DER-212 - Feryster

Design Example Report
Title
150 W Power Factor Corrected LLC Power
Supply Using HiperPLC (PLC810PG)
Specification
140 – 265 VAC Input; 150 W (48 V at 0.05 A –
3.125 A) Output
Application
LED Street Light
Author
Applications Engineering Department
Document
Number
DER-212
Date
June 1, 2009
Revision
1.1
Summary and Features
• Integrated PFC and LLC controller
• Continuous mode PFC using small low-cost ferrite core and magnet wire
• Frequency and Phase locked PFC and LLC for ripple cancellation in bulk capacitor for
reduced ripple current, reduced bulk capacitor size and reduced EMI filter cost
• Tight LLC duty-cycle matching
• Tight LLC dead-time control
• >95% full load PFC efficiency at 140 VAC using conventional ultrafast rectifier
• >95% full load LLC efficiency
• >92% full load system efficiency
PATENT INFORMATION
The products and applications illustrated herein (including transformer construction and circuits external to the products) may be covered
by one or more U.S. and foreign patents, or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign patent applications assigned to Power Integrations. A
complete list of Power Integrations' patents may be found at www.powerint.com. Power Integrations grants its customers a license under
certain patent rights as set forth at <http://www.powerint.com/ip.htm>.
Power Integrations
5245 Hellyer Avenue, San Jose, CA 95138 USA.
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
01-Jun-09
Table of Contents
1
2
3
4
Introduction.................................................................................................................4
Power Supply Specification ........................................................................................7
Schematic...................................................................................................................8
Circuit Description ....................................................................................................10
4.1
Input Filter / Boost Converter / Bias Supply.......................................................10
4.1.1
EMI Filtering ...............................................................................................10
4.1.2
Inrush Limiting............................................................................................10
4.1.3
Main PFC Stage .........................................................................................10
4.1.4
Primary Bias Supply / Start-up ...................................................................11
4.2
Controller / Main LLC Output.............................................................................11
4.2.1
LLC Input Stage .........................................................................................11
4.2.2
LLC Outputs ...............................................................................................11
4.2.3
Controller....................................................................................................11
4.2.4
PFC Control ...............................................................................................12
4.2.5
Bypassing / Ground Isolation .....................................................................12
4.2.6
LLC Control ................................................................................................12
4.3
LLC Secondary Control Circuits ........................................................................12
4.3.1
Voltage Feedback ......................................................................................12
5 PCB Layout ..............................................................................................................13
6 Bill of Materials .........................................................................................................15
7 Magnetics .................................................................................................................19
7.1
Main LLC 48 V Transformer (T1) Specification .................................................19
7.1.1
Electrical Diagram ......................................................................................19
7.1.2
Electrical Specifications..............................................................................19
7.1.3
Materials.....................................................................................................19
7.1.4
Winding Diagram........................................................................................20
7.1.5
Winding Instructions ...................................................................................20
7.2
Transformer Illustrations....................................................................................21
7.3
PFC Choke (L4) Specification ...........................................................................25
7.3.1
Electrical Diagram ......................................................................................25
7.3.2
Electrical Specification ...............................................................................25
7.3.3
Materials.....................................................................................................25
7.3.4
Build Diagram.............................................................................................26
7.3.5
Winding Instructions ...................................................................................26
8 LLC Transformer Design Spreadsheet .....................................................................28
9 Performance Data ....................................................................................................34
9.1
LLC Stage Efficiency .........................................................................................34
9.2
Total Efficiency ..................................................................................................35
9.3
THD and Power Factor......................................................................................36
9.4
Output Regulation .............................................................................................37
10
Waveforms............................................................................................................38
10.1 Input Voltage and Current .................................................................................38
10.2 LLC Primary Voltage and Current .....................................................................38
10.3 PFC Switch Voltage and Current - Normal Operation .......................................39
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Page 2 of 55
01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
10.4 AC Input Current and PFC Output Voltage During Start-up...............................39
10.5 LLC Start-up ......................................................................................................40
10.6 LLC Output Short Circuit....................................................................................41
10.7 Output Voltage During Start-up .........................................................................42
10.8 Output Ripple Measurements ............................................................................43
10.8.1 Ripple Measurement Technique.................................................................43
10.8.2 Full Load Output Ripple Results .................................................................44
10.8.3 Output Load Step Response ......................................................................45
11
Temperature Profiles.............................................................................................46
11.1 Thermal Results Summary ................................................................................47
11.1.1 Testing Conditions......................................................................................47
11.2 140 VAC, 60 Hz, 150 WOUT................................................................................48
11.3 230 VAC, 60 Hz, 150 WOUT................................................................................49
12
LLC Gain-Phase....................................................................................................50
13
Conducted EMI .....................................................................................................52
14
Line Surge.............................................................................................................53
15
Revision History ....................................................................................................54
Important Note:
Although this board is designed to satisfy safety isolation requirements, the engineering
prototype has not been agency approved. Therefore, all testing should be performed
using an isolation transformer to provide the AC input to the prototype board.
Page 3 of 55
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
01-Jun-09
1 Introduction
This engineering report describes a 150 W reference design power supply for 230 VAC
input LED street lights and also serves as a general purpose evaluation board for the
PLC810PG
The design is based on the PLC810PG controller IC which integrates both continuous
current mode (CCM) boost PFC and resonant half-bridge (LLC) control functions together
with high-side and low side drivers for the LLC stage MOSFETs. To allow optimum
design of the LLC transformer (T1) for high efficiency (high k factor – the ratio of parallel
to series inductance) the design operates in burst mode at zero load. The supply is thus
protected against output overvoltage at low/zero load, but it will not deliver a steady
output voltage at zero load. A practical LED street light power supply design that includes
an auxiliary output winding to power the LED driver circuitry may not have this limitation.
DER-212 demonstrates a design using the commonly employed single transformer and
resonant inductor magnetic component (integrated magnetics) for the LLC stage
(common in display applications). However, the PLC810 may as easily be used with
separated transformer and resonating inductor. PI design materials support both
approaches.
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Page 4 of 55
01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
Figure 1 – DER-212 Photograph, Top View.
Page 5 of 55
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
01-Jun-09
Figure 2 – DER-212 Photograph, Bottom View.
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Page 6 of 55
01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
2 Power Supply Specification
Description
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Comment
VIN
fLINE
PF
140
47
0.97
265
64
VAC
Hz
3 Wire input.
50/60
Output Voltage
VLG
45.6
48
Output Ripple
VRIPPLE(LG)
Input
Voltage
Frequency
Power Factor
Full load, 230 VAC
Main Converter Output
Output Current
ILG
*
0.05
50.4
V
150
mV P-P
48 VDC ± 5%
20 MHz bandwidth
*
3.13
3.13
A
Supply is protected under
no-load conditions
Total Output Power
Continuous Output Power
Efficiency
POUT
Total system at Full Load
ηMain
150
W
91
92
%
Measured at 140 VAC, Full Load
Measured at 230 VAC, Full Load
Environmental
Conducted EMI
Safety
Surge
Differential
Common Mode
100 kHz Ring Wave
Ambient Temperature
Page 7 of 55
Meets CISPR22B / EN55022B
Designed to meet IEC950 / UL1950 Class II
TAMB
1
2
2
0
60
kV
kV
kV
o
C
1.2/50 µs surge, IEC 1000-4-5,
Differential Mode: 2 Ω
Common Mode: 12 Ω
500 A short circuit current
See thermal section for conditions
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
01-Jun-09
3 Schematic
Figure 3 – Schematic of PLC810PG LCD Street Light Power Supply Application Circuit, Input Circuit and
PFC Power Stage.
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Page 8 of 55
01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
Figure 4 – Schematic of PLC810PG LCD Street Light Power Supply Application Circuit, PFC Circuit
Control Inputs and LLC Stage.
Page 9 of 55
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
01-Jun-09
4 Circuit Description
The main converter uses the PLC810PG in a primary-side-control, PFC + LLC
configuration.
4.1 Input Filter / Boost Converter / Bias Supply
The schematic in Figure 3 shows the input EMI filter, main PFC stage, and primary bias
supply/start-up circuit.
4.1.1 EMI Filtering
Capacitors C1 and C5 are connected directly from Line and Neutral to protective Earth
ground and are used to control common mode noise at frequencies greater than 30 MHz.
