0] bits control whether the PWM output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or noninverted PWM). For non-PWM modes the COM0x[1:0] bits control whether the output should be set, cleared, or
toggled at a Compare Match (See “Compare Match Output Unit” on page 70.).
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For detailed timing information refer to Figure 11-10, Figure 11-11, Figure 11-12 and Figure 11-13 in “Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams” on page 76.
11.7.1
Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGM0[2:0] = 0). In this mode the counting direction is always
up (incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The counter simply overruns when it passes its maximum 8bit value (TOP = 0xFF) and then restarts from the bottom (0x00). In normal operation the Timer/Counter Overflow
Flag (TOV0) will be set in the same timer clock cycle as the TCNT0 becomes zero. The TOV0 Flag in this case
behaves like a ninth bit, except that it is only set, not cleared. However, combined with the timer overflow interrupt
that automatically clears the TOV0 Flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software. There are no special
cases to consider in the Normal mode, a new counter value can be written anytime.
The Output Compare Unit can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using the Output Compare to
generate waveforms in Normal mode is not recommended, since this will occupy too much of the CPU time.
11.7.2
Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In Clear Timer on Compare or CTC mode (WGM0[2:0] = 2), the OCR0A Register is used to manipulate the counter
resolution. In CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when the counter value (TCNT0) matches the OCR0A. The
OCR0A defines the top value for the counter, hence also its resolution. This mode allows greater control of the
Compare Match output frequency. It also simplifies the operation of counting external events.
The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 11-7. The counter value (TCNT0) increases until a Compare Match occurs between TCNT0 and OCR0A, and then counter (TCNT0) is cleared.
Figure 11-7. CTC Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCn
(Toggle)
Period
(COMnx[1:0] = 1)
1
2
3
4
An interrupt can be generated each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by using the OCF0A Flag. If the
interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the TOP value. However, changing TOP
to a value close to BOTTOM when the counter is running with none or a low prescaler value must be done with
care since the CTC mode does not have the double buffering feature. If the new value written to OCR0A is lower
than the current value of TCNT0, the counter will miss the Compare Match. The counter will then have to count to
its maximum value (0xFF) and wrap around starting at 0x00 before the Compare Match can occur.
For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OC0A output can be set to toggle its logical level on each
Compare Match by setting the Compare Output mode bits to toggle mode (COM0A[1:0] = 1). The OC0A value will
not be visible on the port pin unless the data direction for the pin is set to output. The waveform generated will have
a maximum frequency of fOC0 = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR0A is set to zero (0x00). The waveform frequency is defined by
the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnx = -------------------------------------------------2  N   1 + OCRnx 
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The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
As for the Normal mode of operation, the TOV0 Flag is set in the same timer clock cycle that the counter counts
from MAX to 0x00.
11.7.3
Fast PWM Mode
The fast Pulse Width Modulation or fast PWM mode (WGM0[2:0] = 3 or 7) provides a high frequency PWM waveform generation option. The fast PWM differs from the other PWM option by its single-slope operation. The counter
counts from BOTTOM to TOP then restarts from BOTTOM. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM0[2:0] = 3, and
OCR0A when WGM0[2:0] = 7.
In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC0x) is cleared on the Compare Match between
TCNT0 and OCR0x, and set at BOTTOM. In inverting Compare Output mode, the output is set on Compare Match
and cleared at BOTTOM.
Due to the single-slope operation, the operating frequency of the fast PWM mode can be twice as high as the
phase correct PWM mode that use dual-slope operation. This high frequency makes the fast PWM mode well
suited for power regulation, rectification, and DAC applications. High frequency allows physically small sized external components (coils, capacitors), and therefore reduces total system cost.
In fast PWM mode, the counter is incremented until the counter value matches the TOP value. The counter is then
cleared at the following timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the fast PWM mode is shown in Figure 11-8. The
TCNT0 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the single-slope operation. The diagram
includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent
Compare Matches between OCR0x and TCNT0.
Figure 11-8. Fast PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCn
(COMnx[1:0] = 2)
OCn
(COMnx[1:0] = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches TOP. If the interrupt is enabled, the
interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the compare value.
In fast PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC0x pins. Setting the
COM0x[1:0] bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output can be generated by setting
the COM0x[1:0] to three: Setting the COM0A[1:0] bits to one allowes the AC0A pin to toggle on Compare Matches
if the WGM02 bit is set. This option is not available for the OC0B pin (See Table 11-3 on page 78). The actual
OC0x value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The PWM wave-
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form is generated by setting (or clearing) the OC0x Register at the Compare Match between OCR0x and TCNT0,
and clearing (or setting) the OC0x Register at the timer clock cycle the counter is cleared (changes from TOP to
BOTTOM).
The PWM frequency for the output can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPWM = -----------------N  256
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR0A Register represents special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in
the fast PWM mode. If the OCR0A is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will be a narrow spike for each MAX+1
timer clock cycle. Setting the OCR0A equal to MAX will result in a constantly high or low output (depending on the
polarity of the output set by the COM0A[1:0] bits.)
A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved by setting OC0x to toggle
its logical level on each Compare Match (COM0x[1:0] = 1). The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of fOC0 = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR0A is set to zero. This feature is similar to the OC0A toggle in CTC mode,
except the double buffer feature of the Output Compare unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
11.7.4
Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct PWM mode (WGM0[2:0] = 1 or 5) provides a high resolution phase correct PWM waveform generation option. The phase correct PWM mode is based on a dual-slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly
from BOTTOM to TOP and then from TOP to BOTTOM. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM0[2:0] = 1, and
OCR0A when WGM0[2:0] = 5. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC0x) is cleared on
the Compare Match between TCNT0 and OCR0x while upcounting, and set on the Compare Match while downcounting. In inverting Output Compare mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation has lower maximum operation frequency than single slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope
PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control applications.
In phase correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches TOP. When the counter
reaches TOP, it changes the count direction. The TCNT0 value will be equal to TOP for one timer clock cycle. The
timing diagram for the phase correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 11-9. The TCNT0 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and
inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent Compare Matches
between OCR0x and TCNT0.
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Figure 11-9. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCn
(COMnx[1:0] = 2)
OCn
(COMnx[1:0] = 3)
Period
1
2
3
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM. The Interrupt Flag can
be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the BOTTOM value.
In phase correct PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC0x pins. Setting
the COM0x[1:0] bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM. An inverted PWM output can be generated by setting
the COM0x[1:0] to three: Setting the COM0A0 bits to one allows the OC0A pin to toggle on Compare Matches if
the WGM02 bit is set. This option is not available for the OC0B pin (See Table 11-4 on page 78). The actual OC0x
value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The PWM waveform is
generated by clearing (or setting) the OC0x Register at the Compare Match between OCR0x and TCNT0 when the
counter increments, and setting (or clearing) the OC0x Register at Compare Match between OCR0x and TCNT0
when the counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase correct PWM can be calculated by the following equation:
f clk_I/O
f OCnxPCPWM = -----------------N  510
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR0A Register represent special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in
the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCR0A is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will be continuously low and if set
equal to MAX the output will be continuously high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will
have the opposite logic values.
At the very start of period 2 in Figure 11-9 OCn has a transition from high to low even though there is no Compare
Match. The point of this transition is to guaratee symmetry around BOTTOM. There are two cases that give a transition without Compare Match, as follows:
• OCR0A changes its value from MAX, like in Figure 11-9. When the OCR0A value is MAX the OCn pin value is
the same as the result of a down-counting Compare Match. To ensure symmetry around BOTTOM the OCn
value at MAX must correspond to the result of an up-counting Compare Match.
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• The timer starts counting from a value higher than the one in OCR0A, and for that reason misses the Compare
Match and hence the OCn change that would have happened on the way up.
11.8
Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The Timer/Counter is a synchronous design and the timer clock (clkT0) is therefore shown as a clock enable signal
in the following figures. The figures include information on when Interrupt Flags are set. Figure 11-10 contains timing data for basic Timer/Counter operation. The figure shows the count sequence close to the MAX value in all
modes other than phase correct PWM mode.
Figure 11-10. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 11-11 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 11-11. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 11-12 shows the setting of OCF0B in all modes and OCF0A in all modes except CTC mode and PWM
mode, where OCR0A is TOP.
Figure 11-12. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCF0x, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
OCRnx
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
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Figure 11-13 shows the setting of OCF0A and the clearing of TCNT0 in CTC mode and fast PWM mode where
OCR0A is TOP.
Figure 11-13. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Clear Timer on Compare Match mode, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
(CTC)
TOP - 1
TOP
OCRnx
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOP
OCFnx
11.9
11.9.1
Register Description
GTCCR – General Timer/Counter Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x2C
TSM
PWM1B
COM1B1
COM1B0
FOC1B
FOC1A
PSR1
PSR0
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GTCCR
• Bit 7 – TSM: Timer/Counter Synchronization Mode
Writing the TSM bit to one activates the Timer/Counter Synchronization Mode. In this mode, the value written to
PSR0 is kept, hence keeping the Prescaler Reset signal asserted. This ensures that the timer/counter is halted and
can be configured without the risk of advancing during configuration. When the TSM bit is written to zero, the PSR0
bit is cleared by hardware, and the timer/counter start counting.
• Bit 0 – PSR0: Prescaler Reset Timer/Counter0
When this bit is one, the Timer/Counter0 prescaler will be Reset. This bit is normally cleared immediately by hardware, except if the TSM bit is set.
11.9.2
TCCR0A – Timer/Counter Control Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
COM0A1
COM0A0
COM0B1
COM0B0
–
–
WGM01
WGM00
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x2A
TCCR0A
• Bits 7:6 – COM0A[1:0]: Compare Match Output A Mode
• Bits 5:4 – COM0B[1:0]: Compare Match Output B Mode
The COM0A[1:0] and COM0B[1:0] bits control the behaviour of Output Compare pins OC0A and OC0B, respectively. If any of the COM0A[1:0] bits are set, the OC0A output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it
is connected to. Similarly, if any of the COM0B[1:0] bits are set, the OC0B output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However, note that the Data Direction Register (DDR) bit corresponding to
the OC0A and OC0B pins must be set in order to enable the output driver.
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When OC0A/OC0B is connected to the I/O pin, the function of the COM0A[1:0]/COM0B[1:0] bits depend on the
WGM0[2:0] bit setting. Table 11-2 shows the COM0x[1:0] bit functionality when the WGM0[2:0] bits are set to a
normal or CTC mode (non-PWM).
Table 11-2.
Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM0A1
COM0B1
COM0A0
COM0B0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0A/OC0B disconnected.
0
1
Toggle OC0A/OC0B on Compare Match
1
0
Clear OC0A/OC0B on Compare Match
1
1
Set OC0A/OC0B on Compare Match
Description
Table 11-3 shows the COM0x[1:0] bit functionality when the WGM0[2:0] bits are set to fast PWM mode.
Table 11-3.
Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode(1)
COM0A1
COM0B1
COM0A0
COM0B0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0A/OC0B disconnected.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC0A/OC0B on Compare Match, set OC0A/OC0B at BOTTOM
(non-inverting mode)
1
1
Set OC0A/OC0B on Compare Match, clear OC0A/OC0B at BOTTOM
(inverting mode)
Note:
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCR0A or OCR0B equals TOP and COM0A1/COM0B1 is set. In this case, the compare match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at BOTTOM. See “Fast PWM Mode” on page 73 for more details.
Table 11-4 shows the COM0x[1:0] bit functionality when the WGM0[2:0] bits are set to phase correct PWM mode.
Table 11-4.
Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode(1)
COM0A1
COM0B1
COM0A0
COM0B0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0A/OC0B disconnected.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Clear OC0A/OC0B on Compare Match when up-counting.
Set OC0A/OC0B on Compare Match when down-counting.
1
1
Set OC0A/OC0B on Compare Match when up-counting.
Clear OC0A/OC0B on Compare Match when down-counting.
Note:
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCR0A or OCR0B equals TOP and COM0A1/COM0B1 is set. In this case, the Compare Match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on page 74 for more
details.
• Bits 3:2 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the ATtiny25/45/85 and will always read as zero.
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• Bits 1:0 – WGM0[1:0]: Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM02 bit found in the TCCR0B Register, these bits control the counting sequence of the
counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value, and what type of waveform generation to be used, see
Table 11-5. Modes of operation supported by the Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on
Compare Match (CTC) mode, and two types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes (see “Modes of Operation”
on page 71).
Table 11-5.
Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description
Mode
WGM
02
WGM
01
WGM
00
Timer/Counter Mode
of Operation
TOP
Update of
OCRx at
TOV Flag
Set on
0
0
0
0
Normal
0xFF
Immediate
MAX(1)
1
0
0
1
PWM, Phase Correct
0xFF
TOP
BOTTOM(2)
2
0
1
0
CTC
OCRA
Immediate
MAX(1)
3
0
1
1
Fast PWM
0xFF
BOTTOM(2)
MAX(1)
4
1
0
0
Reserved
–
–
–
5
1
0
1
PWM, Phase Correct
OCRA
TOP
BOTTOM(2)
6
1
1
0
Reserved
–
–
7
Notes:
1
1
1. MAX
1
Fast PWM
OCRA
–
(2)
BOTTOM
TOP
= 0xFF
2. BOTTOM = 0x00
11.9.3
TCCR0B – Timer/Counter Control Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC0A
FOC0B
–
–
WGM02
CS02
CS01
CS00
Read/Write
W
W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x33
TCCR0B
• Bit 7 – FOC0A: Force Output Compare A
The FOC0A bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode.
However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR0B is written when
operating in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC0A bit, an immediate Compare Match is forced on
the Waveform Generation unit. The OC0A output is changed according to its COM0A[1:0] bits setting. Note that
the FOC0A bit is implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the COM0A[1:0] bits that determines
the effect of the forced compare.
A FOC0A strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using OCR0A as TOP.
The FOC0A bit is always read as zero.
• Bit 6 – FOC0B: Force Output Compare B
The FOC0B bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode.
However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR0B is written when
operating in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC0B bit, an immediate Compare Match is forced on
the Waveform Generation unit. The OC0B output is changed according to its COM0B[1:0] bits setting. Note that
the FOC0B bit is implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the COM0B[1:0] bits that determines
the effect of the forced compare.
A FOC0B strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using OCR0B as TOP.
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The FOC0B bit is always read as zero.
• Bits 5:4 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the ATtiny25/45/85 and will always read as zero.
• Bit 3 – WGM02: Waveform Generation Mode
See the description in the “TCCR0A – Timer/Counter Control Register A” on page 77.
• Bits 2:0 – CS0[2:0]: Clock Select
The three Clock Select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter.
Table 11-6.
Clock Select Bit Description
CS02
CS01
CS00
Description
0
0
0
No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped)
0
0
1
clkI/O/(No prescaling)
0
1
0
clkI/O/8 (From prescaler)
0
1
1
clkI/O/64 (From prescaler)
1
0
0
clkI/O/256 (From prescaler)
1
0
1
clkI/O/1024 (From prescaler)
1
1
0
External clock source on T0 pin. Clock on falling edge.
1
1
1
External clock source on T0 pin. Clock on rising edge.
If external pin modes are used for the Timer/Counter0, transitions on the T0 pin will clock the counter even if the
pin is configured as an output. This feature allows software control of the counting.
11.9.4
TCNT0 – Timer/Counter Register
Bit
7
6
5
0x32
4
3
2
1
0
TCNT0[7:0]
TCNT0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Timer/Counter Register gives direct access, both for read and write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 8-bit
counter. Writing to the TCNT0 Register blocks (removes) the Compare Match on the following timer clock. Modifying the counter (TCNT0) while the counter is running, introduces a risk of missing a Compare Match between
TCNT0 and the OCR0x Registers.
11.9.5
OCR0A – Output Compare Register A
Bit
7
6
5
0x29
4
3
2
1
0
OCR0A[7:0]
OCR0A
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Output Compare Register A contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the counter value
(TCNT0). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the
OC0A pin.
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11.9.6
OCR0B – Output Compare Register B
Bit
7
6
5
0x28
4
3
2
1
0
OCR0B[7:0]
OCR0B
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Output Compare Register B contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the counter value
(TCNT0). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the
OC0B pin.
11.9.7
TIMSK – Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0x39
–
OCIE1A
OCIE1B
OCIE0A
OCIE0B
TOIE1
TOIE0
0
–
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK
• Bits 7, 0 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits and will always read as zero.
• Bit 4 – OCIE0A: Timer/Counter0 Output Compare Match A Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE0A bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the Timer/Counter0 Compare
Match A interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if a Compare Match in Timer/Counter0
occurs, i.e., when the OCF0A bit is set in the Timer/Counter 0 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR0.
• Bit 3 – OCIE0B: Timer/Counter Output Compare Match B Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE0B bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the Timer/Counter Compare
Match B interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if a Compare Match in Timer/Counter occurs,
i.e., when the OCF0B bit is set in the Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR0.
• Bit 1 – TOIE0: Timer/Counter0 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When the TOIE0 bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the Timer/Counter0 Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if an overflow in Timer/Counter0 occurs, i.e., when the
TOV0 bit is set in the Timer/Counter 0 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR0.
11.9.8
TIFR – Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0x38
–
OCF1A
OCF1B
OCF0A
OCF0B
TOV1
TOV0
0
–
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR
• Bits 7, 0 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits and will always read as zero.
• Bit 4 – OCF0A: Output Compare Flag 0 A
The OCF0A bit is set when a Compare Match occurs between the Timer/Counter0 and the data in OCR0A – Output Compare Register0. OCF0A is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling
vector. Alternatively, OCF0A is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE0A
(Timer/Counter0 Compare Match Interrupt Enable), and OCF0A are set, the Timer/Counter0 Compare Match Interrupt is executed.
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• Bit 3 – OCF0B: Output Compare Flag 0 B
The OCF0B bit is set when a Compare Match occurs between the Timer/Counter and the data in OCR0B – Output
Compare Register0 B. OCF0B is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector.
Alternatively, OCF0B is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE0B (Timer/Counter
Compare B Match Interrupt Enable), and OCF0B are set, the Timer/Counter Compare Match Interrupt is executed.
• Bit 1 – TOV0: Timer/Counter0 Overflow Flag
The bit TOV0 is set when an overflow occurs in Timer/Counter0. TOV0 is cleared by hardware when executing the
corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, TOV0 is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the
SREG I-bit, TOIE0 (Timer/Counter0 Overflow Interrupt Enable), and TOV0 are set, the Timer/Counter0 Overflow
interrupt is executed.
The setting of this flag is dependent of the WGM0[2:0] bit setting. Refer to Table 11-5, “Waveform Generation
Mode Bit Description” on page 79.
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12. 8-bit Timer/Counter1
The Timer/Counter1 is a general purpose 8-bit Timer/Counter module that has a separate prescaling selection
from the separate prescaler.
12.1
Timer/Counter1 Prescaler
Figure 12-1 shows the Timer/Counter1 prescaler that supports two clocking modes, a synchronous clocking mode
and an asynchronous clocking mode. The synchronous clocking mode uses the system clock (CK) as the clock
timebase and asynchronous mode uses the fast peripheral clock (PCK) as the clock time base. The PCKE bit from
the PLLCSR register enables the asynchronous mode when it is set (‘1’).
Figure 12-1. Timer/Counter1 Prescaler
PSR1
T1CK
T1CK/16384
T1CK/8192
T1CK/4096
T1CK/2048
T1CK/1024
T1CK/512
T1CK/256
T1CK/128
T1CK/64
T1CK/32
T1CK/16
T1CK/8
0
T1CK/4
14-BIT
T/C PRESCALER
T1CK/2
CK
PCK 64/32 MHz
T1CK
PCKE
CS10
CS11
CS12
CS13
TIMER/COUNTER1 COUNT ENABLE
In the asynchronous clocking mode the clock selections are from PCK to PCK/16384 and stop, and in the synchronous clocking mode the clock selections are from CK to CK/16384 and stop. The clock options are described in
Table 12-5 on page 89 and the Timer/Counter1 Control Register, TCCR1. Setting the PSR1 bit in GTCCR register
resets the prescaler. The PCKE bit in the PLLCSR register enables the asynchronous mode. The frequency of the
fast peripheral clock is 64 MHz (or 32 MHz in Low Speed Mode).
12.2
Counter and Compare Units
The Timer/Counter1 general operation is described in the asynchronous mode and the operation in the synchronous mode is mentioned only if there are differences between these two modes. Figure 12-2 shows Timer/Counter
1 synchronization register block diagram and synchronization delays in between registers. Note that all clock gating details are not shown in the figure. The Timer/Counter1 register values go through the internal synchronization
registers, which cause the input synchronization delay, before affecting the counter operation. The registers
TCCR1, GTCCR, OCR1A, OCR1B, and OCR1C can be read back right after writing the register. The read back
values are delayed for the Timer/Counter1 (TCNT1) register and flags (OCF1A, OCF1B, and TOV1), because of
the input and output synchronization.
The Timer/Counter1 features a high resolution and a high accuracy usage with the lower prescaling opportunities.
It can also support two accurate, high speed, 8-bit Pulse Width Modulators using clock speeds up to 64 MHz (or 32
MHz in Low Speed Mode). In this mode, Timer/Counter1 and the output compare registers serve as dual standalone PWMs with non-overlapping non-inverted and inverted outputs. Refer to page 86 for a detailed description
on this function. Similarly, the high prescaling opportunities make this unit useful for lower speed functions or exact
timing functions with infrequent actions.
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Figure 12-2. Timer/Counter 1 Synchronization Register Block Diagram.
8-BIT DATABUS
IO-registers
Input synchronization
registers
OCR1A
OCR1A_SI
OCR1B
OCR1B_SI
OCR1C
OCR1C_SI
TCCR1
TCCR1_SI
GTCCR
GTCCR_SI
TCNT1
TCNT1_SI
Timer/Counter1
Output synchronization
registers
TCNT1
TCNT_SO
OCF1A
OCF1A_SO
TCNT1
OCF1B
OCF1B_SO
OCF1A
OCF1A_SI
OCF1B
OCF1B_SI
TOV1
TOV1_SI
TOV1
TOV1_SO
PCKE
CK
S
A
S
PCK
A
SYNC
MODE
1/2 CK Delay
1 CK Delay
1 CK Delay
1/2 CK Delay
ASYNC
MODE
1..2 PCK Delay
1 PCK Delay
~1 CK Delay
No Delay
Timer/Counter1 and the prescaler allow running the CPU from any clock source while the prescaler is operating on
the fast 64 MHz (or 32 MHz in Low Speed Mode) PCK clock in the asynchronous mode.
Note that the system clock frequency must be lower than one third of the PCK frequency. The synchronization
mechanism of the asynchronous Timer/Counter1 needs at least two edges of the PCK when the system clock is
high. If the frequency of the system clock is too high, it is a risk that data or control values are lost.
The following Figure 12-3 shows the block diagram for Timer/Counter1.
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Figure 12-3. Timer/Counter1 Block Diagram
T/C1 OVER- T/C1 COMPARE T/C1 COMPARE
FLOW IRQ MATCH A IRQ MATCH B IRQ
OC1A
(PB1)
OC1B
(PB4)
OC1A
(PB0)
DEAD TIME GENERATOR
TOV0
PSR1
FOC1B
FOC1A
COM1B0
PWM1B
GLOBAL T/C CONTROL
REGISTER (GTCCR)
COM1B1
CS10
CS12
CS11
CS13
COM1A0
COM1A1
CTC1
TOV1
T/C CONTROL
REGISTER 1 (TCCR1)
PWM1A
OCF1B
TOV1
OCF1A
OCF1A
TIMER INT. FLAG
REGISTER (TIFR)
OCF1B
TOIE1
TOIE0
OCIE1A
OCIE1B
DEAD TIME GENERATOR
TIMER INT. MASK
REGISTER (TIMSK)
OC1B
(PB3)
TIMER/COUNTER1
TIMER/COUNTER1
(TCNT1)
T/C CLEAR
T/C1 CONTROL
LOGIC
8-BIT COMPARATOR
8-BIT COMPARATOR
8-BIT COMPARATOR
T/C1 OUTPUT
COMPARE REGISTER
(OCR1A)
T/C1 OUTPUT
COMPARE REGISTER
(OCR1B)
T/C1 OUTPUT
COMPARE REGISTER
(OCR1C)
CK
PCK
8-BIT DATABUS
Three status flags (overflow and compare matches) are found in the Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register - TIFR.
Control signals are found in the Timer/Counter Control Registers TCCR1 and GTCCR. The interrupt enable/disable settings are found in the Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register - TIMSK.
The Timer/Counter1 contains three Output Compare Registers, OCR1A, OCR1B, and OCR1C as the data source
to be compared with the Timer/Counter1 contents. In normal mode the Output Compare functions are operational
with all three output compare registers. OCR1A determines action on the OC1A pin (PB1), and it can generate
Timer1 OC1A interrupt in normal mode and in PWM mode. Likewise, OCR1B determines action on the OC1B pin
(PB4) and it can generate Timer1 OC1B interrupt in normal mode and in PWM mode. OCR1C holds the
Timer/Counter maximum value, i.e. the clear on compare match value. In the normal mode an overflow interrupt
(TOV1) is generated when Timer/Counter1 counts from $FF to $00, while in the PWM mode the overflow interrupt
is generated when Timer/Counter1 counts either from $FF to $00 or from OCR1C to $00. The inverted PWM outputs OC1A and OC1B are not connected in normal mode.
In PWM mode, OCR1A and OCR1B provide the data values against which the Timer Counter value is compared.
Upon compare match the PWM outputs (OC1A, OC1A, OC1B, OC1B) are generated. In PWM mode, the Timer
Counter counts up to the value specified in the output compare register OCR1C and starts again from $00. This
feature allows limiting the counter “full” value to a specified value, lower than $FF. Together with the many prescaler options, flexible PWM frequency selection is provided. Table 12-3 on page 88 lists clock selection and
OCR1C values to obtain PWM frequencies from 20 kHz to 250 kHz in 10 kHz steps and from 250 kHz to 500 kHz
in 50 kHz steps. Higher PWM frequencies can be obtained at the expense of resolution.
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12.2.1
Timer/Counter1 Initialization for Asynchronous Mode
To set Timer/Counter1 in asynchronous mode first enable PLL and then wait 100 µs for PLL to stabilize. Next, poll
the PLOCK bit until it is set and then set the PCKE bit.
12.2.2
Timer/Counter1 in PWM Mode
When the PWM mode is selected, Timer/Counter1 and the Output Compare Register C - OCR1C form a dual 8-bit,
free-running and glitch-free PWM generator with outputs on the PB1(OC1A) and PB4(OC1B) pins and inverted
outputs on pins PB0(OC1A) and PB3(OC1B). As default non-overlapping times for complementary output pairs are
zero, but they can be inserted using a Dead Time Generator (see description on page 100).
Figure 12-4. The PWM Output Pair
PWM1x
PWM1x
t non-overlap =0
t non-overlap =0
x = A or B
When the counter value match the contents of OCR1A or OCR1B, the OC1A and OC1B outputs are set or cleared
according to the COM1A1/COM1A0 or COM1B1/COM1B0 bits in the Timer/Counter1 Control Register A - TCCR1,
as shown in Table 12-1.
Timer/Counter1 acts as an up-counter, counting from $00 up to the value specified in the output compare register
OCR1C, and starting from $00 up again. A compare match with OC1C will set an overflow interrupt flag (TOV1)
after a synchronization delay following the compare event.
Table 12-1.
Compare Mode Select in PWM Mode
COM1x1
COM1x0
Effect on Output Compare Pins
0
0
OC1x not connected.
OC1x not connected.
0
1
OC1x cleared on compare match. Set whenTCNT1 = $00.
OC1x set on compare match. Cleared when TCNT1 = $00.
1
0
OC1x cleared on compare match. Set when TCNT1 = $00.
OC1x not connected.
1
1
OC1x Set on compare match. Cleared when TCNT1= $00.
OC1x not connected.
Note that in PWM mode, writing to the Output Compare Registers OCR1A or OCR1B, the data value is first transferred to a temporary location. The value is latched into OCR1A or OCR1B when the Timer/Counter reaches
OCR1C. This prevents the occurrence of odd-length PWM pulses (glitches) in the event of an unsynchronized
OCR1A or OCR1B. See Figure 12-5 for an example.
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Figure 12-5. Effects of Unsynchronized OCR Latching
Compare Value changes
Counter Value
Compare Value
PWM Output OC1x
Synchronized OC1x Latch
Compare Value changes
Counter Value
Compare Value
PWM Output OC1x
Unsynchronized OC1x Latch
Glitch
During the time between the write and the latch operation, a read from OCR1A or OCR1B will read the contents of
the temporary location. This means that the most recently written value always will read out of OCR1A or OCR1B.
When OCR1A or OCR1B contain $00 or the top value, as specified in OCR1C register, the output PB1(OC1A) or
PB4(OC1B) is held low or high according to the settings of COM1A1/COM1A0. This is shown in Table 12-2.
Table 12-2.
PWM Outputs OCR1x = $00 or OCR1C, x = A or B
COM1x1
COM1x0
OCR1x
Output OC1x
Output OC1x
0
1
$00
L
H
0
1
OCR1C
H
L
1
0
$00
L
Not connected.
1
0
OCR1C
H
Not connected.
1
1
$00
H
Not connected.
1
1
OCR1C
L
Not connected.
In PWM mode, the Timer Overflow Flag - TOV1 is set when the TCNT1 counts to the OCR1C value and the
TCNT1 is reset to $00. The Timer Overflow Interrupt1 is executed when TOV1 is set provided that Timer Overflow
Interrupt and global interrupts are enabled. This also applies to the Timer Output Compare flags and interrupts.
The frequency of the PWM will be Timer Clock 1 Frequency divided by (OCR1C value + 1). See the following
equation:
f TCK1
f PWM = ----------------------------------- OCR1C + 1 
Resolution shows how many bits are required to express the value in the OCR1C register and can be calculated
using the following equation:
R = log 2(OCR1C + 1)
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Table 12-3.
Timer/Counter1 Clock Prescale Select in the Asynchronous Mode
PWM Frequency
Clock Selection
CS1[3:0]
OCR1C
RESOLUTION
20 kHz
PCK/16
0101
199
7.6
30 kHz
PCK/16
0101
132
7.1
40 kHz
PCK/8
0100
199
7.6
50 kHz
PCK/8
0100
159
7.3
60 kHz
PCK/8
0100
132
7.1
70 kHz
PCK/4
0011
228
7.8
80 kHz
PCK/4
0011
199
7.6
90 kHz
PCK/4
0011
177
7.5
100 kHz
PCK/4
0011
159
7.3
110 kHz
PCK/4
0011
144
7.2
120 kHz
PCK/4
0011
132
7.1
130 kHz
PCK/2
0010
245
7.9
140 kHz
PCK/2
0010
228
7.8
150 kHz
PCK/2
0010
212
7.7
160 kHz
PCK/2
0010
199
7.6
170 kHz
PCK/2
0010
187
7.6
180 kHz
PCK/2
0010
177
7.5
190 kHz
PCK/2
0010
167
7.4
200 kHz
PCK/2
0010
159
7.3
250 kHz
PCK
0001
255
8.0
300 kHz
PCK
0001
212
7.7
350 kHz
PCK
0001
182
7.5
400 kHz
PCK
0001
159
7.3
450 kHz
PCK
0001
141
7.1
500 kHz
PCK
0001
127
7.0
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12.3
12.3.1
Register Description
TCCR1 – Timer/Counter1 Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CTC1
PWM1A
COM1A1
COM1A0
CS13
CS12
CS11
CS10
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x30
TCCR1
• Bit 7 – CTC1 : Clear Timer/Counter on Compare Match
When the CTC1 control bit is set (one), Timer/Counter1 is reset to $00 in the CPU clock cycle after a compare
match with OCR1C register value. If the control bit is cleared, Timer/Counter1 continues counting and is unaffected
by a compare match.
• Bit 6 – PWM1A: Pulse Width Modulator A Enable
When set (one) this bit enables PWM mode based on comparator OCR1A in Timer/Counter1 and the counter
value is reset to $00 in the CPU clock cycle after a compare match with OCR1C register value.
• Bits 5:4 – COM1A[1:0]: Comparator A Output Mode, Bits 1 and 0
The COM1A1 and COM1A0 control bits determine any output pin action following a compare match with compare
register A in Timer/Counter1. Since the output pin action is an alternative function to an I/O port, the corresponding
direction control bit must be set (one) in order to control an output pin.
In Normal mode, the COM1A1 and COM1A0 control bits determine the output pin actions that affect pin PB1
(OC1A) as described in Table 12-4. Note that OC1A is not connected in normal mode.
Table 12-4.
Comparator A Mode Select in Normal Mode
COM1A1
COM1A0
Description
0
0
Timer/Counter Comparator A disconnected from output pin OC1A.
0
1
Toggle the OC1A output line.
1
0
Clear the OC1A output line.
1
1
Set the OC1A output line
In PWM mode, these bits have different functions. Refer to Table 12-1 on page 86 for a detailed description.
• Bits 3:0 - CS1[3:0]: Clock Select Bits 3, 2, 1, and 0
The Clock Select bits 3, 2, 1, and 0 define the prescaling source of Timer/Counter1.
Table 12-5.
Timer/Counter1 Prescale Select
Asynchronous
Clocking Mode
Synchronous
Clocking Mode
0
T/C1 stopped
T/C1 stopped
0
1
PCK
CK
0
1
0
PCK/2
CK/2
0
0
1
1
PCK/4
CK/4
0
1
0
0
PCK/8
CK/8
0
1
0
1
PCK/16
CK/16
0
1
1
0
PCK/32
CK/32
CS13
CS12
CS11
CS10
0
0
0
0
0
0
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Table 12-5.
