EPR-89 - Feryster

Engineering Prototype Report for 2.0 W
CV Adapter using LNK362P
Title
Specification 85-265 VAC Input, 6.2 V, 322 mA Output
Application
Low Cost Adapter
Author
Power Integrations Applications Department
Document
Number
EPR-89
Date
08-Nov-05
Revision
1.0
Summary and Features
•
•
•
•
•
Low cost, low part count solution: requires only 19 components
Integrated LinkSwitch-XT safety and reliability features:
• Accurate (± 5%), auto-recovering, hysteretic, thermal shutdown function keeps PCB
temperature below safe levels under all conditions
• Auto-restart protects against output short-circuits and open feedback loops
• > 3.2 mm creepage on IC package enables reliable operation in high humidity and
high pollution environments
EcoSmart® – meets all existing and proposed international energy efficiency standards
such as China (CECP) / CEC / EPA / AGO / European Commission
• No-load consumption 110 mW at 265 VAC
• 61.5 % active-mode efficiency (exceeds CEC requirement of 55.2 %)
E-Shield™ transformer construction and frequency jitter enable this supply to meet
EN550022 & CISPR-22 Class B EMI with >10 dBµV of margin
Meets IEC61000-4-5 Class 3 AC line surge
The products and applications illustrated herein (including circuits external to the products and transformer
construction) may be covered by one or more U.S. and foreign patents or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign
patent applications assigned to Power Integrations. A complete list of Power Integrations’ patents may be found at
www.powerint.com.
Power Integrations
5245 Hellyer Avenue, San Jose, CA 95138 USA.
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
08-Nov-2005
Table Of Contents
1
2
3
4
Introduction.................................................................................................................3
Power Supply Specification ........................................................................................5
Schematic...................................................................................................................6
Circuit Description ......................................................................................................7
4.1
Input Filter ...........................................................................................................7
4.2
LNK362 Primary ..................................................................................................7
4.3
Feedback.............................................................................................................8
5 PCB Layout ................................................................................................................9
6 Bill Of Materials ........................................................................................................10
7 Transformer Specification.........................................................................................11
7.1
Electrical Diagram .............................................................................................11
7.2
Electrical Specifications.....................................................................................11
7.3
Materials............................................................................................................11
7.4
Transformer Build Diagram ...............................................................................12
7.5
Transformer Construction..................................................................................12
8 Design Spreadsheets ...............................................................................................13
9 Performance Data ....................................................................................................16
9.1
Efficiency ...........................................................................................................16
9.1.1
Active Mode Efficiency (CEC) Measurement Data .....................................16
9.2
No-load Input Power..........................................................................................17
9.3
Available Standby Output Power.......................................................................18
9.4
Regulation .........................................................................................................19
9.4.1
Load ...........................................................................................................19
9.4.2
Line ............................................................................................................20
10
Thermal Performance ...........................................................................................20
11
Waveforms............................................................................................................22
11.1 Drain Voltage and Current, Normal Operation...................................................22
11.2 Output Voltage Start-up Profile..........................................................................22
11.3 Drain Voltage and Current Start-up Profile ........................................................23
11.4 Load Transient Response (75% to 100% Load Step) .......................................23
11.5 Output Ripple Measurements............................................................................24
11.5.1 Ripple Measurement Technique ................................................................24
11.5.2 Measurement Results ................................................................................25
12
Line Surge.............................................................................................................26
13
Conducted EMI .....................................................................................................27
14
Revision History ....................................................................................................28
Important Note:
Although this board has been designed to satisfy safety isolation requirements, the
engineering prototype has not been agency approved. Therefore, all testing should be
performed using an isolation transformer to provide the AC input to the prototype board.
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
Page 2 of 32
08-Nov-2005
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
1 Introduction
This engineering report describes a 2.0 W CV, universal input, power supply for
applications such as wall adapters. The supply is designed around a LNK362P device,
and is intended as a standard evaluation platform for the LinkSwitch-XT family of ICs.