Common mode inductors L1 and L2 control EMI at low frequencies and mid-band
(<10 MHz), respectively. Capacitors C2 and C6 control resonant peaks in the mid-band
region.
PFC inductor L4 has a grounded shield band to prevent electrostatic and magnetic noise
coupling to the EMI filter components. Capacitors C3 and C4 provide differential mode
EMI filtering. To meet safety requirements resistors R1, R2 and R3 discharge these
capacitors when AC is removed. The heat sink for PFC switch FET Q2 and PFC output
diode D2 is tied to primary return at the cathode of D3 via capacitor C80 to eliminate the
heat sink as a source of conducted noise into the chassis/protective Earth ground.
4.1.2 Inrush Limiting
Thermistor RT1 provides inrush limiting. It is shorted by relay RL1 during normal
operation, increasing efficiency by approximately 1 - 1.5%.
4.1.3 Main PFC Stage
Components C9, C11, L4, Q2, and D2 form a continuous mode power factor correction
circuit. Components Q1, Q3, R7, R9 and bead 1 buffer the PWM drive signal for Q2 from
the PLC810 controller. Resistor R7 allows the turn-off speed of Q2 to be adjusted to
optimize the losses between D2 and Q2. In this design it was found that efficiency and
EMI were both improved by reducing the value of R7 and adding ferrite beads to the gate
and drain of Q2 (bead 1 and bead 2 respectively). In general, increasing MOSFET turn
on drive current reduces MOSFET switching losses but increases the reverse recovery
current through D2 and associated ringing. An ultra fast diode was selected for D2 as a
lower cost alternative to a silicon carbide or other proprietary diode technology. These
may provide higher efficiency by reducing reverse recovery charge, but significantly
increase solution cost.
A 220 MΩ, 500 V power MOSFET was selected for Q2 to maximize the efficiency of the
PFC stage. A TO-247 package device was selected for better heat transfer.
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Page 10 of 55
01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
Capacitor C10 provides local bypassing for the drive circuit. Current sensing for the PFC
stage is provided by R6 and R8. The sense voltage is clamped to two diode drops by D3
and D4, protecting the current sense input of the controller IC during fault conditions.
Diode D1 charges the PFC output capacitor (C9) when AC is first applied. This routes the
inrush current around the PFC inductor L4 preventing it from saturating and causing
stress in Q2 and D2 when the PFC stage begins to operate. Capacitor C11 is used to
shrink the high frequency loop around components Q2, D2 and C9 to reduce EMI. The
incoming AC is rectified by BR1 and filtered by C7. Capacitor C7 was selected as a lowloss polypropylene type due to its low loss and low impedance characteristics. This
capacitor provides the high instantaneous current through L4 during Q2 on-time.
4.1.4 Primary Bias Supply / Start-up
Components D22, D23, C75, C76, and R109 act as a voltage doubler circuit to rectify
and filter the output of a floating bias winding on PFC choke L4, providing a bias voltage
relatively independent of input voltage.
Components Q24, Q25, Q27, VR9, VR10, VR11, D24, C70, R103, R111, R113, R114,
and R117 constitute the bias regulator and start-up functions. Resistor R113 charges
capacitor C70 through mosfet Q24 to provide start-up bias for controller U1. The Q24
output voltage is clamped by VR10. Transistor Q25 shuts off the start-up circuit when the
primary bias supply reaches regulation. Darlington transistor Q27, R111, and VR9 form a
simple emitter-follower voltage regulator. Transistor Q26 switches on relay RL1 when the
primary bias supply reaches regulation, shorting out thermistor RT1.
4.2 Controller / Main LLC Output
Figure 4 shows the schematic of the main controller circuit and LLC converter stage.
4.2.1 LLC Input Stage
MOSFETs Q10 and Q11 are the switch MOSFETs for the LLC converter. They are driven
directly by the controller IC via resistors R56 and R58. Capacitor C39 is the primary
resonating capacitor, and should be a low-loss type rated for the RMS current at
maximum load. Capacitor C40 is used for local bypassing, and is positioned adjacent to
Q10 and Q11. Resistor R59 provides primary current sensing to the controller for
overpower protection.
4.2.2 LLC Outputs
The secondaries of transformer T1 are rectified and filtered by D9, and C37-38 to provide
the +48 V output.
4.2.3 Controller
Figure 4 also shows the circuitry around the main controller IC U1, which provides control
functions for the input PFC and output LLC stages.
Page 11 of 55
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
01-Jun-09
4.2.4 PFC Control
The PFC boost stage output voltage is fed back to the boost voltage sense pin (FBP of
U13) via resistors R39-41, R43, R46, and R50. Capacitor C25 filters noise. Components
C26, C28 and R48 provide frequency compensation for the PFC. Transistor Q20 turns on
during large signal excursions, bypassing C26. This allows fast slewing of the PFC
control loop in response to a large load step. The PFC current sense signal from resistors
R6 and R8 is filtered by R45 and C73. The PFC drive signal from the GATEP pin is
routed to the main switching FET via R44. This damps any ringing in the PFC drive signal
caused by the trace length from U1 to PFC switch MOSFET Q2.
4.2.5 Bypassing / Ground Isolation
Capacitors C29, C31, and C32 provide supply bypassing for the analog and digital supply
rails for U1. Resistor R55 and ferrite bead L7 provide ground isolation between the PFC
and LLC ground systems. Resistors R37 and R38 isolate the IC analog and digital supply
rails. Ferrite bead L6 provides high frequency isolation between the LLC stage high side
MOSFET drive return and the controller IC.
4.2.6 LLC Control
Feedback from the LLC output sense/feedback circuit is provided by U2, which develops
a feedback voltage across resistor R54. Capacitor C77 filters the feedback signal.
Resistors R49, R51, and R53 set the lower frequency limit for the LLC converter stage.
Capacitor C27 is used to provide output soft start. Resistor R52 sets the LLC upper
frequency limit. Capacitors C30 and C36 are noise filters. The LLC overload sense signal
from resistor R59 is filtered by R47 and C35. Components C23, R42, and D8 provide
bootstrapping for the LLC top side MOSFET drive. Resistors R52 and R53 were selected
to force the LLC converter into burst mode at low/zero output load, protecting the output
from overvoltage. This operation mode was selected (vs. allowing operation at a higher
frequency at no-load) to give adequate dead time and ensure ZVS operation. The
alternative would be to adjust the ratio of parallel and series inductance (k factor)
however this reduces full load efficiency.
4.3 LLC Secondary Control Circuits
Figure 4 shows the secondary control schematic for the LLC stage.
4.3.1 Voltage Feedback
The LLC converter 48 V output is sensed by resistors R67 and R68. Zener diode VR12
drops the 48 V output to protect regulator U3. Components C24, C44, C51, R30, R70,
and R107 provide frequency compensation for the LLC stage.
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Page 12 of 55
01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
5 PCB Layout
Figure 5 – Printed Circuit Layout, Top Side.
Page 13 of 55
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
01-Jun-09
Figure 6 – Printed Circuit Layout, Bottom Side.