Timer/Counter1 Prescale Select (Continued)
Asynchronous
Clocking Mode
Synchronous
Clocking Mode
1
PCK/64
CK/64
0
0
PCK/128
CK/128
0
0
1
PCK/256
CK/256
1
0
1
0
PCK/512
CK/512
1
0
1
1
PCK/1024
CK/1024
1
1
0
0
PCK/2048
CK/2048
1
1
0
1
PCK/4096
CK/4096
1
1
1
0
PCK/8192
CK/8192
1
1
1
1
PCK/16384
CK/16384
CS13
CS12
CS11
CS10
0
1
1
1
0
1
The Stop condition provides a Timer Enable/Disable function.
12.3.2
GTCCR – General Timer/Counter1 Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x2C
TSM
PWM1B
COM1B1
COM1B0
FOC1B
FOC1A
PSR1
PSR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
W
W
R/W
R/W
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GTCCR
• Bit 6 – PWM1B: Pulse Width Modulator B Enable
When set (one) this bit enables PWM mode based on comparator OCR1B in Timer/Counter1 and the counter
value is reset to $00 in the CPU clock cycle after a compare match with OCR1C register value.
• Bits 5:4 – COM1B[1:0]: Comparator B Output Mode, Bits 1 and 0
The COM1B1 and COM1B0 control bits determine any output pin action following a compare match with compare
register B in Timer/Counter1. Since the output pin action is an alternative function to an I/O port, the corresponding
direction control bit must be set (one) in order to control an output pin.
In Normal mode, the COM1B1 and COM1B0 control bits determine the output pin actions that affect pin PB4
(OC1B) as described in Table 12-6. Note that OC1B is not connected in normal mode.
Table 12-6.
Comparator B Mode Select in Normal Mode
COM1B1
COM1B0
Description
0
0
Timer/Counter Comparator B disconnected from output pin OC1B.
0
1
Toggle the OC1B output line.
1
0
Clear the OC1B output line.
1
1
Set the OC1B output line
In PWM mode, these bits have different functions. Refer to Table 12-1 on page 86 for a detailed description.
• Bit 3 – FOC1B: Force Output Compare Match 1B
Writing a logical one to this bit forces a change in the compare match output pin PB4 (OC1B) according to the values already set in COM1B1 and COM1B0. If COM1B1 and COM1B0 written in the same cycle as FOC1B, the new
settings will be used. The Force Output Compare bit can be used to change the output pin value regardless of the
timer value. The automatic action programmed in COM1B1 and COM1B0 takes place as if a compare match had
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occurred, but no interrupt is generated. The FOC1B bit always reads as zero. FOC1B is not in use if PWM1B bit is
set.
• Bit 2 – FOC1A: Force Output Compare Match 1A
Writing a logical one to this bit forces a change in the compare match output pin PB1 (OC1A) according to the values already set in COM1A1 and COM1A0. If COM1A1 and COM1A0 written in the same cycle as FOC1A, the new
settings will be used. The Force Output Compare bit can be used to change the output pin value regardless of the
timer value. The automatic action programmed in COM1A1 and COM1A0 takes place as if a compare match had
occurred, but no interrupt is generated. The FOC1A bit always reads as zero. FOC1A is not in use if PWM1A bit is
set.
• Bit 1 – PSR1 : Prescaler Reset Timer/Counter1
When this bit is set (one), the Timer/Counter prescaler (TCNT1 is unaffected) will be reset. The bit will be cleared
by hardware after the operation is performed. Writing a zero to this bit will have no effect. This bit will always read
as zero.
12.3.3
TCNT1 – Timer/Counter1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x2F
MSB
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCNT1
This 8-bit register contains the value of Timer/Counter1.
Timer/Counter1 is realized as an up counter with read and write access. Due to synchronization of the CPU,
Timer/Counter1 data written into Timer/Counter1 is delayed by one and half CPU clock cycles in synchronous
mode and at most one CPU clock cycles for asynchronous mode.
12.3.4
OCR1A –Timer/Counter1 Output Compare RegisterA
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x2E
MSB
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
OCR1A
The output compare register A is an 8-bit read/write register.
The Timer/Counter Output Compare Register A contains data to be continuously compared with Timer/Counter1.
Actions on compare matches are specified in TCCR1. A compare match does only occur if Timer/Counter1 counts
to the OCR1A value. A software write that sets TCNT1 and OCR1A to the same value does not generate a compare match.
A compare match will set the compare interrupt flag OCF1A after a synchronization delay following the compare
event.
12.3.5
OCR1B – Timer/Counter1 Output Compare RegisterB
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x2B
MSB
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
OCR1B
The output compare register B is an 8-bit read/write register.
The Timer/Counter Output Compare Register B contains data to be continuously compared with Timer/Counter1.
Actions on compare matches are specified in TCCR1. A compare match does only occur if Timer/Counter1 counts
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to the OCR1B value. A software write that sets TCNT1 and OCR1B to the same value does not generate a compare match.
A compare match will set the compare interrupt flag OCF1B after a synchronization delay following the compare
event.
12.3.6
OCR1C – Timer/Counter1 Output Compare RegisterC
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x2D
MSB
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
OCR1C
The output compare register C is an 8-bit read/write register.
The Timer/Counter Output Compare Register C contains data to be continuously compared with Timer/Counter1.
A compare match does only occur if Timer/Counter1 counts to the OCR1C value. A software write that sets TCNT1
and OCR1C to the same value does not generate a compare match. If the CTC1 bit in TCCR1 is set, a compare
match will clear TCNT1.
This register has the same function in normal mode and PWM mode.
12.3.7
TIMSK – Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0x39
–
OCIE1A
OCIE1B
OCIE0A
OCIE0B
TOIE1
TOIE0
0
–
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK
• Bit 7 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is a reserved bit in the ATtiny25/45/85 and always reads as zero.
• Bit 6 – OCIE1A: Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE1A bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the Timer/Counter1 Compare
MatchA, interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt at vector $003 is executed if a compare matchA occurs.
The Compare Flag in Timer/Counter1 is set (one) in the Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register.
• Bit 5 – OCIE1B: Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE1B bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the Timer/Counter1 Compare
MatchB, interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt at vector $009 is executed if a compare matchB occurs.
The Compare Flag in Timer/Counter1 is set (one) in the Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register.
• Bit 2 – TOIE1: Timer/Counter1 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When the TOIE1 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the Timer/Counter1 Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt (at vector $004) is executed if an overflow in Timer/Counter1 occurs.
The Overflow Flag (Timer1) is set (one) in the Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register - TIFR.
• Bit 0 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is a reserved bit in the ATtiny25/45/85 and always reads as zero.
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12.3.8
TIFR – Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0x38
–
OCF1A
OCF1B
OCF0A
OCF0B
TOV1
TOV0
0
–
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR
• Bit 7 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is a reserved bit in the ATtiny25/45/85 and always reads as zero.
• Bit 6 – OCF1A: Output Compare Flag 1A
The OCF1A bit is set (one) when compare match occurs between Timer/Counter1 and the data value in OCR1A Output Compare Register 1A. OCF1A is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling
vector. Alternatively, OCF1A is cleared, after synchronization clock cycle, by writing a logic one to the flag. When
the I-bit in SREG, OCIE1A, and OCF1A are set (one), the Timer/Counter1 A compare match interrupt is executed.
• Bit 5 – OCF1B: Output Compare Flag 1B
The OCF1B bit is set (one) when compare match occurs between Timer/Counter1 and the data value in OCR1B Output Compare Register 1A. OCF1B is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling
vector. Alternatively, OCF1B is cleared, after synchronization clock cycle, by writing a logic one to the flag. When
the I-bit in SREG, OCIE1B, and OCF1B are set (one), the Timer/Counter1 B compare match interrupt is executed.
• Bit 2 – TOV1: Timer/Counter1 Overflow Flag
In normal mode (PWM1A=0 and PWM1B=0) the bit TOV1 is set (one) when an overflow occurs in Timer/Counter1.
The bit TOV1 is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively,
TOV1 is cleared, after synchronization clock cycle, by writing a logical one to the flag.
In PWM mode (either PWM1A=1 or PWM1B=1) the bit TOV1 is set (one) when compare match occurs between
Timer/Counter1 and data value in OCR1C - Output Compare Register 1C.
When the SREG I-bit, and TOIE1 (Timer/Counter1 Overflow Interrupt Enable), and TOV1 are set (one), the
Timer/Counter1 Overflow interrupt is executed.
• Bit 0 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is a reserved bit in the ATtiny25/45/85 and always reads as zero.
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12.3.9
PLLCSR – PLL Control and Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x27
LSM
-
-
-
-
PCKE
PLLE
PLOCK
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0/1
0
PLLCSR
• Bit 7 – LSM: Low Speed Mode
The high speed mode is enabled as default and the fast peripheral clock is 64 MHz, but the low speed mode can
be set by writing the LSM bit to one. Then the fast peripheral clock is scaled down to 32 MHz. The low speed mode
must be set, if the supply voltage is below 2.7 volts, because the Timer/Counter1 is not running fast enough on low
voltage levels. It is highly recommended that Timer/Counter1 is stopped whenever the LSM bit is changed.
Note, that LSM can not be set if PLLCLK is used as system clock.
• Bit 6:3 – Res : Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the ATtiny25/45/85 and always read as zero.
• Bit 2 – PCKE: PCK Enable
The PCKE bit change the Timer/Counter1 clock source. When it is set, the asynchronous clock mode is enabled
and fast 64 MHz (or 32 MHz in Low Speed Mode) PCK clock is used as Timer/Counter1 clock source. If this bit is
cleared, the synchronous clock mode is enabled, and system clock CK is used as Timer/Counter1 clock source.
This bit can be set only if PLLE bit is set. It is safe to set this bit only when the PLL is locked i.e the PLOCK bit is 1.
The bit PCKE can only be set, if the PLL has been enabled earlier.
• Bit 1 – PLLE: PLL Enable
When the PLLE is set, the PLL is started and if needed internal RC-oscillator is started as a PLL reference clock. If
PLL is selected as a system clock source the value for this bit is always 1.
• Bit 0 – PLOCK: PLL Lock Detector
When the PLOCK bit is set, the PLL is locked to the reference clock. The PLOCK bit should be ignored during initial PLL lock-in sequence when PLL frequency overshoots and undershoots, before reaching steady state. The
steady state is obtained within 100 µs. After PLL lock-in it is recommended to check the PLOCK bit before enabling
PCK for Timer/Counter1.
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13. 8-bit Timer/Counter1 in ATtiny15 Mode
The ATtiny15 compatibility mode is selected by writing the code “0011” to the CKSEL fuses (if any other code is
written, the Timer/Counter1 is working in normal mode). When selected the ATtiny15 compatibility mode provides
an ATtiny15 backward compatible prescaler and Timer/Counter. Furthermore, the clocking system has same clock
frequencies as in ATtiny15.
13.1
Timer/Counter1 Prescaler
Figure 13-1 shows an ATtiny15 compatible prescaler. It has two prescaler units, a 10-bit prescaler for the system
clock (CK) and a 3-bit prescaler for the fast peripheral clock (PCK). The clocking system of the Timer/Counter1 is
always synchronous in the ATtiny15 compatibility mode, because the same RC Oscillator is used as a PLL clock
source (generates the input clock for the prescaler) and the AVR core.
Figure 13-1. Timer/Counter1 Prescaler
PSR1
CK (1.6 MHz)
CLEAR
CK/1024
CK/512
CK/256
CK/128
CK/64
CK/32
CK/16
CK/8
CK/4
CK/2
10-BIT T/C PRESCALER
CK
PCK/8
PCK/4
0
PCK/2
CLEAR
3-BIT T/C PRESCALER
PCK
PCK (25.6 MHz)
CS10
CS11
CS12
CS13
TIMER/COUNTER1 COUNT ENABLE
The same clock selections as in ATtiny15 can be chosen for Timer/Counter1 from the output multiplexer, because
the frequency of the fast peripheral clock is 25.6 MHz and the prescaler is similar in the ATtiny15 compatibility
mode. The clock selections are PCK, PCK/2, PCK/4, PCK/8, CK, CK/2, CK/4, CK/8, CK/16, CK/32, CK/64,
CK/128, CK/256, CK/512, CK/1024 and stop.
13.2
Counter and Compare Units
Figure 13-2 shows Timer/Counter 1 synchronization register block diagram and synchronization delays in between
registers. Note that all clock gating details are not shown in the figure. The Timer/Counter1 register values go
through the internal synchronization registers, which cause the input synchronization delay, before affecting the
counter operation. The registers TCCR1, GTCCR, OCR1A and OCR1C can be read back right after writing the
register. The read back values are delayed for the Timer/Counter1 (TCNT1) register and flags (OCF1A and TOV1),
because of the input and output synchronization.
The Timer/Counter1 features a high resolution and a high accuracy usage with the lower prescaling opportunities.
It can also support an accurate, high speed, 8-bit Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) using clock speeds up to 25.6
MHz. In this mode, Timer/Counter1 and the Output Compare Registers serve as a stand-alone PWM. Refer to
“Timer/Counter1 in PWM Mode” on page 97 for a detailed description on this function. Similarly, the high prescaling opportunities make this unit useful for lower speed functions or exact timing functions with infrequent actions.
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Figure 13-2. Timer/Counter 1 Synchronization Register Block Diagram.
8-BIT DATABUS
IO-registers
Input synchronization
registers
OCR1A
OCR1A_SI
OCR1C
OCR1C_SI
TCCR1
TCCR1_SI
GTCCR
GTCCR_SI
TCNT1
TCNT1_SI
Timer/Counter1
Output synchronization
registers
TCNT1
TCNT_SO
TCNT1
OCF1A
OCF1A_SO
OCF1A
OCF1A_SI
TOV1
TOV1_SI
TOV1
TOV1_SO
PCKE
CK
S
A
S
PCK
A
SYNC
MODE
1..2 PCK Delay
1 PCK Delay
~1 CK Delay
No Delay
ASYNC
MODE
1..2 PCK Delay
1PCK Delay
~1 CK Delay
No Delay
Timer/Counter1 and the prescaler allow running the CPU from any clock source while the prescaler is operating on
the fast 25.6 MHz PCK clock in the asynchronous mode.
The following Figure 13-3 shows the block diagram for Timer/Counter1.
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Figure 13-3. Timer/Counter1 Block Diagram
PSR1
GLOBAL T/C CONTROL
REGISTER 2 (GTCCR)
FOC1A
CS10
CS12
CS11
CS13
COM1A1
COM1A0
T/C CONTROL
REGISTER 1 (TCCR1)
CTC1
PWM1A
TOV1
TOV0
OCF1A
TIMER INT. FLAG
REGISTER (TIFR)
OCF1A
TIMER INT. MASK
REGISTER (TIMSK)
OC1A
(PB1)
TOV1
TOIE1
TOIE0
OCIE1A
T/C1 OVER- T/C1 COMPARE
FLOW IRQ MATCH A IRQ
TIMER/COUNTER1
TIMER/COUNTER1
(TCNT1)
T/C CLEAR
8-BIT COMPARATOR
8-BIT COMPARATOR
T/C1 OUTPUT
COMPARE REGISTER
(OCR1A)
T/C1 OUTPUT
COMPARE REGISTER
(OCR1C)
T/C1 CONTROL
LOGIC
CK
PCK
8-BIT DATABUS
Two status flags (overflow and compare match) are found in the Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register - TIFR.
Control signals are found in the Timer/Counter Control Registers TCCR1 and GTCCR. The interrupt enable/disable settings are found in the Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register - TIMSK.
The Timer/Counter1 contains two Output Compare Registers, OCR1A and OCR1C as the data source to be compared with the Timer/Counter1 contents. In normal mode the Output Compare functions are operational with
OCR1A only. OCR1A determines action on the OC1A pin (PB1), and it can generate Timer1 OC1A interrupt in normal mode and in PWM mode. OCR1C holds the Timer/Counter maximum value, i.e. the clear on compare match
value. In the normal mode an overflow interrupt (TOV1) is generated when Timer/Counter1 counts from $FF to
$00, while in the PWM mode the overflow interrupt is generated when the Timer/Counter1 counts either from $FF
to $00 or from OCR1C to $00.
In PWM mode, OCR1A provides the data values against which the Timer Counter value is compared. Upon compare match the PWM outputs (OC1A) is generated. In PWM mode, the Timer Counter counts up to the value
specified in the output compare register OCR1C and starts again from $00. This feature allows limiting the counter
“full” value to a specified value, lower than $FF. Together with the many prescaler options, flexible PWM frequency
selection is provided. Table 12-3 on page 88 lists clock selection and OCR1C values to obtain PWM frequencies
from 20 kHz to 250 kHz in 10 kHz steps and from 250 kHz to 500 kHz in 50 kHz steps. Higher PWM frequencies
can be obtained at the expense of resolution.
13.2.1
Timer/Counter1 in PWM Mode
When the PWM mode is selected, Timer/Counter1 and the Output Compare Register A - OCR1A form an 8-bit,
free-running and glitch-free PWM generator with output on the PB1(OC1A).
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When the counter value match the content of OCR1A, the OC1A and output is set or cleared according to the
COM1A1/COM1A0 bits in the Timer/Counter1 Control Register A - TCCR1, as shown in Table 13-1.
Timer/Counter1 acts as an up-counter, counting from $00 up to the value specified in the output compare register
OCR1C, and starting from $00 up again. A compare match with OCR1C will set an overflow interrupt flag (TOV1)
after a synchronization delay following the compare event.
Table 13-1.
Compare Mode Select in PWM Mode
COM1A1
COM1A0
Effect on Output Compare Pin
0
0
OC1A not connected.
0
1
OC1A not connected.
1
0
OC1A cleared on compare match. Set when TCNT1 = $00.
1
1
OC1A set on compare match. Cleared when TCNT1 = $00.
Note that in PWM mode, writing to the Output Compare Register OCR1A, the data value is first transferred to a
temporary location. The value is latched into OCR1A when the Timer/Counter reaches OCR1C. This prevents the
occurrence of odd-length PWM pulses (glitches) in the event of an unsynchronized OCR1A. See Figure 13-4 for an
e xample.
Figure 13-4. Effects of Unsynchronized OCR Latching
Compare Value changes
Counter Value
Compare Value
PWM Output OC1A
Synchronized OC1A Latch
Compare Value changes
Counter Value
Compare Value
PWM Output OC1A
Unsynchronized OC1A Latch
Glitch
During the time between the write and the latch operation, a read from OCR1A will read the contents of the temporary location. This means that the most recently written value always will read out of OCR1A.
When OCR1A contains $00 or the top value, as specified in OCR1C register, the output PB1(OC1A) is held low or
high according to the settings of COM1A1/COM1A0. This is shown in Table 13-2.
Table 13-2.
PWM Outputs OCR1A = $00 or OCR1C
COM1A1
COM1A0
OCR1A
Output OC1A
0
1
$00
L
0
1
OCR1C
H
1
0
$00
L
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Table 13-2.
PWM Outputs OCR1A = $00 or OCR1C
COM1A1
COM1A0
OCR1A
Output OC1A
1
0
OCR1C
H
1
1
$00
H
1
1
OCR1C
L
In PWM mode, the Timer Overflow Flag - TOV1 is set when the TCNT1 counts to the OCR1C value and the
TCNT1 is reset to $00. The Timer Overflow Interrupt1 is executed when TOV1 is set provided that Timer Overflow
Interrupt and global interrupts are enabled. This also applies to the Timer Output Compare flags and interrupts.
The PWM frequency can be derived from the timer/counter clock frequency using the following equation:
f TCK1
f = ----------------------------------- OCR1C + 1 
The duty cycle of the PWM waveform can be calculated using the following equation:
 OCR1A + 1   T TCK1 – T PCK
D = --------------------------------------------------------------------------- OCR1C + 1   T TCK1
...where TPCK is the period of the fast peripheral clock (1/25.6 MHz = 39.1 ns).
Resolution indicates how many bits are required to express the value in the OCR1C register. It can be calculated
using the following equation:
R = log 2(OCR1C + 1)
Table 13-3.
Timer/Counter1 Clock Prescale Select in the Asynchronous Mode
PWM Frequency
Clock Selection
CS1[3:0]
OCR1C
RESOLUTION
20 kHz
PCK/16
0101
199
7.6
30 kHz
PCK/16
0101
132
7.1
40 kHz
PCK/8
0100
199
7.6
50 kHz
PCK/8
0100
159
7.3
60 kHz
PCK/8
0100
132
7.1
70 kHz
PCK/4
0011
228
7.8
80 kHz
PCK/4
0011
199
7.6
90 kHz
PCK/4
0011
177
7.5
100 kHz
PCK/4
0011
159
7.3
110 kHz
PCK/4
0011
144
7.2
120 kHz
PCK/4
0011
132
7.1
130 kHz
PCK/2
0010
245
7.9
140 kHz
PCK/2
0010
228
7.8
150 kHz
PCK/2
0010
212
7.7
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Table 13-3.
13.3
13.3.1
Timer/Counter1 Clock Prescale Select in the Asynchronous Mode (Continued)
PWM Frequency
Clock Selection
CS1[3:0]
OCR1C
RESOLUTION
160 kHz
PCK/2
0010
199
7.6
170 kHz
PCK/2
0010
187
7.6
180 kHz
PCK/2
0010
177
7.5
190 kHz
PCK/2
0010
167
7.4
200 kHz
PCK/2
0010
159
7.3
250 kHz
PCK
0001
255
8.0
300 kHz
PCK
0001
212
7.7
350 kHz
PCK
0001
182
7.5
400 kHz
PCK
0001
159
7.3
450 kHz
PCK
0001
141
7.1
500 kHz
PCK
0001
127
7.0
Register Description
TCCR1 – Timer/Counter1 Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CTC1
PWM1A
COM1A1
COM1A0
CS13
CS12
CS11
CS10
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x30
TCCR1A
• Bit 7 – CTC1 : Clear Timer/Counter on Compare Match
When the CTC1 control bit is set (one), Timer/Counter1 is reset to $00 in the CPU clock cycle after a compare
match with OCR1A register. If the control bit is cleared, Timer/Counter1 continues counting and is unaffected by a
compare match.
• Bit 6 – PWM1A: Pulse Width Modulator A Enable
When set (one) this bit enables PWM mode based on comparator OCR1A in Timer/Counter1 and the counter
value is reset to $00 in the CPU clock cycle after a compare match with OCR1C register value.
• Bits 5:4 – COM1A[1:0]: Comparator A Output Mode, Bits 1 and 0
The COM1A1 and COM1A0 control bits determine any output pin action following a compare match with compare
register A in Timer/Counter1. Output pin actions affect pin PB1 (OC1A). Since this is an alternative function to an
I/O port, the corresponding direction control bit must be set (one) in order to control an output pin.
Table 13-4.
Comparator A Mode Select
COM1A1
COM1A0
Description
0
0
Timer/Counter Comparator A disconnected from output pin OC1A.
0
1
Toggle the OC1A output line.
1
0
Clear the OC1A output line.
1
1
Set the OC1A output line
In PWM mode, these bits have different functions. Refer to Table 13-1 on page 98 for a detailed description.
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• Bits 3:0 – CS1[3:0]: Clock Select Bits 3, 2, 1, and 0
The Clock Select bits 3, 2, 1, and 0 define the prescaling source of Timer/Counter1.
Table 13-5.
Timer/Counter1 Prescale Select
CS13
CS12
CS11
CS10
T/C1 Clock
0
0
0
0
T/C1 stopped
0
0
0
1
PCK
0
0
1
0
PCK/2
0
0
1
1
PCK/4
0
1
0
0
PCK/8
0
1
0
1
CK
0
1
1
0
CK/2
0
1
1
1
CK/4
1
0
0
0
CK/8
1
0
0
1
CK/16
1
0
1
0
CK/32
1
0
1
1
CK/64
1
1
0
0
CK/128
1
1
0
1
CK/256
1
1
1
0
CK/512
1
1
1
1
CK/1024
The Stop condition provides a Timer Enable/Disable function.
13.3.2
GTCCR – General Timer/Counter1 Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x2C
TSM
PWM1B
COM1B1
COM1B0
FOC1B
FOC1A
PSR1
PSR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
W
W
R/W
R/W
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GTCCR
• Bit 2 – FOC1A: Force Output Compare Match 1A
Writing a logical one to this bit forces a change in the compare match output pin PB1 (OC1A) according to the values already set in COM1A1 and COM1A0. If COM1A1 and COM1A0 written in the same cycle as FOC1A, the new
settings will be used. The Force Output Compare bit can be used to change the output pin value regardless of the
timer value. The automatic action programmed in COM1A1 and COM1A0 takes place as if a compare match had
occurred, but no interrupt is generated. The FOC1A bit always reads as zero. FOC1A is not in use if PWM1A bit is
set.
• Bit 1 – PSR1 : Prescaler Reset Timer/Counter1
When this bit is set (one), the Timer/Counter prescaler (TCNT1 is unaffected) will be reset. The bit will be cleared
by hardware after the operation is performed. Writing a zero to this bit will have no effect. This bit will always read
as zero.
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13.3.3
TCNT1 – Timer/Counter1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x2F
MSB
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCNT1
This 8-bit register contains the value of Timer/Counter1.
Timer/Counter1 is realized as an up counter with read and write access. Due to synchronization of the CPU,
Timer/Counter1 data written into Timer/Counter1 is delayed by one CPU clock cycle in synchronous mode and at
most two CPU clock cycles for asynchronous mode.
13.3.4
OCR1A – Timer/Counter1 Output Compare RegisterA
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x2E
MSB
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
OCR1A
The output compare register A is an 8-bit read/write register.
The Timer/Counter Output Compare Register A contains data to be continuously compared with Timer/Counter1.
Actions on compare matches are specified in TCCR1. A compare match does only occur if Timer/Counter1 counts
to the OCR1A value. A software write that sets TCNT1 and OCR1A to the same value does not generate a compare match.
A compare match will set the compare interrupt flag OCF1A after a synchronization delay following the compare
event.
13.3.5
OCR1C – Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register C
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x2D
MSB
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial value
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
OCR1C
The Output Compare Register B - OCR1B from ATtiny15 is replaced with the output compare register C - OCR1C
that is an 8-bit read/write register. This register has the same function as the Output Compare Register B in
ATtiny15.
The Timer/Counter Output Compare Register C contains data to be continuously compared with Timer/Counter1.
A compare match does only occur if Timer/Counter1 counts to the OCR1C value. A software write that sets TCNT1
and OCR1C to the same value does not generate a compare match. If the CTC1 bit in TCCR1 is set, a compare
match will clear TCNT1.
13.3.6
TIMSK – Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0x39
–
OCIE1A
OCIE1B
OCIE0A
OCIE0B
TOIE1
TOIE0
0
–
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIMSK
• Bit 7 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is a reserved bit in the ATtiny25/45/85 and always reads as zero.
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• Bit 6 – OCIE1A: Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE1A bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the Timer/Counter1 Compare
MatchA, interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt at vector $003 is executed if a compare matchA occurs.
The Compare Flag in Timer/Counter1 is set (one) in the Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register.
• Bit 2 – TOIE1: Timer/Counter1 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When the TOIE1 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the Timer/Counter1 Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt (at vector $004) is executed if an overflow in Timer/Counter1 occurs.
The Overflow Flag (Timer1) is set (one) in the Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register - TIFR.
• Bit 0 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is a reserved bit in the ATtiny25/45/85 and always reads as zero.
13.3.7
TIFR – Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0x38
–
OCF1A
OCF1B
OCF0A
OCF0B
TOV1
TOV0
0
–
Read/Write
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIFR
• Bit 7 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is a reserved bit in the ATtiny25/45/85 and always reads as zero.
• Bit 6 – OCF1A: Output Compare Flag 1A
The OCF1A bit is set (one) when compare match occurs between Timer/Counter1 and the data value in OCR1A Output Compare Register 1A. OCF1A is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling
vector. Alternatively, OCF1A is cleared, after synchronization clock cycle, by writing a logic one to the flag. When
the I-bit in SREG, OCIE1A, and OCF1A are set (one), the Timer/Counter1 A compare match interrupt is executed.
• Bit 2 – TOV1: Timer/Counter1 Overflow Flag
The bit TOV1 is set (one) when an overflow occurs in Timer/Counter1. TOV1 is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, TOV1 is cleared, after synchronization clock cycle,
by writing a logical one to the flag. When the SREG I-bit, and TOIE1 (Timer/Counter1 Overflow Interrupt Enable),
and TOV1 are set (one), the Timer/Counter1 Overflow interrupt is executed.
• Bit 0 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is a reserved bit in the ATtiny25/45/85 and always reads as zero.
13.3.8
PLLCSR – PLL Control and Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x27
LSM
–
–
–
–
PCKE
PLLE
PLOCK
Read/Write
R/W
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0/1
0
PLLCSR
• Bits 6:3 – Res : Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the ATtiny25/45/85 and always read as zero.
• Bit 2 – PCKE: PCK Enable
The bit PCKE is always set in the ATtiny15 compatibility mode.
• Bit 1 – PLLE: PLL Enable
The PLL is always enabled in the ATtiny15 compatibility mode.
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• Bit 0 – PLOCK: PLL Lock Detector
When the PLOCK bit is set, the PLL is locked to the reference clock. The PLOCK bit should be ignored during initial PLL lock-in sequence when PLL frequency overshoots and undershoots, before reaching steady state. The
steady state is obtained within 100 µs. After PLL lock-in it is recommended to check the PLOCK bit before enabling
PCK for Timer/Counter1.
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14. Dead Time Generator
The Dead Time Generator is provided for the Timer/Counter1 PWM output pairs to allow driving external power
control switches safely. The Dead Time Generator is a separate block that can be connected to Timer/Counter1
and it is used to insert dead times (non-overlapping times) for the Timer/Counter1 complementary output pairs
(OC1A-OC1A and OC1B-OC1B). The sharing of tasks is as follows: the timer/counter generates the PWM output
and the Dead Time Generator generates the non-overlapping PWM output pair from the timer/counter PWM signal.
Two Dead Time Generators are provided, one for each PWM output. The non-overlap time is adjustable and the
PWM output and it’s complementary output are adjusted separately, and independently for both PWM outputs.
Figure 14-1. Timer/Counter1 & Dead Time Generators
PCKE
TIMER/COUNTER1
T15M
CK
PWM GENERATOR
PWM1A
PWM1B
PCK
DT1AH
DT1BH
DEAD TIME GENERATOR
DEAD TIME GENERATOR
DT1AL
DT1BL
OC1A
OC1B
OC1A
OC1B
The dead time generation is based on the 4-bit down counters that count the dead time, as shown in Figure 46.
There is a dedicated prescaler in front of the Dead Time Generator that can divide the Timer/Counter1 clock (PCK
or CK) by 1, 2, 4 or 8. This provides for large range of dead times that can be generated. The prescaler is controlled by two control bits DTPS1[1:0] from the I/O register at address 0x23. The block has also a rising and falling
edge detector that is used to start the dead time counting period. Depending on the edge, one of the transitions on
the rising edges, OC1x or OC1x is delayed until the counter has counted to zero. The comparator is used to compare the counter with zero and stop the dead time insertion when zero has been reached. The counter is loaded
with a 4-bit DT1xH or DT1xL value from DT1x I/O register, depending on the edge of the PWM generator output
when the dead time insertion is started.
Figure 14-2. Dead Time Generator
T/C1 CLOCK
DTPS1[1:0]
COMPARATOR
OC1x
DEAD TIME
PRESCALER
CLOCK CONTROL
4-BIT COUNTER
DT1xL
DT1xH
OC1x
DT1x
I/O REGISTER
PWM1x
The length of the counting period is user adjustable by selecting the dead time prescaler setting in 0x23 register,
and selecting then the dead time value in I/O register DT1x. The DT1x register consists of two 4-bit fields, DT1xH
and DT1xL that control the dead time periods of the PWM output and its’ complementary output separately. Thus
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the rising edge of OC1x and OC1x can have different dead time periods. The dead time is adjusted as the number
of prescaled dead time generator clock cycles.
Figure 14-3. The Complementary Output Pair
PWM1x
OC1x
OC1x
x = A or B
t non-overlap / rising edge
14.1
14.1.1
t non-overlap / falling edge
Register Description
DTPS1 – Timer/Counter1 Dead Time Prescaler Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
0x23
1
0
DTPS11
DTPS10
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DTPS1
The dead time prescaler register, DTPS1 is a 2-bit read/write register.
• Bits 1:0 – DTPS1[1:0]: Dead Time Prescaler
The dedicated Dead Time prescaler in front of the Dead Time Generator can divide the Timer/Counter1 clock (PCK
or CK) by 1, 2, 4 or 8 providing a large range of dead times that can be generated. The Dead Time prescaler is
controlled by two bits DTPS1[1:0] from the Dead Time Prescaler register. These bits define the division factor of
the Dead Time prescaler. The division factors are given in table 46.
Table 14-1.
Division factors of the Dead Time prescaler
DTPS11
DTPS10
Prescaler divides the T/C1 clock by
0
0
1x (no division)
0
1
2x
1
0
4x
1
1
8x
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14.1.2
DT1A – Timer/Counter1 Dead Time A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DT1AH3
DT1AH2
DT1AH1
DT1AH0
DT1AL3
DT1AL2
DT1AL1
DT1AL0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x25
DT1A
The dead time value register A is an 8-bit read/write register.
The dead time delay of is adjusted by the dead time value register, DT1A. The register consists of two fields,
DT1AH[3:0] and DT1AL[3:0], one for each complementary output. Therefore a different dead time delay can be
adjusted for the rising edge of OC1A and the rising edge of OC1A.