Figure 1 – EP89, LNK362P, 2.0 W, 6.2 V, CV Charger Board Photograph.
The LinkSwitch-XT family has been developed to replace discrete component selfoscillating, ringing choke converters (RCC) and linear regulator-based supplies, in low
power adapter applications. The ON/OFF control scheme of the device family achieves
very high efficiency over the full load range, as well as very low no-load power
consumption. The no-load and active-mode efficiency performance of this supply
exceeds all current and proposed energy efficiency standards.
Unlike RCC solutions, the LinkSwitch-XT has intelligent thermal protection built in,
eliminating the need for external circuitry. The thermal shutdown has a tight tolerance
(142 °C ± 5%), a wide hysteresis (75 °C) and recovers automatically once the cause of
the over temperature condition is removed. This protects the supply, the load and the
user, and typically keeps the average PCB temperature below 100 °C. In contrast, the
latching thermal shutdown function typically used in RCC designs usually requires that
the AC input power be removed to reset it. Thus, with an RCC, there is fair probability
that units may be returned after a thermal latch-off, because the customer is not aware of
the reset procedure (unplugging the unit long enough for the input capacitor to
discharge). Regardless of the fact that the units being returned are fully functional, this
makes the design appear to be less reliable to both the OEM and the end customer, and
burdens the power supply manufacturer with the needless handling of perfectly good
units through its RMA process.
Page 3 of 32
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
08-Nov-2005
On the other hand, an auto-recovering thermal shutdown function eliminates the
occurrence of unnecessary returns from the field, since the end customer may never
even know that a fault condition existed, because the power supply resumes normal
operation once the cause of the fault (a failed battery or blanket inadvertently thrown over
top of a working power adapter or battery charger) is removed. Additionally, the thermal
shutdown function employed in the LinkSwitch-XT does not have the noise sensitivity
associated with discrete latch circuits, which often vary widely with PCB component
layout, environmental conditions (such as proximity to external electronic noise sources)
and component aging.
The IC package has a wide creepage distance between the high-voltage DRAIN pin and
the lower voltage pins (both where the pins exit the package and at the PCB pads). This
is important for reliable operation in high humidity and/or high pollution environments.
The wide creepage distance reduces the likelihood of arcing, which improves robustness
and long-term field reliability.
Another important protection function is auto-restart, which begins operating whenever
there is no feedback from the power supply output for more than 40 ms (such as a short
circuit on the output or a component that has failed open-circuit in the feedback loop).
Auto-restart limits the average output current to about 5 % of the full load rating
indefinitely, and resumes normal operation once the fault is removed.
The worst-case, no-load power consumption of this design is about 110 mW at 265 VAC,
which is well below the 300 mW European Union standards. It also meets the common
target of 150 mW at 230 VAC, that is seen in many particular customer specifications.
The amount of heat dissipated within the supply is minimized by the high operating
efficiency over all combinations of load and line.
The EE16 transformer bobbin that was used also has a wide creepage spacing, which
makes it easy to meet primary-to-secondary safety spacing requirements.
This report contains the complete specification of the power supply, a detailed circuit
diagram, the entire bill of materials required to build the supply, extensive documentation
of the power transformer, along with test data and oscillographs of the most important
electrical waveforms. All of this is intended to document the performance characteristics
that should be typical of a power supply designed around the LNK362 device.