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Page 14 of 55
01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
6 Bill of Materials
Item
Qty
Ref Des
1
4
BEAD1 BEAD2
BEAD3 BEAD4
2
1
BR1
3
4
C1 C2 C5 C6
4
2
C3 C4
5
1
6
Description
Mfg Part Number
Mfg
3.5 mm D x 3.25 L mm, 21 Ω at 25 MHz, 1.6mm
(.063) hole, Ferrite Bead
2643001501
Fair-Rite
600 V, 8 A, Bridge Rectifier, GBJ Package
GBJ806-F
Diodes Inc
Vishay
330 pF, Ceramic Y1
440LT33-R
470 nF, 275 VAC, Film, X2
PX474K31D5
Carli
C7
470 nF, 630 V, Polypropylene Film
ECW-F6474JL
Panasonic
1
C9
100 µF, 450 V, Electrolytic, Low ESR, (18 x 30)
EPAG451ELL101MM35S
7
4
1 µF, 25 V, Ceramic, X7R, 1206
ECJ-3YB1E105K
8
1
C10 C23 C31
C33
C11
Nippon ChemiCon
Panasonic
20 nF, 500 V, Disc Ceramic
D203Z59Z5UL63L0R
Vishay/BC
9
3
C24 C28 C51
22 nF, 200 V, Ceramic, X7R, 0805
08052C223KAT2A
AVX Corp
10
2
C25 C77
10 nF, 200 V, Ceramic, X7R, 0805
08052C103KAT2A
AVX Corp
11
2
C26 C29
10 µF, 50 V, Electrolytic, Gen. Purpose, (5 x 11)
EKMG500ELL100ME11D
Nippon ChemiCon
12
1
C27
2.2 µF, 25 V, Ceramic, X7R, 1206
ECJ-3YB1E225K
Panasonic
13
5
C30 C34 C36
C44 C73
2.2 nF, 200 V, Ceramic, X7R, 0805
08052C222KAT2A
AVX Corp
14
1
C32
100 nF, 50 V, Ceramic, X7R, 1206
ECJ-3VB1H104K
Panasonic
15
1
C35
1 nF, 200 V, Ceramic, X7R, 0805
08052C102KAT2A
AVX Corp
16
2
C37 C38
680 µF, 63 V, Electrolytic, Low ESR, 50 mΩ, (16 x
25)
EEU-FC1J681
Panasonic
17
1
C39
18 nF, 1600 V, Film
2222 383 50183
Vishay
18
1
C40
100 nF, 630 V, Film
ECQ-E6104KF
Panasonic
19
1
C68
1 µF, 50 V, Electrolytic, Gen. Purpose, (5 x 11)
EKMG500ELL1R0ME11D
Nippon ChemiCon
20
3
C70 C75 C76
ELXZ250ELL151MF15D
21
2
C74 C78
150 uF, 25 V, Electrolytic, Low ESR, 180 mΩ,
(6.3 x 15)
1 nF, Ceramic, Y1
440LD10-R
Nippon ChemiCon
Vishay
22
1
C80
3.3 nF, Ceramic, Y1
440LD33-R
Vishay
23
1
D1
600 V, 3 A, Recitifier, DO-201AD
1N5406
Vishay
24
1
D2
600 V, 8 A, Ultrafast Recovery, 12 ns, TO-220AC
STTH8S06D
ST
Semiconductor
25
2
D3 D4
1000 V, 1 A, Rectifier, DO-41
1N4007-E3/54
Vishay
26
1
D8
600 V, 1 A, Ultrafast Recovery, 75 ns, DO-41
UF4005-E3
Vishay
27
1
D9
200 V, 10 A, Dual Ultrafast Recovery, 25 ns, TO220AB
STTH1002CT
ST
28
5
D16 D19 D20
D24 D25
100 V, 0.2 A, Fast Switching, 50 ns, SOD-323
BAV19WS-7-F
Diode Inc.
29
2
D22 D23
200 V, 1 A, Ultrafast Recovery, 25 ns, DO-214AC
ES1D
Vishay
30
1
DER-212
PRIMARY
INSULATOR
Thermal Conductive insulator, DER-212 Pri Htsnk,
0.5mm Silicone
Power
Integrations
31
1
DER-212
SECONDARY
INSULATOR
Thermal Conductive insulator, DER-212 Sec Htsnk,
0.5mm Silicone
Power
Integrations
32
1
F1
Page 15 of 55
5 A, 250 V, Slow, TR5
3721500041
Wickman
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
Thermal Grease, Silicone, 5 oz Tube
01-Jun-09
33
1
GREASE1
CT40-5
ITW
Chemtronics
34
1
35
1
36
2
GND CABLE
ASSY, DER212
HS/BRACKET,
DER-212
HS3 HS4
37
1
J3
38
1
J4
3 Position (1 x 3) header, 0.156 pitch, Vertical
B3P-VH
JST
39
1
JP38
Wire Jumper, Non insulated, 22 AWG, 1.4 in
298
Alpha
40
1
JP39
Wire Jumper, Non insulated, 22 AWG, 0.3 in
298
Alpha
41
2
L1 L2
Common Mode Choke Toroidal
P/N T22148-902S (Order
PI Taiwan)
Fontaine Tech
CO. LTD
42
1
L4
CC Mode PFC Choke, PQ32/20
43
2
L6 L7
3.5 mm x 4.45 mm, 68 Ohms at 100 MHz, 22 AWG
hole, Ferrite Bead
2743001112
Fair-Rite
44
4
Hardware, Heatsink MaxClip, TO220/Max247
11.2lb 0.87 x 12 mm
MAX07G
Aavid
Thermalloy
45
1
MAX CLIP1
MAX CLIP2
MAX CLIP3
MAX CLIP4
MAX CLIP5
Hardware, Heatsink MaxClip, TO218/TO247 16.9lb
0.93 x 18 mm
MAX08G
Aavid
Thermalloy
46
1
NUT1
Nut, Hex, Kep 4-40, S ZN Cr3 plateing RoHS
4CKNTZR
Olander
47
6
Nut, Hex, Kep 6-32, Zinc Plate
6CKNTZR
Olander
48
1
NUT2 NUT3
NUT4 NUT5
NUT6 NUT7
Q1
NPN, 60 V 1000 MA, SOT-23
FMMT491TA
Zetex Inc
49
1
Q2
500 V, 20 A, 220 mOhm, N-Channel, TO-247AC
STW20NM50FD
ST
50
1
Q3
PNP, 60 V 1000 MA, SOT-23
FMMT591TA
Zetex Inc
51
2
Q10 Q11
500 V, 6.8 A, 320 mOhm. N-Channel, TO-247AC
IRFIB7N50LPBF
IR/Vishay
52
1
Q20
PNP, Small Signal BJT, 40 V, 0.2 A, SOT-23
MMBT3906LT1G
On
Semiconductor
53
1
Q24
600 V, 400 mA, 8.5 Ohm, N-Channel, SOT 223
STN1HNK60
ST
54
2
Q25 Q26
NPN, Small Signal BJT, 40 V, 0.2 A, SOT-23
MMBT3904LT1G
On
Semiconductor
55
1
Q27
56
3
R1 R2 R3
57
2
R6 R8
58
1
R7
2.2 Ω, 5%, 1/8 W, Metal Film, 0805
59
2
R9 R103
4.7 kΩ, 5%, 1/8 W, Metal Film, 0805
60
1
R30
7.5 kΩ, 5%, 1/8 W, Metal Film, 0805
ERJ-6GEYJ752V
Panasonic
61
2
R37 R38
4.7 Ω, 5%, 1/8 W, Metal Film, 0805
ERJ-6GEYJ4R7V
Panasonic
62
2
R39 R40
768 kΩ, 1%, 1/4 W, Metal Film
MFR-25FBF-768K
Yageo
63
3
R41 R43 R46
768 kΩ, 1%, 1/4 W, Metal Film, 1206
ERJ-8ENF7683V
Panasonic
64
1
R42
10 Ω, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film
CFR-25JB-10R
Yageo
65
3
R44 R56 R58
10 Ω, 5%, 1/4 W, Metal Film, 1206
ERJ-8GEYJ100V
Panasonic
66
1
R45
150 Ω, 5%, 1/4 W, Metal Film, 1206
ERJ-8GEYJ151V
Panasonic
67
2
R47 R68
1 kΩ, 5%, 1/8 W, Metal Film, 0805
ERJ-6GEYJ102V
Panasonic
68
1
R48
2.2 kΩ, 5%, 1/8 W, Metal Film, 0805
ERJ-6GEYJ222V
Panasonic
Cable ASSY, 18 GA GRN/YEL, 6 in, with ring
terminal
Heatsink/Mounting Bracket, DER-212
HEATSINK, Custom, Al, 1100, 0.090" Thk
8 Position (1 x 8) header, 0.156 pitch, Vertical
Power
Integrations
26-48-1081
Molex
NPN, DARL 80 V 500 MA, SOT-89
BST52TA
Zetex Inc
680 kΩ, 5%, 1/4 W, Metal Film, 1206
ERJ-8GEYJ684V
Panasonic
0.33 Ω, 5%, 2 W, Metal Oxide
MO200J0R33B
ERJ-6GEYJ2R2V
Synton-Tech
corporation
Panasonic
ERJ-6GEYJ472V
Panasonic
Power Integrations
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Page 16 of 55
01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
69
1
R49
57.6 kΩ, 1%, 1/16 W, Metal Film, 0603
ERJ-3EKF5762V
Panasonic
70
1
R50
22.1 kΩ, 1%, 1/16 W, Metal Film, 0603
ERJ-3EKF2212V
Panasonic
71
2
R51 R52
15 kΩ, 1%, 1/16 W, Metal Film, 0603