• Bits 7:4 – DT1AH[3:0]: Dead Time Value for OC1A Output
The dead time value for the OC1A output. The dead time delay is set as a number of the prescaled timer/counter
clocks. The minimum dead time is zero and the maximum dead time is the prescaled time/counter clock period
multiplied by 15.
• Bits 3:0 – DT1AL[3:0]: Dead Time Value for OC1A Output
The dead time value for the OC1A output. The dead time delay is set as a number of the prescaled timer/counter
clocks. The minimum dead time is zero and the maximum dead time is the prescaled time/counter clock period
multiplied by 15.
14.1.3
DT1B – Timer/Counter1 Dead Time B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DT1BH3
DT1BH2
DT1BH1
DT1BH0
DT1BL3
DT1BL2
DT1BL1
DT1BL0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x24
DT1B
The dead time value register Bis an 8-bit read/write register.
The dead time delay of is adjusted by the dead time value register, DT1B. The register consists of two fields,
DT1BH[3:0] and DT1BL[3:0], one for each complementary output. Therefore a different dead time delay can be
adjusted for the rising edge of OC1A and the rising edge of OC1A.
• Bits 7:4 – DT1BH[3:0]: Dead Time Value for OC1B Output
The dead time value for the OC1B output. The dead time delay is set as a number of the prescaled timer/counter
clocks. The minimum dead time is zero and the maximum dead time is the prescaled time/counter clock period
multiplied by 15.
• Bits 3:0 – DT1BL[3:0]: Dead Time Value for OC1B Output
The dead time value for the OC1B output. The dead time delay is set as a number of the prescaled timer/counter
clocks. The minimum dead time is zero and the maximum dead time is the prescaled time/counter clock period
multiplied by 15.
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15. USI – Universal Serial Interface
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
Overview
The Universal Serial Interface (USI), provides the basic hardware resources needed for serial communication.
Combined with a minimum of control software, the USI allows significantly higher transfer rates and uses less code
space than solutions based on software only. Interrupts are included to minimize the processor load.
A simplified block diagram of the USI is shown in Figure 15-1 For actual placement of I/O pins refer to “Pinout
ATtiny25/45/85” on page 2. Device-specific I/O Register and bit locations are listed in the “Register Descriptions”
on page 115.
Figure 15-1. Universal Serial Interface, Block Diagram
Bit7
Bit0
D Q
LE
DO
(Output only)
DI/SDA
(Input/Open Drain)
USCK/SCL
(Input/Open Drain)
3
2
USIDR
TIM0 COMP
1
0
USIPF
4-bit Counter
USIDC
USISIF
USIOIF
USIBR
DATA BUS
3
2
0
1
1
0
CLOCK
HOLD
[1]
USISR
Two-wire
Clock
Control Unit
USITC
USICLK
USICS0
USICS1
USIWM0
USIWM1
2
USISIE
15.2
Two-wire Synchronous Data Transfer (Master or Slave)
Three-wire Synchronous Data Transfer (Master or Slave)
Data Received Interrupt
Wakeup from Idle Mode
Wake-up from All Sleep Modes In Two-wire Mode
Two-wire Start Condition Detector with Interrupt Capability
USIOIE
15.1
USICR
The 8-bit USI Data Register (USIDR) contains the incoming and outgoing data. It is directly accessible via the data
bus but a copy of the contents is also placed in the USI Buffer Register (USIBR) where it can be retrieved later. If
reading the USI Data Register directly, the register must be read as quickly as possible to ensure that no data is
lost.
The most significant bit of the USI Data Register is connected to one of two output pins (depending on the mode
configuration, see “USICR – USI Control Register” on page 116). There is a transparent latch between the output
of the USI Data Register and the output pin, which delays the change of data output to the opposite clock edge of
the data input sampling. The serial input is always sampled from the Data Input (DI) pin independent of the
configuration.
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The 4-bit counter can be both read and written via the data bus, and it can generate an overflow interrupt. Both the
USI Data Register and the counter are clocked simultaneously by the same clock source. This allows the counter
to count the number of bits received or transmitted and generate an interrupt when the transfer is complete. Note
that when an external clock source is selected the counter counts both clock edges. This means the counter registers the number of clock edges and not the number of data bits. The clock can be selected from three different
sources: The USCK pin, Timer/Counter0 Compare Match or from software.
The two-wire clock control unit can be configured to generate an interrupt when a start condition has been detected
on the two-wire bus. It can also be set to generate wait states by holding the clock pin low after a start condition is
detected, or after the counter overflows.
15.3
Functional Descriptions
15.3.1
Three-wire Mode
The USI three-wire mode is compliant to the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) mode 0 and 1, but does not have the
slave select (SS) pin functionality. However, this feature can be implemented in software, if required. Pin names
used in this mode are DI, DO, and USCK.
Figure 15-2. Three-wire Mode Operation, Simplified Diagram
DO
Bit7
Bit6
Bit5
Bit4
Bit3
Bit2
Bit1
DI
Bit0
USCK
SLAVE
DO
Bit7
Bit6
Bit5
Bit4
Bit3
Bit2
Bit1
DI
Bit0
USCK
PORTxn
MASTER
Figure 15-2 shows two USI units operating in three-wire mode, one as Master and one as Slave. The two USI Data
Registers are interconnected in such way that after eight USCK clocks, the data in each register has been interchanged. The same clock also increments the USI’s 4-bit counter. The Counter Overflow (interrupt) Flag, or
USIOIF, can therefore be used to determine when a transfer is completed. The clock is generated by the Master
device software by toggling the USCK pin via the PORTB register or by writing a one to bit USITC bit in USICR.
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Figure 15-3. Three-Wire Mode, Timing Diagram
CYCLE
( Reference )
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
USCK
USCK
DO
MSB
DI
MSB
A
B
C
6
5
4
3
2
1
LSB
6
5
4
3
2
1
LSB
D
E
The three-wire mode timing is shown in Figure 15-3 At the top of the figure is a USCK cycle reference. One bit is
shifted into the USI Data Register (USIDR) for each of these cycles. The USCK timing is shown for both external
clock modes. In external clock mode 0 (USICS0 = 0), DI is sampled at positive edges, and DO is changed (USI
Data Register is shifted by one) at negative edges. In external clock mode 1 (USICS0 = 1) the opposite edges with
respect to mode 0 are used. In other words, data is sampled at negative and changes the output at positive edges.
The USI clock modes corresponds to the SPI data mode 0 and 1.
Referring to the timing diagram (Figure 15-3), a bus transfer involves the following steps:
1. The slave and master devices set up their data outputs and, depending on the protocol used, enable their
output drivers (mark A and B). The output is set up by writing the data to be transmitted to the USI Data
Register. The output is enabled by setting the corresponding bit in the Data Direction Register of Port B.
Note that there is not a preferred order of points A and B in the figure, but both must be at least one half
USCK cycle before point C, where the data is sampled. This is in order to ensure that the data setup
requirement is satisfied. The 4-bit counter is reset to zero.
2. The master software generates a clock pulse by toggling the USCK line twice (C and D). The bit values on
the data input (DI) pins are sampled by the USI on the first edge (C), and the data output is changed on
the opposite edge (D). The 4-bit counter will count both edges.
3. Step 2. is repeated eight times for a complete register (byte) transfer.
4. After eight clock pulses (i.e., 16 clock edges) the counter will overflow and indicate that the transfer has
been completed. If USI Buffer Registers are not used the data bytes that have been transferred must now
be processed before a new transfer can be initiated. The overflow interrupt will wake up the processor if it
is set to Idle mode. Depending of the protocol used the slave device can now set its output to high
impedance.
15.3.2
SPI Master Operation Example
The following code demonstrates how to use the USI as an SPI Master:
SPITransfer:
out
USIDR,r16
ldi
r16,(1<<USIOIF)
out
USISR,r16
ldi
r16,(1<<USIWM0)|(1<<USICS1)|(1<<USICLK)|(1<<USITC)
SPITransfer_loop:
out
in
USICR,r16
r16, USISR
sbrs
r16, USIOIF
rjmp
SPITransfer_loop
in
r16,USIDR
ret
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The code is size optimized using only eight instructions (plus return). The code example assumes that the DO and
USCK pins have been enabled as outputs in DDRB. The value stored in register r16 prior to the function is called is
transferred to the slave device, and when the transfer is completed the data received from the slave is stored back
into the register r16.
The second and third instructions clear the USI Counter Overflow Flag and the USI counter value. The fourth and
fifth instructions set three-wire mode, positive edge clock, count at USITC strobe, and toggle USCK. The loop is
repeated 16 times.
The following code demonstrates how to use the USI as an SPI master with maximum speed (fSCK = fCK/2):
SPITransfer_Fast:
out
USIDR,r16
ldi
r16,(1<<USIWM0)|(0<<USICS0)|(1<<USITC)
ldi
r17,(1<<USIWM0)|(0<<USICS0)|(1<<USITC)|(1<<USICLK)
out
USICR,r16 ; MSB
out
USICR,r17
out
USICR,r16
out
USICR,r17
out
USICR,r16
out
USICR,r17
out
USICR,r16
out
USICR,r17
out
USICR,r16
out
USICR,r17
out
USICR,r16
out
USICR,r17
out
USICR,r16
out
USICR,r17
out
USICR,r16 ; LSB
out
USICR,r17
in
r16,USIDR
ret
15.3.3
SPI Slave Operation Example
The following code demonstrates how to use the USI as an SPI slave:
init:
ldi
r16,(1<<USIWM0)|(1<<USICS1)
out
USICR,r16
...
SlaveSPITransfer:
out
USIDR,r16
ldi
r16,(1<<USIOIF)
out
USISR,r16
SlaveSPITransfer_loop:
in
r16, USISR
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sbrs
r16, USIOIF
rjmp
SlaveSPITransfer_loop
in
r16,USIDR
ret
The code is size optimized using only eight instructions (plus return). The code example assumes that the DO and
USCK pins have been enabled as outputs in DDRB. The value stored in register r16 prior to the function is called is
transferred to the master device, and when the transfer is completed the data received from the master is stored
back into the register r16.
Note that the first two instructions is for initialization, only, and need only be executed once. These instructions set
three-wire mode and positive edge clock. The loop is repeated until the USI Counter Overflow Flag is set.
15.3.4
Two-wire Mode
The USI two-wire mode is compliant to the Inter IC (TWI) bus protocol, but without slew rate limiting on outputs and
without input noise filtering. Pin names used in this mode are SCL and SDA.
Figure 15-4. Two-wire Mode Operation, Simplified Diagram
VCC
Bit7
Bit6
Bit5
Bit4
Bit3
Bit2
Bit1
SDA
Bit0
SCL
HOLD
SCL
Two-wire Clock
Control Unit
SLAVE
Bit7
Bit6
Bit5
Bit4
Bit3
Bit2
Bit1
SDA
Bit0
SCL
PORTxn
MASTER
Figure 15-4 shows two USI units operating in two-wire mode, one as master and one as slave. It is only the physical layer that is shown since the system operation is highly dependent of the communication scheme used. The
main differences between the master and slave operation at this level is the serial clock generation which is always
done by the master. Only the slave uses the clock control unit.
Clock generation must be implemented in software, but the shift operation is done automatically in both devices.
Note that clocking only on negative edges for shifting data is of practical use in this mode. The slave can insert wait
states at start or end of transfer by forcing the SCL clock low. This means that the master must always check if the
SCL line was actually released after it has generated a positive edge.
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Since the clock also increments the counter, a counter overflow can be used to indicate that the transfer is completed. The clock is generated by the master by toggling the USCK pin via the PORTB register.
The data direction is not given by the physical layer. A protocol, like the one used by the TWI-bus, must be implemented to control the data flow.
Figure 15-5. Two-wire Mode, Typical Timing Diagram
SDA
SCL
S
A
B
1-7
8
9
1-8
9
1-8
9
ADDRESS
R/W
ACK
DATA
ACK
DATA
ACK
C
D
E
P
F
Referring to the timing diagram (Figure 15-5), a bus transfer involves the following steps:
1. The start condition is generated by the master by forcing the SDA low line while keeping the SCL line high
(A). SDA can be forced low either by writing a zero to bit 7 of the USI Data Register, or by setting the corresponding bit in the PORTB register to zero. Note that the Data Direction Register bit must be set to one
for the output to be enabled. The start detector logic of the slave device (see Figure 15-6 on page 114)
detects the start condition and sets the USISIF Flag. The flag can generate an interrupt if necessary.
2. In addition, the start detector will hold the SCL line low after the master has forced a negative edge on this
line (B). This allows the slave to wake up from sleep or complete other tasks before setting up the USI
Data Register to receive the address. This is done by clearing the start condition flag and resetting the
counter.
3. The master set the first bit to be transferred and releases the SCL line (C). The slave samples the data
and shifts it into the USI Data Register at the positive edge of the SCL clock.
4. After eight bits containing slave address and data direction (read or write) have been transferred, the
slave counter overflows and the SCL line is forced low (D). If the slave is not the one the master has
addressed, it releases the SCL line and waits for a new start condition.
5. When the slave is addressed, it holds the SDA line low during the acknowledgment cycle before holding
the SCL line low again (i.e., the USI Counter Register must be set to 14 before releasing SCL at (D)).
Depending on the R/W bit the master or slave enables its output. If the bit is set, a master read operation
is in progress (i.e., the slave drives the SDA line) The slave can hold the SCL line low after the acknowledge (E).
6. Multiple bytes can now be transmitted, all in same direction, until a stop condition is given by the master
(F), or a new start condition is given.
If the slave is not able to receive more data it does not acknowledge the data byte it has last received. When the
master does a read operation it must terminate the operation by forcing the acknowledge bit low after the last byte
transmitted.
15.3.5
Start Condition Detector
The start condition detector is shown in Figure 15-6. The SDA line is delayed (in the range of 50 to 300 ns) to
ensure valid sampling of the SCL line. The start condition detector is only enabled in two-wire mode.
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Figure 15-6. Start Condition Detector, Logic Diagram
USISIF
D Q
D Q
CLR
CLR
SDA
CLOCK
HOLD
SCL
Write( USISIF)
The start condition detector is working asynchronously and can therefore wake up the processor from power-down
sleep mode. However, the protocol used might have restrictions on the SCL hold time. Therefore, when using this
feature the oscillator start-up time (set by CKSEL fuses, see “Clock Systems and their Distribution” on page 23)
must also be taken into consideration. Refer to the description of the USISIF bit on page 115 for further details.
15.3.6
Clock speed considerations
Maximum frequency for SCL and SCK is fCK / 2. This is also the maximum data transmit and receive rate in both
two- and three-wire mode. In two-wire slave mode the Two-wire Clock Control Unit will hold the SCL low until the
slave is ready to receive more data. This may reduce the actual data rate in two-wire mode.
15.4
Alternative USI Usage
The flexible design of the USI allows it to be used for other tasks when serial communication is not needed. Below
are some examples.
15.4.1
Half-Duplex Asynchronous Data Transfer
Using the USI Data Register in three-wire mode it is possible to implement a more compact and higher performance UART than by software, only.
15.4.2
4-Bit Counter
The 4-bit counter can be used as a stand-alone counter with overflow interrupt. Note that if the counter is clocked
externally, both clock edges will increment the counter value.
15.4.3
12-Bit Timer/Counter
Combining the 4-bit USI counter with one of the 8-bit timer/counters creates a 12-bit counter.
15.4.4
Edge Triggered External Interrupt
By setting the counter to maximum value (F) it can function as an additional external interrupt. The Overflow Flag
and Interrupt Enable bit are then used for the external interrupt. This feature is selected by the USICS1 bit.
15.4.5
Software Interrupt
The counter overflow interrupt can be used as a software interrupt triggered by a clock strobe.
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15.5
15.5.1
Register Descriptions
USIDR – USI Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x0F
MSB
LSB
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
USIDR
The USI Data Register can be accessed directly but a copy of the data can also be found in the USI Buffer
Register.
Depending on the USICS[1:0] bits of the USI Control Register a (left) shift operation may be performed. The shift
operation can be synchronised to an external clock edge, to a Timer/Counter0 Compare Match, or directly to software via the USICLK bit. If a serial clock occurs at the same cycle the register is written, the register will contain the
value written and no shift is performed.
Note that even when no wire mode is selected (USIWM[1:0] = 0) both the external data input (DI/SDA) and the
external clock input (USCK/SCL) can still be used by the USI Data Register.
The output pin (DO or SDA, depending on the wire mode) is connected via the output latch to the most significant
bit (bit 7) of the USI Data Register. The output latch ensures that data input is sampled and data output is changed
on opposite clock edges. The latch is open (transparent) during the first half of a serial clock cycle when an external clock source is selected (USICS1 = 1) and constantly open when an internal clock source is used (USICS1 =
0). The output will be changed immediately when a new MSB is written as long as the latch is open.
Note that the Data Direction Register bit corresponding to the output pin must be set to one in order to enable data
output from the USI Data Register.
15.5.2
USIBR – USI Buffer Register
Bit
0x10
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MSB
LSB
Read/Write
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
USIBR
Instead of reading data from the USI Data Register the USI Buffer Register can be used. This makes controlling
the USI less time critical and gives the CPU more time to handle other program tasks. USI flags as set similarly as
when reading the USIDR register.
The content of the USI Data Register is loaded to the USI Buffer Register when the transfer has been completed.
15.5.3
USISR – USI Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
USISIF
USIOIF
USIPF
USIDC
USICNT3
USICNT2
USICNT1
USICNT0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x0E
USISR
The Status Register contains interrupt flags, line status flags and the counter value.
• Bit 7 – USISIF: Start Condition Interrupt Flag
When two-wire mode is selected, the USISIF Flag is set (to one) when a start condition has been detected. When
three-wire mode or output disable mode has been selected any edge on the SCK pin will set the flag.
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If USISIE bit in USICR and the Global Interrupt Enable Flag are set, an interrupt will be generated when this flag is
set. The flag will only be cleared by writing a logical one to the USISIF bit. Clearing this bit will release the start
detection hold of USCL in two-wire mode.
A start condition interrupt will wakeup the processor from all sleep modes.
• Bit 6 – USIOIF: Counter Overflow Interrupt Flag
This flag is set (one) when the 4-bit counter overflows (i.e., at the transition from 15 to 0). If the USIOIE bit in
USICR and the Global Interrupt Enable Flag are set an interrupt will also be generated when the flag is set. The
flag will only be cleared if a one is written to the USIOIF bit. Clearing this bit will release the counter overflow hold
of SCL in two-wire mode.
A counter overflow interrupt will wakeup the processor from Idle sleep mode.
• Bit 5 – USIPF: Stop Condition Flag
When two-wire mode is selected, the USIPF Flag is set (one) when a stop condition has been detected. The flag is
cleared by writing a one to this bit. Note that this is not an interrupt flag. This signal is useful when implementing
two-wire bus master arbitration.
• Bit 4 – USIDC: Data Output Collision
This bit is logical one when bit 7 in the USI Data Register differs from the physical pin value. The flag is only valid
when two-wire mode is used. This signal is useful when implementing Two-wire bus master arbitration.
• Bits 3:0 – USICNT[3:0]: Counter Value
These bits reflect the current 4-bit counter value. The 4-bit counter value can directly be read or written by the
CPU.
The 4-bit counter increments by one for each clock generated either by the external clock edge detector, by a
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match, or by software using USICLK or USITC strobe bits. The clock source depends on
the setting of the USICS[1:0] bits.
For external clock operation a special feature is added that allows the clock to be generated by writing to the
USITC strobe bit. This feature is enabled by choosing an external clock source (USICS1 = 1) and writing a one to
the USICLK bit.
Note that even when no wire mode is selected (USIWM[1:0] = 0) the external clock input (USCK/SCL) can still be
used by the counter.
15.5.4
USICR – USI Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
USISIE
USIOIE
USIWM1
USIWM0
USICS1
USICS0
USICLK
USITC
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
W
W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x0D
USICR
The USI Control Register includes bits for interrupt enable, setting the wire mode, selecting the clock and clock
strobe.
• Bit 7 – USISIE: Start Condition Interrupt Enable
Setting this bit to one enables the start condition detector interrupt. If there is a pending interrupt and USISIE and
the Global Interrupt Enable Flag are set to one the interrupt will be executed immediately. Refer to the USISIF bit
description on page 115 for further details.
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• Bit 6 – USIOIE: Counter Overflow Interrupt Enable
Setting this bit to one enables the counter overflow interrupt. If there is a pending interrupt and USIOIE and the
Global Interrupt Enable Flag are set to one the interrupt will be executed immediately. Refer to the USIOIF bit
description on page 116 for further details.
• Bits 5:4 – USIWM[1:0]: Wire Mode
These bits set the type of wire mode to be used, as shown in Table 15-1 below.
Table 15-1.
Relationship between USIWM[1:0] and USI Operation
USIWM1
USIWM0
0
0
Description
Outputs, clock hold, and start detector disabled.
Port pins operates as normal.
Three-wire mode. Uses DO, DI, and USCK pins.
0
1
The Data Output (DO) pin overrides the corresponding bit in the PORTB register.
However, the corresponding DDRB bit still controls the data direction. When the port pin is
set as input the pin pull-up is controlled by the PORTB bit.
The Data Input (DI) and Serial Clock (USCK) pins do not affect the normal port operation.
When operating as master, clock pulses are software generated by toggling the PORTB
register, while the data direction is set to output. The USITC bit in the USICR Register can
be used for this purpose.
Two-wire mode. Uses SDA (DI) and SCL (USCK) pins (1).
The Serial Data (SDA) and the Serial Clock (SCL) pins are bi-directional and use opencollector output drives. The output drivers are enabled by setting the corresponding bit for
SDA and SCL in the DDRB register.
1
0
When the output driver is enabled for the SDA pin it will force the line SDA low if the
output of the USI Data Register or the corresponding bit in the PORTB register is zero.
Otherwise, the SDA line will not be driven (i.e., it is released). When the SCL pin output
driver is enabled the SCL line will be forced low if the corresponding bit in the PORTB
register is zero, or by the start detector. Otherwise the SCL line will not be driven.
The SCL line is held low when a start detector detects a start condition and the output is
enabled. Clearing the Start Condition Flag (USISIF) releases the line. The SDA and SCL
pin inputs is not affected by enabling this mode. Pull-ups on the SDA and SCL port pin are
disabled in Two-wire mode.
Two-wire mode. Uses SDA and SCL pins.
1
Note:
1
Same operation as in two-wire mode above, except that the SCL line is also held low
when a counter overflow occurs, and until the Counter Overflow Flag (USIOIF) is cleared.
1. The DI and USCK pins are renamed to Serial Data (SDA) and Serial Clock (SCL) respectively to avoid confusion
between the modes of operation.
Basically only the function of the outputs are affected by these bits. Data and clock inputs are not affected by the
mode selected and will always have the same function. The counter and USI Data Register can therefore be
clocked externally and data input sampled, even when outputs are disabled.
• Bits 3:2 – USICS[1:0]: Clock Source Select
These bits set the clock source for the USI Data Register and counter. The data output latch ensures that the output is changed at the opposite edge of the sampling of the data input (DI/SDA) when using external clock source
(USCK/SCL). When software strobe or Timer/Counter0 Compare Match clock option is selected, the output latch is
transparent and therefore the output is changed immediately.
Clearing the USICS[1:0] bits enables software strobe option. When using this option, writing a one to the USICLK
bit clocks both the USI Data Register and the counter. For external clock source (USICS1 = 1), the USICLK bit is
no longer used as a strobe, but selects between external clocking and software clocking by the USITC strobe bit.
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Table 15-2 shows the relationship between the USICS[1:0] and USICLK setting and clock source used for the USI
Data Register and the 4-bit counter.
Table 15-2.
Relationship between the USICS[1:0] and USICLK Setting
USICS1
USICS0
USICLK
Clock Source
4-bit Counter Clock Source
0
0
0
No Clock
No Clock
0
0
1
Software clock strobe (USICLK)
Software clock strobe (USICLK)
0
1
X
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match
1
0
0
External, positive edge
External, both edges
1
1
0
External, negative edge
External, both edges
1
0
1
External, positive edge
Software clock strobe (USITC)
1
1
1
External, negative edge
Software clock strobe (USITC)
• Bit 1 – USICLK: Clock Strobe
Writing a one to this bit location strobes the USI Data Register to shift one step and the counter to increment by
one, provided that the software clock strobe option has been selected by writing USICS[1:0] bits to zero. The output will change immediately when the clock strobe is executed, i.e., during the same instruction cycle. The value
shifted into the USI Data Register is sampled the previous instruction cycle.
When an external clock source is selected (USICS1 = 1), the USICLK function is changed from a clock strobe to a
Clock Select Register. Setting the USICLK bit in this case will select the USITC strobe bit as clock source for the 4bit counter (see Table 15-2).
The bit will be read as zero.
• Bit 0 – USITC: Toggle Clock Port Pin
Writing a one to this bit location toggles the USCK/SCL value either from 0 to 1, or from 1 to 0. The toggling is independent of the setting in the Data Direction Register, but if the PORT value is to be shown on the pin the
corresponding DDR pin must be set as output (to one). This feature allows easy clock generation when implementing master devices.
When an external clock source is selected (USICS1 = 1) and the USICLK bit is set to one, writing to the USITC
strobe bit will directly clock the 4-bit counter. This allows an early detection of when the transfer is done when operating as a master device.
The bit will read as zero.
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16. Analog Comparator
The Analog Comparator compares the input values on the positive pin AIN0 and negative pin AIN1. When the voltage on the positive pin AIN0 is higher than the voltage on the negative pin AIN1, the Analog Comparator output,
ACO, is set. The comparator can trigger a separate interrupt, exclusive to the Analog Comparator. The user can
select Interrupt triggering on comparator output rise, fall or toggle. A block diagram of the comparator and its surrounding logic is shown in Figure 16-1.
Figure 16-1. Analog Comparator Block Diagram
INTERNAL 1.1V
REFERENCE
VCC
ACBG
ACD
ACIE
AIN0
+
_
ANALOG
COMPARATOR
IRQ
INTERRUPT
SELECT
ACI
AIN1
ACIS1
ACIS0
ACME
ADEN
ACO
ADC MULTIPLEXER
OUTPUT (1)
Notes:
1. See Table 16-1 below.
See Figure 1-1 on page 2 and Table 10-5 on page 63 for Analog Comparator pin placement.
16.1
Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input
When the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) is configurated as single ended input channel, it is possible to select
any of the ADC[3:0] pins to replace the negative input to the Analog Comparator. The ADC multiplexer is used to
select this input, and consequently, the ADC must be switched off to utilize this feature. If the Analog Comparator
Multiplexer Enable bit (ACME in ADCSRB) is set and the ADC is switched off (ADEN in ADCSRA is zero),
MUX[1:0] in ADMUX select the input pin to replace the negative input to the Analog Comparator, as shown in Table
16-1. If ACME is cleared or ADEN is set, AIN1 is applied to the negative input to the Analog Comparator.
Table 16-1.
Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input
ACME
ADEN
MUX[1:0]
Analog Comparator Negative Input
0
x
xx
AIN1
1
1
xx
AIN1
1
0
00
ADC0
1
0
01
ADC1
1
0
10
ADC2
1
0
11
ADC3
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16.2
16.2.1
Register Description
ADCSRB – ADC Control and Status Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x03
BIN
ACME
IPR
–
–
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADCSRB
• Bit 6 – ACME: Analog Comparator Multiplexer Enable
When this bit is written logic one and the ADC is switched off (ADEN in ADCSRA is zero), the ADC multiplexer
selects the negative input to the Analog Comparator. When this bit is written logic zero, AIN1 is applied to the negative input of the Analog Comparator. For a detailed description of this bit, see “Analog Comparator Multiplexed
Input” on page 119.
16.2.2
ACSR – Analog Comparator Control and Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x08
ACD
ACBG
ACO
ACI
ACIE
–
ACIS1
ACIS0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
R
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
N/A
0
0
0
0
0
ACSR
• Bit 7 – ACD: Analog Comparator Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the power to the Analog Comparator is switched off. This bit can be set at any
time to turn off the Analog Comparator. This will reduce power consumption in Active and Idle mode. When changing the ACD bit, the Analog Comparator Interrupt must be disabled by clearing the ACIE bit in ACSR. Otherwise an
interrupt can occur when the bit is changed.
• Bit 6 – ACBG: Analog Comparator Bandgap Select
When this bit is set, a fixed bandgap reference voltage replaces the positive input to the Analog Comparator. When
this bit is cleared, AIN0 is applied to the positive input of the Analog Comparator. When the bandgap reference is
used as input to the Analog Comparator, it will take a certain time for the voltage to stabilize. If not stabilized, the
first conversion may give a wrong value. See “Internal Voltage Reference” on page 42.
• Bit 5 – ACO: Analog Comparator Output
The output of the Analog Comparator is synchronized and then directly connected to ACO. The synchronization
introduces a delay of 1 - 2 clock cycles.
• Bit 4 – ACI: Analog Comparator Interrupt Flag
This bit is set by hardware when a comparator output event triggers the interrupt mode defined by ACIS1 and
ACIS0. The Analog Comparator interrupt routine is executed if the ACIE bit is set and the I-bit in SREG is set. ACI
is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, ACI is cleared by
writing a logic one to the flag.
• Bit 3 – ACIE: Analog Comparator Interrupt Enable
When the ACIE bit is written logic one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the Analog Comparator interrupt is
activated. When written logic zero, the interrupt is disabled.
• Bit 2 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is a reserved bit in the ATtiny25/45/85 and will always read as zero.
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• Bits 1:0 – ACIS[1:0]: Analog Comparator Interrupt Mode Select
These bits determine which comparator events that trigger the Analog Comparator interrupt. The different settings
are shown in Table 16-2.
Table 16-2.
ACIS1/ACIS0 Settings
ACIS1
ACIS0
Interrupt Mode
0
0
Comparator Interrupt on Output Toggle.
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Comparator Interrupt on Falling Output Edge.
1
1
Comparator Interrupt on Rising Output Edge.
When changing the ACIS1/ACIS0 bits, the Analog Comparator Interrupt must be disabled by clearing its Interrupt
Enable bit in the ACSR Register. Otherwise an interrupt can occur when the bits are changed.
16.2.3
DIDR0 – Digital Input Disable Register 0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x14
–
–
ADC0D
ADC2D
ADC3D
ADC1D
AIN1D
AIN0D
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DIDR0
• Bits 1:0 – AIN1D, AIN0D: AIN[1:0] Digital Input Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the digital input buffer on the AIN1/0 pin is disabled. The corresponding PIN Register bit will always read as zero when this bit is set. When an analog signal is applied to the AIN1/0 pin and the
digital input from this pin is not needed, this bit should be written logic one to reduce power consumption in the digital input buffer.
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17. Analog to Digital Converter
17.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
17.2
10-bit Resolution
1 LSB Integral Non-linearity
± 2 LSB Absolute Accuracy
65 - 260 µs Conversion Time
Up to 15 kSPS at Maximum Resolution
Four Multiplexed Single Ended Input Channels
Two differential input channels with selectable gain
Temperature sensor input channel
Optional Left Adjustment for ADC Result Readout
0 - VCC ADC Input Voltage Range
Selectable 1.1V / 2.56V ADC Voltage Reference
Free Running or Single Conversion Mode
ADC Start Conversion by Auto Triggering on Interrupt Sources
Interrupt on ADC Conversion Complete
Sleep Mode Noise Cancele
Unipolar / Bibilar Input Mode
Input Polarity Reversal Mode
Overview
The ATtiny25/45/85 features a 10-bit successive approximation Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). The ADC is
connected to a 4-channel Analog Multiplexer which allows one differential voltage input and four single-ended voltage inputs constructed from the pins of Port B. The differential input (PB3, PB4 or PB2, PB5) is equipped with a
programmable gain stage, providing amplification step of 26 dB (20x) on the differential input voltage before the
A/D conversion. The single-ended voltage inputs refer to 0V (GND).
The ADC contains a Sample and Hold circuit which ensures that the input voltage to the ADC is held at a constant
level during conversion. A block diagram of the ADC is shown in Figure 17-1 on page 123.
Internal reference voltages of nominally 1.1V / 2.56V are provided on-chip. Alternatively, VCC can be used as reference voltage for single ended channels. There is also an option to use an external voltage reference and turn-off
the internal voltage reference.
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Figure 17-1. Analog to Digital Converter Block Schematic
ADC CONVERSION
COMPLETE IRQ
INTERRUPT
FLAGS
ADTS[2:0]
REFS[2:0]
ADC[9:0]
ADPS1
TRIGGER
SELECT
MUX DECODER
VCC
PRESCALER
INTERNAL 1.1V/2.56V
REFERENCE
GAIN SELECTION
CHANNEL SELECTION
START
AREF
CONVERSION LOGIC
TEMPERATURE
SENSOR
SAMPLE & HOLD
COMPARATOR
10-BIT DAC
ADC4
ADC3
ADC2
0
ADC DATA REGISTER
(ADCH/ADCL)
ADPS0
ADPS2
ADIF
ADSC
ADEN
ADLAR
MUX1
MUX0
MUX2
BIN
IPR
15
ADC CTRL. & STATUS A
REGISTER (ADCSRA)
ADC MULTIPLEXER
SELECT (ADMUX)
ADATE
ADC CTRL. & STATUS B
REGISTER (ADCSRB)
ADIE
ADIF
8-BIT DATA BUS
+
SINGLE ENDED / DIFFERENTIAL SELECTION
ADC MULTIPLEXER
OUTPUT
INPUT
MUX
ADC1
ADC0
+
GAIN
AMPLIFIER
NEG.