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
Page 4 of 32
08-Nov-2005
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
2 Power Supply Specification
Description
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Comment
265
64
0.15
VAC
Hz
W
2 Wire – no P.E.
50/60
6.63
V
mV
mA
Input
Voltage
Frequency
No-load Input Power (230 VAC)
Output
Output Voltage 1
Output Ripple Voltage 1
Output Current 1
Total Output Power
Continuous Output Power
Efficiency
Full Load
VIN
fLINE
85
47
VOUT1
VRIPPLE1
IOUT1
5.77
η
60
%
Measured at POUT 115 VAC, 25 C
Required average active
efficiency at 25, 50, 75 and 100
% of POUT
ηCEC
55.2
%
Per California Energy Commission
(CEC) / Energy Star requirements
6.2
60
322
2.0
POUT
W
o
Environmental
Conducted EMI
Meets CISPR22B / EN55022B
Designed to meet IEC950, UL1950
Class II
Safety
Surge
Ambient Temperature
Page 5 of 32
>6 dB Margin
1.5
TAMB
0
kV
40
o
C
1.2/50 µs surge, IEC 1000-4-5,
Series Impedance:
Differential Mode: 2 Ω
Common Mode: 12 Ω
Free convection, sea level
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
08-Nov-2005
3 Schematic
Figure 2 – DAK 89 Schematic.
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
Page 6 of 32
08-Nov-2005
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
4 Circuit Description
This converter is configured as a flyback. The output voltage is sensed and compared to
a reference (VR1) on the secondary side of the supply, and the results are fed back to U1
(LNK362P) through optocoupler U2 (PC817A). This enables U1 to tightly regulate the
output voltage across the entire load range. Past the point of peak power delivery, U1
will go into auto-restart, and the average power delivered to the load will be limited to
about 5% of full load. This circuit takes advantage of Power Integrations Clampless™
transformer techniques, which use the primary winding capacitance of the transformer to
clamp the voltage spike that is induced on the drain-node, by the transformer leakage
inductance, each time the integrated MOSFET switch within U1 turns off. Therefore, this
converter has no primary clamp components connected to the drain-node.
4.1 Input Filter
Diodes D1 through D4 rectify the AC input. The resulting DC is filtered by bulk storage
capacitors C1 and C2. Inductor L1 and capacitors C1 and C2 form a pi (π) filter that
attenuates differential-mode conducted EMI noise. Resistor R1 dampens the ringing of
the EMI filter. L2 also attenuates conducted EMI noise in the primary return. This
configuration, combined with the LinkSwitch-XT‘s integrated switching frequency jitter
function and Power Integrations E-shield technology used in the construction of the
transformer enable this design to meet EN55022 Class-B conducted EMI requirements
with good margin. An optional 100 pF Y capacitor (C4) can be used to improve the unitto-unit repeatability of the EMI measurements. Even with C4 installed, the line frequency
leakage current is less than 10 µA.
4.2 LNK362 Primary
The LNK362P (U1) has the following functions integrated onto a monolithic IC: a 700 V
power MOSFET, a low-voltage CMOS controller, a high-voltage current source (provides
startup and steady-state operational current to the IC), hysteretic thermal shutdown and
auto-restart. The excellent switching characteristics of the integrated power MOSFET
allows efficient operation up to 132 kHz.
The rectified and filtered input voltage is applied to one side of the primary winding of T1.
The other side of the T1 primary winding is connected to the DRAIN pin of U1. As soon
as the voltage across the DRAIN and SOURCE pins of U1 exceeds 50 V, the internal
high voltage current source (connected to the DRAIN pin of the IC) begins charging the
capacitor (C3) connected to the Bypass (BP) pin. Once the voltage across C3 reaches
5.8 V, the controller enables MOSFET switching. MOSFET current is sensed (internally)
by the voltage developed across the DRAIN-to-SOURCE resistance (RDS(ON)) while it is
turned on. When the current reaches the preset (internal) current-limit trip point (ILIMIT),
the controller turns the MOSFET off. The controller also has a maximum duty cycle
(DCMAX) signal that will turn the MOSFET off if ILIMIT is not reached before the time
duration equal to maximum duty cycle has elapsed.