ERJ-3EKF1502V
Panasonic
72
1
R53
8.25 kΩ, 1%, 1/8 W, Metal Film, 0603
ERJ-3EKF8251V
Panasonic
73
1
R54
1.8 kΩ, 5%, 1/10 W, Metal Film, 0603
ERJ-3GEYJ182V
Panasonic
74
1
R55
1 Ω, 5%, 1/8 W, Metal Film, 0805
ERJ-6GEYJ1R0V
Panasonic
75
1
R59
0.22 Ω, 5%, 2 W, Metal Oxide
MO200J0R22B
76
1
R66
182 kΩ, 1%, 1/4 W, Metal Film, 1206
ERJ-8ENF1823V
Synton-Tech
Corporation
Panasonic
77
1
R67
10 kΩ, 1%, 1/8 W, Metal Film, 0805
ERJ-6ENF1002V
Panasonic
78
1
R70
470 kΩ, 5%, 1/8 W, Metal Film, 0805
ERJ-6GEYJ474V
Panasonic
79
1
R107
2 kΩ, 5%, 1/8 W, Metal Film, 0805
ERJ-6GEYJ202V
Panasonic
80
1
R109
2.2 Ω, 5%, 1/4 W, Metal Film, 1206
ERJ-8GEYJ2R2V
Panasonic
81
1
R111
22 kΩ, 5%, 1/4 W, Metal Film, 1206
ERJ-8GEYJ223V
Panasonic
82
2
R112 R117
22 kΩ, 5%, 1/8 W, Metal Film, 0805
ERJ-6GEYJ223V
Panasonic
83
1
R113
10 kΩ, 5%, 2 W, Metal Oxide
RSF200JB-10K
Yageo
84
1
R114
2 MΩ, 5%, 1/4 W, Metal Film, 1206
ERJ-8GEYJ205V
Panasonic
85
1
RL1
SPST-NO, 5A 12VDC, PC MNT
G6B-1114P-US-DC12
OMRON
86
1
RT1
NTC Thermistor, 5 Ohms, 4.7 A
CL150
Thermometrics
87
1
RV1
320 V, 84J, 15.5 mm, RADIAL
S14K320
Epcos
88
1
SCREW1
SCREW MACHINE PHIL 4-40X1/2 SS
PMSSS 440 0050 PH
89
5
SCREW2
SCREW3
SCREW4
SCREW5
SCREW6
SCREW MACHINE PHIL 6-32X1/2 SS
PMSSS 632 0050 PH
Building
Fasteners
Building
Fasteners
90
1
SCREW7
SCREW MACHINE PHIL 6-32X1/4 SS
PMSSS 632 0025 PH
91
4
SCREW8
SCREW9
SCREW10
SCREW11
SCREW MACHINE PHIL Flat head, Undercut 6-32
X ¼” Zinc Plated
6C25PFUZR
Building
Fasteners
Olander
92
2
STDOFF1
STDOFF3
Standoff Hex,6-32, .375L,Alum
2209
Keystone Elect
93
2
Standoff Hex, 6-32/snap, .375L,Nylon
FTA-A 375
Eagle
Hardware
94
1
STDOFF2
STDOFF4
T1
95
4
TUBE-TO-220
Heatpad, TO-220 Tube 13.5 x 25 mm
SPT400-12-11-25
Bergquist
96
1
TUBE-TO-247
Heatpad, TO-247 Tube 13.5 x 25 mm
SPT400-12-13.5-25
Bergquist
97
1
U1
Controller, PFC/LLC, 24-pin DIP
PLC818PG
98
1
U2
Opto coupler, 35 V, CTR 80-160%, 4-DIP
LTV-817A
Power
Integrations
Liteon
99
1
U3
IC, REG ZENER SHUNT ADJ SOT-23
LM431AIM3/NOPB
National
Semiconductor
100
1
VR9
15 V, 5%, 500 mW, DO-213AA (MELF)
ZMM5245B-7
Diodes Inc
101
1
VR10
17 V, 5%, 500 mW, DO-213AA (MELF)
ZMM5247B-7
Diodes Inc
102
1
VR11
12 V, 5%, 500 mW, DO-213AA (MELF)
ZMM5242B-7
Diodes Inc
103
1
VR12
22 V, 5%, 500 mW, DO-35
1N5251B
Microsemi
Page 17 of 55
Custom Transformer, LLC, ETD39,Vertical, 14Pins
Power Integrations
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
01-Jun-09
104
2
WASHER1
WASHER2
WASHER FLAT #4 SS
FWSS 004
Building
Fasteners
105
11
WASHER3
WASHER4
WASHER5
WASHER6
WASHER7
WASHER8
WASHER9
WASHER10
WASHER11
WASHER12
WASHER13
Washer Flat #6, SS
FWSS 006
Building
Fasteners
106
1
WASHER14
Bushing Nylon #4 X 0.125
MNI#4-8
107
5
WASHER15
WASHER16
WASHER17
WASHER18
WASHER19
Bushing Nylon #6 X 0.125
MNI#6-8
Richco Plastic
Co.
Richco Plastic
Co.
Power Integrations
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Page 18 of 55
01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
7 Magnetics
7.1
Main LLC 48 V Transformer (T1) Specification
7.1.1 Electrical Diagram
Figure 7 – Transformer Electrical Diagram.
7.1.2 Electrical Specifications
Electrical Strength
Primary Inductance
Resonant Frequency
Primary Leakage Inductance
60 second, 60 Hz, from pins 1 - 9 to pins 10 - 18
Pins 7 - 9, all other windings open, measured at
100 kHz, 0.4 VRMS
Pins 7- 9, all other windings open
Pins 7 - 9, with pins 10 - 18 shorted, measured at
100 kHz, 0.4 VRMS
3000 VAC
820 µH ±10%
700 kHz (Min.)
100 µH ±10%
7.1.3 Materials
Item
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
Description
Core: ETD39, Ferroxcube 3F3 material or equivalent, gap for inductance coefficient (AL) of
539 nH/t².
Bobbin: ETD39 vertical, flanged Pinshine P-3907
Tape: Polyester film, 3M 1350F-1 or equivalent, 10.6 mm wide.
Wire: Litz, 75 strands 40WAG, solderable single coated.
Wire: Litz, 175 strands 40WAG, solderable single coated.
Tape: Copper foil 9.0 mm wide.
Tape: Polyester film, 10.0 mm wide.
Copper bus wire #24 AWG.
Page 19 of 55
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
01-Jun-09
7.1.4 Winding Diagram
13
12
9
WD2: 39T – (75/40AWG_Litz wire)
7
WD1B: 9T - (175/40AWG_Litz wire)
WD1A: 9T - (175/40AWG_Litz wire)
11
10
Figure 8 – LLC Transformer Winding Diagram.
7.1.5 Winding Instructions
General note
WD1A and 1B
WD2
Assembly
For the purpose of these instructions, Bobbin is oriented on winder such that pin side is
on the left side (see illustration). Winding direction as shown is counter-clockwise.
For WD1A and WD1B use two ~60 cm lengths of Litz wire (item [5]). Mark start and
finish of one strand using a tape flag or other means. This strand will be used for WD
1A. Route start and finish leads as shown in illustrations. Start flagged wire strand at pin
10, start unflagged strand at pin 11. Wind 9 simultaneous bifilar turns of Litz wire (item
[5]) from left to right, then from right to left, and continue with tight tension about 4
layers. Finish flagged wire at pin12 and unflagged wire at pin 13. Use 2 layers of tape
(item [3]) for finish wrap.
Starting at pin 7, shield start lead where it enters bobbin with 2cm piece of tape (item
[3]) at side of bobbin, then wind 39 turns of Litz wire (item [4]) on bobbin from left to
right, then from right to left, and continue with tight tension in 6 layers. Use 2 layers of
tape (item [3]) for finish wrap. Route start and finish leads as shown in illustrations.
Grind core halves for specified primary inductance, insert bobbin, and secure core
halves with one turn of copper tape (item [6]) as shown. Make sure that start and finis of
copper tape overlap. Solder at overlap, attach wire (item [8]) and connect this wire to pin
2.