INPUT
MUX
17.3
Operation
The ADC converts an analog input voltage to a 10-bit digital value through successive approximation. The minimum value represents GND and the maximum value represents the voltage on VCC, the voltage on the AREF pin
or an internal 1.1V / 2.56V voltage reference.
The voltage reference for the ADC may be selected by writing to the REFS[2:0] bits in ADMUX. The VCC supply,
the AREF pin or an internal 1.1V / 2.56V voltage reference may be selected as the ADC voltage reference. Optionally the internal 2.56V voltage reference may be decoupled by an external capacitor at the AREF pin to improve
noise immunity.
The analog input channel and differential gain are selected by writing to the MUX[3:0] bits in ADMUX. Any of the
four ADC input pins ADC[3:0] can be selected as single ended inputs to the ADC. ADC2 or ADC0 can be selected
as positive input and ADC0, ADC1, ADC2 or ADC3 can be selected as negative input to the differential gain
amplifier.
If differential channels are selected, the differential gain stage amplifies the voltage difference between the
selected input pair by the selected gain factor, 1x or 20x, according to the setting of the MUX[3:0] bits in ADMUX.
This amplified value then becomes the analog input to the ADC. If single ended channels are used, the gain amplifier is bypassed altogether.
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If ADC0 or ADC2 is selected as both the positive and negative input to the differential gain amplifier (ADC0-ADC0
or ADC2-ADC2), the remaining offset in the gain stage and conversion circuitry can be measured directly as the
result of the conversion. This figure can be subtracted from subsequent conversions with the same gain setting to
reduce offset error to below 1 LSW.
The on-chip temperature sensor is selected by writing the code “1111” to the MUX[3:0] bits in ADMUX register
when the ADC4 channel is used as an ADC input.
The ADC is enabled by setting the ADC Enable bit, ADEN in ADCSRA. Voltage reference and input channel selections will not go into effect until ADEN is set. The ADC does not consume power when ADEN is cleared, so it is
recommended to switch off the ADC before entering power saving sleep modes.
The ADC generates a 10-bit result which is presented in the ADC Data Registers, ADCH and ADCL. By default,
the result is presented right adjusted, but can optionally be presented left adjusted by setting the ADLAR bit in
ADMUX.
If the result is left adjusted and no more than 8-bit precision is required, it is sufficient to read ADCH. Otherwise,
ADCL must be read first, then ADCH, to ensure that the content of the data registers belongs to the same conversion. Once ADCL is read, ADC access to data registers is blocked. This means that if ADCL has been read, and a
conversion completes before ADCH is read, neither register is updated and the result from the conversion is lost.
When ADCH is read, ADC access to the ADCH and ADCL Registers is re-enabled.
The ADC has its own interrupt which can be triggered when a conversion completes. When ADC access to the
data registers is prohibited between reading of ADCH and ADCL, the interrupt will trigger even if the result is lost.
17.4
Starting a Conversion
A single conversion is started by writing a logical one to the ADC Start Conversion bit, ADSC. This bit stays high as
long as the conversion is in progress and will be cleared by hardware when the conversion is completed. If a different data channel is selected while a conversion is in progress, the ADC will finish the current conversion before
performing the channel change.
Alternatively, a conversion can be triggered automatically by various sources. Auto Triggering is enabled by setting
the ADC Auto Trigger Enable bit, ADATE in ADCSRA. The trigger source is selected by setting the ADC Trigger
Select bits, ADTS in ADCSRB (see description of the ADTS bits for a list of the trigger sources). When a positive
edge occurs on the selected trigger signal, the ADC prescaler is reset and a conversion is started. This provides a
method of starting conversions at fixed intervals. If the trigger signal still is set when the conversion completes, a
new conversion will not be started. If another positive edge occurs on the trigger signal during conversion, the edge
will be ignored. Note that an Interrupt Flag will be set even if the specific interrupt is disabled or the Global Interrupt
Enable bit in SREG is cleared. A conversion can thus be triggered without causing an interrupt. However, the Interrupt Flag must be cleared in order to trigger a new conversion at the next interrupt event.
Using the ADC Interrupt Flag as a trigger source makes the ADC start a new conversion as soon as the ongoing
conversion has finished. The ADC then operates in Free Running mode, constantly sampling and updating the
ADC Data Register. The first conversion must be started by writing a logical one to the ADSC bit in ADCSRA. In
this mode the ADC will perform successive conversions independently of whether the ADC Interrupt Flag, ADIF is
cleared or not.
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Figure 17-2. ADC Auto Trigger Logic
ADTS[2:0]
PRESCALER
START
ADIF
CLKADC
ADATE
SOURCE 1
.
.
.
.
CONVERSION
LOGIC
EDGE
DETECTOR
SOURCE n
ADSC
If Auto Triggering is enabled, single conversions can be started by writing ADSC in ADCSRA to one. ADSC can
also be used to determine if a conversion is in progress. The ADSC bit will be read as one during a conversion,
independently of how the conversion was started.
Prescaling and Conversion Timing
Figure 17-3. ADC Prescaler
ADEN
START
Reset
7-BIT ADC PRESCALER
CK/64
CK/128
CK/32
CK/8
CK/16
CK/4
CK
CK/2
17.5
ADPS0
ADPS1
ADPS2
ADC CLOCK SOURCE
By default, the successive approximation circuitry requires an input clock frequency between 50 kHz and 200 kHz
to get maximum resolution. If a lower resolution than 10 bits is needed, the input clock frequency to the ADC can
be higher than 200 kHz to get a higher sample rate. It is not recommended to use a higher input clock frequency
than 1 MHz.
The ADC module contains a prescaler, which generates an acceptable ADC clock frequency from any CPU frequency above 100 kHz. The prescaling is set by the ADPS bits in ADCSRA. The prescaler starts counting from the
moment the ADC is switched on by setting the ADEN bit in ADCSRA. The prescaler keeps running for as long as
the ADEN bit is set, and is continuously reset when ADEN is low.
When initiating a single ended conversion by setting the ADSC bit in ADCSRA, the conversion starts at the following rising edge of the ADC clock cycle.
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A normal conversion takes 13 ADC clock cycles. The first conversion after the ADC is switched on (ADEN in ADCSRA is set) takes 25 ADC clock cycles in order to initialize the analog circuitry, as shown in Figure 17-4 below.
Figure 17-4. ADC Timing Diagram, First Conversion (Single Conversion Mode)
Next
Conversion
First Conversion
Cycle Number
1
2
12
13
14
16
15
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
1
2
3
ADC Clock
ADEN
ADSC
ADIF
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCH
LSB of Result
ADCL
MUX and REFS
Update
Conversion
Complete
Sample & Hold
MUX and REFS
Update
The actual sample-and-hold takes place 1.5 ADC clock cycles after the start of a normal conversion and 13.5 ADC
clock cycles after the start of an first conversion. When a conversion is complete, the result is written to the ADC
Data Registers, and ADIF is set. In Single Conversion mode, ADSC is cleared simultaneously. The software may
then set ADSC again, and a new conversion will be initiated on the first rising ADC clock edge.
Figure 17-5. ADC Timing Diagram, Single Conversion
One Conversion
Cycle Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Next Conversion
10
11
12
13
1
2
3
ADC Clock
ADSC
ADIF
ADCH
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCL
LSB of Result
Sample & Hold
MUX and REFS
Update
Conversion
Complete
MUX and REFS
Update
When Auto Triggering is used, the prescaler is reset when the trigger event occurs. This assures a fixed delay from
the trigger event to the start of conversion. In this mode, the sample-and-hold takes place two ADC clock cycles
after the rising edge on the trigger source signal. Three additional CPU clock cycles are used for synchronization
logic.
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Figure 17-6. ADC Timing Diagram, Auto Triggered Conversion
One Conversion
1
Cycle Number
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Next Conversion
10
11
12
13
1
2
ADC Clock
Trigger
Source
ADATE
ADIF
ADCH
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCL
LSB of Result
Sample &
Hold
Prescaler
Reset
Prescaler
Reset
Conversion
Complete
MUX and REFS
Update
In Free Running mode, a new conversion will be started immediately after the conversion completes, while ADSC
remains high.
Figure 17-7. ADC Timing Diagram, Free Running Conversion
One Conversion
Cycle Number
11
12
Next Conversion
13
1
2
3
4
ADC Clock
ADSC
ADIF
ADCH
Sign and MSB of Result
ADCL
LSB of Result
Sample & Hold
Conversion
Complete
MUX and REFS
Update
For a summary of conversion times, see Table 17-1.
Table 17-1.
ADC Conversion Time
Sample & Hold
(Cycles from Start of Conversion)
Total Conversion Time
(Cycles)
First conversion
13.5
25
Normal conversions
1.5
13
2
13.5
Condition
Auto Triggered conversions
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17.6
Changing Channel or Reference Selection
The MUX[3:0] and REFS[2:0] bits in the ADMUX Register are single buffered through a temporary register to which
the CPU has random access. This ensures that the channels and voltage reference selection only takes place at a
safe point during the conversion. The channel and voltage reference selection is continuously updated until a conversion is started. Once the conversion starts, the channel and voltage reference selection is locked to ensure a
sufficient sampling time for the ADC. Continuous updating resumes in the last ADC clock cycle before the conversion completes (ADIF in ADCSRA is set). Note that the conversion starts on the following rising ADC clock edge
after ADSC is written. The user is thus advised not to write new channel or voltage reference selection values to
ADMUX until one ADC clock cycle after ADSC is written.
If Auto Triggering is used, the exact time of the triggering event can be indeterministic. Special care must be taken
when updating the ADMUX Register, in order to control which conversion will be affected by the new settings.
If both ADATE and ADEN is written to one, an interrupt event can occur at any time. If the ADMUX Register is
changed in this period, the user cannot tell if the next conversion is based on the old or the new settings. ADMUX
can be safely updated in the following ways:
a. When ADATE or ADEN is cleared.
b. During conversion, minimum one ADC clock cycle after the trigger event.
c.
After a conversion, before the Interrupt Flag used as trigger source is cleared.
When updating ADMUX in one of these conditions, the new settings will affect the next ADC conversion.
17.6.1
ADC Input Channels
When changing channel selections, the user should observe the following guidelines to ensure that the correct
channel is selected:
In Single Conversion mode, always select the channel before starting the conversion. The channel selection may
be changed one ADC clock cycle after writing one to ADSC. However, the simplest method is to wait for the conversion to complete before changing the channel selection.
In Free Running mode, always select the channel before starting the first conversion. The channel selection may
be changed one ADC clock cycle after writing one to ADSC. However, the simplest method is to wait for the first
conversion to complete, and then change the channel selection. Since the next conversion has already started
automatically, the next result will reflect the previous channel selection. Subsequent conversions will reflect the
new channel selection.
17.6.2
ADC Voltage Reference
The voltage reference for the ADC (VREF) indicates the conversion range for the ADC. Single ended channels that
exceed VREF will result in codes close to 0x3FF. VREF can be selected as either VCC, or internal 1.1V / 2.56V voltage reference, or external AREF pin. The first ADC conversion result after switching voltage reference source may
be inaccurate, and the user is advised to discard this result.
17.7
ADC Noise Canceler
The ADC features a noise canceler that enables conversion during sleep mode to reduce noise induced from the
CPU core and other I/O peripherals. The noise canceler can be used with ADC Noise Reduction and Idle mode. To
make use of this feature, the following procedure should be used:
• Make sure that the ADC is enabled and is not busy converting. Single Conversion mode must be selected and
the ADC conversion complete interrupt must be enabled.
• Enter ADC Noise Reduction mode (or Idle mode). The ADC will start a conversion once the CPU has been
halted.
• If no other interrupts occur before the ADC conversion completes, the ADC interrupt will wake up the CPU and
execute the ADC Conversion Complete interrupt routine. If another interrupt wakes up the CPU before the ADC
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conversion is complete, that interrupt will be executed, and an ADC Conversion Complete interrupt request will
be generated when the ADC conversion completes. The CPU will remain in active mode until a new sleep
command is executed.
Note that the ADC will not be automatically turned off when entering other sleep modes than Idle mode and ADC
Noise Reduction mode. The user is advised to write zero to ADEN before entering such sleep modes to avoid
excessive power consumption.
17.8
Analog Input Circuitry
The analog input circuitry for single ended channels is illustrated in Figure 17-8. An analog source applied to ADCn
is subjected to the pin capacitance and input leakage of that pin, regardless of whether that channel is selected as
input for the ADC. When the channel is selected, the source must drive the S/H capacitor through the series resistance (combined resistance in the input path).
Figure 17-8. Analog Input Circuitry
IIH
ADCn
1..100 kΩ
CS/H= 14 pF
IIL
VCC/2
The ADC is optimized for analog signals with an output impedance of approximately 10 k or less. If such a source
is used, the sampling time will be negligible. If a source with higher impedance is used, the sampling time will
depend on how long time the source needs to charge the S/H capacitor, with can vary widely. The user is recommended to only use low impedant sources with slowly varying signals, since this minimizes the required charge
transfer to the S/H capacitor.
Signal components higher than the Nyquist frequency (fADC/2) should not be present to avoid distortion from unpredictable signal convolution. The user is advised to remove high frequency components with a low-pass filter before
applying the signals as inputs to the ADC.
17.9
Noise Canceling Techniques
Digital circuitry inside and outside the device generates EMI which might affect the accuracy of analog measurements. If conversion accuracy is critical, the noise level can be reduced by applying the following techniques:
• Keep analog signal paths as short as possible.
• Make sure analog tracks run over the analog ground plane.
• Keep analog tracks well away from high-speed switching digital tracks.
• If any port pin is used as a digital output, it mustn’t switch while a conversion is in progress.
• Place bypass capacitors as close to VCC and GND pins as possible.
Where high ADC accuracy is required it is recommended to use ADC Noise Reduction Mode, as described in Section 17.7 on page 128. This is especially the case when system clock frequency is above 1 MHz, or when the ADC
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is used for reading the internal temperature sensor, as described in Section 17.12 on page 133. A good system
design with properly placed, external bypass capacitors does reduce the need for using ADC Noise Reduction
Mode
17.10 ADC Accuracy Definitions
An n-bit single-ended ADC converts a voltage linearly between GND and VREF in 2n steps (LSBs). The lowest code
is read as 0, and the highest code is read as 2n-1.
Several parameters describe the deviation from the ideal behavior, as follows:
• Offset: The deviation of the first transition (0x000 to 0x001) compared to the ideal transition (at 0.5 LSB). Ideal
value: 0 LSB.
Figure 17-9. Offset Error
Output Code
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
Offset
Error
VREF Input Voltage
• Gain Error: After adjusting for offset, the Gain Error is found as the deviation of the last transition (0x3FE to
0x3FF) compared to the ideal transition (at 1.5 LSB below maximum). Ideal value: 0 LSB
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Figure 17-10. Gain Error
Gain
Error
Output Code
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
VREF Input Voltage
• Integral Non-linearity (INL): After adjusting for offset and gain error, the INL is the maximum deviation of an
actual transition compared to an ideal transition for any code. Ideal value: 0 LSB.
Figure 17-11. Integral Non-linearity (INL)
Output Code
INL
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
VREF
Input Voltage
• Differential Non-linearity (DNL): The maximum deviation of the actual code width (the interval between two
adjacent transitions) from the ideal code width (1 LSB). Ideal value: 0 LSB.
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Figure 17-12. Differential Non-linearity (DNL)
Output Code
0x3FF
1 LSB
DNL
0x000
0
VREF Input Voltage
• Quantization Error: Due to the quantization of the input voltage into a finite number of codes, a range of input
voltages (1 LSB wide) will code to the same value. Always ± 0.5 LSB.
• Absolute Accuracy: The maximum deviation of an actual (unadjusted) transition compared to an ideal transition
for any code. This is the compound effect of offset, gain error, differential error, non-linearity, and quantization
error. Ideal value: ± 0.5 LSB.
17.11 ADC Conversion Result
After the conversion is complete (ADIF is high), the conversion result can be found in the ADC Result Registers
(ADCL, ADCH). The form of the conversion result depends on the type of the conversio as there are three types of
conversions: single ended conversion, unipolar differential conversion and bipolar differential conversion.
17.11.1
Single Ended Conversion
For single ended conversion, the result is
V IN  1024
ADC = -------------------------V REF
where VIN is the voltage on the selected input pin and VREF the selected voltage reference (see Table 17-3 on page
134 and Table 17-4 on page 135). 0x000 represents analog ground, and 0x3FF represents the selected voltage
reference minus one LSB. The result is presented in one-sided form, from 0x3FF to 0x000.
17.11.2
Unipolar Differential Conversion
If differential channels and an unipolar input mode are used, the result is
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 V POS – V NEG   1024
ADC = --------------------------------------------------------  GAIN
V REF
where VPOS is the voltage on the positive input pin, VNEG the voltage on the negative input pin, and VREF the
selected voltage reference (see Table 17-3 on page 134 and Table 17-4 on page 135). The voltage on the positive
pin must always be larger than the voltage on the negative pin or otherwise the voltage difference is saturated to
zero. The result is presented in one-sided form, from 0x000 (0d) to 0x3FF (+1023d). The GAIN is either 1x or 20x.
17.11.3
Bipolar Differential Conversion
As default the ADC converter operates in the unipolar input mode, but the bipolar input mode can be selected by
writting the BIN bit in the ADCSRB to one. In the bipolar input mode two-sided voltage differences are allowed and
thus the voltage on the negative input pin can also be larger than the voltage on the positive input pin. If differential
channels and a bipolar input mode are used, the result is
 V POS – V NEG   512
ADC = -----------------------------------------------------  GAIN
V REF
where VPOS is the voltage on the positive input pin, VNEG the voltage on the negative input pin, and VREF the
selected voltage reference. The result is presented in two’s complement form, from 0x200 (-512d) through 0x000
(+0d) to 0x1FF (+511d). The GAIN is either 1x or 20x.
However, if the signal is not bipolar by nature (9 bits + sign as the 10th bit), this scheme loses one bit of the converter dynamic range. Then, if the user wants to perform the conversion with the maximum dynamic range, the
user can perform a quick polarity check of the result and use the unipolar differential conversion with selectable differential input pairs (see the Input Polarity Reversal mode ie. the IPR bit in the “ADCSRB – ADC Control and
Status Register B” on page 137). When the polarity check is performed, it is sufficient to read the MSB of the result
(ADC9 in ADCH). If the bit is one, the result is negative, and if this bit is zero, the result is positive.
17.12 Temperature Measurement
The temperature measurement is based on an on-chip temperature sensor that is coupled to a single ended ADC4
channel. Selecting the ADC4 channel by writing the MUX[3:0] bits in ADMUX register to “1111” enables the temperature sensor. The internal 1.1V reference must also be selected for the ADC reference source in the
temperature sensor measurement. When the temperature sensor is enabled, the ADC converter can be used in
single conversion mode to measure the voltage over the temperature sensor.
The measured voltage has a linear relationship to the temperature as described in Table 17-2 The sensitivity is
approximately 1 LSB / C and the accuracy depends on the method of user calibration. Typically, the measurement
accuracy after a single temperature calibration is ± 10 C, assuming calibration at room temperature. Better
accuracies are achieved by using two temperature points for calibration.
Table 17-2.
Temperature
ADC
Temperature vs. Sensor Output Voltage (Typical Case)
-40C
+25C
+85C
230 LSB
300 LSB
370 LSB
The values described in Table 17-2 are typical values. However, due to process variation the temperature sensor
output voltage varies from one chip to another. To be capable of achieving more accurate results the temperature
measurement can be calibrated in the application software. The sofware calibration can be done using the formula:
T = k * [(ADCH << 8) | ADCL] + TOS
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where ADCH and ADCL are the ADC data registers, k is the fixed slope coefficient and TOS is the temperature sensor offset. Typically, k is very close to 1.0 and in single-point calibration the coefficient may be omitted. Where
higher accuracy is required the slope coefficient should be evaluated based on measurements at two
temperatures.
17.13 Register Description
17.13.1
ADMUX – ADC Multiplexer Selection Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
REFS1
REFS0
ADLAR
REFS2
MUX3
MUX2
MUX1
MUX0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x07
ADMUX
• Bits 7:6, 4 – REFS[2:0]: Voltage Reference Selection Bits
These bits select the voltage reference (VREF) for the ADC, as shown in Table 17-3. If these bits are changed
during a conversion, the change will not go in effect until this conversion is complete (ADIF in ADCSR is set).
Whenever these bits are changed, the next conversion will take 25 ADC clock cycles. When differential channels
and gain are used, using V CC or an external AREF higher than (V CC - 1V) as a voltage reference is not
recommended as this will affect the ADC accuracy.
Table 17-3.
Voltage Reference Selections for ADC
REFS2
REFS1
REFS0
X
0
0
VCC used as Voltage Reference, disconnected from PB0 (AREF).
X
0
1
External Voltage Reference at PB0 (AREF) pin, Internal Voltage
Reference turned off.
0
1
0
Internal 1.1V Voltage Reference.
0
1
1
Reserved
1
1
0
Internal 2.56V Voltage Reference without external bypass
capacitor, disconnected from PB0 (AREF)(1).
1
1
1
Internal 2.56V Voltage Reference with external bypass capacitor at
PB0 (AREF) pin(1).
Note:
Voltage Reference (VREF) Selection
1. The device requries a supply voltage of 3V in order to generate 2.56V reference voltage.
• Bit 5 – ADLAR: ADC Left Adjust Result
The ADLAR bit affects the presentation of the ADC conversion result in the ADC Data Register. Write one to
ADLAR to left adjust the result. Otherwise, the result is right adjusted. Changing the ADLAR bit will affect the ADC
Data Register immediately, regardless of any ongoing conversions. For a complete description of this bit, see
“ADCL and ADCH – The ADC Data Register” on page 137.
• Bits 3:0 – MUX[3:0]: Analog Channel and Gain Selection Bits
The value of these bits selects which combination of analog inputs are connected to the ADC. In case of differential
input (ADC0 - ADC1 or ADC2 - ADC3), gain selection is also made with these bits. Selecting ADC2 or ADC0 as
both inputs to the differential gain stage enables offset measurements. Selecting the single-ended channel ADC4
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enables the temperature sensor. Refer to Table 17-4 for details. If these bits are changed during a conversion, the
change will not go into effect until this conversion is complete (ADIF in ADCSRA is set).
Table 17-4.
Input Channel Selections
MUX[3:0]
Single Ended
Input
0000
ADC0 (PB5)
0001
ADC1 (PB2)
0010
ADC2 (PB4)
0011
ADC3 (PB3)
Positive
Differential Input
Negative
Differential Input
Gain
N/A
0100
ADC2 (PB4)
ADC2 (PB4)
1x
0101 (1)
ADC2 (PB4)
ADC2 (PB4)
20x
0110
ADC2 (PB4)
ADC3 (PB3)
1x
ADC2 (PB4)
ADC3 (PB3)
20x
1000
ADC0 (PB5)
ADC0 (PB5)
1x
1001
ADC0 (PB5)
ADC0 (PB5)
20x
1010
ADC0 (PB5)
ADC1 (PB2)
1x
1011
ADC0 (PB5)
ADC1 (PB2)
20x
0111
N/A
1100
(2)
VBG
1101
GND
1110
N/A
1111 (3)
ADC4
N/A
Note:
1. For offset calibration, only. See “Operation” on page 123.
2. After switching to internal voltage reference the ADC requires a settling time of 1ms before measurements are stable. Conversions starting before this may not be reliable. The ADC must be enabled during the settling time.
3. For temperature sensor.
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17.13.2
ADCSRA – ADC Control and Status Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADEN
ADSC
ADATE
ADIF
ADIE
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x06
ADCSRA
• Bit 7 – ADEN: ADC Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the ADC. By writing it to zero, the ADC is turned off. Turning the ADC off while a conversion is in progress, will terminate this conversion.
• Bit 6 – ADSC: ADC Start Conversion
In Single Conversion mode, write this bit to one to start each conversion. In Free Running mode, write this bit to
one to start the first conversion. The first conversion after ADSC has been written after the ADC has been enabled,
or if ADSC is written at the same time as the ADC is enabled, will take 25 ADC clock cycles instead of the normal
13. This first conversion performs initialization of the ADC.
ADSC will read as one as long as a conversion is in progress. When the conversion is complete, it returns to zero.
Writing zero to this bit has no effect.
• Bit 5 – ADATE: ADC Auto Trigger Enable
When this bit is written to one, Auto Triggering of the ADC is enabled. The ADC will start a conversion on a positive
edge of the selected trigger signal. The trigger source is selected by setting the ADC Trigger Select bits, ADTS in
ADCSRB.
• Bit 4 – ADIF: ADC Interrupt Flag
This bit is set when an ADC conversion completes and the data registers are updated. The ADC Conversion Complete Interrupt is executed if the ADIE bit and the I-bit in SREG are set. ADIF is cleared by hardware when
executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, ADIF is cleared by writing a logical one to the
flag. Beware that if doing a Read-Modify-Write on ADCSRA, a pending interrupt can be disabled. This also applies
if the SBI and CBI instructions are used.
• Bit 3 – ADIE: ADC Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one and the I-bit in SREG is set, the ADC Conversion Complete Interrupt is activated.
• Bits 2:0 – ADPS[2:0]: ADC Prescaler Select Bits
These bits determine the division factor between the system clock frequency and the input clock to the ADC.
Table 17-5.
ADC Prescaler Selections
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
Division Factor
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
4
0
1
1
8
1
0
0
16
1
0
1
32
1
1
0
64
1
1
1
128
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17.13.3
ADCL and ADCH – The ADC Data Register
17.13.3.1
ADLAR = 0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0x05
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADC9
ADC8
ADCH
0x04
ADC7
ADC6
ADC5
ADC4
ADC3
ADC2
ADC1
ADC0
ADCL
Read/Write
Initial Value
17.13.3.2
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADLAR = 1
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0x05
ADC9
ADC8
ADC7
ADC6
ADC5
ADC4
ADC3
ADC2
ADCH
0x04
ADC1
ADC0
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADCL
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
When an ADC conversion is complete, the result is found in these two registers.
When ADCL is read, the ADC Data Register is not updated until ADCH is read. Consequently, if the result is left
adjusted and no more than 8-bit precision is required, it is sufficient to read ADCH. Otherwise, ADCL must be read
first, then ADCH.
The ADLAR bit in ADMUX, and the MUXn bits in ADMUX affect the way the result is read from the registers. If
ADLAR is set, the result is left adjusted. If ADLAR is cleared (default), the result is right adjusted.
• Bits 9:0 - ADC[9:0]: ADC Conversion Result
These bits represent the result from the conversion, as detailed in “ADC Conversion Result” on page 132.
17.13.4
ADCSRB – ADC Control and Status Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x03
BIN
ACME
IPR
–
–
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADCSRB
• Bit 7 – BIN: Bipolar Input Mode
The gain stage is working in the unipolar mode as default, but the bipolar mode can be selected by writing the BIN
bit in the ADCSRB register. In the unipolar mode only one-sided conversions are supported and the voltage on the
positive input must always be larger than the voltage on the negative input. Otherwise the result is saturated to the
voltage reference. In the bipolar mode two-sided conversions are supported and the result is represented in the
two’s complement form. In the unipolar mode the resolution is 10 bits and the bipolar mode the resolution is 9 bits
+ 1 sign bit.
• Bit 5 – IPR: Input Polarity Reversal
The Input Polarity mode allows software selectable differential input pairs and full 10 bit ADC resolution, in the unipolar input mode, assuming a pre-determined input polarity. If the input polarity is not known it is actually possible
to determine the polarity first by using the bipolar input mode (with 9 bit resolution + 1 sign bit ADC measurement).
And once determined, set or clear the polarity reversal bit, as needed, for a succeeding 10 bit unipolar
measurement.
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• Bits 4:3 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the ATtiny25/45/85 and will always read as zero.
• Bits 2:0 – ADTS[2:0]: ADC Auto Trigger Source
If ADATE in ADCSRA is written to one, the value of these bits selects which source will trigger an ADC conversion.
If ADATE is cleared, the ADTS[2:0] settings will have no effect. A conversion will be triggered by the rising edge of
the selected Interrupt Flag. Note that switching from a trigger source that is cleared to a trigger source that is set,
will generate a positive edge on the trigger signal. If ADEN in ADCSRA is set, this will start a conversion. Switching
to Free Running mode (ADTS[2:0]=0) will not cause a trigger event, even if the ADC Interrupt Flag is set.
Table 17-6.
17.13.5
ADC Auto Trigger Source Selections
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Trigger Source
0
0
0
Free Running mode
0
0
1
Analog Comparator
0
1
0
External Interrupt Request 0
0
1
1
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match A
1
0
0
Timer/Counter0 Overflow
1
0
1
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match B
1
1
0
Pin Change Interrupt Request
DIDR0 – Digital Input Disable Register 0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x14
–
–
ADC0D
ADC2D
ADC3D
ADC1D
AIN1D
AIN0D
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DIDR0
• Bits 5:2 – ADC3D:ADC0D: ADC[3:0] Digital Input Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the digital input buffer on the corresponding ADC pin is disabled. The corresponding PIN register bit will always read as zero when this bit is set. When an analog signal is applied to the
ADC[3:0] pin and the digital input from this pin is not needed, this bit should be written logic one to reduce power
consumption in the digital input buffer.
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18. debugWIRE On-chip Debug System
18.1
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
18.2
Complete Program Flow Control
Emulates All On-chip Functions, Both Digital and Analog , except RESET Pin
Real-time Operation
Symbolic Debugging Support (Both at C and Assembler Source Level, or for Other HLLs)
Unlimited Number of Program Break Points (Using Software Break Points)
Non-intrusive Operation
Electrical Characteristics Identical to Real Device
Automatic Configuration System
High-Speed Operation
Programming of Non-volatile Memories
Overview
The debugWIRE On-chip debug system uses a One-wire, bi-directional interface to control the program flow, execute AVR instructions in the CPU and to program the different non-volatile memories.
18.3
Physical Interface
When the debugWIRE Enable (DWEN) Fuse is programmed and Lock bits are unprogrammed, the debugWIRE
system within the target device is activated. The RESET port pin is configured as a wire-AND (open-drain) bi-directional I/O pin with pull-up enabled and becomes the communication gateway between target and emulator.
Figure 18-1 shows the schematic of a target MCU, with debugWIRE enabled, and the emulator connector. The
system clock is not affected by debugWIRE and will always be the clock source selected by the CKSEL Fuses.
Figure 18-1. The debugWIRE Setup
1.8 - 5.5V
VCC
dW
dW(RESET)
GND
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When designing a system where debugWIRE will be used, the following must be observed:
• Pull-Up resistor on the dW/(RESET) line must be in the range of 10k to 20 k. However, the pull-up resistor is
optional.
• Connecting the RESET pin directly to VCC will not work.
• Capacitors inserted on the RESET pin must be disconnected when using debugWire.
• All external reset sources must be disconnected.
18.4
Software Break Points
debugWIRE supports Program memory Break Points by the AVR Break instruction. Setting a Break Point in AVR
Studio® will insert a BREAK instruction in the Program memory. The instruction replaced by the BREAK instruction
will be stored. When program execution is continued, the stored instruction will be executed before continuing from
the Program memory. A break can be inserted manually by putting the BREAK instruction in the program.
The Flash must be re-programmed each time a Break Point is changed. This is automatically handled by AVR Studio through the debugWIRE interface. The use of Break Points will therefore reduce the Flash Data retention.
Devices used for debugging purposes should not be shipped to end customers.
18.5
Limitations of debugWIRE
The debugWIRE communication pin (dW) is physically located on the same pin as External Reset (RESET). An
External Reset source is therefore not supported when the debugWIRE is enabled.
The debugWIRE system accurately emulates all I/O functions when running at full speed, i.e., when the program in
the CPU is running. When the CPU is stopped, care must be taken while accessing some of the I/O Registers via
the debugger (AVR Studio). See the debugWIRE documentation for detailed description of the limitations.
The debugWIRE interface is asynchronous, which means that the debugger needs to synchronize to the system
clock. If the system clock is changed by software (e.g. by writing CLKPS bits) communication via debugWIRE may
fail. Also, clock frequencies below 100kHz may cause communication problems.
A programmed DWEN Fuse enables some parts of the clock system to be running in all sleep modes. This will
increase the power consumption while in sleep. Thus, the DWEN Fuse should be disabled when debugWire is not
used.
18.6
Register Description
The following section describes the registers used with the debugWire.
18.6.1
DWDR – debugWire Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DWDR7
DWDR6
DWDR5
DWDR4
DWDR3
DWDR2
DWDR1
DWDR0
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x22
DWDR
The DWDR Register provides a communication channel from the running program in the MCU to the debugger.
This register is only accessible by the debugWIRE and can therefore not be used as a general purpose register in
the normal operations.
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19. Self-Programming the Flash
The device provides a Self-Programming mechanism for downloading and uploading program code by the MCU
itself. The Self-Programming can use any available data interface and associated protocol to read code and write
(program) that code into the Program memory. The SPM instruction is disabled by default but it can be enabled by
programming the SELFPRGEN fuse (to “0”).