Page 7 of 32
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
08-Nov-2005
The controller regulates the output voltage by skipping switching cycles (ON/OFF control)
whenever the output voltage is above the reference level. During normal operation,
MOSFET switching is disabled whenever the current flowing into the FEEDBACK (FB)
pin is greater than 49 µA. If less than 49 µA is flowing into the FB pin when the
oscillator’s (internal) clock signal occurs, MOSFET switching is enabled for that switching
cycle and the MOSFET turns on. That switching cycle terminates when the current
through the MOSFET reaches ILIMIT, or the DCMAX signal occurs*. At full load, few
switching cycles will be skipped (disabled) resulting in a high effective switching
frequency. As the load reduces, more switching cycles are skipped, which reduces the
effective switching frequency. At no-load, most switching cycles are skipped, which is
what makes the no-load power consumption of supplies designed around the
LinkSwitch-XT family so low, since switching losses are the dominant loss mechanism at
light loading. Additionally, since the amount of energy per switching cycle is fixed by
ILIMIT, the skipping of switching cycles gives the supply a fairly consistent efficiency over
most of the load range. [NOTE * Termination of a switching cycle by the maximum duty
cycle (DCMAX) signal usually only occurs in an abnormal condition, such as when a highline-only design (220/240 VAC) is subject to a brown-out condition, where just slightly
over 50 V (the minimum drain voltage required for normal operation) is available to the
supply, and the current through the MOSFET is not reaching ILIMIT each switching cycle
because of the low input voltage.]
4.3 Feedback
The output voltage of the supply is determined by the sum of the voltages developed
across VR1, R2 and the (forward bias voltage) LED in optocoupler U2A. As the supply
turns on and the output voltage comes into regulation, U2A will become forward biased,
which will turn on its photo-transistor (U2B) causing > 49 µA to flow into the FB pin, and
the next switching cycle to be skipped. Resistor R2 limits the bias current through VR1 to
about 1 mA. Resistor R3 can be used to fine-tune the output voltage, and also limits the
peak current through U2A during load transients. Since the controller responds to
feedback each switching cycle (the decision to enable or disable MOSFET switching is
made right before that switching cycle is to occur), the feedback loop requires no
frequency compensation components.
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
Page 8 of 32
08-Nov-2005
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
5 PCB Layout
Figure 3 – Printed Circuit Board Layout (dimensions in 0.001”).
Page 9 of 32
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
08-Nov-2005
6 Bill Of Materials
Part
Qty Value
Ref
1 C1 C2 2 3.3 uF
Item
2 C3
1
100 nF
3 C4
4 C5
1
1
100 pF
330 uF
Description
Manufacturer Part #
Manufacturer
3.3 uF, 400 V, Electrolytic,
(8 x 11.5)
100 nF, 50 V, Ceramic, Z5U,
0.2 Lead Space
100 pF, Ceramic, Y1
330 uF, 16 V, Electrolytic, Very
Low ESR, 72 mΩ, (8 x 11.5)
TAQ2G3R3MK0811MLL3
Taicon
Corporation
C317C104M5U5CA
440LT10
EKZE160ELL331MHB5D
5 D1 D2 4
D3 D4
6 D5
1
1N4005
600 V, 1 A, Rectifier, DO-41
1N4005
1N4934
1N4934
7 J1 J2
2
CON1
8 J3