Use tape (item [7]) to secure core halves and insulate.
Power Integrations
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Page 20 of 55
01-June-09
7.2
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
Transformer Illustrations
1
For the purpose of these
instructions,
bobbin
is
oriented on winder such
that pin side is on the left
side
(see
illustration).
Winding direction as shown
is counter-clockwise.
General note
9
For WD1A and WD1B use
two ~60 cm lengths of Litz
wire (item [5]). Mark start
and finish of one strand
using a tape flag or other
means. The marked strand
will be used for WD 1A.
Route start and finish leads
as shown in illustrations.
Start flagged wire strand at
pin 10, start unflagged
strand at pin 11.
WD1A and 1B:
10
WD1A and 1B:
(Cont’d)
18
Page 21 of 55
Wind 9 simultaneous bifilar
turns of Litz wire (item [5])
from left to right, then from
right to left, and continue
with tight tension about 4
layers. Finish flagged wire
at pin 12 and unflagged
wire at pin 13. Use 2 layers
of tape (item [3]) for finish
wrap.
Power Integrations
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
01-Jun-09
Use 2 layers of tape (item
[3]) for finish wrap.
Power Integrations
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Page 22 of 55
01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
WD2:
Starting at pin 7, shield
start lead where it enters
bobbin with 2cm piece of
tape (item [3]) at side of
bobbin, then wind 39 turns
of Litz wire (item [4]) on
bobbin from left to right,
then from right to left, and
continuing for 6 layers.
Finish at Pin 9. Route start
and finish leads as shown
in illustration.
WD2:
(Cont’d)
Use 2 layers of tape (item
[3]) for finish wrap. Route
start and finish leads as
shown in illustrations.
Page 23 of 55
Power Integrations
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www.powerint.com
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
Assembly
Power Integrations
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01-Jun-09
Grind core halves for
specified
primary
inductance, insert bobbin,
and secure cores with one
turn of copper Tape (item
[6]). Overlap start and
finish of copper tape.
Solder at overlap, attach
wire (item [8]) and connect
this wire to pin 2.
Use tape (item [7]) to
secure core halves and
insulate.
Page 24 of 55
01-June-09
7.3
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
PFC Choke (L4) Specification
7.3.1 Electrical Diagram
Figure 9 – PFC Choke Schematic.
7.3.2 Electrical Specification
Inductance: Pins 1-6, 100 kHz, 0.4 V - 580 µH ± 10%
7.3.3 Materials
Item
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
Description
2
Ferrite core pair, PQ32/20, TDK PC44PQ32/20Z-12 or equivalent, gap for AL of 473 nH/T .
Bobbin, PQ32/20, 12 pin, TDK CPH-E41/12-1S-12PD-Z or equivalent.
Magnet Wire: #20AWG, solderable double coated.
Magnet Wire: #28AWG, solderable double coated.
Tape Polyester Film, 3M 1350F-1 or equivalent, 7.5 mm wide.
Tape Polyester Film, 3M 1350F-1 or equivalent, 10 mm wide.
Tape, Copper Foil, 3M 1125 or equivalent, 6.5 mm wide.
Wire, tinned bus, #24 AWG.
Transformer Varnish, Dolph BC-389 or equivalent (must be baking vs. air-dry varnish).
Page 25 of 55
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
01-Jun-09
7.3.4 Build Diagram
Core [1]
Solder wire [7] here
Bus Wire [8]
Pin 7
Copper Tape
[7]
Overlap and solder ends
Figure 10 – PFC Choke Build Diagram.
7.3.5 Winding Instructions
Bobbin
Preparation
Main
Winding
Insulation
Bias
Winding
Finish Wrap
Core
Assembly
Shield
Shield
Insulation
Varnish
Pull pins 2, 3, 10, and 11 on bobbin [2].
Starting on pin 1, wind 35 turns of wire [3] on bobbin [2]. Finish on pin 6.
Use 1 layer of tape [5] for insulation.
Starting on pin 8, wind 2 turns of wire [4], finishing on pin 7.
Use 3 layers of tape [5] for finish wrap.
Assemble bobbin and core halves. Secure core with two wraps of tape (Item 5).
Apply 1 turn of copper tape (Item [7]) as shown in Figure 1, centered in bobbin window.
Overlap start and finish ends as shown in Figure 1, and solder to form a shorted turn.
Take 3 cm of hook-up wire [7], solder 1 end of wire to copper foil as shown in Figure 1.
Terminate other end on pin 9 of bobbin.
Apply 3 turns of tape (item [6]) to insulate copper shield.
Dip varnish finished assembly.
Power Integrations
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Page 26 of 55
01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
Figure 11 – Finished PFC Choke, Front and Back View.
Page 27 of 55
Power Integrations
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
01-Jun-09
8 LLC Transformer Design Spreadsheet
ACDC_PLC810_031209;
Rev.1.4; Copyright Power
Integrations 2008
Enter Input Parameters
INPUTS
INFO
OUTPUTS
UNITS
140
V
Vacmin
ACDC_PLC810_031209_Rev1-4.xls; PLC810
Half-Bridge, Continuous mode LLC
Resonant Converter Design Spreadsheet
Minimum AC input voltage
Vacmax
265
V
Maximum AC input voltage
Iacinmax
1.19
A
Maximum input AC rms current at Vacmin
Vbulk
385.00
V
Nominal PFC output voltage
Vbulkmax
411.95
V
300.00
300.00
V
50.00
Hz
Peak PFC OVP voltage (typical is 7% above
Vbulk)
Minimum bulk capacitor voltage at the specified
holdup time. Typical value is between 250 - 320
VDC. Max holdup time is at 250 V
AC Line input frequency
18.00
18.00
ms
Bulk capacitor hold up time
CIN_MIN
98.28
uF
bulk ripple
8.16
V
Vbulkmin
fL
Holdup time
389.08
V
Minimum value of bulk cap to meet holdup time
requirement; Adjust holdup time and Vbulkmin
to change bulk cap value
Bulk capacitor peak to peak voltage (low freq
ripple)
Bulk cap peak value of ripple voltage
IAC
1.19
A
AC input rms current at VACMIN
IAC_PEAK
1.68
A
Peak AC input current at full load and VACMIN
V
The spreadsheet assumes AC stacking of the
secondaries
Main Output Voltage. Spreadsheet assumes
that this is the regulated output
Main output maximum current
Vrippeak
Enter LLC (secondary) outputs
Vo1
48.00
Io1
3.13
Vd1
0.90
Po1
A
0.90
V
Forward voltage of diode in main output
150.24
W
Output Power from first LLC output
Vo2
0.00
V
Second Output Voltage
Io2
0.00
A
Second output current
Vd2
0.00
Po2
0.00
V
Forward voltage of diode used in second output
0.00
W
Output Power from second LLC output
Enter stand-by (auxiliary) outputs
Vo3
12.00
V
Auxiliary Output 1 Voltage
Io3
0.05
A
Auxiliary Output 1 maximum current
Vo4
V
Auxiliary Output 2 Voltage
Io4
A
Auxiliary Output 2 maximum current
Specified LLC output power
Efficiciency and Loss Allocation
P_LLC
150.24
W
P_AUX
0.60
W
Auxiliary output power
P_PFC
158.95
W
PFC output power
P_TOTAL
150.84
W
0.95
Total output power (Includes Output power from
LLC stage and auxiliary stage)
Efficiency of LLC stage
0.75
Efficiency of auxiliary output
LLC_n_estimated
0.95
AUX_n_estimated
PFC_n_estimated
PIN
0.96
0.96
166.44
Power Integrations
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Minimum efficiency of PFC front end stage
W
AC input power
Page 28 of 55
01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
Overall efficiency
0.91
Ploss_PFC
7.49
W
PFC stage power loss
Ploss_LLC
7.91
W
LLC stage power loss
Ploss_AUX
0.20
W
Auxiliary power loss
Ploss_TOTAL
15.60
W
Total power loss
Enter PFC Design Parameters
f_nominal_desired
100.00
kHz
Krp
Minimum system efficiency
Desired full load switching frequency.