The Program memory is updated in a page by page fashion. Before programming a page with the data stored in
the temporary page buffer, the page must be erased. The temporary page buffer is filled one word at a time using
SPM and the buffer can be filled either before the Page Erase command or between a Page Erase and a Page
Write operation:
Alternative 1, fill the buffer before a Page Erase
• Fill temporary page buffer
• Perform a Page Erase
• Perform a Page Write
Alternative 2, fill the buffer after Page Erase
• Perform a Page Erase
• Fill temporary page buffer
• Perform a Page Write
If only a part of the page needs to be changed, the rest of the page must be stored (for example in the temporary
page buffer) before the erase, and then be re-written. When using alternative 1, the Boot Loader provides an effective Read-Modify-Write feature which allows the user software to first read the page, do the necessary changes,
and then write back the modified data. If alternative 2 is used, it is not possible to read the old data while loading
since the page is already erased. The temporary page buffer can be accessed in a random sequence. It is essential that the page address used in both the Page Erase and Page Write operation is addressing the same page.
19.1
Performing Page Erase by SPM
To execute Page Erase, set up the address in the Z-pointer, write “00000011” to SPMCSR and execute SPM
within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The data in R1 and R0 is ignored. The page address must be written to PCPAGE in the Z-register. Other bits in the Z-pointer will be ignored during this operation.
Note:
19.2
The CPU is halted during the Page Erase operation.
Filling the Temporary Buffer (Page Loading)
To write an instruction word, set up the address in the Z-pointer and data in R1:R0, write “00000001” to SPMCSR
and execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The content of PCWORD in the Z-register is used
to address the data in the temporary buffer. The temporary buffer will auto-erase after a Page Write operation or by
writing the CTPB bit in SPMCSR. It is also erased after a system reset. Note that it is not possible to write more
than one time to each address without erasing the temporary buffer.
If the EEPROM is written in the middle of an SPM Page Load operation, all data loaded will be lost.
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19.3
Performing a Page Write
To execute Page Write, set up the address in the Z-pointer, write “00000101” to SPMCSR and execute SPM within
four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The data in R1 and R0 is ignored. The page address must be written to
PCPAGE. Other bits in the Z-pointer must be written to zero during this operation.
Note:
19.4
The CPU is halted during the Page Write operation.
Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming
The Z-pointer is used to address the SPM commands.
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
ZH (R31)
Z15
Z14
Z13
Z12
Z11
Z10
Z9
Z8
ZL (R30)
Z7
Z6
Z5
Z4
Z3
Z2
Z1
Z0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Since the Flash is organized in pages (see Table 20-8 on page 150), the Program Counter can be treated as having two different sections. One section, consisting of the least significant bits, is addressing the words within a
page, while the most significant bits are addressing the pages. This is shown in Figure 19-1. Note that the Page
Erase and Page Write operations are addressed independently. Therefore it is of major importance that the software addresses the same page in both the Page Erase and Page Write operation.
The LPM instruction uses the Z-pointer to store the address. Since this instruction addresses the Flash byte-bybyte, also the LSB (bit Z0) of the Z-pointer is used.
Figure 19-1. Addressing the Flash During SPM(1)
BIT
15
ZPCMSB
ZPAGEMSB
Z - REGISTER
1 0
0
PCMSB
PROGRAM
COUNTER
PAGEMSB
PCPAGE
PCWORD
PAGE ADDRESS
WITHIN THE FLASH
PROGRAM MEMORY
PAGE
WORD ADDRESS
WITHIN A PAGE
PAGE
PCWORD[PAGEMSB:0]:
INSTRUCTION WORD
00
01
02
PAGEEND
Note:
19.5
1. The different variables used in Figure 19-1 are listed in Table 20-8 on page 150.
EEPROM Write Prevents Writing to SPMCSR
Note that an EEPROM write operation will block all software programming to Flash. Reading the Fuses and Lock
bits from software will also be prevented during the EEPROM write operation. It is recommended that the user
checks the status bit (EEPE) in the EECR Register and verifies that the bit is cleared before writing to the SPMCSR
Register.
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19.6
Reading Lock, Fuse and Signature Data from Software
It is possible to read fuse and lock bits from firmware. In addition, firmware can also read data from the device signature imprint table (see page 149).
Note:
19.6.1
Fuse and Lock bits that are programmed, will be read as zero. Fuse and Lock bits that are unprogrammed, will be read
as one.
Reading Lock Bits from Firmware
Issuing an LPM instruction within three CPU cycles after RFLB and SELFPRGEN bits have been set in SPMCSR
will return lock bit values in the destination register. The RFLB and SELFPRGEN bits automatically clear upon
completion of reading the lock bits, or if no LPM instruction is executed within three CPU cycles, or if no SPM
instruction is executed within four CPU cycles. When RFLB and SELFPRGEN are cleared LPM functions normally.
To read the lock bits, follow the below procedure:
1. Load the Z-pointer with 0x0001.
2. Set RFLB and SELFPRGEN bits in SPMCSR.
3. Issue an LPM instruction within three clock cycles.
4. Read the lock bits from the LPM destination register.
If successful, the contents of the destination register are as follows.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
–
–
–
–
–
–
LB2
LB1
See section “Program And Data Memory Lock Bits” on page 147 for more information.
19.6.2
Reading Fuse Bits from Firmware
The algorithm for reading fuse bytes is similar to the one described above for reading lock bits, only the addresses
are different. To read the Fuse Low Byte (FLB), follow the below procedure:
1. Load the Z-pointer with 0x0000.
2. Set RFLB and SELFPRGEN bits in SPMCSR.
3. Issue an LPM instruction within three clock cycles.
4. Read the FLB from the LPM destination register.
If successful, the contents of the destination register are as follows.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
FLB7
FLB6
FLB5
FLB4
FLB3
FLB2
FLB1
FLB0
Refer to Table 20-5 on page 149 for a detailed description and mapping of the Fuse Low Byte.
To read the Fuse High Byte (FHB), simply replace the address in the Z-pointer with 0x0003 and repeat the procedure above. If successful, the contents of the destination register are as follows.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
FHB7
FHB6
FHB5
FHB4
FHB3
FHB2
FHB1
FHB0
Refer to Table 20-4 on page 148 for detailed description and mapping of the Fuse High Byte.
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To read the Fuse Extended Byte (FEB), replace the address in the Z-pointer with 0x0002 and repeat the previous
procedure. If successful, the contents of the destination register are as follows.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
FEB7
FEB6
FEB5
FEB4
FEB3
FEB2
FEB1
FEB0
Refer to Table 20-3 on page 148 for detailed description and mapping of the Fuse Extended Byte.
19.6.3
Reading Device Signature Imprint Table from Firmware
To read the contents of the device signature imprint table, follow the below procedure:
1. Load the Z-pointer with the table index.
2. Set RSIG and SPMEN bits in SPMCSR.
3. Issue an LPM instruction within three clock cycles.
4. Read table data from the LPM destination register.
See program example below.
Assembly Code Example(1)
DSIT_read:
; Uses Z-pointer as table index
ldi
ZH, 0
ldi
ZL, 1
; Preload SPMCSR bits into R16, then write to SPMCSR
ldi
r16, (1<<RSIG)|(1<<SPMEN)
out SPMCSR, r16
; Issue LPM. Table data will be returned into r17
lpm r17, Z
ret
Note:
1. See “Code Examples” on page 6.
If successful, the contents of the destination register are as described in section “Device Signature Imprint Table”
on page 149.
19.7
Preventing Flash Corruption
During periods of low VCC, the Flash program can be corrupted because the supply voltage is too low for the CPU
and the Flash to operate properly. These issues are the same as for board level systems using the Flash, and the
same design solutions should be applied.
A Flash program corruption can be caused by two situations when the voltage is too low. First, a regular write
sequence to the Flash requires a minimum voltage to operate correctly. Secondly, the CPU itself can execute
instructions incorrectly, if the supply voltage for executing instructions is too low.
Flash corruption can easily be avoided by following these design recommendations (one is sufficient):
1. Keep the AVR RESET active (low) during periods of insufficient power supply voltage. This can be done
by enabling the internal Brown-out Detector (BOD) if the operating voltage matches the detection level. If
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not, an external low VCC reset protection circuit can be used. If a reset occurs while a write operation is in
progress, the write operation will be completed provided that the power supply voltage is sufficient.
2. Keep the AVR core in Power-down sleep mode during periods of low VCC. This will prevent the CPU from
attempting to decode and execute instructions, effectively protecting the SPMCSR Register and thus the
Flash from unintentional writes.
19.8
Programming Time for Flash when Using SPM
The calibrated RC Oscillator is used to time Flash accesses. Table 19-1 shows the typical programming time for
Flash accesses from the CPU.
Table 19-1.
SPM Programming Time(1)
Symbol
Min Programming Time
Max Programming Time
Flash write (Page Erase, Page Write, and
write Lock bits by SPM)
3.7 ms
4.5 ms
Note:
1. Minimum and maximum programming time is per individual operation.
19.9
Register Description
19.9.1
SPMCSR – Store Program Memory Control and Status Register
The Store Program Memory Control and Status Register contains the control bits needed to control the Program
memory operations.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0x37
–
–
RSIG
CTPB
RFLB
PGWRT
PGERS
SPMEN
Read/Write
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SPMCSR
• Bits 7:6 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the ATtiny25/45/85 and always read as zero.
• Bit 5 – RSIG: Read Device Signature Imprint Table
Issuing an LPM instruction within three cycles after RSIG and SPMEN bits have been set in SPMCSR will return
the selected data (depending on Z-pointer value) from the device signature imprint table into the destination register. See “Device Signature Imprint Table” on page 149 for details.
• Bit 4 – CTPB: Clear Temporary Page Buffer
If the CTPB bit is written while filling the temporary page buffer, the temporary page buffer will be cleared and the
data will be lost.
• Bit 3 – RFLB: Read Fuse and Lock Bits
An LPM instruction within three cycles after RFLB and SPMEN are set in the SPMCSR Register, will read either
the Lock bits or the Fuse bits (depending on Z0 in the Z-pointer) into the destination register. See “EEPROM Write
Prevents Writing to SPMCSR” on page 142 for details.
• Bit 2 – PGWRT: Page Write
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock cycles executes
Page Write, with the data stored in the temporary buffer. The page address is taken from the high part of the Zpointer. The data in R1 and R0 are ignored. The PGWRT bit will auto-clear upon completion of a Page Write, or if
no SPM instruction is executed within four clock cycles. The CPU is halted during the entire Page Write operation.
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• Bit 1 – PGERS: Page Erase
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within four clock cycles executes
Page Erase. The page address is taken from the high part of the Z-pointer. The data in R1 and R0 are ignored. The
PGERS bit will auto-clear upon completion of a Page Erase, or if no SPM instruction is executed within four clock
cycles. The CPU is halted during the entire Page Write operation.
• Bit 0 – SPMEN: Store Program Memory Enable
This bit enables the SPM instruction for the next four clock cycles. If set to one together with RSIG, CTPB, RFLB,
PGWRT or PGERS, the following LPM/SPM instruction will have a special meaning, as described elsewhere.
If only SPMEN is written, the following SPM instruction will store the value in R1:R0 in the temporary page buffer
addressed by the Z-pointer. The LSB of the Z-pointer is ignored. The SPMEN bit will auto-clear upon completion of
an SPM instruction, or if no SPM instruction is executed within four clock cycles. During Page Erase and Page
Write, the SPMEN bit remains high until the operation is completed.
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20. Memory Programming
This section describes the different methods for Programming the ATtiny25/45/85 memories.
20.1
Program And Data Memory Lock Bits
ATtiny25/45/85 provides two Lock bits which can be left unprogrammed (“1”) or can be programmed (“0”) to obtain
the additional security listed in Table 20-2. Lock bits can be erased to “1” with the Chip Erase command, only.
Program memory can be read out via the debugWIRE interface when the DWEN fuse is programmed, even if the
Lock Bits are set. Thus, when Lock Bit security is required debugWIRE should always be disabled (by clearing the
DWEN fuse).
Table 20-1.
Lock Bit Byte(1)
Lock Bit
Note:
Bit No
Description
Default Value
7
–
1 (unprogrammed)
6
–
1 (unprogrammed)
5
–
1 (unprogrammed)
4
–
1 (unprogrammed)
3
–
1 (unprogrammed)
2
–
1 (unprogrammed)
LB2
1
Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
LB1
0
Lock bit
1 (unprogrammed)
1. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
Table 20-2.
Lock Bit Protection Modes(1)(2)
Memory Lock Bits
Protection Type
LB Mode
LB2
LB1
1
1
1
No memory lock features enabled.
0
Further programming of the Flash and EEPROM is disabled in
High-voltage and Serial Programming mode. The Fuse bits are
locked in both Serial and High-voltage Programming mode.(1)
debugWire is disabled.
0
Further programming and verification of the Flash and EEPROM
is disabled in High-voltage and Serial Programming mode. The
Fuse bits are locked in both Serial and High-voltage
Programming mode.(1) debugWire is disabled.
2
3
Notes:
1
0
1. Program the Fuse bits before programming the LB1 and LB2.
2. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
Lock bits can also be read by device firmware. See section “Reading Lock, Fuse and Signature Data from Software” on page 143.
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20.2
Fuse Bytes
ATtiny25/45/85 has three fuse bytes, as described in Table 20-3, Table 20-4, and Table 20-5. Note that fuses are
read as logical zero, “0”, when programmed.
Table 20-3.
Fuse Extended Byte
Fuse High Byte
SELFPRGEN
Notes:
(1)
Bit No
Description
Default Value
7
-
1 (unprogrammed)
6
-
1 (unprogrammed)
5
-
1 (unprogrammed)
4
-
1 (unprogrammed)
3
-
1 (unprogrammed)
2
-
1 (unprogrammed)
1
-
1 (unprogrammed)
0
Self-programming enabled
1 (unprogrammed)
1. Enables SPM instruction. See “Self-Programming the Flash” on page 141.
Table 20-4.
Fuse High Byte
Fuse High Byte
Description
Default Value
7
External reset disabled
1 (unprogrammed)
6
DebugWIRE enabled
1 (unprogrammed)
SPIEN (4)
5
Serial program and data download
enabled
0 (programmed)
(SPI prog. enabled)
WDTON (5)
4
Watchdog timer always on
1 (unprogrammed)
EESAVE
3
EEPROM preserves chip erase
1 (unprogrammed)
(EEPROM not preserved)
BODLEVEL2 (6)
2
Brown-out Detector trigger level
1 (unprogrammed)
BODLEVEL1 (6)
1
Brown-out Detector trigger level
1 (unprogrammed)
(6)
0
Brown-out Detector trigger level
1 (unprogrammed)
RSTDISBL
DWEN
(1) (2)
(1) (2) (3)
BODLEVEL0
Notes:
Bit No
1. Controls use of RESET pin. See “Alternate Functions of Port B” on page 60.
2. After this fuse has been programmed device can be programmed via high-voltage serial mode, only.
3. Must be unprogrammed when lock bit security is required. See “Program And Data Memory Lock Bits” on page
147.
4. This fuse is not accessible in SPI programming mode.
5. See “WDTCR – Watchdog Timer Control Register” on page 45 for details.
6. See table “BODLEVEL Fuse Coding. TA = -40°C to +85°C” on page 166.
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Table 20-5.
Fuse Low Byte
Fuse Low Byte
(1)
CKOUT (2)
CKDIV8
Bit No
Description
Default Value
7
Clock divided by 8
0 (programmed)
6
Clock output enabled
1 (unprogrammed)
(3)
5
Start-up time setting
1 (unprogrammed)(3)
SUT0 (3)
4
Start-up time setting
0 (programmed)(3)
CKSEL3 (4)
3
Clock source setting
0 (programmed)(4)
CKSEL2 (4)
2
Clock source setting
0 (programmed)(4)
CKSEL1 (4)
1
Clock source setting
1 (unprogrammed)(4)
CKSEL0 (4)
0
Clock source setting
0 (programmed)(4)
SUT1
Notes:
1. See “System Clock Prescaler” on page 31 for details.
2. Allows system clock to be output on pin. See “Clock Output Buffer” on page 31 for details.
3. The default value gives maximum start-up time for the default clock source. See Table 6-7 on page 28 for details.
4. The default setting selects internal, 8 MHz RC oscillator. See Table 6-6 on page 27 for details.
Note that fuse bits are locked if Lock Bit 1 (LB1) is programmed. Fuse bits should be programmed before lock bits.
The status of fuse bits is not affected by chip erase.
Lock bits can also be read by device firmware. See section “Reading Lock, Fuse and Signature Data from Software” on page 143.
20.2.1
Latching of Fuses
Fuse values are latched when the device enters programming mode and changes to fuse values will have no effect
until the part leaves programming mode. This does not apply to the EESAVE Fuse which takes effect once it is programmed. Fuses are also latched on power-up.
20.3
Device Signature Imprint Table
The device signature imprint table is a dedicated memory area used for storing miscellaneous device information,
such as the device signature and oscillator calibration data. Most of this memory segment is reserved for internal
use, as outlined in Table 20-6.
Table 20-6.
Contents of Device Signature Imprint Table.
Address
High Byte
0x00
Signature byte 0 (1)
0x01
Calibration data for internal oscillator at 8.0 MHz (2)
0x02
Signature byte 1 (1)
0x03
Calibration data for internal oscillator at 6.4 MHz (2)
0x04
Signature byte 2 (1)
0x05 ... 0x2A
Reserved for internal use
Notes:
1. See section “Signature Bytes” for more information.
2. See section “Calibration Bytes” for more information.
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20.3.1
Signature Bytes
All Atmel microcontrollers have a three-byte signature code which identifies the device. This code can be read in
both serial and high-voltage programming mode, even when the device is locked.
Signature bytes can also be read by the device firmware. See section “Reading Lock, Fuse and Signature Data
from Software” on page 143.
The three signature bytes reside in a separate address space called the device signature imprint table. The signature data for ATtiny25/45/85 is given in Table 20-7.
Table 20-7.
Device Signature Bytes
Part
20.3.2
Signature Byte 0
Signature Byte 1
Signature Byte 0
ATtiny25
0x1E
0x91
0x08
ATtiny45
0x1E
0x92
0x06
ATtiny85
0x1E
0x93
0x0B
Calibration Bytes
The device signature imprint table of ATtiny25/45/85 contains two bytes of calibration data for the internal RC
Oscillator, as shown in Table 20-6 on page 149. In normal mode of operation the calibration data for 8 MHz operation is automatically fetched and written to the OSCCAL register during reset. In ATtiny15 compatibility mode the
calibration data for 6.4 MHz operation is used instead. This procedure guarantees the internal oscillator is always
calibrated to the correct frequency.
Calibration bytes can also be read by the device firmware. See section “Reading Lock, Fuse and Signature Data
from Software” on page 143.
20.4
Page Size
Table 20-8.
Device
No. of Words in a Page and No. of Pages in the Flash
Flash Size
Page Size
PCWORD
No. of Pages
PCPAGE
PCMSB
ATtiny25
1K words
(2K bytes)
16 words
PC[3:0]
64
PC[9:4]
9
ATtiny45
2K words
(4K bytes)
32 words
PC[4:0]
64
PC[10:5]
10
ATtiny85
4K words
(8K bytes)
32 words
PC[4:0]
128
PC[11:5]
11
Table 20-9.
No. of Words in a Page and No. of Pages in the EEPROM
Device
EEPROM
Size
Page Size
PCWORD
No. of Pages
PCPAGE
EEAMSB
ATtiny25
128 bytes
4 bytes
EEA[1:0]
32
EEA[6:2]
6
ATtiny45
256 bytes
4 bytes
EEA[1:0]
64
EEA[7:2]
7
ATtiny85
512 bytes
4 bytes
EEA[1:0]
128
EEA[8:2]
8
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20.5
Serial Downloading
Both the Flash and EEPROM memory arrays can be programmed using the serial SPI bus while RESET is pulled
to GND. The serial interface consists of pins SCK, MOSI (input) and MISO (output). See below.
Figure 20-1. Serial Programming and Verify(1)
+1.8 - 5.5V
VCC
MOSI
MISO
SCK
RESET
GND
Notes:
1. If the device is clocked by the internal Oscillator, it is no need to connect a clock source to the CLKI pin.
After RESET is set low, the Programming Enable instruction needs to be executed first before program/erase operations can be executed.
Table 20-10. Pin Mapping Serial Programming
Note:
Symbol
Pins
I/O
Description
MOSI
PB0
I
Serial Data in
MISO
PB1
O
Serial Data out
SCK
PB2
I
Serial Clock
In Table 20-10 above, the pin mapping for SPI programming is listed. Not all parts use the SPI pins dedicated for the
internal SPI interface.
When programming the EEPROM, an auto-erase cycle is built into the self-timed programming operation (in the
Serial mode ONLY) and there is no need to first execute the Chip Erase instruction. The Chip Erase operation
turns the content of every memory location in both the Program and EEPROM arrays into 0xFF.
Depending on CKSEL Fuses, a valid clock must be present. The minimum low and high periods for the serial clock
(SCK) input are defined as follows:
Low: > 2 CPU clock cycles for fck < 12 MHz, 3 CPU clock cycles for fck >= 12 MHz
High: > 2 CPU clock cycles for fck < 12 MHz, 3 CPU clock cycles for fck >= 12 MHz
20.5.1
Serial Programming Algorithm
When writing serial data to the ATtiny25/45/85, data is clocked on the rising edge of SCK.
When reading data from the ATtiny25/45/85, data is clocked on the falling edge of SCK. See Figure 21-4 and Figure 21-5 for timing details.
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To program and verify the ATtiny25/45/85 in the Serial Programming mode, the following sequence is recommended (see four byte instruction formats in Table 20-12):
1. Power-up sequence: apply power between VCC and GND while RESET and SCK are set to “0”
– In some systems, the programmer can not guarantee that SCK is held low during power-up. In this
case, RESET must be given a positive pulse after SCK has been set to '0'. The duration of the pulse
must be at least tRST plus two CPU clock cycles. See Table 21-4 on page 165 for minimum pulse width
on RESET pin, tRST
2. Wait for at least 20 ms and enable serial programming by sending the Programming Enable serial instruction to pin MOSI.
3. The serial programming instructions will not work if the communication is out of synchronization. When in
sync. the second byte (0x53), will echo back when issuing the third byte of the Programming Enable
instruction. Whether the echo is correct or not, all four bytes of the instruction must be transmitted. If the
0x53 did not echo back, give RESET a positive pulse and issue a new Programming Enable command.
4. The Flash is programmed one page at a time. The memory page is loaded one byte at a time by supplying
the 5 LSB of the address and data together with the Load Program memory Page instruction. To ensure
correct loading of the page, the data low byte must be loaded before data high byte is applied for a given
address. The Program memory Page is stored by loading the Write Program memory Page instruction
with the 6 MSB of the address. If polling (RDY/BSY) is not used, the user must wait at least tWD_FLASH
before issuing the next page. (See Table 20-11.) Accessing the serial programming interface before the
Flash write operation completes can result in incorrect programming.
5. A: The EEPROM array is programmed one byte at a time by supplying the address and data together with
the appropriate Write instruction. An EEPROM memory location is first automatically erased before new
data is written. If polling (RDY/BSY) is not used, the user must wait at least tWD_EEPROM before issuing the
next byte. (See Table 20-11.) In a chip erased device, no 0xFFs in the data file(s) need to be programmed.
B: The EEPROM array is programmed one page at a time. The Memory page is loaded one byte at a time
by supplying the 2 LSB of the address and data together with the Load EEPROM Memory Page instruction. The EEPROM Memory Page is stored by loading the Write EEPROM Memory Page Instruction with
the 6 MSB of the address. When using EEPROM page access only byte locations loaded with the Load
EEPROM Memory Page instruction is altered. The remaining locations remain unchanged. If polling
(RDY/BSY) is not used, the used must wait at least tWD_EEPROM before issuing the next page (See Table
20-9). In a chip erased device, no 0xFF in the data file(s) need to be programmed.
6. Any memory location can be verified by using the Read instruction which returns the content at the
selected address at serial output MISO.
7. At the end of the programming session, RESET can be set high to commence normal operation.
8. Power-off sequence (if needed):
Set RESET to “1”.
Turn VCC power off.
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20.5.2
Serial Programming Instruction set
Table 20-11. Minimum Wait Delay Before Writing the Next Flash or EEPROM Location
Symbol
Minimum Wait Delay
tWD_FLASH
4.5 ms
tWD_EEPROM
4.0 ms
tWD_ERASE
9.0 ms
tWD_FUSE
4.5 ms
Table 20-12 on page 153 and Figure 20-2 on page 154 describes the Instruction set.
Table 20-12. Serial Programming Instruction Set
Instruction Format
Instruction/Operation
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte4
Programming Enable
$AC
$53
$00
$00
Chip Erase (Program Memory/EEPROM)
$AC
$80
$00
$00
Poll RDY/BSY
$F0
$00
$00
data byte out
Load Extended Address byte(1)
$4D
$00
Extended adr
$00
Load Program Memory Page, High byte
$48
adr MSB
adr LSB
high data byte in
Load Program Memory Page, Low byte
$40
adr MSB
adr LSB
low data byte in
Load EEPROM Memory Page (page access)
$C1
$00
0000 000aa
data byte in
Read Program Memory, High byte
$28
adr MSB
adr LSB
high data byte out
Read Program Memory, Low byte
$20
adr MSB
adr LSB
low data byte out
Read EEPROM Memory
$A0
$00
00aa aaaa
data byte out
Read Lock bits
$58
$00
$00
data byte out
Read Signature Byte
$30
$00
0000 000aa
data byte out
Read Fuse bits
$50
$00
$00
data byte out
Read Fuse High bits
$58
$08
$00
data byte out
Read Extended Fuse Bits
$50
$08
$00
data byte out
Read Calibration Byte
$38
$00
$00
data byte out
Write Program Memory Page
$4C
adr MSB
adr LSB
$00
Write EEPROM Memory
$C0
$00
00aa aaaa
data byte in
Write EEPROM Memory Page (page access)
$C2
$00
00aa aa00
$00
Write Lock bits
$AC
$E0
$00
data byte in
Write Fuse bits
$AC
$A0
$00
data byte in
Write Fuse High bits
$AC
$A8
$00
data byte in
Write Extended Fuse Bits
$AC
$A4
$00
data byte in
Load Instructions
Read Instructions
Write Instructions
Notes:
(6)
1. Not all instructions are applicable for all parts.
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2. a = address
3. Bits are programmed ‘0’, unprogrammed ‘1’.
4. To ensure future compatibility, unused Fuses and Lock bits should be unprogrammed (‘1’) .
5. Refer to the correspondig section for Fuse and Lock bits, Calibration and Signature bytes and Page size.
6. Instructions accessing program memory use a word address. This address may be random within the page range.
7. See htt://www.atmel.com/avr for Application Notes regarding programming and programmers.
If the LSB in RDY/BSY data byte out is ‘1’, a programming operation is still pending. Wait until this bit returns ‘0’
before the next instruction is carried out.
Within the same page, the low data byte must be loaded prior to the high data byte.
After data is loaded to the page buffer, program the EEPROM page, see Figure 20-2 on page 154.
Figure 20-2. Serial Programming Instruction example
Serial Programming Instruction
Load Program Memory Page (High/Low Byte)/
Load EEPROM Memory Page (page access)
Byte 1
Byte 2
Adr
A
drr MSB
M
MS
SB
Bit 15 B
Byte 3
Write Program Memory Page/
Write EEPROM Memory Page
Byte 1
Byte 4
Byte 2
Adr LSB
Adr MSB
Bit 15 B
0
Byte 3
Byte 4
Adr
A
dr LSB
LS
SB
0
Page Buffer
Page Offset
Page 0
Page 1
Page 2
Page Number
Page N-1
Program Memory/
EEPROM Memory
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20.6
High-voltage Serial Programming
This section describes how to program and verify Flash Program memory, EEPROM Data memory, Lock bits and
Fuse bits in the ATtiny25/45/85.
Figure 20-3. High-voltage Serial Programming
+11.5 - 12.5V
SCI
+4.5 - 5.5V
PB5 (RESET)
VCC
PB3
PB2
SDO
PB1
SII
PB0
SDI
GND
Table 20-13. Pin Name Mapping
Signal Name in High-voltage
Serial Programming Mode
Pin Name
I/O
Function
SDI
PB0
I
Serial Data Input
SII
PB1
I
Serial Instruction Input
SDO
PB2
O
Serial Data Output
SCI
PB3
I
Serial Clock Input (min. 220ns period)
The minimum period for the Serial Clock Input (SCI) during High-voltage Serial Programming is 220 ns.
Table 20-14. Pin Values Used to Enter Programming Mode
20.7
Pin
Symbol
Value
SDI
Prog_enable[0]
0
SII
Prog_enable[1]
0
SDO
Prog_enable[2]
0
High-voltage Serial Programming Algorithm
To program and verify the ATtiny25/45/85 in the High-voltage Serial Programming mode, the following sequence is
recommended (See instruction formats in Table 20-16):
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20.7.1
Enter High-voltage Serial Programming Mode
The following algorithm puts the device in High-voltage Serial Programming mode:
1. Set Prog_enable pins listed in Table 20-14 to “000”, RESET pin and VCC to 0V.
2. Apply 4.5 - 5.5V between VCC and GND. Ensure that VCC reaches at least 1.8V within the next 20 µs.
3. Wait 20 - 60 µs, and apply 11.5 - 12.5V to RESET.
4. Keep the Prog_enable pins unchanged for at least 10 µs after the High-voltage has been applied to
ensure the Prog_enable Signature has been latched.
5. Release the Prog_enable[2] pin to avoid drive contention on the Prog_enable[2]/SDO pin.
6. Wait at least 300 µs before giving any serial instructions on SDI/SII.
7. Exit Programming mode by power the device down or by bringing RESET pin to 0V.
If the rise time of the VCC is unable to fulfill the requirements listed above, the following alternative algorithm can be
used:
1. Set Prog_enable pins listed in Table 20-14 to “000”, RESET pin and VCC to 0V.
2. Apply 4.5 - 5.5V between VCC and GND.
3. Monitor VCC, and as soon as VCC reaches 0.9 - 1.1V, apply 11.5 - 12.5V to RESET.
4. Keep the Prog_enable pins unchanged for at least 10 µs after the High-voltage has been applied to
ensure the Prog_enable Signature has been latched.
5. Release the Prog_enable[2] pin to avoid drive contention on the Prog_enable[2]/SDO pin.
6. Wait until VCC actually reaches 4.5 - 5.5V before giving any serial instructions on SDI/SII.
7. Exit Programming mode by power the device down or by bringing RESET pin to 0V.
Table 20-15. High-voltage Reset Characteristics
RESET Pin High-voltage Threshold
Minimum High-voltage Period for
Latching Prog_enable
VCC
VHVRST
tHVRST
4.5V
11.5V
100 ns
5.5V
11.5V
100 ns
Supply Voltage
20.7.2
Considerations for Efficient Programming
The loaded command and address are retained in the device during programming. For efficient programming, the
following should be considered.
• The command needs only be loaded once when writing or reading multiple memory locations.
• Skip writing the data value 0xFF that is the contents of the entire EEPROM (unless the EESAVE Fuse is
programmed) and Flash after a Chip Erase.
• Address High byte needs only be loaded before programming or reading a new 256 word window in Flash or
256 byte EEPROM. This consideration also applies to Signature bytes reading.
20.7.3
Chip Erase
The Chip Erase will erase the Flash and EEPROM(1) memories plus Lock bits. The Lock bits are not reset until the
Program memory has been completely erased. The Fuse bits are not changed. A Chip Erase must be performed
before the Flash and/or EEPROM are re-programmed.
Note:
1. The EEPROM memory is preserved during Chip Erase if the EESAVE Fuse is programmed.
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1. Load command “Chip Erase” (see Table 20-16).
2. Wait after Instr. 3 until SDO goes high for the “Chip Erase” cycle to finish.
3. Load Command “No Operation”.
20.7.4
Programming the Flash
The Flash is organized in pages, see Table 20-12 on page 153. When programming the Flash, the program data is
latched into a page buffer. This allows one page of program data to be programmed simultaneously. The following
procedure describes how to program the entire Flash memory:
1. Load Command “Write Flash” (see Table 20-16).
2. Load Flash Page Buffer.
3. Load Flash High Address and Program Page. Wait after Instr. 3 until SDO goes high for the “Page Programming” cycle to finish.
4. Repeat 2 through 3 until the entire Flash is programmed or until all data has been programmed.
5. End Page Programming by Loading Command “No Operation”.
When writing or reading serial data to the ATtiny25/45/85, data is clocked on the rising edge of the serial clock, see
Figure 20-5, Figure 21-6 and Table 21-12 for details.
Figure 20-4. Addressing the Flash which is Organized in Pages
PCMSB
PROGRAM
COUNTER
PAGEMSB
PCPAGE
PCWORD
PAGE ADDRESS
WITHIN THE FLASH
WORD ADDRESS
WITHIN A PAGE
PROGRAM MEMORY
PAGE
PAGE
PCWORD[PAGEMSB:0]:
INSTRUCTION WORD
00
01
02
PAGEEND
Figure 20-5. High-voltage Serial Programming Waveforms
SDI
PB0
MSB
LSB
SII
PB1
MSB
LSB
SDO
PB2
SCI
PB3
MSB
0
LSB
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
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20.7.5
Programming the EEPROM
The EEPROM is organized in pages, see Table 21-11 on page 170. When programming the EEPROM, the data is
latched into a page buffer. This allows one page of data to be programmed simultaneously. The programming algorithm for the EEPROM Data memory is as follows (refer to Table 20-16):
1. Load Command “Write EEPROM”.
2. Load EEPROM Page Buffer.
3. Program EEPROM Page. Wait after Instr. 2 until SDO goes high for the “Page Programming” cycle to
finish.