1
Output
Cable
Assembly
100 V, 1 A, Fast Recovery,
200 ns, DO-41
Test Point, WHT,THRU-HOLE
MOUNT
6 ft, 22 AWG, 0.25 Ω, 2.1 mm
connector (custom)
9 JP1
1
J
298
10 L1 L2
2
1 mH
Wire Jumper, Non insulated,
22 AWG, 0.3 in
1 mH, 0.15 A, Ferrite Core
11 R1
1
3.9 kΩ
3.9 kΩ, 5%, 1/8 W, Carbon Film CFR-12JB-3K9
12 R2
1
1 kΩ
1 kΩ, 5%, 1/8 W, Carbon Film
13 R3
1
390 Ω
390 Ω, 5%, 1/8 W, Carbon Film CFR-12JB-390R
14 RF1
1
8.2 Ω
8.2 Ω, 2.5 W, Fusible/Flame
Proof Wire Wound
CRF253-4 5T 8R2
Transformer, EE16, Horizontal,
10 pins
LinkSwitch-XT, LNK362P,
DIP-8B
Opto-coupler, 35 V, CTR 80160%, 4-DIP
5.1 V, 500 mW, 2%, DO-35
SNX-1378
LSLA40343
LNK362P
15 T1
1
EE16
16 U1
1
LNK362P
17 U2
1
PC817A
18 VR1
1
BZX79B5V1
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
5012
SBCP-47HY102B
CFR-12JB-1K0
Kemet
Vishay
Nippon ChemiCon
Vishay
Vishay
Keystone
Alpha
Tokin
Yageo
Yageo
Yageo
Vitrohm
PC817X1
BZX79-B5V1
Santronics
Li Shin
Power
Integrations
Sharp
Vishay
Page 10 of 32
08-Nov-2005
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
7 Transformer Specification
7.1
Electrical Diagram
5
WD#1
Cancillatinon
37T #39X2
Floating
Floating
WD#3
Shield
10T #33X4
5
9
13 T #27 TIW
WD#4
Secondary
8
4
WD#2
Primary
144T #39
3
Figure 4 – Transformer Electrical Diagram.
7.2
Electrical Specifications
Electrical Strength
Primary Inductance
Resonant Frequency
Primary Leakage Inductance
7.3
1 second, 60 Hz, from Pins 3,4,5 to Pins 8,9
Pins 3-4, all other windings open, measured at
100 kHz, 0.4 VRMS
Pins 3-4, all other windings open
Pins 3-4, with Pins 8-9 shorted, measured at
100 kHz, 0.4 VRMS
3000 VAC
2.64 mH, +/-12%
275 kHz (Min.)
500 kHz (Max)
70 µH (Max.)
Materials
Item
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
Description
Core: PC40EE16-Z, TDK or equivalent gapped for AL of 127 nH/t2
Bobbin: Horizontal 10 pin
Magnet Wire: #39 AWG
Magnet Wire: #33 AWG
Triple Insulated Wire: #27 AWG
Tape, 3M 1298 Polyester Film, 2.0 Mils thick, 8.0 mm wide
Varnish
Page 11 of 32
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
7.4
08-Nov-2005
Transformer Build Diagram
Tape
WD #4
Secondary
Pin 5
Pin 8
Pin 9
Tape
WD #3
Shield
Tape
WD #2
Primary
Tape
WD #1
Cancellation
Pin 4
Pin 3
Pin 5
Figure 5 – Transformer Build Diagram.
7.5
Transformer Construction
WD #1
Cancellation
Winding
Insulation
WD #2
Primary Winding
Insulation
WD #3
Shield Winding
Insulation
WD #4
Secondary Winding
Outer insulation
Core Assembly
Varnish
Primary pin side of the bobbin oriented to left hand side. Temporarily start
at pin 6. Wind 37 bifilar turns of item [3] from right to left. Wind with tight
tension across bobbin evenly. Cut at end. Finish start on pin 5.
1 Layer of tape [6] for insulation.
Start at Pin 3. Wind 72 turns of item [3] from left to right. Then wind
another 72 turns on the next layer from right to left. Terminate the finish
on pin 4. Wind with tight tension across bobbin evenly.
Use one layer of tape [6] for basic insulation.
Starting at Pin 6 temporarily, wind 10 quadfilar turns of item [4]. Wind
from right to left with tight tension across entire bobbin width. Finish on
pin 5. Cut at the start lead.
Use one layer of tape [6] for basic insulation.
Start at Pin 9, wind 13 turns of item [5] from right to left. Spread turns
evenly across bobbin. Finish on Pin 8.
Wrap windings with 3 layers of tape [6].
Assemble and secure core halves.