Recommended value 66 kHz to 132 kHz
PFC choke ripple current factor. Actual Krp
tends to increase at higher current when using
iron powder/Sendust cores, due to drop in
inductance at higher current
Forward voltage drop of diode bridge
0.98
0.98
0.70
V
0.22
0.22
ohms
Coss
18.18
pF
tON
20.00
ns
Qrr
26.49
nC
PFC MOSFET Rdson - use high temp value
from datasheet
PFC MOSFET high voltage Coss from
datasheet
MOSFET turnon current rise time. Check actual
value
Average Qrr of boost diode over AC sinusoid
Lpfc
583.79
uH
PFC choke inductance
ILpk
3.33
A
PFC choke peak current at VACMIN
Diode bridge Vf
Rdson
PFC CHOKE Parameters
AL
470.00
n
MLT
AWG_Choke
nH/t^2
35.24
5.00
turns
cm
20
Equivalent Choke Metric Wire
gauge
Wire length
nH per turn^2 (from magnetics datasheet). Note
- This value decreases by as much as 15% if a
belly-band is added to reduce EMI
PFC choke number of turns
Mean length per turn
PFC choke wire gauge
0.80
mm
1.76
m
DCR
21.21
m-ohms
DC resistance of wire at 25 C
DCR at 85 C
26.72
m-ohms
DC resistance of wire at 85 C
Irms_CHOKE
1.36
A
PFC choke rms current
DCR Cu loss
0.05
W
ACR_PFC_Choke
53.45
m-ohms
HF Irms
0.58
A
PFC choke DC Copper loss for reference at 85
C
Measure or calculate; add 26% to measured
value to get 85 C value
RMS current of switching component
HF Cu loss
0.02
W
tot Cu loss
0.07
W
Strands
LM
3
Equivalent diameter of wire in metric units
Length of wire used on PFC choke
Number of wires
10.00
Copper loss due to switching component at 85
C
Total copper loss at 85 C
cm
Magnetic path length of core used
Hpk
14.74
Oe
Peak MMF in Oersteds, calculated at low line
Hpk_SI
1174
A/m
Peak MMF in A/m, calculated at low line
Isense_R
0.16
ohms
Sense resistor power
dissipation
Irms_FET
0.30
W
PFC sense resistor power dissipation at Vacmin
1.11
A
Conduction loss
0.27
W
PFC MOSFET RMS current measured at
VACMIN
PFC MOSFET conduction loss
PFC FET, Diode and Output Parameters
Page 29 of 55
Maximum value of PFC current sense resistor
Power Integrations
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
01-Jun-09
Trrloss
0.89
W
PFC MOSFET loss due to diode Trr
Cossloss
0.15
W
MOSFET Coss loss
Crossover loss
0.01
W
MOSFET crossover turnon loss
Total PFC loss
1.17
W
MOSPFC FET total loss
Diode bridge Ploss
1.51
W
Diode bridge estimated loss
PFC Diode RMS current
0.65
A
Bulk capacitor RMS current
0.72
A
Approximate PFC Diode RMS current at
nominal AC input voltage (VACMIN) (includes
100/120 Hz component)
Approximate Bulk Capacitor RMS current at
nominal AC input voltage (VACMIN) (includes
100/120 Hz component and LLC input current)
Po
153.06
W
Output from LLC converter including diode loss
Vo
48.90
V
Output at transformer windings (includes diode
drop)
Transformer core cross-sectional area
LLC TRANSFORMER CALCULATIONS
Ae
2.10
cm^2
Lpar
704.00
704.00
uH
Lser
116.00
116.00
uH
820.00
uH
Lopen
C
18.00
Parallel inductance. (Lpar = Lopen - Lser for
integrated transformer; Lpar = Lmag for nonintegrated transformer)
Leakage inductance of integrated transformer;
Leakage + external inductor for non-integrated
transformer
Primary open circuit inductance for integrated
transformer
Series resonant capacitor
18.00
nF
100.00
kHz
Desired full load switching frequency.
Recommended value 66 kHz to 132 kHz
fnominal_actual
87.0
kHz
IRMS_LLC_Primary
0.94
A
IRMS_LLC_Q1
0.67
A
VMIN
295.1
V
f_AT_VMIN
Expected frequency at nominal input voltage
(VBULK) and full load
Primary winding RMS current at full load and
nominal input voltage (VBULK)
RMS current through upper MOSFET in LLC
half bridge
Minimum Voltage on Bulk Capacitor at minimum
switching frequency
Frequency at minimum Bulk capacitor voltage
fnominal_desired
49.00
kHz
fpar
45
kHz
fser
110
kHz
fmin
55
kHz
39
Parallel resonant frequency (defined by Lpar +
Lser and C)
Series resonant frequency (defined by series
inductance Lser and C)
Min frequency, at VBULK _MIN and full load.
Set PLC810 minimum frequency to this value.
Operation below this frequency results in loss of
ZVS
Primary winding number of turns
NS_1
9.00
9
Secondary winding number of turns
n_RATIO
4.30
4.30
NP_1
Transformer turns ratio. Adjust this value so that
fnominal_actual is close to fnominal_desired
Bpkfmin
1186
Gauss
BAC
1487
Gauss
0.22
ohms
0.20
W
LLC sense resistor
0.22
Pdiss_LLC_senseR
PRIMARY
Primary gauge
Equivalent Primary Metric
Wire gauge
40.00
AWG
0.08
Power Integrations
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mm
First Quadrant peak flux excursion at minimum
frequency.
AC peak to peak flux density (calculated at
fnominal_actual, VBULK at full load)
LLC current sense resistor
Power dissipation in LLC sense resistor
Individual wire strand gauge used for primary
winding
Equivalent diameter of wire in metric units
Page 30 of 55
01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
Primary litz strands
75.00
Number of strands used in Litz wire; for non-litz
non-integrated transformer set to 1
Primary parallel wires
1.00
Number of parallel individual wires to make up
Litz wire
Resistivity in milli-ohms per meter
Resistivity_25 C_Primary
Transformer primary MLT
49.72
5.00
Primary turns
m-ohm/m
cm
38.70
Mean length per turn
Number of primary turns
Primary DCR 25 C
96.21
m-ohm
Estimated resistance at 25 C
Primary DCR 100 C
128.92
m-ohm
Estimated resistance at 100 C (approximately
33% higher than at 25 C)
Measured RMS current through the primary
winding
Measured AC resistance (at 100 kHz, room
temperature), multiply by 1.33 to approximate
100 C winding temperature
Total primary winding copper loss at 85 C
Primary RMS current
1.50
ACR_Trf_Primary
Primary copper loss
A
206.27
m-ohm
0.46
W
Separate Series Inductor (For non-integrated transformer only)
Lsep
116.00
Ae_Ind
0.53
Inductor turns
15.00
Ignore this section if using integrated magnetics
uH
Desired inductance from separate inductor
cm^2
Inductor core cross-sectional area
mm
AC flux for core loss calculations (at fnom and
full load)
Peak flux density, calculated at minimum
frequency fmin
Individual wire strand gauge used for primary
winding
Equivalent diameter of wire in metric units
29.83
m-ohm/m
Number of parallel individual wires to make up
Litz wire
Resistivity in milli-ohms per meter
Inductor DCR 25 C
31.32
m-ohm
Estimated resistance at 25 C (for reference)
Inductor DCR 100 C
41.97
m-ohm
ACR_Sep_Inductor
67.16
m-ohm
Inductor copper loss
0.15
W
Estimated resistance at 100 C (approximately
33% higher than at 25 C)
Measured AC resistance (at 100 kHz, room
temperature), multiply by 1.33 to approximate
100 C winding temperature
Total primary winding copper loss at 85 C
15
Number of primary turns
BP_fnom
2086
Gauss
BP_fmin
2629
Gauss
Inductor gauge
Equivalent Inductor Metric
Wire gauge
Inductor litz strands
Inductor parallel wires
40.00
0.08
125.00
Number of strands used in Litz wire
1.00
Resistivity_25 C_Sep_Ind
Inductor MLT
AWG
7.00
cm
Winding 1 (Vo1)
Sec 1 Wire gauge
Equivalent secondary 1 Metric
Wire gauge
Sec 1 litz strands
Parallel wires sec 1
40
0.08
mm
Note - Power loss calculations are for each
winding half of secondary
Individual wire strand gauge used for secondary
winding
Equivalent diameter of wire in metric units
175
Number of strands used in Litz wire; for non-litz
non-integrated transformer set to 1
1
Number of parallel individual wires to make up
Litz wire
Resistivity in milli-ohms per meter
Resistivity_25 C_sec1
Transformer Secondary MLT
AWG
Mean length per turn
21.31
5.00
m-ohm/m
cm
Mean length per turn
Sec 1 Turns
9.00
DCR_25C_Sec1
9.59
m-ohm
Estimated resistance at 25 C (for reference)
DCR_100C_Sec1
12.85
m-ohm
Sec 1 RMS current
4.92
A