4. Repeat 2 through 3 until the entire EEPROM is programmed or until all data has been programmed.
5. End Page Programming by Loading Command “No Operation”.
20.7.6
Reading the Flash
The algorithm for reading the Flash memory is as follows (refer to Table 20-16):
1. Load Command "Read Flash".
2. Read Flash Low and High Bytes. The contents at the selected address are available at serial output SDO.
20.7.7
Reading the EEPROM
The algorithm for reading the EEPROM memory is as follows (refer to Table 20-16):
1. Load Command “Read EEPROM”.
2. Read EEPROM Byte. The contents at the selected address are available at serial output SDO.
20.7.8
Programming and Reading the Fuse and Lock Bits
The algorithms for programming and reading the Fuse Low/High bits and Lock bits are shown in Table 20-16.
20.7.9
Reading the Signature Bytes and Calibration Byte
The algorithms for reading the Signature bytes and Calibration byte are shown in Table 20-16.
20.7.10
Power-off sequence
Set SCI to “0”. Set RESET to “1”. Turn VCC power off.
Table 20-16. High-voltage Serial Programming Instruction Set for ATtiny25/45/85
Instruction Format
Instruction
Chip Erase
Load “Write
Flash”
Command
Load Flash
Page Buffer
Instr.1/5
Instr.2/6
Instr.3
Instr.4
SDI
0_1000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0100_1100_00
0_0110_0100_00
0_0110_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
SDI
0_0001_0000_00
SII
0_0100_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
SDI
0_bbbb_bbbb _00
0_eeee_eeee_00
0_dddd_dddd_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0000_1100_00
0_0010_1100_00
0_0011_1100_00
0_0111_1101_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
SDI
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0111_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
Operation Remarks
Wait after Instr.3 until SDO
goes high for the Chip Erase
cycle to finish.
Enter Flash Programming
code.
Repeat after Instr. 1 - 5 until
the entire page buffer is filled
or until all data within the
page is filled.(2)
Instr 5.
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Table 20-16. High-voltage Serial Programming Instruction Set for ATtiny25/45/85 (Continued)
Instruction Format
Instruction
Instr.1/5
Instr.2/6
Instr.3
Instr.4
Wait after Instr 3 until SDO
goes high. Repeat Instr. 2 - 3
for each loaded Flash Page
until the entire Flash or all
data is programmed. Repeat
Instr. 1 for a new 256 byte
page.(2)
Load Flash
High Address
and Program
Page
SDI
0_0000_000a_00
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0001_1100_00
0_0110_0100_00
0_0110_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
Load “Read
Flash”
Command
SDI
0_0000_0010_00
SII
0_0100_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
SDI
0_bbbb_bbbb_00
0_0000_000a_00
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0000_1100_00
0_0001_1100_00
0_0110_1000_00
0_0110_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
q_qqqq_qqqx_xx
SDI
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0111_1000_00
0_0111_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
p_pppp_pppx_xx
SDI
0_0001_0001_00
SII
0_0100_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
SDI
0_00bb_bbbb_00
0_aaaa_aaaa_00
0_eeee_eeee_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0000_1100_00
0_0001_1100_00
0_0010_1100_00
0_0110_1101_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
SDI
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0110_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
Read Flash
Low and High
Bytes
Load “Write
EEPROM”
Command
Load
EEPROM
Page Buffer
Enter Flash Read mode.
Enter EEPROM Programming
mode.
Wait after Instr. 2 until SDO
goes high. Repeat Instr. 1 - 2
for each loaded EEPROM
page until the entire
EEPROM or all data is
programmed.
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
0_0110_0100_00
0_0110_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
SDI
0_bbbb_bbbb_00
0_aaaa_aaaa_00
0_eeee_eeee_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0000_1100_00
0_0001_1100_00
0_0010_1100_00
0_0110_1101_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
SDI
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0110_0100_00
0_0110_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
Load “Read
EEPROM”
Command
SDI
0_0000_0011_00
SII
0_0100_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
Read
EEPROM
Byte
SDI
0_bbbb_bbbb_00
0_aaaa_aaaa_00
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0000_1100_00
0_0001_1100_00
0_0110_1000_00
0_0110_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
q_qqqq_qqq0_00
SDI
0_0100_0000_00
0_A987_6543_00
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0100_1100_00
0_0010_1100_00
0_0110_0100_00
0_0110_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
Write Fuse
Low Bits
Repeat Instr. 1 - 5 until the
entire page buffer is filled or
until all data within the page is
filled.(3)
Instr. 5
SII
Write
EEPROM
Byte
Repeat Instr. 1, 3 - 6 for each
new address. Repeat Instr. 2
for a new 256 byte page.
Instr 5 - 6.
SDI
Program
EEPROM
Page
Operation Remarks
Repeat Instr. 1 - 6 for each
new address. Wait after Instr.
6 until SDO goes high.(4)
Instr. 6
Enter EEPROM Read mode.
Repeat Instr. 1, 3 - 4 for each
new address. Repeat Instr. 2
for a new 256 byte page.
Wait after Instr. 4 until SDO
goes high. Write A - 3 = “0” to
program the Fuse bit.
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Table 20-16. High-voltage Serial Programming Instruction Set for ATtiny25/45/85 (Continued)
Instruction Format
Instruction
Instr.1/5
Instr.2/6
Instr.3
Instr.4
SDI
0_0100_0000_00
0_IHGF_EDCB_00
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0100_1100_00
0_0010_1100_00
0_0111_0100_00
0_0111_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
SDI
0_0100_0000_00
0_0000_000J_00
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0100_1100_00
0_0010_1100_00
0_0110_0110_00
0_0110_1110_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
SDI
0_0010_0000_00
0_0000_0021_00
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0100_1100_00
0_0010_1100_00
0_0110_0100_00
0_0110_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
SDI
0_0000_0100_00
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0100_1100_00
0_0110_1000_00
0_0110_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
A_9876_543x_xx
SDI
0_0000_0100_00
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0100_1100_00
0_0111_1010_00
0_0111_1110_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
I_HGFE_DCBx_xx
SDI
0_0000_0100_00
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0100_1100_00
0_0110_1010_00
0_0110_1110_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxJx_xx
SDI
0_0000_0100_00
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0100_1100_00
0_0111_1000_00
0_0111_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_x21x_xx
Read
Signature
Bytes
SDI
0_0000_1000_00
0_0000_00bb_00
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0100_1100_00
0_0000_1100_00
0_0110_1000_00
0_0110_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
q_qqqq_qqqx_xx
Read
Calibration
Byte
SDI
0_0000_1000_00
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0100_1100_00
0_0000_1100_00
0_0111_1000_00
0_0111_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
p_pppp_pppx_xx
Write Fuse
High Bits
Write Fuse
Extended Bits
Write Lock
Bits
Read Fuse
Low Bits
Read Fuse
High Bits
Read Fuse
Extended Bits
Read Lock
Bits
Load “No
Operation”
Command
Notes:
SDI
0_0000_0000_00
SII
0_0100_1100_00
SDO
x_xxxx_xxxx_xx
Operation Remarks
Wait after Instr. 4 until SDO
goes high. Write I - B = “0” to
program the Fuse bit.
Wait after Instr. 4 until SDO
goes high. Write J = “0” to
program the Fuse bit.
Wait after Instr. 4 until SDO
goes high. Write 2 - 1 = “0” to
program the Lock bit.
Reading A - 3 = “0” means
the Fuse bit is programmed.
Reading I - B = “0” means the
Fuse bit is programmed.
Reading J = “0” means the
Fuse bit is programmed.
Reading 2, 1 = “0” means the
Lock bit is programmed.
Repeats Instr 2 4 for each
signature byte address.
1. a = address high bits, b = address low bits, d = data in high bits, e = data in low bits, p = data out high bits, q = data out low
bits, x = don’t care, 1 = Lock Bit1, 2 = Lock Bit2, 3 = CKSEL0 Fuse, 4 = CKSEL1 Fuse, 5 = CKSEL2 Fuse, 6 = CKSEL3
Fuse, 7 = SUT0 Fuse, 8 = SUT1 Fuse, 9 = CKOUT Fuse, A = CKDIV8 Fuse, B = BODLEVEL0 Fuse, C = BODLEVEL1
Fuse, D = BODLEVEL2 Fuse, E = EESAVE Fuse, F = WDTON Fuse, G = SPIEN Fuse, H = DWEN Fuse, I = RSTDISBL
Fuse, J = SELFPRGEN Fuse
2. For page sizes less than 256 words, parts of the address (bbbb_bbbb) will be parts of the page address.
3. For page sizes less than 256 bytes, parts of the address (bbbb_bbbb) will be parts of the page address.
4. The EEPROM is written page-wise. But only the bytes that are loaded into the page are actually written to the EEPROM.
Page-wise EEPROM access is more efficient when multiple bytes are to be written to the same page. Note that auto-erase
of EEPROM is not available in High-voltage Serial Programming, only in SPI Programming.
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21. Electrical Characteristics
21.1
Absolute Maximum Ratings*
Operating Temperature.................................. -55C to +125C
*NOTICE:
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute
Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and
functional operation of the device at these or
other conditions beyond those indicated in the
operational sections of this specification is not
implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating
conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
Storage Temperature ..................................... -65°C to +150°C
Voltage on any Pin except RESET
with respect to Ground ................................-0.5V to VCC+0.5V
Voltage on RESET with respect to Ground......-0.5V to +13.0V
Maximum Operating Voltage ............................................ 6.0V
DC Current per I/O Pin ............................................... 40.0 mA
DC Current VCC and GND Pins................................ 200.0 mA
21.2
DC Characteristics
Table 21-1.
Symbol
DC Characteristics. TA = -40C to +85C
Parameter
Condition
Min.
Typ.(1)
Max.
Units
(3)
VIL
Input Low-voltage, except
XTAL1 and RESET pin
VCC = 1.8V - 2.4V
VCC = 2.4V - 5.5V
-0.5
-0.5
0.2VCC
0.3VCC(3)
V
V
VIH
Input High-voltage, except
XTAL1 and RESET pin
VCC = 1.8V - 2.4V
VCC = 2.4V - 5.5V
0.7VCC(2)
0.6VCC(2)
VCC +0.5
VCC +0.5
V
V
VIL1
Input Low-voltage, XTAL1 pin,
External Clock Selected
VCC = 1.8V - 5.5V
-0.5
0.1VCC(3)
V
VIH1
Input High-voltage, XTAL1 pin,
External Clock Selected
VCC = 1.8V - 2.4V
VCC = 2.4V - 5.5V
0.8VCC(2)
0.7VCC(2)
VCC +0.5
VCC +0.5
V
V
VIL2
Input Low-voltage,
RESET pin
VCC = 1.8V - 5.5V
-0.5
0.2VCC(3)
V
V
VIH2
Input High-voltage,
RESET pin
VCC = 1.8V - 5.5V
0.9VCC(2)
VCC +0.5
V
VIL3
Input Low-voltage,
RESET pin as I/O
VCC = 1.8V - 2.4V
VCC = 2.4V - 5.5V
-0.5
-0.5
0.2VCC(3)
0.3VCC(3)
V
V
VIH3
Input High-voltage,
RESET pin as I/O
VCC = 1.8V - 2.4V
VCC = 2.4V - 5.5V
0.7VCC(2)
0.6VCC(2)
VCC +0.5
VCC +0.5
V
V
VOL
Output Low-voltage,(4)
Port B (except RESET) (6)
IOL = 10 mA, VCC = 5V
IOL = 5 mA, VCC = 3V
0.6
0.5
V
V
VOH
Output High-voltage, (5)
Port B (except RESET) (6)
IOH = -10 mA, VCC = 5V
IOH = -5 mA, VCC = 3V
IIL
Input Leakage
Current I/O Pin
VCC = 5.5V, pin low
(absolute value)
< 0.05
1
µA
IIH
Input Leakage
Current I/O Pin
VCC = 5.5V, pin high
(absolute value)
< 0.05
1
µA
RRST
Reset Pull-up Resistor
VCC = 5.5V, input low
60
k
4.3
2.5
30
V
V
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Table 21-1.
DC Characteristics. TA = -40C to +85C (Continued)
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
Rpu
I/O Pin Pull-up Resistor
VCC = 5.5V, input low
Power Supply Current (7)
ICC
Power-down mode (8)
Notes:
Min.
Typ.(1)
20
Max.
Units
50
k
Active 1 MHz, VCC = 2V
0.3
0.55
mA
Active 4 MHz, VCC = 3V
1.5
2.5
mA
Active 8 MHz, VCC = 5V
5
8
mA
Idle 1 MHz, VCC = 2V
0.1
0.2
mA
Idle 4 MHz, VCC = 3V
0.35
0.6
mA
Idle 8 MHz, VCC = 5V
1.2
2
mA
WDT enabled, VCC = 3V
10
µA
WDT disabled, VCC = 3V
2
µA
1. Typical values at 25C.
2. “Min” means the lowest value where the pin is guaranteed to be read as high.
3. “Max” means the highest value where the pin is guaranteed to be read as low.
4. Although each I/O port can sink more than the test conditions (10 mA at VCC = 5V, 5 mA at VCC = 3V) under steady state
conditions (non-transient), the following must be observed:
1] The sum of all IOL, for all ports, should not exceed 60 mA.
If IOL exceeds the test condition, VOL may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to sink current greater
than the listed test condition.
5. Although each I/O port can source more than the test conditions (10 mA at VCC = 5V, 5 mA at VCC = 3V) under steady state
conditions (non-transient), the following must be observed:
1] The sum of all IOH, for all ports, should not exceed 60 mA.
If IOH exceeds the test condition, VOH may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to source current
greater than the listed test condition.
6. The RESET pin must tolerate high voltages when entering and operating in programming modes and, as a consequence,
has a weak drive strength as compared to regular I/O pins. See Figure 22-23, Figure 22-24, Figure 22-25, and Figure 22-26
(starting on page 184).
7. Values are with external clock using methods described in “Minimizing Power Consumption” on page 36. Power Reduction
is enabled (PRR = 0xFF) and there is no I/O drive.
8. Brown-Out Detection (BOD) disabled.
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21.3
Speed
Figure 21-1. Maximum Frequency vs. VCC
10 MHz
Safe Operating Area
4 MHz
1.8V
2.7V
5.5V
Figure 21-2. Maximum Frequency vs. VCC
20 MHz
10 MHz
Safe Operating Area
2.7V
4.5V
5.5V
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21.4
Clock Characteristics
21.4.1
Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator Accuracy
It is possible to manually calibrate the internal oscillator to be more accurate than default factory calibration. Please
note that the oscillator frequency depends on temperature and voltage. Voltage and temperature characteristics
can be found in Figure 22-40 on page 193 and Figure 22-41 on page 193.
Table 21-2.
Calibration Accuracy of Internal RC Oscillator
Calibration
Method
Target Frequency
VCC
Temperature
Accuracy at given Voltage
& Temperature (1)
8.0 MHz (2)
3V
25C
±10%
Fixed frequency within:
6 – 8 MHz
Fixed voltage within:
1.8V - 5.5V (3)
2.7V - 5.5V (4)
Fixed temperature
within:
-40C to +85C
±1%
Factory
Calibration
User
Calibration
Notes:
1. Accuracy of oscillator frequency at calibration point (fixed temperature and fixed voltage).
2. ATtiny25/V, only: 6.4 MHz in ATtiny15 Compatibility Mode.
3. Voltage range for ATtiny25V/45V/85V.
4. Voltage range for ATtiny25/45/85.
21.4.2
External Clock Drive
Figure 21-3. External Clock Drive Waveforms
V IH1
V IL1
Table 21-3.
External Clock Drive Characteristics
VCC = 1.8 - 5.5V
VCC = 2.7 - 5.5V
VCC = 4.5 - 5.5V
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
Units
0
4
0
10
0
20
MHz
Symbol
Parameter
1/tCLCL
Clock Frequency
tCLCL
Clock Period
250
100
50
ns
tCHCX
High Time
100
40
20
ns
tCLCX
Low Time
100
40
20
ns
tCLCH
Rise Time
2.0
1.6
0.5
µs
tCHCL
Fall Time
2.0
1.6
0.5
µs
tCLCL
Change in period from one clock cycle to the next
2
2
2
%
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21.5
System and Reset Characteristics
Table 21-4.
Reset, Brown-out and Internal Voltage Characteristics
Parameter
Condition
Min(1)
VRST
RESET Pin Threshold Voltage
VCC = 3V
0.2 VCC
tRST
Minimum pulse width on
RESET Pin
VCC = 3V
Symbol
VHYST
Typ(1)
Max(1)
Units
0.9 VCC
V
2.5
µs
Brown-out Detector Hysteresis
50
mV
tBOD
Min Pulse Width on
Brown-out Reset
2
µs
VBG
Bandgap reference
voltage
VCC = 5.5V
TA = 25°C
tBG
Bandgap reference
start-up time
IBG
Bandgap reference
current consumption
Note:
1.0
1.1
1.2
V
VCC = 2.7V
TA = 25°C
40
70
µs
VCC = 2.7V
TA = 25°C
15
µA
1. Values are guidelines only.
Two versions of power-on reset have been implemented, as follows.
21.5.1
Standard Power-On Reset
This implementation of power-on reset existed in early versions of ATtiny25/45/85. The table below describes the
characteristics of this power-on reset and it is valid for the following devices, only:
• ATtiny25, revision D, and older
• ATtiny45, revision F, and older
• ATtiny85, revision B, and newer
Note:
Revisions are marked on the package (packages 8P3 and 8S2: bottom, package 20M1: top)
Table 21-5.
Symbol
Characteristics of Standard Power-On Reset. TA = -40 to +85C
Parameter
Release threshold of power-on reset (2)
VPOR
VPOA
Activation threshold of power-on reset
SRON
Power-on slope rate
Note:
(3)
Min(1)
Typ(1)
Max(1)
Units
0.7
1.0
1.4
V
0.05
0.9
1.3
V
4.5
V/ms
0.01
1. Values are guidelines, only
2. Threshold where device is released from reset when voltage is rising
3. The power-on reset will not work unless the supply voltage has been below VPOA
21.5.2
Enhanced Power-On Reset
This implementation of power-on reset exists in newer versions of ATtiny25/45/85. The table below describes the
characteristics of this power-on reset and it is valid for the following devices, only:
• ATtiny25, revision E, and newer
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• ATtiny45, revision G, and newer
• ATtiny85, revision C, and newer
Table 21-6.
Symbol
Characteristics of Enhanced Power-On Reset. TA = -40C to +85C
Parameter
Min(1)
Typ(1)
Max(1)
Units
1.1
1.4
1.6
V
1.3
1.6
V
(2)
VPOR
Release threshold of power-on reset
VPOA
Activation threshold of power-on reset (3)
0.6
SRON
Power-On Slope Rate
0.01
Note:
V/ms
1. Values are guidelines, only
2. Threshold where device is released from reset when voltage is rising
3. The Power-on Reset will not work unless the supply voltage has been below VPOT (falling)
21.6
Brown-Out Detection
Table 21-7.
BODLEVEL Fuse Coding. TA = -40C to +85C
BODLEVEL[2:0] Fuses
Min(1)
111
Max(1)
Units
BOD Disabled
110
1.7
1.8
2.0
101
2.5
2.7
2.9
100
4.1
4.3
4.5
0XX
Note:
Typ(1)
V
Reserved
1. VBOT may be below nominal minimum operating voltage for some devices. For devices where this is the case, the
device is tested down to VCC = VBOT during the production test. This guarantees that a Brown-out Reset will occur
before VCC drops to a voltage where correct operation of the microcontroller is no longer guaranteed.
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21.7
ADC Characteristics
Table 21-8.
Symbol
ADC Characteristics, Single Ended Channels. TA = -40C to +85C
Parameter
Condition
Min
Typ
Resolution
Absolute accuracy
(Including INL, DNL, and
Quantization, Gain and
Offset errors)
VINT
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 1 MHz
3
LSB
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200 kHz
Noise Reduction Mode
1.5
LSB
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 1 MHz
Noise Reduction Mode
2.5
LSB
Integral Non-linearity (INL)
(Accuracy after offset and gain
calibration)
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200 kHz
1
LSB
Differential Non-linearity (DNL)
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200 kHz
0.5
LSB
Gain Error
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200 kHz
2.5
LSB
Offset Error
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200 kHz
1.5
LSB
Conversion Time
Free Running Conversion
Input Voltage
14
280
µs
50
1000
kHz
GND
VREF
V
38.4
External Reference Voltage
2.0
Internal Voltage Reference
1.0
2.3
Internal 2.56V Reference
(1)
VCC > 3.0V
Analog Input Resistance
ADC Output
Note:
Bits
LSB
RREF
RAIN
10
2
Input Bandwidth
AREF
Units
VREF = 4V, VCC = 4V,
ADC clock = 200 kHz
Clock Frequency
VIN
Max
0
kHz
VCC
V
1.1
1.2
V
2.56
2.8
V
32
k
100
M
1023
LSB
1. Values are guidelines only.
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Table 21-9.
Symbol
ADC Characteristics, Differential Channels (Unipolar Mode). TA = -40C to +85C
Parameter
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Gain = 1x
10
Bits
Gain = 20x
10
Bits
Resolution
Absolute accuracy
(Including INL, DNL, and
Quantization, Gain and Offset
Errors)
Integral Non-Linearity (INL)
(Accuracy after Offset and
Gain Calibration)
Gain = 1x
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
ADC clock = 50 - 200 kHz
10.0
LSB
Gain = 20x
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
ADC clock = 50 - 200 kHz
20.0
LSB
Gain = 1x
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
ADC clock = 50 - 200 kHz
4.0
LSB
Gain = 20x
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
ADC clock = 50 - 200 kHz
10.0
LSB
Gain = 1x
10.0
LSB
Gain = 20x
15.0
LSB
Gain = 1x
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
ADC clock = 50 - 200 kHz
3.0
LSB
Gain = 20x
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
ADC clock = 50 - 200 kHz
4.0
LSB
Gain Error
Offset Error
Conversion Time
Free Running Conversion
Clock Frequency
VIN
Input Voltage
VDIFF
Input Differential Voltage
70
280
µs
50
200
kHz
GND
VCC
V
VREF/Gain
V
Input Bandwidth
AREF
VINT
4
External Reference Voltage
2.0
Internal Voltage Reference
1.0
2.3
Internal 2.56V Reference (1)
VCC > 3.0V
kHz
VCC - 1.0
V
1.1
1.2
V
2.56
2.8
V
RREF
Reference Input Resistance
32
k
RAIN
Analog Input Resistance
100
M
ADC Conversion Output
Note:
0
1023
LSB
1. Values are guidelines only.
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Table 21-10. ADC Characteristics, Differential Channels (Bipolar Mode). TA = -40C to +85C
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Gain = 1x
10
Bits
Gain = 20x
10
Bits
Resolution
Absolute accuracy
(Including INL, DNL, and
Quantization, Gain and Offset
Errors)
Integral Non-Linearity (INL)
(Accuracy after Offset and
Gain Calibration)
Gain = 1x
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
ADC clock = 50 - 200 kHz
8.0
LSB
Gain = 20x
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
ADC clock = 50 - 200 kHz
8.0
LSB
Gain = 1x
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
ADC clock = 50 - 200 kHz
4.0
LSB
Gain = 20x
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
ADC clock = 50 - 200 kHz
5.0
LSB
Gain = 1x
4.0
LSB
Gain = 20x
5.0
LSB
Gain = 1x
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
ADC clock = 50 - 200 kHz
3.0
LSB
Gain = 20x
VREF = 4V, VCC = 5V
ADC clock = 50 - 200 kHz
4.0
LSB
Gain Error
Offset Error
Conversion Time
Free Running Conversion
Clock Frequency
VIN
Input Voltage
VDIFF
Input Differential Voltage
70
280
µs
50
200
kHz
GND
VCC
V
VREF/Gain
V
Input Bandwidth
AREF
VINT
4
External Reference Voltage
2.0
Internal Voltage Reference
1.0
2.3
Internal 2.56V Reference (1)
VCC > 3.0V
kHz
VCC - 1.0
V
1.1
1.2
V
2.56
2.8
V
RREF
Reference Input Resistance
32
k
RAIN
Analog Input Resistance
100
M
ADC Conversion Output
Note:
-512
511
LSB
1. Values are guidelines only.
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21.8
Serial Programming Characteristics
Figure 21-4. Serial Programming Waveforms
SERIAL DATA INPUT
(MOSI)
MSB
LSB
SERIAL DATA OUTPUT
(MISO)
MSB
LSB
SERIAL CLOCK INPUT
(SCK)
SAMPLE
Figure 21-5. Serial Programming Timing
MOSI
tSHOX
tOVSH
SCK
tSLSH
tSHSL
MISO
tSLIV
Table 21-11. Serial Programming Characteristics, TA = -40C to +85C, VCC = 1.8 - 5.5V (Unless Otherwise
Noted)
Symbol
Parameter
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency (VCC = 1.8 - 5.5V)
tCLCL
Oscillator Period (VCC = 1.8 - 5.5V)
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency (VCC = 2.7 - 5.5V)
Oscillator Period (VCC = 2.7 - 5.5V)
tCLCL
1/tCLCL
Min
0
Typ
Max
Units
4
MHz
250
0
ns
10
100
MHz
ns
Oscillator Frequency (VCC = 4.5V - 5.5V)
0
tCLCL
Oscillator Period (VCC = 4.5V - 5.5V)
50
ns
tSHSL
SCK Pulse Width High
2 tCLCL*
ns
tSLSH
SCK Pulse Width Low
2 tCLCL*
ns
tOVSH
MOSI Setup to SCK High
tCLCL
ns
tSHOX
MOSI Hold after SCK High
2 tCLCL
ns
tSLIV
SCK Low to MISO Valid
Note:
20
100
MHz
ns
1. 2 tCLCL for fck < 12 MHz, 3 tCLCL for fck >= 12 MHz
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21.9
High-voltage Serial Programming Characteristics
Figure 21-6. High-voltage Serial Programming Timing
SDI (PB0), SII (PB1)
tIVSH
SCI (PB3)
tSLSH
tSHIX
tSHSL
SDO (PB2)
tSHOV
Table 21-12. High-voltage Serial Programming Characteristics TA = 25C ± 10%, VCC = 5.0V ± 10% (Unless otherwise noted)
Symbol
Parameter
Min
tSHSL
SCI (PB3) Pulse Width High
125
ns
tSLSH
SCI (PB3) Pulse Width Low
125
ns
tIVSH
SDI (PB0), SII (PB1) Valid to SCI (PB3) High
50
ns
tSHIX
SDI (PB0), SII (PB1) Hold after SCI (PB3) High
50
ns
tSHOV
SCI (PB3) High to SDO (PB2) Valid
16
ns
Wait after Instr. 3 for Write Fuse Bits
2.5
ms
tWLWH_PFB
Typ
Max
Units
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22. Typical Characteristics
The data contained in this section is largely based on simulations and characterization of similar devices in the
same process and design methods. Thus, the data should be treated as indications of how the part will behave.
The following charts show typical behavior. These figures are not tested during manufacturing. All current consumption measurements are performed with all I/O pins configured as inputs and with internal pull-ups enabled. A
sine wave generator with rail-to-rail output is used as clock source.
The power consumption in Power-down mode is independent of clock selection.
The current consumption is a function of several factors such as: operating voltage, operating frequency, loading of
I/O pins, switching rate of I/O pins, code executed and ambient temperature. The dominating factors are operating
voltage and frequency.
The current drawn from capacitive loaded pins may be estimated (for one pin) as CL*VCC*f where CL = load capacitance, VCC = operating voltage and f = average switching frequency of I/O pin.
The parts are characterized at frequencies higher than test limits. Parts are not guaranteed to function properly at
frequencies higher than the ordering code indicates.
The difference between current consumption in Power-down mode with Watchdog Timer enabled and Power-down
mode with Watchdog Timer disabled represents the differential current drawn by the Watchdog Timer.
Active Supply Current
Figure 22-1. Active Supply Current vs. Low frequency (0.1 - 1.0 MHz)
ACTIVE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. LOW FREQUENCY
0.1 -1.0 MHz
1,2
5.5 V
1
5.0 V
4.5 V
0,8
I CC (mA)
22.1
4.0 V
0,6
3.3 V
2.7 V
0,4
1.8 V
0,2
0
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1
Frequency (MHz)
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Figure 22-2. Active Supply Current vs. Frequency (1 - 20 MHz)
ACTIVE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. FREQUENCY
1 - 20 MHz
14
5.5 V
12
5.0 V
ICC (mA)
10
4.5 V
8
4.0V
6
3.3V
4
2.7V
2
1.8V
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 22-3. Active Supply Current vs. VCC (Internal RC oscillator, 8 MHz)
ACTIVE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. VCC
INTERNAL RC OSCILLATOR, 8 MHz
7
-40 ˚C
6
25 ˚C
85 ˚C
ICC (mA)
5
4
3
2
1
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
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Figure 22-4. Active Supply Current vs. VCC (Internal RC Oscillator, 1 MHz)
ACTIVE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. VCC
INTERNAL RC OSCILLATOR, 1 MHz
1,6
25 ˚C
85 ˚C
-40 ˚C
1,4
ICC (mA)
1,2
1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
Figure 22-5. Active Supply Current vs. VCC (Internal RC Oscillator, 128 kHz)
ACTIVE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. VCC
INTERNAL RC OSCILLATOR, 128 KHz
0,25
-40 ˚C
0,2
25 ˚C
ICC (mA)
85 ˚C
0,15
0,1
0,05
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
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Idle Supply Current
Figure 22-6. Idle Supply Current vs. low Frequency (0.1 - 1.0 MHz)
IDLE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. LOW FREQUENCY
0.1 - 1.0 MHz
0,25
5.5 V
5.0 V
0,2
4.5 V
ICC (mA)
4.0 V
0,15
3.3 V
2.7 V
0,1
1.8 V
0,05
0
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 22-7. Idle Supply Current vs. Frequency (1 - 20 MHz)
IDLE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. FREQUENCY
1 - 20 MHz
4
ICC (mA)
22.2
3,5
5.5 V
3
5.0 V
2,5
4.5 V
2
4.0V
1,5
3.3V
1
2.7V
0,5
1.8V
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Frequency (MHz)
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Figure 22-8. Idle Supply Current vs. VCC (Internal RC Oscillator, 8 MHz)I
IDLE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. VCC
INTERNAL RC OSCILLATOR, 8 MHz
1,8
85 ˚C
1,6
25 ˚C
1,4
-40 ˚C
ICC (mA)
1,2
1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
Figure 22-9. Idle Supply Current vs. VCC (Internal RC Oscilllator, 1 MHz)
IDLE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. VCC
INTERNAL RC OSCILLATOR, 1 MHz
0,5
85 ˚C
25 ˚C
-40 ˚C
0,45
0,4
ICC (mA)
0,35
0,3
0,25
0,2
0,15
0,1
0,05
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
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Figure 22-10. Idle Supply Current vs. VCC (Internal RC Oscillator, 128 kHz)
IDLE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. VCC
INTERNAL RC OSCILLATOR, 128 kHz
0,1
0,09
-40 ˚C
25 ˚C
0,08
85 ˚C
ICC (mA)
0,07
0,06
0,05
0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
22.3
Supply Current of I/O modules
The tables and formulas below can be used to calculate the additional current consumption for the different I/O
modules in Active and Idle mode. The enabling or disabling of the I/O modules are controlled by the Power Reduction Register. See “PRR – Power Reduction Register” on page 38 for details.
Table 22-1.
Additional Current Consumption for the different I/O modules (absolute values)
PRR bit
Typical numbers
VCC = 2V, f = 1 MHz
VCC = 3V, f = 4 MHz
VCC = 5V, f = 8 MHz
PRTIM1
45 uA
300 uA
1100 uA
PRTIM0
5 uA
30 uA
110 uA
PRUSI
5 uA
25 uA
100 uA
PRADC
15 uA
85 uA
340 uA
Table 22-2.
PRR bit
Additional Current Consumption (percentage) in Active and Idle mode
Additional Current consumption
compared to Active with external clock
(see Figure 22-1 and Figure 22-2)
Additional Current consumption
compared to Idle with external clock
(see Figure 22-6 and Figure 22-7)
PRTIM1
20 %
80 %
PRTIM0
2%
10 %
PRUSI
2%
10 %
PRADC
5%
25 %
It is possible to calculate the typical current consumption based on the numbers from Table 22-2 for other VCC and
frequency settings that listed in Table 22-1.