Dip varnish assembly with item [7].
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
Page 12 of 32
08-Nov-2005
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
8 Design Spreadsheets
ACDC_LinkSwitch
-XT_101205;
Rev.1.2;
INPUT
Copyright Power
Integrations 2005
ENTER APPLICATION
VARIABLES
VACMIN
85
VACMAX
265
fL
50
INFO
OUTPUT
EP89
Volts
Volts
Hertz
VO
6.20
Volts
IO
0.32
Amps
0.00
Volts
CC Threshold
Voltage
Output Cable
Voltage Resistance
PO
2.00 Watts
Output Power (VO x IO + CC dissipation)
Enter 'BIAS' for Bias winding feedback and 'OPTO' for
Optocoupler feedback
Enter 'YES' to add a Bias winding. Enter 'NO' to
continue design without a Bias winding. Addition of
Bias winding can lower no load consumption
!!! Caution. For designs above 2 W and no Bias
winding, Verify peak Drain Voltage and EMI
performance
Efficiency Estimate at output terminals.
Loss Allocation Factor (suggest 0.5 for CC=0 V, 0.75
for CC=1 V)
Bridge Rectifier Conduction Time Estimate
Input Capacitance
Choose H for Half Wave Rectifier and F for Full Wave
Rectification
Add Bias Winding
No
Clampless design
(LNK 362 only)
Yes
n
0.63
0.63
Z
0.50
0.5
tC
CIN
Input Rectification
Type
2.90
6.60
No
Caution
Clampless
mSeconds
uFarads
F
LNK362
77.00
0.75
User selection for LinkSwitch-XT
LNK362
0.130 Amps
0.150 Amps
124000 Hertz
2199 A^2Hz
VDS
VD
KP
Page 13 of 32
Opto
F
VOR
Voltage drop across sense resistor.
Enter the resistance of the output cable (if used)
Opto
I^2fmin
Minimum AC Input Voltage
Maximum AC Input Voltage
AC Mains Frequency
Output Voltage (main) (For CC designs enter upper
CV tolerance limit)
Power Supply Output Current (For CC designs enter
upper CC tolerance limit)
0.17 Ohms
Feedback Type
ENTER LinkSwitch-XT
VARIABLES
LinkSwitch-XT
LNK362
Chosen Device
ILIMITMIN
ILIMITMAX
fSmin
ACDC_LinkSwitch-XT_101205_Rev1-2.xls;
LinkSwitch-XT Continuous/Discontinuous Flyback
Transformer Design Spreadsheet
UNIT
77 Volts
10 Volts
0.75 Volts
1.00
Minimum Current Limit
Maximum Current Limit
Minimum Device Switching Frequency
I^2f (product of current limit squared and frequency is
trimmed for tighter tolerance)
VOR > 90V not recommended for Clampless designs
with no Bias windings. Reduce VOR below 90V
LinkSwitch-XT on-state Drain to Source Voltage
Output Winding Diode Forward Voltage Drop
Ripple to Peak Current Ratio (0.6 < KP < 6.0)
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
ENTER TRANSFORMER
CORE/CONSTRUCTION VARIABLES
Core Type
Core
EE16
Bobbin
EE16_BOBBIN
AE
LE
AL
BW
08-Nov-2005
NS
NB
VB
PIVB
13
N/A
N/A Volts
N/A Volts
Suggested smallest commonly available core
PC40EE16-Z
EE16_BOBBIN
Core Effective Cross Sectional Area
Core Effective Path Length
Ungapped Core Effective Inductance
Bobbin Physical Winding Width
Safety Margin Width (Half the Primary to Secondary
Creepage Distance)
L > 2 or L < 1 not recommended for Clampless designs
with no Bias windings. Enter L = 2
Number of Secondary Turns
Bias winding not used
Bias winding not used
N/A - Bias Winding not in use
DC INPUT VOLTAGE
PARAMETERS
VMIN
VMAX
87 Volts
375 Volts
Minimum DC Input Voltage
Maximum DC Input Voltage
CURRENT WAVEFORM
SHAPE PARAMETERS
DMAX
IAVG
IP
IR
IRMS
0.50
0.04
0.13
0.12
0.06
Maximum Duty Cycle
Average Primary Current
Minimum Peak Primary Current
Primary Ripple Current
Primary RMS Current
TRANSFORMER PRIMARY
DESIGN PARAMETERS