Estimated resistance at 100 C (approximately
33% higher than at 25 C)
RMS current through Output 1 winding,
Page 31 of 55
Secondary winding turns (each half)
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assuming half sinusoidal waveshape
DCR_Ploss_Sec1
0.25
W
ACR_Sec1
20.56
m-ohm
ACR_Ploss_Sec1
1.00
W
Total secondary winding
Copper Losses
1.25
W
Winding 2 (Vo2)
Sec 2 Wire gauge
Equivalent secondary 2 Metric
Wire gauge
Sec 2 litz strands
Parallel wires sec 2
40
0.08
mm
Note - Power loss calculations are for each
winding half of secondary
Individual wire strand gauge used for secondary
winding
Equivalent diameter of wire in metric units
175
Number of strands used in Litz wire; for non-litz
non-integrated transformer set to 1
1
Number of parallel individual wires to make up
Litz wire
Resistivity in milli-ohms per meter
Resistivity_25 C_sec2
Transformer Secondary 2
MLT
Sec 2 Turns
AWG
Estimated Power loss due to DC resistance
(both secondary halves)
Measured AC resistance (at 100 kHz, room
temperature), multiply by 1.33 to approximate
100 C winding temperature . Default value of
ACR is twice the DCR value at 100 C
Estimated AC copper loss (both secondary
halves)
Total (AC + DC) winding copper loss for both
secondary halves
21.31
m-ohm/m
cm
0.00
Mean length per turn
Secondary winding turns (each half)
DCR_25C_Sec2
0.00
m-ohm
Estimated resistance at 25 C (for reference)
DCR_100C_Sec2
0.00
m-ohm
Sec 2 RMS current
4.92
Arms
DCR_Ploss_Sec1
0.00
W
ACR_Sec2
0.00
m-ohm
ACR_Ploss_Sec2
0.00
W
Total secondary winding
Copper Losses
0.00
W
Estimated resistance at 100 C for half
secondary (approximately 33% higher than at
25 C)
RMS current through Output 2 winding; Output
1 winding is AC stacked on top of Output 2
winding
Estimated Power loss due to DC resistance
(both secondary halves)
Actual measured AC resistance (at 100 kHz,
room temperature), multiply by 1.33 to
approximate 100 C winding temperature.
Default value of ACR is twice the DCR value at
100 C
Estimated AC copper loss (both secondary
halves)
Total (AC + DC) winding copper loss for both
secondary halves
Total Copper loss calculation
Does not include fringing flux loss from gap
Primary copper loss (from
Primary section)
Secondary copper Loss
0.46
W
Total primary winding copper loss at 85 C
1.25
W
Total copper loss in secondary winding
Transformer copper loss
1.71
W
Total copper loss in transformer (primary +
secondary)
TURNS CALCULATOR
This is to help you choose the secondary turns not connected to any other part of spreadsheet
V1
48.00
V
V1d1
0.90
V
N1
4.00
V2
N2
V
2.00
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Diode drop voltage for Vo1
Total number of turns for Vo1
V
V2d2
Target Output Voltage Vo1
Expected outputV
Diode drop voltage for Vo2
Total number of turns for Vo2
Page 32 of 55
01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
Compared to the above spreadsheet, actual operating frequency is considerably higher than the expected
operating frequency of 90 kHz shown. This is due to the effective turns ratio of the transformer, which
results in an operating turns ratio lower than the ratio of primary turns to secondary turns (NP/NS). The
graphs shown below were generated by adjusting the turns ratio in the spreadsheet until the expected
operating frequency shown in the spreadsheet was identical to the actual operating frequency of the unit
under test.
VBULK vs Switching Frequency
500
450
VBULK (V)
400
350
Full load
Min load
300
250
200
150
100
0
100
200
300
Switching Frequency (kHz)
Full Load Primary and MOSFET RMS Currents
5
IRMS (A)
4
3
Primary
MOSFET
2
1
0
30
130
230
Switching Frequency (kHz)
Page 33 of 55
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
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9 Performance Data
All measurements were taken at room temperature and 60 Hz input frequency unless
otherwise specified, Output voltage measurements were taken at the output connectors.
9.1 LLC Stage Efficiency
To make this measurement, the LLC stage was powered separately by connecting an
external 385 VDC supply across bulk capacitor C9, and a 15 V source was applied
between the collector of regulator transistor Q27 and controller ground.
LLC Efficiency vs. Output Power, 385 VDC Input
98.00%
96.00%
Efficiency (%)
94.00%
92.00%
90.00%
88.00%
86.00%
84.00%
82.00%
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Output Power (W)
Figure 12 – LLC Stage Efficiency vs. Load, 385 VDC Input.
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
9.2 Total Efficiency
Figures below show the total supply efficiency (PFC and LLC stages). AC input was
supplied using a 60 Hz sine wave source.
Total Efficiency vs. Input Voltage
0.94
0.92
0.9
Efficiency (%)
0.88
0.86
100% Load
50% Load
20% Load
10% Load
0.84
0.82
0.8
0.78
0.76
0.74
0.72
0.7
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
AC Input Voltage
Figure 13 – Total Efficiency vs. Output Power.
Page 35 of 55
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
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9.3 THD and Power Factor
THD and Power factor measurements were made using a 60 Hz sine wave AC source.
THD vs. Input Voltage
12
10
THD (%)
8
1/2 Load
Full Load
6
4
2
0
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
AC Input Voltage
Figure 14 – Input Current THD vs. Input Voltage, 50% and 100% Load.
Power Factor vs. Input Voltage
1
Power Factor
0.98
0.96
0.94
Full Load
1/2 Load
0.92
0.9
0.88
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
AC Input Voltage
Figure 15 – Power Factor vs. Input Voltage, 50% and 100% Load.
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01-June-09
9.4
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
Output Regulation
The PFC regulates the LLC and standby supply input voltage under normal conditions so
the outputs will not be affected by the AC input voltage. Variations due to temperature
and component tolerances are not represented. The 48 V output varies by less than 1%
over a load range of 2% to 100% load.
Page 37 of 55
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
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10 Waveforms
All waveforms are measured at room temperature using a 60 Hz sine wave supply unless
otherwise indicated.
10.1 Input Voltage and Current
Figure 16 – 140 VAC, 150 W Load.
Top Trace: Input Current, 1 A / div.
Bottom trace: Input Voltage, 200 V, 5 ms / div.
Figure 17 – 230 VAC, 150 W Load.
Top Trace: Input Current, 1 A / div.
Bottom trace: Input Voltage, 200 V, 5 ms / div.
10.2 LLC Primary Voltage and Current
The LLC stage current was measured by cutting the PC board trace in series with the T1
primary and adding a current sensing loop that measures the LLC transformer (T1)
primary current. The primary voltage waveform was measured at the hot side of ferrite
bead L6.
Figure 18 – LLC Stage Primary Voltage and Current.
Top Trace: Current, 1 A / div.
Bottom Trace: Voltage, 100 V, 2 µs / div.
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01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
10.3 PFC Switch Voltage and Current - Normal Operation
Figure 19 – 140 VAC Input, 100% Load.
Top Trace: Q2 Drain Current, 1 A / div, 5 µs / div
Bottom Trace: Drain Voltage, 100 V, 5 µs/div.
Figure 20 – 230 VAC Input, 100% Load.
Top Trace: Q2 Drain Current, 1 A / div, 5 µs / div
Bottom Trace: Drain Voltage, 100 V, 5 µs / div.
10.4 AC Input Current and PFC Output Voltage During Start-up
Figure 21 – Full Load, 140 VAC.
Top Trace: AC Input Current, 2 A / div.
Bottom Trace: PFC Voltage, 100 V, 20 ms / div.
Page 39 of 55
Figure 22 – Full Load, 230 VAC.