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
177
22.3.1
Example
Calculate the expected current consumption in idle mode with USI, TIMER0, and ADC enabled at VCC = 2.0V and f
= 1 MHz. From Table 22-2 on page 177, third column, we see that we need to add 10% for the USI, 25% for the
ADC, and 10% for the TIMER0 module. Reading from Figure 22-9, we find that the idle current consumption is
~0,18 mA at VCC = 2.0V and f = 1 MHz. The total current consumption in idle mode with USI, TIMER0, and ADC
enabled, gives:
I CC = 0 ,18mA   1 + 0 ,1 + 0 ,25 + 0 ,1   0 ,261mA
Power-down Supply Current
Figure 22-11. Power-down Supply Current vs. VCC (Watchdog Timer Disabled)
POWER-DOWN SUPPLY CURRENT vs. VCC
WATCHDOG TIMER DISABLED
1.4
85 ˚C
1.2
1
I CC(uA)
22.4
0.8
-40 ˚C
25 ˚C
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
178
Figure 22-12. Power-down Supply Current vs. VCC (Watchdog Timer Enabled)
POWER-DOWN SUPPLY CURRENT vs. VCC
WATCHDOG TIMER ENABLED
14
12
10
ICC (uA)
-40 ˚C
8
25 ˚C
85 ˚C
6
4
2
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VCC (V)
Pin Pull-up
Figure 22-13. I/O Pin Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Input Voltage (VCC = 1.8V)
I/O PIN PULL-UP RESISTOR CURRENT vs. INPUT VOLTAGE
VCC = 1.8V
60
50
40
IOP (uA)
22.5
30
20
25 ˚C
10
85 ˚C
-40 ˚C
0
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
1,2
1,4
1,6
1,8
2
VOP (V)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
179
Figure 22-14. I/O Pin Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Input Voltage (VCC = 2.7V)
I/O PIN PULL-UP RESISTOR CURRENT vs. INPUT VOLTAGE
VCC = 2.7V
80
70
60
IOP (uA)
50
40
30
20
25 ˚C
85 ˚C
10
-40 ˚C
0
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
VOP (V)
Figure 22-15. I/O Pin Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Input Voltage (VCC = 5V)
I/O PIN PULL-UP RESISTOR CURRENT vs. INPUT VOLTAGE
VCC = 5V
160
140
120
IOP (uA)
100
80
60
25 ˚C
40
85 ˚C
20
-40 ˚C
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
VOP (V)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
180
Figure 22-16. Reset Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Reset Pin Voltage (VCC = 1.8V)
RESET PULL-UP RESISTOR CURRENT vs. RESET PIN VOLTAGE
VCC = 1.8V
40
35
IRESET(uA)
30
25
20
15
10
25 ˚C
-40 ˚C
85 ˚C
5
0
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
1,2
1,4
1,6
1,8
2
VRESET (V)
Figure 22-17. Reset Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Reset Pin Voltage (VCC = 2.7V)
RESET PULL-UP RESISTOR CURRENT vs. RESET PIN VOLTAGE
VCC =2.7V
60
50
IRESET (uA)
40
30
20
25 ˚C
10
-40 ˚C
85 ˚C
0
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
VRESET(V)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
181
Figure 22-18. Reset Pull-up Resistor Current vs. Reset Pin Voltage (VCC = 5V)
RESET PULL-UP RESISTOR CURRENT vs. RESET PIN VOLTAGE
VCC = 5V
120
100
IRESET(uA)
80
60
40
25 ˚C
-40 ˚C
85 ˚C
20
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
VRESET(V)
Pin Driver Strength
Figure 22-19. I/O Pin Output Voltage vs. Sink Current (VCC = 3V)
I/O PIN OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs. SINK CURRENT
VCC = 3V
1,2
1
85
0,8
VOL (V)
22.6
25
0,6
-40
0,4
0,2
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
IOL (mA)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
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182
Figure 22-20. I/O Pin Output Voltage vs. Sink Current (VCC = 5V)
I/O PIN OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs. SINK CURRENT
VCC = 5V
0,6
85
0,5
25
VOL (V)
0,4
-40
0,3
0,2
0,1
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
IOL (mA)
Figure 22-21. I/O Pin Output Voltage vs. Source Current (VCC = 3V)
I/O PIN OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs. SOURCE CURRENT
VCC = 3V
3,5
3
-40
2,5
VOH (V)
25
2
85
1,5
1
0,5
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
IOH (mA)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
183
Figure 22-22. I/O Pin Output Voltage vs. Source Current (VCC = 5V)
I/O PIN OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs. SOURCE CURRENT
VCC = 5V
5,1
5
VOH (V)
4,9
4,8
4,7
4,6
-40
25
4,5
85
4,4
0
5
10
15
20
25
IOH (mA)
Figure 22-23. Reset Pin Output Voltage vs. Sink Current (VCC = 3V)
RESET AS I/O PIN OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs. SINK CURRENT
VCC = 3V
1.5
85 °C
VOL (V)
1
0 °C
-45 °C
0.5
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
IOL (mA)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
184
Figure 22-24. Reset Pin Output Voltage vs. Sink Current (VCC = 5V)
RESET AS I/O PIN OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs. SINK CURRENT
VCC = 5V
1
0.8
VOL (V)
0.6
85 °C
0.4
0 °C
-45 °C
0.2
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
IOL (mA)
Figure 22-25. Reset Pin Output Voltage vs. Source Current (VCC = 3V)
RESET AS I/O PIN OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs. SOURCE CURRENT
VCC = 3V
3.5
3
VOH (V)
2.5
2
1.5
-45 °C
25 °C
85 °C
1
0.5
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
IOH (mA)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
185
Figure 22-26. Reset Pin Output Voltage vs. Source Current (VCC = 5V)
RESET AS I/O PIN OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs. SOURCE CURRENT
VCC = 5V
5
4.5
VOH (V)
4
3.5
3
-45 °C
25 °C
85 °C
2.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
IOH (mA)
Pin Threshold and Hysteresis
Figure 22-27. I/O Pin Input Threshold Voltage vs. VCC (VIH, IO Pin Read as ‘1’)
I/O PIN INPUT THRESHOLD VOLTAGE vs. VCC
VIH, IO PIN READ AS '1'
3
-40 ˚C
85 ˚C
25 ˚C
2,5
Threshold (V)
22.7
2
1,5
1
0,5
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
186
Figure 22-28. I/O Pin Input Threshold Voltage vs. VCC (VIL, IO Pin Read as ‘0’)
I/O PIN INPUT THRESHOLD VOLTAGE vs. VCC
VIL, IO PIN READ AS '0'
3
85 ˚C
25 ˚C
2,5
Threshold (V)
-40 ˚C
2
1,5
1
0,5
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
Figure 22-29. I/O Pin Input Hysteresis vs. VCC
I/O PIN INPUT HYSTERESIS vs. VCC
0,6
0,5
Input Hysteresis (V)
0,4
-40 °C
85 °C
25 °C
0,3
0,2
0,1
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
V CC (V)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
187
Figure 22-30. Reset Input Threshold Voltage vs. VCC (VIH, IO Pin Read as ‘1’)
RESET INPUT THRESHOLD VOLTAGE vs. VCC
VIH, IO PIN READ AS '1'
85 °C
2,5
25 °C
-40 °C
Threshold (V)
2
1,5
1
0,5
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
Figure 22-31. Reset Input Threshold Voltage vs. VCC (VIL, IO Pin Read as ‘0’)
RESET INPUT THRESHOLD VOLTAGE vs. VCC
VIL, IO PIN READ AS '0'
2,5
85 °C
25 °C
-40 °C
Threshold (V)
2
1,5
1
0,5
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
188
Figure 22-32. Reset Pin Input Hysteresis vs. VCC
RESET PIN INPUT HYSTERESIS vs. VCC
0,5
0,45
0,4
Input Hysteresis (V)
0,35
0,3
0,25
0,2
0,15
0,1
-40 °C
25 °C
0,05
85 °C
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
BOD Threshold
Figure 22-33. BOD Threshold vs. Temperature (BOD Level is 4.3V)
BOD THRESHOLDS vs. TEMPERATURE
4,4
Rising VCC
4,38
4,36
Threshold (V)
22.8
4,34
4,32
Falling VCC
4,3
4,28
4,26
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Temperature (C)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
189
Figure 22-34. BOD Threshold vs. Temperature (BOD Level is 2.7V)
BOD THRESHOLDS vs. TEMPERATURE
2,8
Rising VCC
2,78
Threshold (V)
2,76
2,74
2,72
Falling VCC
2,7
2,68
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Temperature (C)
Figure 22-35. BOD Threshold vs. Temperature (BOD Level is 1.8V)
BOD THRESHOLDS vs. TEMPERATURE
1,85
Rising VCC
1,845
1,84
Threshold (V)
1,835
1,83
1,825
1,82
1,815
Falling VCC
1,81
1,805
1,8
1,795
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Temperature (C)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
190
Figure 22-36. Bandgap Voltage vs. Supply Voltage
BANDGAP VOLTAGE vs. VCC
1,2
1,18
1,16
Bandgap Voltage (V)
1,14
1,12
1,1
85 °C
25 °C
1,08
1,06
1,04
-40 °C
1,02
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
Vcc (V)
Figure 22-37. Bandgap Voltage vs. Temperature
BANDGAP VOLTAGE vs. Temperature
1,2
1,18
1,16
Bandgap Voltage (V)
1,14
1.8 V
3V
1,12
5V
1,1
1,08
1,06
1,04
1,02
1
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
Temperature
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
191
Internal Oscillator Speed
Figure 22-38. Watchdog Oscillator Frequency vs. VCC
WATCHDOG OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. VCC
0,128
0,126
0,124
FRC (MHz)
-40 ˚C
0,122
25 ˚C
0,12
0,118
0,116
0,114
85 ˚C
0,112
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
Figure 22-39. Watchdog Oscillator Frequency vs. Temperature
WATCHDOG OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. TEMPERATURE
0,12
0,118
0,116
FRC (MHz)
22.9
0,114
1.8 V
0,112
2.7 V
3.3 V
0,11
4.0 V
5.5 V
0,108
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Temperature
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
192
Figure 22-40. Calibrated 8 MHz RC Oscillator Frequency vs. VCC
CALIBRATED 8 MHz RC OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. VCC
8,2
85 ˚C
8,1
FRC (MHz)
8
25 ˚C
7,9
7,8
-40 ˚C
7,7
7,6
7,5
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
Figure 22-41. Calibrated 8 MHz RC Oscillator Frequency vs. Temperature
CALIBRATED 8 MHz RC OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. TEMPERATURE
8,15
3.0 V
8,1
8,05
5.0 V
FRC (MHz)
8
7,95
7,9
7,85
7,8
7,75
7,7
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
Temperature
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
193
Figure 22-42. Calibrated 8 MHz RC Oscillator Frequency vs. OSCCAL Value
CALIBRATED 8 MHz RC OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. OSCCAL VALUE
18
85 ˚C
25 ˚C
16
14
-40 ˚C
FRC (MHz)
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
16
32
48
64
80
96
112
128
144
160
176
192
208
224
240
OSCCAL (X1)
Figure 22-43. Calibrated 1.6 MHz RC Oscillator Frequency vs. VCC
CALIBRATED 1.6 MHz RC OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. VCC
1,65
85 ˚C
1,6
FRC (MHz)
25 ˚C
1,55
-40 ˚C
1,5
1,45
1,4
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
194
Figure 22-44. Calibrated 1.6 MHz RC Oscillator Frequency vs. Temperature
CALIBRATED 1.6MHz RC OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. TEMPERATURE
1,64
3.0 V
1,62
5.0 V
FRC (MHz)
1,6
1,58
1,56
1,54
1,52
1,5
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
Temperature
Figure 22-45. Calibrated 1.6 MHz RC Oscillator Frequency vs. OSCCAL Value
CALIBRATED 1.6 MHz RC OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. OSCCAL VALUE
4,5
85 ˚C
25 ˚C
-40 ˚C
4
3,5
FRC (MHz)
3
2,5
2
1,5
1
0,5
0
0
16
32
48
64
80
96
112
128
144
160
176
192
208
224
240
OSCCAL (X1)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
195
22.10 Current Consumption of Peripheral Units
Figure 22-46. Brownout Detector Current vs. VCC
BROWNOUT DETECTOR CURRENT vs. VCC
30
85 °C
25
25 °C
-40 °C
ICC (uA)
20
15
10
5
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
Figure 22-47. ADC Current vs. VCC (AREF = AVCC)
ADC CURRENT vs. VCC
AREF = AVCC
250
85 °C
200
25 °C
ICC (uA)
-40 °C
150
100
50
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
196
Figure 22-48. Analog Comparator Current vs. VCC
ANALOG COMPARATOR CURRENT vs. VCC
50
45
85 °C
40
25 °C
-40 °C
ICC (uA)
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
Figure 22-49. Programming Current vs. VCC
PROGRAMMING CURRENT vs. Vcc
Ext Clk
12
-40 °C
10
25 °C
ICC (mA)
8
6
85 °C
4
2
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
197
22.11 Current Consumption in Reset and Reset Pulsewidth
Figure 22-50. Reset Supply Current vs. VCC (0.1 - 1.0 MHz, Excluding Current Through The Reset Pull-up)
RESET SUPPLY CURRENT vs. VCC
0.1 - 1.0 MHz, EXCLUDING CURRENT THROUGH THE RESET PULLUP
ICC (mA)
0,16
0,14
5.5 V
0,12
5.0 V
4.5 V
0,1
4.0 V
0,08
3.3 V
0,06
2.7 V
0,04
1.8 V
0,02
0
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 22-51. Reset Supply Current vs. VCC (1 - 20 MHz, Excluding Current Through The Reset Pull-up)
RESET SUPPLY CURRENT vs. VCC
1 - 20 MHz, EXCLUDING CURRENT THROUGH THE RESET PULLUP
2,5
5.5 V
5.0 V
2
ICC (mA)
4.5 V
1,5
4.0V
1
3.3V
0,5
2.7V
1.8V
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Frequency (MHz)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
198
Figure 22-52. Minimum Reset Pulse Width vs. VCC
MINIMUM RESET PULSE WIDTH vs. VCC
2500
Pulsewidth (ns)
2000
1500
1000
85 ˚C
500
25 ˚C
-40 ˚C
0
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
VCC (V)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
199
23. Register Summary
Address
Note:
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Page
0x3F
SREG
I
T
H
S
V
N
Z
C
page 8
0x3E
SPH
–
–
–
–
–
–
SP9
SP8
page 11
0x3D
SPL
SP7
SP6
SP5
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
page 11
0x3C
Reserved
page 51
–
0x3B
GIMSK
–
INT0
PCIE
–
–
–
–
–
0x3A
GIFR
–
INTF0
PCIF
–
–
–
–
–
page 52
0x39
TIMSK
–
OCIE1A
OCIE1B
OCIE0A
OCIE0B
TOIE1
TOIE0
–
pages 81, 102
0x38
TIFR
–
OCF1A
OCF1B
OCF0A
OCF0B
TOV1
TOV0
–
page 81
0x37
SPMCSR
–
–
RSIG
CTPB
RFLB
PGWRT
PGERS
SPMEN
page 145
0x36
Reserved
0x35
MCUCR
BODS
PUD
SE
SM1
–
SM0
BODSE
ISC01
ISC00
pages 37, 51, 64
0x34
MCUSR
–
–
–
–
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
page 44,
0x33
TCCR0B
FOC0A
FOC0B
–
–
WGM02
CS02
CS01
CS00
page 79
0x32
TCNT0
0x31
OSCCAL
0x30
TCCR1
0x2F
TCNT1
Timer/Counter1
pages 91, 102
0x2E
OCR1A
Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register A
pages 91, 102
Timer/Counter0
CTC1
PWM1A
0x2D
OCR1C
0x2C
GTCCR
0x2B
OCR1B
0x2A
TCCR0A
0x29
OCR0A
0x28
OCR0B
0x27
PLLCSR
LSM
0x26
CLKPR
CLKPCE
–
0x25
DT1A
DT1AH3
DT1AH2
DT1BH3
DT1BH2
-
-
0x24
DT1B
0x23
DTPS1
0x22
DWDR
0x21
WDTCR
0x20
PRR
0x1F
EEARH
0x1E
EEARL
0x1D
EEDR
0x1C
EECR
page 80
Oscillator Calibration Register
COM1A1
COM1A0
CS13
page 31
CS12
CS11
CS10
pages 89, 100
Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register C
TSM
PWM1B
COM1B1
COM0A1
COM0A0
COM0B1
COM1B0
FOC1B
pages 91, 102
FOC1A
PSR1
PSR0
WGM01
WGM00
Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register B
page 92
–
COM0B0
Timer/Counter0 – Output Compare Register A
–
page 81
–
–
PCKE
PLLE
PLOCK
–
–
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
page 32
DT1AH1
DT1AH0
DT1AL3
DT1AL2
DT1AL1
DT1AL0
page 107
DT1BH1
DT1BH0
DT1BL3
DT1BL2
DT1BL1
DT1BL0
page 107
-
-
-
-
DTPS11
DTPS10
page 106
WDE
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
page 45
PRTIM1
PRTIM0
PRUSI
PRADC
page 36
EEAR8
page 20
DWDR[7:0]
WDIF
WDIE
WDP3
WDCE
–
EEAR7
EEAR6
EEAR5
EEAR4
–
EEPM1
EEAR3
EEPM0
pages 94, 103
page 140
EEAR2
EEAR1
EEAR0
page 21
EERIE
EEMPE
EEPE
EERE
page 21
EEPROM Data Register
–
page 77
page 80
Timer/Counter0 – Output Compare Register B
–
pages 77, 90, 101
page 21
0x1B
Reserved
–
0x1A
Reserved
–
0x19
Reserved
0x18
PORTB
–
–
PORTB5
PORTB4
PORTB3
PORTB2
PORTB1
PORTB0
page 64
0x17
DDRB
–
–
DDB5
DDB4
DDB3
DDB2
DDB1
DDB0
page 64
0x16
PINB
–
–
PINB5
PINB4
PINB3
PINB2
PINB1
PINB0
page 64
0x15
PCMSK
–
–
PCINT5
PCINT4
PCINT3
PCINT2
PCINT1
PCINT0
page 52
0x14
DIDR0
–
–
ADC0D
ADC2D
ADC3D
ADC1D
AIN1D
AIN0D
pages 121, 138
–
0x13
GPIOR2
General Purpose I/O Register 2
page 10
0x12
GPIOR1
General Purpose I/O Register 1
page 10
0x11
GPIOR0
General Purpose I/O Register 0
page 10
0x10
USIBR
USI Buffer Register
page 115
0x0F
USIDR
0x0E
USISR
USISIF
USIOIF
USIPF
USIDC
USI Data Register
USICNT3
USICNT2
USICNT1
USICNT0
page 115
page 115
0x0D
USICR
USISIE
USIOIE
USIWM1
USIWM0
USICS1
USICS0
USICLK
USITC
page 116
0x0C
Reserved
–
0x0B
Reserved
–
0x0A
Reserved
–
0x09
Reserved
0x08
ACSR
0x07
–
ACD
ACBG
ACO
ACI
ACIE
–
ACIS1
ACIS0
page 120
ADMUX
REFS1
REFS0
ADLAR
REFS2
MUX3
MUX2
MUX1
MUX0
page 134
0x06
ADCSRA
ADEN
ADSC
ADATE
ADIF
ADIE
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
page 136
0x05
ADCH
ADC Data Register High Byte
0x04
ADCL
ADC Data Register Low Byte
0x03
ADCSRB
0x02
Reserved
–
0x01
Reserved
–
0x00
Reserved
–
BIN
ACME
IPR
–
–
page 137
page 137
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
pages 120, 137
1. For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory addresses
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
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200
should never be written.
2. I/O Registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In these
registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions.
3. Some of the Status Flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVRs, the CBI and SBI
instructions will only operation the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such Status Flags. The
CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
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201
24. Instruction Set Summary
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC INSTRUCTIONS
ADD
Rd, Rr
Add two Registers
Rd  Rd + Rr
Z,C,N,V,H
ADC
Rd, Rr
Add with Carry two Registers
Rd  Rd + Rr + C
Z,C,N,V,H
1
ADIW
Rdl,K
Add Immediate to Word
Rdh:Rdl  Rdh:Rdl + K
Z,C,N,V,S
2
SUB
Rd, Rr
Subtract two Registers
Rd  Rd - Rr
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SUBI
Rd, K
Subtract Constant from Register
Rd  Rd - K
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBC
Rd, Rr
Subtract with Carry two Registers
Rd  Rd - Rr - C
Z,C,N,V,H
1
1
SBCI
Rd, K
Subtract with Carry Constant from Reg.
Rd  Rd - K - C
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBIW
Rdl,K
Subtract Immediate from Word
Rdh:Rdl  Rdh:Rdl - K
Z,C,N,V,S
2
1
AND
Rd, Rr
Logical AND Registers
Rd Rd  Rr
Z,N,V
ANDI
Rd, K
Logical AND Register and Constant
Rd  Rd K
Z,N,V
1
OR
Rd, Rr
Logical OR Registers
Rd  Rd v Rr
Z,N,V
1
ORI
Rd, K
Logical OR Register and Constant
Rd Rd v K
Z,N,V
1
EOR
Rd, Rr
Exclusive OR Registers
Rd  Rd  Rr
Z,N,V
1
COM
Rd
One’s Complement
Rd  0xFF  Rd
Z,C,N,V
1
NEG
Rd
Two’s Complement
Rd  0x00  Rd
Z,C,N,V,H
1
SBR
Rd,K
Set Bit(s) in Register
Rd  Rd v K
Z,N,V
1
CBR
Rd,K
Clear Bit(s) in Register
Rd  Rd  (0xFF - K)
Z,N,V
1
INC
Rd
Increment
Rd  Rd + 1
Z,N,V
1
DEC
Rd
Decrement
Rd  Rd  1
Z,N,V
1
TST
Rd
Test for Zero or Minus
Rd  Rd  Rd
Z,N,V
1
CLR
Rd
Clear Register
Rd  Rd  Rd
Z,N,V
1
SER
Rd
Set Register
Rd  0xFF
None
1
Relative Jump
PC PC + k + 1
None
2
Indirect Jump to (Z)
PC  Z
None
2
BRANCH INSTRUCTIONS
RJMP
k
IJMP
Relative Subroutine Call
PC  PC + k + 1
None
3
ICALL
Indirect Call to (Z)
PC  Z
None
3
RET
Subroutine Return
PC  STACK
None
4
RETI
Interrupt Return
PC  STACK
I
if (Rd = Rr) PC PC + 2 or 3
None
RCALL
k
4
CPSE
Rd,Rr
Compare, Skip if Equal
1/2/3
CP
Rd,Rr
Compare
Rd  Rr
Z, N,V,C,H
1
CPC
Rd,Rr
Compare with Carry
Rd  Rr  C
Z, N,V,C,H
1
CPI
Rd,K
Compare Register with Immediate
Rd  K
Z, N,V,C,H
SBRC
Rr, b
Skip if Bit in Register Cleared
if (Rr(b)=0) PC  PC + 2 or 3
None
1
1/2/3
SBRS
Rr, b
Skip if Bit in Register is Set
if (Rr(b)=1) PC  PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBIC
P, b
Skip if Bit in I/O Register Cleared
if (P(b)=0) PC  PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBIS
P, b
Skip if Bit in I/O Register is Set
if (P(b)=1) PC  PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
BRBS
s, k
Branch if Status Flag Set
if (SREG(s) = 1) then PCPC+k + 1
None
1/2
BRBC
s, k
Branch if Status Flag Cleared
if (SREG(s) = 0) then PCPC+k + 1
None
1/2
BREQ
k
Branch if Equal
if (Z = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRNE
k
Branch if Not Equal
if (Z = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRCS
k
Branch if Carry Set
if (C = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRCC
k
Branch if Carry Cleared
if (C = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRSH
k
Branch if Same or Higher
if (C = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRLO
k
Branch if Lower
if (C = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRMI
k
Branch if Minus
if (N = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRPL
k
Branch if Plus
if (N = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRGE
k
Branch if Greater or Equal, Signed
if (N  V= 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRLT
k
Branch if Less Than Zero, Signed
if (N  V= 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRHS
k
Branch if Half Carry Flag Set
if (H = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRHC
k
Branch if Half Carry Flag Cleared
if (H = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRTS
k
Branch if T Flag Set
if (T = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRTC
k
Branch if T Flag Cleared
if (T = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRVS
k
Branch if Overflow Flag is Set
if (V = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRVC
k
Branch if Overflow Flag is Cleared
if (V = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRIE
k
Branch if Interrupt Enabled
if ( I = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRID
k
Branch if Interrupt Disabled
if ( I = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BIT AND BIT-TEST INSTRUCTIONS
SBI
P,b
Set Bit in I/O Register
I/O(P,b)  1
None
2
CBI
P,b
Clear Bit in I/O Register
I/O(P,b)  0
None
2
LSL
Rd
Logical Shift Left
Rd(n+1)  Rd(n), Rd(0)  0
Z,C,N,V
1
LSR
Rd
Logical Shift Right
Rd(n)  Rd(n+1), Rd(7)  0
Z,C,N,V
1
ROL
Rd
Rotate Left Through Carry
Rd(0)C,Rd(n+1) Rd(n),CRd(7)
Z,C,N,V
1
ROR
Rd
Rotate Right Through Carry
Rd(7)C,Rd(n) Rd(n+1),CRd(0)
Z,C,N,V
1
ASR
Rd
Arithmetic Shift Right
Rd(n)  Rd(n+1), n=0..6
Z,C,N,V
1
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
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Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
SWAP
Rd
Swap Nibbles
Rd(3..0)Rd(7..4),Rd(7..4)Rd(3..0)
None
BSET
s
Flag Set
SREG(s)  1
SREG(s)
1
1
BCLR
s
Flag Clear
SREG(s)  0
SREG(s)
1
BST
Rr, b
Bit Store from Register to T
T  Rr(b)
T
1
BLD
Rd, b
Bit load from T to Register
Rd(b)  T
None
1
1
SEC
Set Carry
C1
C
CLC
Clear Carry
C0
C
1
SEN
Set Negative Flag
N1
N
1
CLN
Clear Negative Flag
N0
N
1
SEZ
Set Zero Flag
Z1
Z
1
CLZ
Clear Zero Flag
Z0
Z
1
SEI
Global Interrupt Enable
I1
I
1
CLI
Global Interrupt Disable
I 0
I
1
1
SES
Set Signed Test Flag
S1
S
CLS
Clear Signed Test Flag
S0
S
1
SEV
Set Twos Complement Overflow.
V1
V
1
CLV
Clear Twos Complement Overflow
V0
V
1
SET
Set T in SREG
T1
T
1
CLT
Clear T in SREG
T0
T
1
SEH
CLH
Set Half Carry Flag in SREG
Clear Half Carry Flag in SREG
H1
H0
H
H
1
None
1
None
1
1
DATA TRANSFER INSTRUCTIONS
MOV
Rd, Rr
Move Between Registers
MOVW
Rd, Rr
Copy Register Word
Rd  Rr
Rd+1:Rd  Rr+1:Rr
LDI
Rd, K
Load Immediate
Rd  K
None
1
LD
Rd, X
Load Indirect
Rd  (X)
None
2
LD
Rd, X+
Load Indirect and Post-Inc.
Rd  (X), X  X + 1
None
2
LD
Rd, - X
Load Indirect and Pre-Dec.
X  X - 1, Rd  (X)
None
2
2
LD
Rd, Y
Load Indirect
Rd  (Y)
None
LD
Rd, Y+
Load Indirect and Post-Inc.
Rd  (Y), Y  Y + 1
None
2
LD
Rd, - Y
Load Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Y  Y - 1, Rd  (Y)
None
2
LDD
Rd,Y+q
Load Indirect with Displacement
Rd  (Y + q)
None
2
LD
Rd, Z
Load Indirect
Rd  (Z)
None
2
LD
Rd, Z+
Load Indirect and Post-Inc.
Rd  (Z), Z  Z+1
None
2
LD
Rd, -Z
Load Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Z  Z - 1, Rd  (Z)
None
2
LDD
Rd, Z+q
Load Indirect with Displacement
Rd  (Z + q)
None
2
2
LDS
Rd, k
Load Direct from SRAM
Rd  (k)
None
ST
X, Rr
Store Indirect
(X) Rr
None
2
ST
X+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Inc.
(X) Rr, X  X + 1
None
2
ST
- X, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Dec.
X  X - 1, (X)  Rr
None
2
ST
Y, Rr
Store Indirect
(Y)  Rr
None
2
ST
Y+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Inc.
(Y)  Rr, Y  Y + 1
None
2
ST
- Y, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Y  Y - 1, (Y)  Rr
None
2
STD
Y+q,Rr
Store Indirect with Displacement
(Y + q)  Rr
None
2
ST
Z, Rr
Store Indirect
(Z)  Rr
None
2
ST
Z+, Rr
Store Indirect and Post-Inc.
(Z)  Rr, Z  Z + 1
None
2
ST
-Z, Rr
Store Indirect and Pre-Dec.
Z  Z - 1, (Z)  Rr
None
2
STD
Z+q,Rr
Store Indirect with Displacement
(Z + q)  Rr
None
2
STS
k, Rr
Store Direct to SRAM
(k)  Rr
None
2
Load Program Memory
R0  (Z)
None
3
LPM
LPM
Rd, Z
Load Program Memory
Rd  (Z)
None
3
LPM
Rd, Z+
Load Program Memory and Post-Inc
Rd  (Z), Z  Z+1
None
3
Store Program Memory
(z)  R1:R0
None
SPM
IN
Rd, P
In Port
Rd  P
None
OUT
P, Rr
Out Port
P  Rr
None
1
PUSH
Rr
Push Register on Stack
STACK  Rr
None
2
POP
Rd
Pop Register from Stack
Rd  STACK
None
2
1
MCU CONTROL INSTRUCTIONS
NOP
No Operation
None
1
SLEEP
Sleep
(see specific descr. for Sleep function)
None
1
WDR
BREAK
Watchdog Reset
Break
(see specific descr. for WDR/Timer)
For On-chip Debug Only
None
None
1
N/A
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
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25. Ordering Information
25.1
ATtiny25
Speed (MHz) (1)
Supply Voltage (V)
Temperature Range
Package (2)
Ordering Code (3)
8P3
ATtiny25V-10PU
8S2
ATtiny25V-10SU
ATtiny25V-10SUR
ATtiny25V-10SH
ATtiny25V-10SHR
S8S1
ATtiny25V-10SSU
ATtiny25V-10SSUR
ATtiny25V-10SSH
ATtiny25V-10SSHR
20M1
ATtiny25V-10MU
ATtiny25V-10MUR
8S2
ATtiny25V-10SN
ATtiny25V-10SNR
S8S1
ATtiny25V-10SSN
ATtiny25V-10SSNR
20M1
ATtiny25V-10MF
ATtiny25V-10MFR
8P3
ATtiny25-20PU
8S2
ATtiny25-20SU
ATtiny25-20SUR
ATtiny25-20SH
ATtiny25-20SHR
S8S1
ATtiny25-20SSU
ATtiny25-20SSUR
ATtiny25-20SSH
ATtiny25-20SSHR
20M1
ATtiny25-20MU
ATtiny25-20MUR
8S2
ATtiny25-20SN
ATtiny25-20SNR
S8S1
ATtiny25-20SSN
ATtiny25-20SSNR
20M1
ATtiny25-20MF
ATtiny25-20MFR
Industrial
(-40C to +85C) (4)
10
1.8 – 5.5
Industrial
(-40C to +105C) (5)
Industrial (-40C to +125C) (6)
Industrial
(-40C to +85C) (4)
20
2.7 – 5.5
Industrial
(-40C to +105C) (5)
Industrial (-40C to +125C) (6)
Notes:
1. For speed vs. supply voltage, see section 21.3 “Speed” on page 163.
2. All Pb-free, halide-free, fully green, and comply with European directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS).
3. Code indicators: H = NiPdAu lead finish, U/N = matte tin, R = tape & reel.
4. Can also be supplied in wafer form. Contact your local Atmel sales office for ordering information and minimum quantities.
5. For characteristics, see “Appendix A – Specification at 105C”.
6. For characteristics, see “Appendix B – Specification at 125C”.
Package Types
8P3
8-lead, 0.300" Wide, Plastic Dual Inline Package (PDIP)
8S2
8-lead, 0.208" Wide, Plastic Gull-Wing Small Outline (EIAJ SOIC)
S8S1
8-lead, 0.150" Wide, Plastic Gull-Wing Small Outline (JEDEC SOIC)
20M1
20-pad, 4 x 4 x 0.8 mm Body, Quad Flat No-Lead/Micro Lead Frame Package (QFN/MLF)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
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25.2
ATtiny45
Speed (MHz) (1)
10
1.8 – 5.5
20
Notes:
Supply Voltage (V)
2.7 – 5.5
Temperature Range
Package (2)
Ordering Code (3)
8P3
ATtiny45V-10PU
8S2
ATtiny45V-10SU
ATtiny45V-10SUR
ATtiny45V-10SH
ATtiny45V-10SHR
8X
ATtiny45V-10XU
ATtiny45V-10XUR
20M1
ATtiny45V-10MU
ATtiny45V-10MUR
8P3
ATtiny45-20PU
8S2
ATtiny45-20SU
ATtiny45-20SUR
ATtiny45-20SH
ATtiny45-20SHR
8X
ATtiny45-20XU
ATtiny45-20XUR
20M1
ATtiny45-20MU
ATtiny45-20MUR
Industrial
(-40C to +85C) (4)
Industrial
(-40C to +85C) (4)
1. For speed vs. supply voltage, see section 21.3 “Speed” on page 163.
2. All packages are Pb-free, halide-free and fully green and they comply with the European directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS).
3. Code indicators:
– H: NiPdAu lead finish
– U: matte tin
– R: tape & reel
4. These devices can also be supplied in wafer form. Please contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information and minimum quantities.
Package Types
8P3
8-lead, 0.300" Wide, Plastic Dual Inline Package (PDIP)
8S2
8-lead, 0.208" Wide, Plastic Gull-Wing Small Outline (EIAJ SOIC)
8X
8-lead, 4.4 mm Wide, Plastic Thin Shrink Small Outline Package (TSSOP)
20M1
20-pad, 4 x 4 x 0.8 mm Body, Quad Flat No-Lead/Micro Lead Frame Package (QFN/MLF)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
205
25.3
ATtiny85
Speed (MHz) (1)
10
1.8 – 5.5
20
Notes:
Supply Voltage (V)
2.7 – 5.5
Temperature Range
Industrial
(-40C to +85C) (4)
Industrial
(-40C to +85C) (4)
Package (2)
Ordering Code (3)
8P3
ATtiny85V-10PU
8S2
ATtiny85V-10SU
ATtiny85V-10SUR
ATtiny85V-10SH
ATtiny85V-10SHR
20M1
ATtiny85V-10MU
ATtiny85V-10MUR
8P3
ATtiny85-20PU
8S2
ATtiny85-20SU
ATtiny85-20SUR
ATtiny85-20SH
ATtiny85-20SHR
20M1
ATtiny85-20MU
ATtiny85-20MUR
1. For speed vs. supply voltage, see section 21.3 “Speed” on page 163.
2. All packages are Pb-free, halide-free and fully green and they comply with the European directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS).