LP
LP_TOLERANCE
12.00
NP
ALG
2677 uHenries
12 %
144
129 nH/T^2
BM
1452
EE16
0.192
3.5
1140
8.6
P/N:
P/N:
cm^2
cm
nH/T^2
mm
M
0 mm
L
2
BAC
553
ur
LG
BWE
OD
INS
DIA
1654
0.17
17.2
0.12
0.03
0.09
AWG
39
CM
CMA
13
225
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
Amps
Amps
Amps
Amps
Typical Primary Inductance. +/- 12%
Primary inductance tolerance
Primary Winding Number of Turns
Gapped Core Effective Inductance
Maximum Operating Flux Density, BM<1500 is
Gauss
recommended
AC Flux Density for Core Loss Curves (0.5 X Peak to
Gauss
Peak)
Relative Permeability of Ungapped Core
mm
Gap Length (Lg > 0.1 mm)
mm
Effective Bobbin Width
mm
Maximum Primary Wire Diameter including insulation
mm
Estimated Total Insulation Thickness (= 2 * film thickness)
mm
Bare conductor diameter
Primary Wire Gauge (Rounded to next smaller standard
AWG
AWG value)
Cmils
Bare conductor effective area in circular mils
Cmils/Amp Primary Winding Current Capacity (150 < CMA < 500)
Page 14 of 32
08-Nov-2005
TRANSFORMER SECONDARY DESIGN
PARAMETERS
Lumped parameters
ISP
ISRMS
IRIPPLE
CMS
AWGS
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
1.44
0.63
0.54
125
Amps
Amps
Amps
Cmils
29 AWG
DIAS
0.29 mm
ODS
0.66 mm
INSS
0.19 mm
Peak Secondary Current
Secondary RMS Current
Output Capacitor RMS Ripple Current
Secondary Bare Conductor minimum circular mils
Secondary Wire Gauge (Rounded up to next larger standard
AWG value)
Secondary Minimum Bare Conductor Diameter
Secondary Maximum Outside Diameter for Triple Insulated
Wire
Maximum Secondary Insulation Wall Thickness
VOLTAGE STRESS
PARAMETERS
VDRAIN
PIVS
- Volts
40 Volts
For Clampless designs, the Peak Drain Voltage is highly
dependent on Transformer capacitance and leakage
inductance. Please verify this on the bench and ensure that it
is below 650 V to allow 50 V margin for transformer variation.
Output Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse Voltage
FEEDBACK
COMPONENTS
Recommended
Bias Diode
1N4003 1N4007
R1
500 ohms
1000
R2
200 - 820 ohms
Recommended diode is 1N4003. Place diode on return leg of
bias winding for optimal EMI. See LinkSwitch-XT Design
Guide
CV bias resistor for CV/CC circuit. See LinkSwitch-XT Design
Guide
Resistor to set CC linearity for CV/CC circuit. See LinkSwitchXT Design Guide
TRANSFORMER SECONDARY DESIGN
PARAMETERS (MULTIPLE OUTPUTS)
1st output
VO1
IO1
PO1
VD1
NS1
ISRMS1
IRIPPLE1
PIVS1
Recommended
Diodes
Pre-Load
Resistor
CMS1
AWGS1
DIAS1
ODS1
Page 15 of 32
6.20 Volts
0.32
2.00
0.75
13.00
0.63
0.54
40.03
UF4001,
SB150
Amps
Watts
Volts
Amps
Amps
Volts
2 k-Ohms
126.56 Cmils
29.00 AWG
0.29 mm
0.66 mm
Main Output Voltage (if unused, defaults to single output
design)
Output DC Current
Output Power
Output Diode Forward Voltage Drop
Output Winding Number of Turns
Output Winding RMS Current
Output Capacitor RMS Ripple Current
Output Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse Voltage
Recommended Diodes for this output
Recommended value of pre-load resistor
Output Winding Bare Conductor minimum circular mils
Wire Gauge (Rounded up to next larger standard AWG
value)
Minimum Bare Conductor Diameter
Maximum Outside Diameter for Triple Insulated Wire
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
08-Nov-2005
9 Performance Data
All measurements performed at room temperature (25 °C), 60 Hz input frequency.