Top Trace: AC Input Current, 2 A / div.
Bottom Trace: PFC Voltage, 100 V, 20 ms / div.
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10.5 LLC Start-up
Figure 23 – LLC Start-up. 230 VAC, 100% Load.
Top Trace: LLC Primary Current, 1 A / div.
Bottom Trace: Output Voltage, 20 V, 10 ms / div.
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01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
10.6 LLC Output Short Circuit
The figure below shows the effect of an output short circuit on the LLC primary current. A
mercury displacement relay was used to short the output to get a fast, bounce-free
connection.
Figure 24 – Output Short Circuit Test, 230 VAC.
Top Trace: LLC Primary Current, 2 A / div.
Bottom Trace: 48 V Output, 20 V, 50 µs / div.
Page 41 of 55
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
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10.7 Output Voltage During Start-up
Figure 25 – 48 V Output at Start-up.
140 VAC Input, Full Load. 10 V, 20 ms/ div.
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Figure 26 – 48 V Output at Start-up.
230 VAC Input, Full Load. 10 V, 20 ms / div.
Page 42 of 55
01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
10.8 Output Ripple Measurements
10.8.1 Ripple Measurement Technique
For DC output ripple measurements, use a modified oscilloscope test probe to reduce
spurious signals. Details of the probe modification are provided in figures below.
Tie two capacitors in parallel across the probe tip of the 4987BA probe adapter. Use a
0.1 µF / 50 V ceramic capacitor and 1.0 µF / 100 V aluminum electrolytic capacitor. The
aluminum-electrolytic capacitor is polarized, so always maintain proper polarity across
DC outputs.
Probe Ground
Probe Tip
Figure 27 – Oscilloscope Probe Prepared for Ripple Measurement (End Cap and Ground Lead Removed).
Figure 28 – Oscilloscope Probe with Probe Master 4987BA BNC Adapter (Modified with Wires for Probe
Ground for Ripple measurement and Two Parallel Decoupling Capacitors Added).
Page 43 of 55
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
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10.8.2 Full Load Output Ripple Results
Figure 29 – 48 V Output Ripple, 200 mV, 2 ms / div.
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Figure 30 – 48 V Output Ripple, 100 mV, 5 µs / div.
Page 44 of 55
01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
10.8.3 Output Load Step Response
The figures below show transient response with a 75%-100%-75% load step for the 48 V
output. The oscilloscope was triggered using the rising edge of the load step, and
averaging was used to cancel out ripple components asynchronous to the load step in
order to better ascertain the load step response.
Figure 31 – Output Transient Response 3.13 A – 2.3 A – 3.13 A Load Step.
Top Trace: 48 V Transient Response, 50 mV / div.
Bottom Trace: Output Load Step, 1 A, 500 µs / div.
Page 45 of 55
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
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11 Temperature Profiles
The board was operated at room temperature in a vertical orientation as shown below.
For each test condition the unit was allowed to thermally stabilize (>1 hr) before
measurements were made. Infrared measurements were correlated to thermocouples
attached using copper tape.
LLC
MOSFETs
LLC
transformer
LLC
rectifier
PFC
inductor
PFC
boost
diode
Input
bridge
PFC
boost
MOSFET
Figure 32 – Photograph of Board Orientation Used for Thermal Testing.
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01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
11.1 Thermal Results Summary
11.1.1 Testing Conditions
The goal of this design is to maintain the temperature of components below 100 °C at
rated ambient and 100% load (150 W), low line (140 VAC, 60 Hz).
By extrapolating the data below from 21 °C to 60 °C this design meets these
requirements.
Measurement data is presented below. The unit was allowed to thermally stabilize (>1
hours in all cases) before gathering data. Semiconductor plastic and magnetics
temperatures were correlated via thermocouples attached with copper tape.
140 VAC, 60 Hz
230 VAC, 60 Hz
Output Power (W)
150.2
150.2
Input Power (W)
164.5
162.6
Efficiency (%)
91.3
92.37
Output Loading 48 V (A)
3.13
3.13
Ambient
21
21
LLC rectifier plastic package (D9)
47
48
Temperatures (°C)
LLC Upper MOSFET (Q10) plastic package
42
43
LLC Lower MOSFET (Q11 ) plastic package
44
45
PFC diode plastic package (D2)
44
41
PFC MOSFET plastic package (Q2)
42
39
Bridge rectifier plastic package (BR1)
49
43
LLC transformer (T2) surface
47
40
49
PFC inductor (L4) surface
Page 47 of 55
43
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
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11.2 140 VAC, 60 Hz, 150 WOUT
Figure 33 – Thermal Profile. Room Temperature, 140 VAC, 60 Hz, 150 W Load (1 hr)
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01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
11.3 230 VAC, 60 Hz, 150 WOUT
Figure 34 – Thermal Profile. Room Temperature, 230 VAC, 60 Hz, 150 W Load (1 hr)
Page 49 of 55
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
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12 LLC Gain-Phase
Figure 35 – LLC Converter Gain-Phase, 100% Load Crossover Frequency – 2 kHz, Phase Margin - 45°.
Figure 36 – LLC Converter Gain-Phase, 50% Load. Crossover Frequency ~1.8 kHz, Phase Margin - ~55°.
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
Figure 37 – LLC Converter Gain-Phase, 10% Load. Gain Crossover – 600 Hz, Phase Margin - ~55°.
Page 51 of 55
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
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13 Conducted EMI
Conducted EMI tests were performed with a 16 Ω resistive load on the 48 V main output.
The unit was placed on a metallic ground plane, which in turn was hard wired to the AC
cord ground. The resistive load was connected to the ground plane with a pair of 2.2 nF
capacitors (one at the positive feed, and one at the return) to simulate the capacitive
coupling of LED modules to a grounded street light casing. The peak shown at `90 MHz
is actually 10 dB lower than shown in the graph, as the EMI receiver changes scale at 80
MHz.
Figure 38 – Conducted EMI, 230 VAC.
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01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
14 Line Surge
Differential input line 1.2/50 µs surge testing was completed on a single test unit to
IEC61000-4-5. Input voltage was set at 230 VAC / 60 Hz. Output was loaded at full load
and operation was verified following each surge event. During testing no output
interruption was seen.
Surge
Level
(kV)
+1 kV
-1 kV
+2 kV
-2 kV
Generator
Input
Impedance Voltage
(Ω)
(VAC)
2
230
2
230
12
230
12
230
Injection Location
L to N
L to N
L, N to G
L, N to G
Injection
Phase
(°)
90
270
90
270
Test Result
(Pass/Fail)
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass
Notes: 1) A ground plane was placed under the PSU bracket and load resistors (load
resistors are aluminum case units mounted on heat sinks). The resistive load was
bypassed to the ground plane with (2) 2.2 nF capacitors (one at the +48 V input
lead, one at return) to simulate the capacitance of LED arrays to a grounded street
light case, but otherwise feft floating. The input AC safety ground wire was
connected to the ground plane.
Page 53 of 55
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DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
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15 Revision History
Date
11-May-09
01-Jun-09
Author
RH
Revision
1.0
1.1
Description and changes
Initial Release
Revised PCB Images
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Reviewed
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01-June-09
DER-212, 150 W Street Light Power Supply Using PLC810PG
For the latest updates, visit our website: www.powerint.com
Power Integrations reserves the right to make changes to its products at any time to improve reliability or
manufacturability. Power Integrations does not assume any liability arising from the use of any device or circuit
described herein. POWER INTEGRATIONS MAKES NO WARRANTY HEREIN AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ALL
WARRANTIES INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.
PATENT INFORMATION
The products and applications illustrated herein (including transformer construction and circuits external to the products)
may be covered by one or more U.S. and foreign patents, or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign patent applications
assigned to Power Integrations. A complete list of Power Integrations’ patents may be found at www.powerint.com.
Power Integrations grants its customers a license under certain patent rights as set forth at
http://www.powerint.com/ip.htm.
The PI Logo, TOPSwitch, TinySwitch, LinkSwitch, DPA-Switch, PeakSwitch, EcoSmart, Clampless, E-Shield, Filterfuse, StackFET,
PI Expert and PI FACTS are trademarks of Power Integrations, Inc. Other trademarks are property of their respective
companies. ©Copyright 2008 Power Integrations, Inc.
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