3. Code indicators:
– H: NiPdAu lead finish
– U: matte tin
– R: tape & reel
4. These devices can also be supplied in wafer form. Please contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information and minimum quantities.
Package Types
8P3
8-lead, 0.300" Wide, Plastic Dual Inline Package (PDIP)
8S2
8-lead, 0.208" Wide, Plastic Gull-Wing Small Outline (EIAJ SOIC)
20M1
20-pad, 4 x 4 x 0.8 mm Body, Quad Flat No-Lead/Micro Lead Frame Package (QFN/MLF)
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
206
26. Packaging Information
26.1
8P3
E
1
E1
N
Top View
c
eA
End View
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = inches)
D
e
D1
A2 A
SYMBOL
MIN
NOM
A
b2
b3
b
4 PLCS
Side View
L
0.210
NOTE
2
A2
0.115
0.130
0.195
b
0.014
0.018
0.022
5
b2
0.045
0.060
0.070
6
b3
0.030
0.039
0.045
6
c
0.008
0.010
0.014
D
0.355
0.365
0.400
D1
0.005
E
0.300
0.310
0.325
4
E1
0.240
0.250
0.280
3
0.100 BSC
eA
0.300 BSC
0.115
3
3
e
L
Notes:
MAX
0.130
4
0.150
2
1. This drawing is for general information only; refer to JEDEC Drawing MS-001, Variation BA for additional information.
2. Dimensions A and L are measured with the package seated in JEDEC seating plane Gauge GS-3.
3. D, D1 and E1 dimensions do not include mold Flash or protrusions. Mold Flash or protrusions shall not exceed 0.010 inch.
4. E and eA measured with the leads constrained to be perpendicular to datum.
5. Pointed or rounded lead tips are preferred to ease insertion.
6. b2 and b3 maximum dimensions do not include Dambar protrusions. Dambar protrusions shall not exceed 0.010 (0.25 mm).
01/09/02
R
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
8P3, 8-lead, 0.300" Wide Body, Plastic Dual
In-line Package (PDIP)
DRAWING NO.
REV.
8P3
B
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
207
26.2
8S2
C
1
E
E1
L
N
θ
TOP VIEW
END VIEW
e
b
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
A
SYMBOL
A1
D
SIDE VIEW
MAX
NOM
NOTE
1.70
2.16
A1
0.05
0.25
b
0.35
0.48
4
C
0.15
0.35
4
D
5.13
5.35
E1
5.18
5.40
E
7.70
8.26
L
0.51
0.85
θ
0°
8°
e
Notes: 1.
2.
3.
4.
MIN
A
1.27 BSC
2
3
This drawing is for general information only; refer to EIAJ Drawing EDR-7320 for additional information.
Mismatch of the upper and lower dies and resin burrs aren't included.
Determines the true geometric position.
Values b,C apply to plated terminal. The standard thickness of the plating layer shall measure between 0.007 to .021 mm.
Package Drawing Contact:
packagedrawings@atmel.com
TITLE
8S2, 8-lead, 0.208” Body, Plastic Small
Outline Package (EIAJ)
GPC
STN
4/15/08
DRAWING NO. REV.
8S2
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
F
208
26.3
S8S1
1
E1
E
N
Top View
e
b
A
A1
D
Side View
C
L
End View
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
SYMBOL
MIN
NOM
MAX
E
5.79
6.20
E1
3.81
3.99
A
1.35
1.75
A1
0.1
0.25
D
4.80
4.98
C
0.17
0.25
b
0.31
0.51
L
0.4
1.27
e
NOTE
1.27 BSC
0o
8o
Notes: 1. This drawing is for general information only; refer to JEDEC Drawing MS-012 for proper dimensions, tolerances, datums,etc.
7/28/03
R
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
S8S1, 8-lead, 0.150" Wide Body, Plastic Gull Wing Small
Outline (JEDEC SOIC)
DRAWING NO.
S8S1
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
REV.
A
209
26.4
8X
C
1
E1
End View
E
L
Top View
e
Ø
b
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
A
A1
MAX
1.05
1.10
1.20
A1
0.05
0.10
0.15
b
0.25
–
0.30
C
–
0.127
–
D
2.90
3.05
3.10
E1
4.30
4.40
4.50
E
6.20
6.40
6.60
A
D
Side View
MIN
NOM
SYMBOL
e
NOTE
0.65 TYP
L
0.50
0.60
0.70
Ø
0o
–
8o
Note: These drawings are for general information only. Refer to JEDEC Drawing MO-153AC.
4/14/05
R
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
8X, 8-lead, 4.4 mm Body Width, Plastic Thin Shrink
Small Outline Package (TSSOP)
DRAWING NO.
8X
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
REV.
A
210
26.5
20M1
D
1
Pin 1 ID
2
SIDE VIEW
E
3
TOP VIEW
A2
D2
A1
A
0.08
1
2
Pin #1
Notch
(0.20 R)
3
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
E2
b
L
e
BOTTOM VIEW
SYMBOL
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
0.70
0.75
0.80
A1
–
0.01
0.05
A2
b
0.18
D
D2
E2
L
0.23
0.30
4.00 BSC
2.45
2.60
2.75
4.00 BSC
2.45
e
Reference JEDEC Standard MO-220, Fig. 1 (SAW Singulation) WGGD-5.
NOTE
0.20 REF
E
Note:
C
2.60
2.75
0.50 BSC
0.35
0.40
0.55
10/27/04
R
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
20M1, 20-pad, 4 x 4 x 0.8 mm Body, Lead Pitch 0.50 mm,
2.6 mm Exposed Pad, Micro Lead Frame Package (MLF)
DRAWING NO.
20M1
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
REV.
B
211
27. Errata
27.1
Errata ATtiny25
The revision letter in this section refers to the revision of the ATtiny25 device.
27.1.1
Rev D – F
No known errata.
27.1.2
Rev B – C
• EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency
1. EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency
Trying to read EEPROM at low clock frequencies and/or low supply voltage may result in invalid data.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Do not use the EEPROM when clock frequency is below 1MHz and supply voltage is below 2V. If operating frequency can not be raised above 1MHz then supply voltage should be more than 2V. Similarly, if supply voltage
can not be raised above 2V then operating frequency should be more than 1MHz.
This feature is known to be temperature dependent but it has not been characterised. Guidelines are given for
room temperature, only.
27.1.3
Rev A
Not sampled.
27.2
Errata ATtiny45
The revision letter in this section refers to the revision of the ATtiny45 device.
27.2.1
Rev F – G
No known errata
27.2.2
Rev D – E
• EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency
1. EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency
Trying to read EEPROM at low clock frequencies and/or low supply voltage may result in invalid data.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Do not use the EEPROM when clock frequency is below 1MHz and supply voltage is below 2V. If operating frequency can not be raised above 1MHz then supply voltage should be more than 2V. Similarly, if supply voltage
can not be raised above 2V then operating frequency should be more than 1MHz.
This feature is known to be temperature dependent but it has not been characterised. Guidelines are given for
room temperature, only.
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
212
27.2.3
Rev B – C
•
•
•
•
PLL not locking
EEPROM read from application code does not work in Lock Bit Mode 3
EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency
Timer Counter 1 PWM output generation on OC1B- XOC1B does not work correctly
1. PLL not locking
When at frequencies below 6.0 MHz, the PLL will not lock
Problem fix / Workaround
When using the PLL, run at 6.0 MHz or higher.
2. EEPROM read from application code does not work in Lock Bit Mode 3
When the Memory Lock Bits LB2 and LB1 are programmed to mode 3, EEPROM read does not work from the
application code.
Problem Fix/Work around
Do not set Lock Bit Protection Mode 3 when the application code needs to read from EEPROM.
3. EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency
Trying to read EEPROM at low clock frequencies and/or low supply voltage may result in invalid data.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Do not use the EEPROM when clock frequency is below 1MHz and supply voltage is below 2V. If operating frequency can not be raised above 1MHz then supply voltage should be more than 2V. Similarly, if supply voltage
can not be raised above 2V then operating frequency should be more than 1MHz.
This feature is known to be temperature dependent but it has not been characterised. Guidelines are given for
room temperature, only.
4. Timer Counter 1 PWM output generation on OC1B – XOC1B does not work correctly
Timer Counter1 PWM output OC1B-XOC1B does not work correctly. Only in the case when the control bits,
COM1B1 and COM1B0 are in the same mode as COM1A1 and COM1A0, respectively, the OC1B-XOC1B output works correctly.
Problem Fix/Work around
The only workaround is to use same control setting on COM1A[1:0] and COM1B[1:0] control bits, see table 144 in the data sheet. The problem has been fixed for Tiny45 rev D.
27.2.4
Rev A
•
•
•
•
•
Too high power down power consumption
DebugWIRE looses communication when single stepping into interrupts
PLL not locking
EEPROM read from application code does not work in Lock Bit Mode 3
EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency
1. Too high power down power consumption
Three situations will lead to a too high power down power consumption. These are:
– An external clock is selected by fuses, but the I/O PORT is still enabled as an output.
– The EEPROM is read before entering power down.
– VCC is 4.5 volts or higher.
Problem fix / Workaround
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
213
– When using external clock, avoid setting the clock pin as Output.
– Do not read the EEPROM if power down power consumption is important.
– Use VCC lower than 4.5 Volts.
2. DebugWIRE looses communication when single stepping into interrupts
When receiving an interrupt during single stepping, debugwire will loose
communication.
Problem fix / Workaround
– When singlestepping, disable interrupts.
– When debugging interrupts, use breakpoints within the interrupt routine, and run into the interrupt.
3. PLL not locking
When at frequencies below 6.0 MHz, the PLL will not lock
Problem fix / Workaround
When using the PLL, run at 6.0 MHz or higher.
4. EEPROM read from application code does not work in Lock Bit Mode 3
When the Memory Lock Bits LB2 and LB1 are programmed to mode 3, EEPROM read does not work from the
application code.
Problem Fix/Work around
Do not set Lock Bit Protection Mode 3 when the application code needs to read from EEPROM.
5. EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency
Trying to read EEPROM at low clock frequencies and/or low supply voltage may result in invalid data.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Do not use the EEPROM when clock frequency is below 1MHz and supply voltage is below 2V. If operating frequency can not be raised above 1MHz then supply voltage should be more than 2V. Similarly, if supply voltage
can not be raised above 2V then operating frequency should be more than 1MHz.
This feature is known to be temperature dependent but it has not been characterized. Guidelines are given for
room temperature, only.
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
214
27.3
Errata ATtiny85
The revision letter in this section refers to the revision of the ATtiny85 device.
27.3.1
Rev B – C
No known errata.
27.3.2
Rev A
• EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency
1. EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency
Trying to read EEPROM at low clock frequencies and/or low supply voltage may result in invalid data.
Problem Fix/Workaround
Do not use the EEPROM when clock frequency is below 1MHz and supply voltage is below 2V. If operating frequency can not be raised above 1MHz then supply voltage should be more than 2V. Similarly, if supply voltage
can not be raised above 2V then operating frequency should be more than 1MHz.
This feature is known to be temperature dependent but it has not been characterised. Guidelines are given for
room temperature, only.
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
215
28. Datasheet Revision History
28.1
Rev. 2586Q-08/13
1.
28.2
Rev. 2586P-06/13
1.
28.3
“Bit 3 – FOC1B: Force Output Compare Match 1B” description in “GTCCR – General Timer/Counter1 Control
Register” on page 90 updated: PB3 in “compare match output pin PB3 (OC1B)” corrected to PB4.
Updated description of “EEARH – EEPROM Address Register” and “EEARL – EEPROM Address Register” on page
20.
Rev. 2586O-02/13
Updated ordering codes on page 204, page 205, and page 206.
28.4
Rev. 2586N-04/11
1. Added:
– Section “Capacitive Touch Sensing” on page 6.
2. Updated:
– Document template.
– Removed “Preliminary” on front page. All devices now final and in production.
– Section “Limitations” on page 36.
– Program example on page 49.
– Section “Overview” on page 122.
– Table 17-4 on page 135.
– Section “Limitations of debugWIRE” on page 140.
– Section “Serial Programming Algorithm” on page 151.
– Table 21-7 on page 166.
– EEPROM errata on pages 212, 212, 213, 214, and 215
– Ordering information on pages 204, 205, and 206.
28.5
Rev. 2586M-07/10
1. Clarified Section 6.4 “Clock Output Buffer” on page 31.
2. Added Ordering Codes -SN and -SNR for ATtiny25 extended temperature.
28.6
Rev. 2586L-06/10
1. Added:
– TSSOP for ATtiny45 in “Features” on page 1, Pinout Figure 1-1 on page 2, Ordering Information in
Section 25.2 “ATtiny45” on page 205, and Packaging Information in Section 26.4 “8X” on page 210
– Table 6-11, “Capacitance of Low-Frequency Crystal Oscillator,” on page 29
– Figure 22-36 on page 191 and Figure 22-37 on page 191, Typical Characteristics plots for Bandgap
Voltage vs. VCC and Temperature
– Extended temperature in Section 25.1 “ATtiny25” on page 204, Ordering Information
– Tape & reel part numbers in Ordering Information, in Section 25.1 “ATtiny25” on page 204 and Section
25.2 “ATtiny45” on page 205
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
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216
2. Updated:
– “Features” on page 1, removed Preliminary from ATtiny25
– Section 8.4.2 “Code Example” on page 44
– “PCMSK – Pin Change Mask Register” on page 52, Bit Descriptions
– “TCCR1 – Timer/Counter1 Control Register” on page 89 and “GTCCR – General Timer/Counter1
Control Register” on page 90, COM bit descriptions clarified
– Section 20.3.2 “Calibration Bytes” on page 150, frequencies (8 MHz, 6.4 MHz)
– Table 20-11, “Minimum Wait Delay Before Writing the Next Flash or EEPROM Location,” on page 153,
value for tWD_ERASE
– Table 20-16, “High-voltage Serial Programming Instruction Set for ATtiny25/45/85,” on page 158
– Table 21-1, “DC Characteristics. TA = -40°C to +85°C,” on page 161, notes adjusted
– Table 21-11, “Serial Programming Characteristics, TA = -40°C to +85°C, VCC = 1.8 - 5.5V (Unless
Otherwise Noted),” on page 170, added tSLIV
– Bit syntax throughout the datasheet, e.g. from CS02:0 to CS0[2:0].
28.7
Rev. 2586K-01/08
1. Updated Document Template.
2. Added Sections:
– “Data Retention” on page 6
– “Low Level Interrupt” on page 49
– “Device Signature Imprint Table” on page 149
3. Updated Sections:
– “Internal PLL for Fast Peripheral Clock Generation - clkPCK” on page 24
– “System Clock and Clock Options” on page 23
– “Internal PLL in ATtiny15 Compatibility Mode” on page 24
– “Sleep Modes” on page 34
– “Software BOD Disable” on page 35
– “External Interrupts” on page 49
– “Timer/Counter1 in PWM Mode” on page 97
– “USI – Universal Serial Interface” on page 108
– “Temperature Measurement” on page 133
– “Reading Lock, Fuse and Signature Data from Software” on page 143
– “Program And Data Memory Lock Bits” on page 147
– “Fuse Bytes” on page 148
– “Signature Bytes” on page 150
– “Calibration Bytes” on page 150
– “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 165
4. Added Figures:
– “Reset Pin Output Voltage vs. Sink Current (VCC = 3V)” on page 184
– “Reset Pin Output Voltage vs. Sink Current (VCC = 5V)” on page 185
– “Reset Pin Output Voltage vs. Source Current (VCC = 3V)” on page 185
– “Reset Pin Output Voltage vs. Source Current (VCC = 5V)” on page 186
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
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217
5. Updated Figure:
– “Reset Logic” on page 39
6. Updated Tables:
– “Start-up Times for Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator Clock” on page 28
– “Start-up Times for Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator Clock (in ATtiny15 Mode)” on page 28
– “Start-up Times for the 128 kHz Internal Oscillator” on page 28
– “Compare Mode Select in PWM Mode” on page 86
– “Compare Mode Select in PWM Mode” on page 98
– “DC Characteristics. TA = -40°C to +85°C” on page 161
– “Calibration Accuracy of Internal RC Oscillator” on page 164
– “ADC Characteristics” on page 167
7. Updated Code Example in Section:
– “Write” on page 17
8. Updated Bit Descriptions in:
– “MCUCR – MCU Control Register” on page 37
– “Bits 7:6 – COM0A[1:0]: Compare Match Output A Mode” on page 77
– “Bits 5:4 – COM0B[1:0]: Compare Match Output B Mode” on page 77
– “Bits 2:0 – ADTS[2:0]: ADC Auto Trigger Source” on page 138
– “SPMCSR – Store Program Memory Control and Status Register” on page 145.
9. Updated description of feature “EEPROM read may fail at low supply voltage / low clock frequency” in
Sections:
– “Errata ATtiny25” on page 212
– “Errata ATtiny45” on page 212
– “Errata ATtiny85” on page 215
10. Updated Package Description in Sections:
– “ATtiny25” on page 204
– “ATtiny45” on page 205
– “ATtiny85” on page 206
11. Updated Package Drawing:
– “S8S1” on page 209
12. Updated Order Codes for:
– “ATtiny25” on page 204
28.8
Rev. 2586J-12/06
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Updated “Low Power Consumption” on page 1.
Updated description of instruction length in “Architectural Overview” .
Updated Flash size in “In-System Re-programmable Flash Program Memory” on
page 15.
Updated cross-references in sections “Atomic Byte Programming” , “Erase” and
“Write” , starting on page 17.
Updated “Atomic Byte Programming” on page 17.
Updated “Internal PLL for Fast Peripheral Clock Generation - clkPCK” on page 24.
Replaced single clocking system figure with two: Figure 6-2 and Figure 6-3.
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
2586Q–AVR–08/2013
218
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
Updated Table 6-1 on page 25, Table 6-13 on page 30 and Table 6-6 on page 27.
Updated “Calibrated Internal Oscillator” on page 27.
Updated Table 6-5 on page 26.
Updated “OSCCAL – Oscillator Calibration Register” on page 31.
Updated “CLKPR – Clock Prescale Register” on page 32.
Updated “Power-down Mode” on page 35.
Updated “Bit 0” in “PRR – Power Reduction Register” on page 38.
Added footnote to Table 8-3 on page 46.
Updated Table 10-5 on page 63.
Deleted “Bits 7, 2” in “MCUCR – MCU Control Register” on page 64.
Updated and moved section “Timer/Counter0 Prescaler and Clock Sources”, now
located on page 66.
Updated “Timer/Counter1 Initialization for Asynchronous Mode” on page 86.
Updated bit description in “PLLCSR – PLL Control and Status Register” on page 94
and “PLLCSR – PLL Control and Status Register” on page 103.
Added recommended maximum frequency in“Prescaling and Conversion Timing” on
page 125.
Updated Figure 17-8 on page 129 .
Updated “Temperature Measurement” on page 133.
Updated Table 17-3 on page 134.
Updated bit R/W descriptions in:
“TIMSK – Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register” on page 81,
“TIFR – Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register” on page 81,
“TIMSK – Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register” on page 92,
“TIFR – Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register” on page 93,
“PLLCSR – PLL Control and Status Register” on page 94,
“TIMSK – Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register” on page 102,
“TIFR – Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register” on page 103,
“PLLCSR – PLL Control and Status Register” on page 103 and
“DIDR0 – Digital Input Disable Register 0” on page 138.
Added limitation to “Limitations of debugWIRE” on page 140.
Updated “DC Characteristics” on page 161.
Updated Table 21-7 on page 166.
Updated Figure 21-6 on page 171.
Updated Table 21-12 on page 171.
Updated Table 22-1 on page 177.
Updated Table 22-2 on page 177.
Updated Table 22-30, Table 22-31 and Table 22-32, starting on page 188.
Updated Table 22-33, Table 22-34 and Table 22-35, starting on page 189.
Updated Table 22-39 on page 192.
Updated Table 22-46, Table 22-47, Table 22-48 and Table 22-49.
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
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219
28.9
Rev. 2586I-09/06
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
All Characterization data moved to “Electrical Characteristics” on page 161.
All Register Descriptions are gathered up in seperate sections in the end of each
chapter.
Updated Table 11-3 on page 78, Table 11-5 on page 79, Table 11-6 on page 80 and
Table 20-4 on page 148.
Updated “Calibrated Internal Oscillator” on page 27.
Updated Note in Table 7-1 on page 34.
Updated “System Control and Reset” on page 39.
Updated Register Description in “I/O Ports” on page 53.
Updated Features in “USI – Universal Serial Interface” on page 108.
Updated Code Example in “SPI Master Operation Example” on page 110 and “SPI
Slave Operation Example” on page 111.
Updated “Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input” on page 119.
Updated Figure 17-1 on page 123.
Updated “Signature Bytes” on page 150.
Updated “Electrical Characteristics” on page 161.
28.10 Rev. 2586H-06/06
1.
2.
3.
Updated “Calibrated Internal Oscillator” on page 27.
Updated Table 6.5.1 on page 31.
Added Table 21-2 on page 164.
28.11 Rev. 2586G-05/06
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Updated “Internal PLL for Fast Peripheral Clock Generation - clkPCK” on page 24.
Updated “Default Clock Source” on page 30.
Updated “Low-Frequency Crystal Oscillator” on page 29.
Updated “Calibrated Internal Oscillator” on page 27.
Updated “Clock Output Buffer” on page 31.
Updated “Power Management and Sleep Modes” on page 34.
Added “Software BOD Disable” on page 35.
Updated Figure 16-1 on page 119.
Updated “Bit 6 – ACBG: Analog Comparator Bandgap Select” on page 120.
Added note for Table 17-2 on page 125.
Updated “Register Summary” on page 200.
28.12 Rev. 2586F-04/06
1.
2.
3.
Updated “Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes” on page 57.
Updated Table 20-16 on page 158.
Updated “Ordering Information” on page 204.
ATtiny25/45/85 [DATASHEET]
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220
28.13 Rev. 2586E-03/06
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Updated Features in “Analog to Digital Converter” on page 122.
Updated Operation in “Analog to Digital Converter” on page 122.
Updated Table 17-2 on page 133.
Updated Table 17-3 on page 134.
Updated “Errata” on page 212.
28.14 Rev. 2586D-02/06
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Updated Table 6-13 on page 30, Table 6-10 on page 29, Table 6-3 on page 26,
Table 6-9 on page 28, Table 6-5 on page 26, Table 9-1 on page 48,Table 17-4 on
page 135, Table 20-16 on page 158, Table 21-8 on page 167.
Updated “Timer/Counter1 in PWM Mode” on page 86.
Updated text “Bit 2 – TOV1: Timer/Counter1 Overflow Flag” on page 93.
Updated values in “DC Characteristics” on page 161.
Updated “Register Summary” on page 200.
Updated “Ordering Information” on page 204.
Updated Rev B and C in “Errata ATtiny45” on page 212.
All references to power-save mode are removed.
Updated Register Adresses.
28.15 Rev. 2586C-06/05
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Updated “Features” on page 1.
Updated Figure 1-1 on page 2.
Updated Code Examples on page 18 and page 19.
Moved “Temperature Measurement” to Section 17.12 page 133.
Updated “Register Summary” on page 200.
Updated “Ordering Information” on page 204.
28.16 Rev. 2586B-05/05
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
CLKI added, instances of EEMWE/EEWE renamed EEMPE/EEPE, removed some
TBD.
Removed “Preliminary Description” from “Temperature Measurement” on page 133.
Updated “Features” on page 1.
Updated Figure 1-1 on page 2 and Figure 8-1 on page 39.
Updated Table 7-2 on page 38, Table 10-4 on page 63, Table 10-5 on page 63
Updated “Serial Programming Instruction set” on page 153.
Updated SPH register in “Instruction Set Summary” on page 202.
Updated “DC Characteristics” on page 161.
Updated “Ordering Information” on page 204.
Updated “Errata” on page 212.
28.17 Rev. 2586A-02/05
Initial revision.
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Table of Contents
Features ..................................................................................................... 1
1
Pin Configurations ................................................................................... 2
1.1
2
Overview ................................................................................................... 4
2.1
3
4
5
6
7
Pin Descriptions .................................................................................................2
Block Diagram ...................................................................................................4
About ......................................................................................................... 6
3.1
Resources .........................................................................................................6
3.2
Code Examples .................................................................................................6
3.3
Capacitive Touch Sensing .................................................................................6
3.4
Data Retention ...................................................................................................6
AVR CPU Core .......................................................................................... 7
4.1
Introduction ........................................................................................................7
4.2
Architectural Overview .......................................................................................7
4.3
ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit ...............................................................................8
4.4
Status Register ..................................................................................................8
4.5
General Purpose Register File ........................................................................10
4.6
Stack Pointer ...................................................................................................11
4.7
Instruction Execution Timing ...........................................................................11
4.8
Reset and Interrupt Handling ...........................................................................12
AVR Memories ........................................................................................ 15
5.1
In-System Re-programmable Flash Program Memory ....................................15
5.2
SRAM Data Memory ........................................................................................15
5.3
EEPROM Data Memory ..................................................................................16
5.4
I/O Memory ......................................................................................................19
5.5
Register Description ........................................................................................20
System Clock and Clock Options ......................................................... 23
6.1
Clock Systems and their Distribution ...............................................................23
6.2
Clock Sources .................................................................................................25
6.3
System Clock Prescaler ..................................................................................31
6.4
Clock Output Buffer .........................................................................................31
6.5
Register Description ........................................................................................31
Power Management and Sleep Modes ................................................. 34
7.1
Sleep Modes ....................................................................................................34
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8
9
7.2
Software BOD Disable .....................................................................................35
7.3
Power Reduction Register ...............................................................................36
7.4
Minimizing Power Consumption ......................................................................36
7.5
Register Description ........................................................................................37
System Control and Reset ..................................................................... 39
8.1
Resetting the AVR ...........................................................................................39
8.2
Reset Sources .................................................................................................39
8.3
Internal Voltage Reference ..............................................................................42
8.4
Watchdog Timer ..............................................................................................42
8.5
Register Description ........................................................................................44
Interrupts ................................................................................................. 48
9.1
Interrupt Vectors in ATtiny25/45/85 .................................................................48
9.2
External Interrupts ...........................................................................................49
9.3
Register Description ........................................................................................51
10 I/O Ports .................................................................................................. 53
10.1
Introduction ......................................................................................................53
10.2
Ports as General Digital I/O .............................................................................53
10.3
Alternate Port Functions ..................................................................................57
10.4
Register Description ........................................................................................64
11 8-bit Timer/Counter0 with PWM ............................................................ 65
11.1
Features ..........................................................................................................65
11.2
Overview ..........................................................................................................65
11.3
Timer/Counter0 Prescaler and Clock Sources ................................................66
11.4
Counter Unit ....................................................................................................68
11.5
Output Compare Unit .......................................................................................69
11.6
Compare Match Output Unit ............................................................................70
11.7
Modes of Operation .........................................................................................71
11.8
Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams ......................................................................76
11.9
Register Description ........................................................................................77
12 8-bit Timer/Counter1 .............................................................................. 83
12.1
Timer/Counter1 Prescaler ...............................................................................83
12.2
Counter and Compare Units ............................................................................83
12.3
Register Description ........................................................................................89
13 8-bit Timer/Counter1 in ATtiny15 Mode ............................................... 95
13.1
Timer/Counter1 Prescaler ...............................................................................95
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13.2
Counter and Compare Units ............................................................................95
13.3
Register Description ......................................................................................100
14 Dead Time Generator ........................................................................... 105
14.1
Register Description ......................................................................................106
15 USI – Universal Serial Interface .......................................................... 108
15.1
Features ........................................................................................................108
15.2
Overview ........................................................................................................108
15.3
Functional Descriptions .................................................................................109
15.4
Alternative USI Usage ...................................................................................114
15.5
Register Descriptions ....................................................................................115
16 Analog Comparator .............................................................................. 119
16.1
Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input ...........................................................119
16.2
Register Description ......................................................................................120
17 Analog to Digital Converter ................................................................. 122
17.1
Features ........................................................................................................122
17.2
Overview ........................................................................................................122
17.3
Operation .......................................................................................................123
17.4
Starting a Conversion ....................................................................................124
17.5
Prescaling and Conversion Timing ................................................................125
17.6
Changing Channel or Reference Selection ...................................................128
17.7
ADC Noise Canceler .....................................................................................128
17.8
Analog Input Circuitry ....................................................................................129
17.9
Noise Canceling Techniques .........................................................................129
17.10
ADC Accuracy Definitions .............................................................................130
17.11
ADC Conversion Result .................................................................................132
17.12
Temperature Measurement ...........................................................................133
17.13
Register Description ......................................................................................134
18 debugWIRE On-chip Debug System ................................................... 139
18.1
Features ........................................................................................................139
18.2
Overview ........................................................................................................139
18.3
Physical Interface ..........................................................................................139
18.4
Software Break Points ...................................................................................140
18.5
Limitations of debugWIRE .............................................................................140
18.6
Register Description ......................................................................................140
19 Self-Programming the Flash ............................................................... 141
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19.1
Performing Page Erase by SPM ....................................................................141
19.2
Filling the Temporary Buffer (Page Loading) .................................................141
19.3
Performing a Page Write ...............................................................................142
19.4
Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming ...........................................142
19.5
EEPROM Write Prevents Writing to SPMCSR ..............................................142
19.6
Reading Lock, Fuse and Signature Data from Software ...............................143
19.7
Preventing Flash Corruption ..........................................................................144
19.8
Programming Time for Flash when Using SPM .............................................145
19.9
Register Description ......................................................................................145
20 Memory Programming ......................................................................... 147
20.1
Program And Data Memory Lock Bits ...........................................................147
20.2
Fuse Bytes .....................................................................................................148
20.3
Device Signature Imprint Table .....................................................................149
20.4
Page Size ......................................................................................................150
20.5
Serial Downloading ........................................................................................151
20.6
High-voltage Serial Programming ..................................................................155
20.7
High-voltage Serial Programming Algorithm ..................................................155
21 Electrical Characteristics .................................................................... 161
21.1
Absolute Maximum Ratings* .........................................................................161
21.2
DC Characteristics .........................................................................................161
21.3
Speed ............................................................................................................163
21.4
Clock Characteristics .....................................................................................164
21.5
System and Reset Characteristics ................................................................165
21.6
Brown-Out Detection .....................................................................................166
21.7
ADC Characteristics ......................................................................................167
21.8
Serial Programming Characteristics ..............................................................170
21.9
High-voltage Serial Programming Characteristics .........................................171
22 Typical Characteristics ........................................................................ 172
22.1
Active Supply Current ....................................................................................172
22.2
Idle Supply Current ........................................................................................175
22.3
Supply Current of I/O modules ......................................................................177
22.4
Power-down Supply Current ..........................................................................178
22.5
Pin Pull-up .....................................................................................................179
22.6
Pin Driver Strength ........................................................................................182
22.7
Pin Threshold and Hysteresis ........................................................................186
22.8
BOD Threshold ..............................................................................................189
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22.9
Internal Oscillator Speed ...............................................................................192
22.10
Current Consumption of Peripheral Units ......................................................196
22.11
Current Consumption in Reset and Reset Pulsewidth ...................................198
23 Register Summary ................................................................................ 200
24 Instruction Set Summary ..................................................................... 202
25 Ordering Information ........................................................................... 204
25.1
ATtiny25 ........................................................................................................204
25.2
ATtiny45 ........................................................................................................205
25.3
ATtiny85 ........................................................................................................206
26 Packaging Information ......................................................................... 207
26.1
8P3 ................................................................................................................207
26.2
8S2 ................................................................................................................208
26.3
S8S1 ..............................................................................................................209
26.4
8X ..................................................................................................................210
26.5
20M1 ..............................................................................................................211
27 Errata ..................................................................................................... 212
27.1
Errata ATtiny25 ..............................................................................................212
27.2
Errata ATtiny45 ..............................................................................................212
27.3
Errata ATtiny85 ..............................................................................................215
28 Datasheet Revision History ................................................................. 216
28.1
Rev. 2586Q-08/13 .........................................................................................216
28.2
Rev. 2586P-06/13 ..........................................................................................216
28.3
Rev. 2586O-02/13 .........................................................................................216
28.4
Rev. 2586N-04/11 .........................................................................................216
28.5
Rev. 2586M-07/10 .........................................................................................216
28.6
Rev. 2586L-06/10 ..........................................................................................216
28.7
Rev. 2586K-01/08 ..........................................................................................217
28.8
Rev. 2586J-12/06 ..........................................................................................218
28.9
Rev. 2586I-09/06 ...........................................................................................220
28.10
Rev. 2586H-06/06 .........................................................................................220
28.11
Rev. 2586G-05/06 .........................................................................................220
28.12
Rev. 2586F-04/06 ..........................................................................................220
28.13
Rev. 2586E-03/06 ..........................................................................................221
28.14
Rev. 2586D-02/06 .........................................................................................221
28.15
Rev. 2586C-06/05 .........................................................................................221
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28.16
Rev. 2586B-05/05 ..........................................................................................221
28.17
Rev. 2586A-02/05 ..........................................................................................221
Table of Contents ....................................................................................... i
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