9.1
Efficiency
68
66
Efficiency %
64
62
60
85 VAC
58
115 VAC
230 VAC
265 VAC
56
54
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Output Power (W)
Figure 6 – Efficiency vs. Output Power.
% of Full Load
25
50
75
100
Average Efficiency
CEC Requirement
% Efficiency @
115 VAC
63.3
65.2
64.9
64.9
64.6
% Efficiency @
230VAC
58.2
61.4
63.0
63.2
61.5
55.2
Figure 7 – Efficiency vs. Input Voltage and Load, Room Temperature, 60 Hz.
9.1.1 Active Mode Efficiency (CEC) Measurement Data
All single output adapters, including those provided with products, for sale in California
after July 1st, 2006 must meet the California Energy Commission (CEC) requirement for
minimum active mode efficiency and no-load input power consumption. Minimum active
mode efficiency is defined as the average efficiency at 25, 50, 75 and 100% of rated
output power, based on the nameplate rated output power of the supply.
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
Page 16 of 32
08-Nov-2005
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
Nameplate
Output (PO)
Minimum Efficiency in Active Mode
of Operation
<1W
≥ 1 W to ≤ 49 W
> 49 W
0.49 × PO
0.09 × ln (PO) + 0.49 [ln = natural log]
0.84 W
For adapters that are rated for a single input voltage, the efficiency measurements are
made at the input voltage (115 VAC or 230 VAC) specified on the nameplate. For
universal input adapters, the measurements are made at both nominal input voltages
(115 VAC and 230 VAC).
To comply with the standard, the average of the measured efficiencies must be greater
than or equal to the efficiency specified by the CEC/Energy Star standard.
More states within the USA and other countries are adopting this standard, for the latest
up to date information on worldwide energy efficiency standards, please visit the PI
Green Room at:
http://www.powerint.com/greenroom/regulations.htm
9.2
No-load Input Power
0.12
Input Power (W)
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Input Voltage (VAC)
Figure 8 – No-load Input Power vs. Input Line Voltage, Room Temperature, 60 Hz.
Page 17 of 32
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
08-Nov-2005
9.3 Available Standby Output Power
The graph below shows the available output power vs line voltage when input power is
limited to 1 W and 2 W, respectively.
1.4
Output Power (W)
1.2
1
Pin = 1.0 W
Pin = 2.0 W
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Input Voltage (VAC)
Figure 9 – Available Output Power for Input Power of 1 W and 2 W.
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
Page 18 of 32
08-Nov-2005
9.4
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
Regulation
9.4.1 Load
The output of this supply was characterized by making measurements at the end of a
6 foot long output cable. The DC resistance of the cable is approximately 0.2 Ω.
Output Voltage (Volts)
7
6.5
6
115 VAC
5.5
230 VAC
Upper Limit
Lower Limit
5
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Output Current (mA)
Figure 10 – Load Regulation, Room Temperature.
Page 19 of 32
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
08-Nov-2005
9.4.2 Line
Output Voltage (VDC)
7
6.5
6
5.5
5
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Input Voltage (VAC)
Figure 11 – Line Regulation, Room Temperature, Full Load.
10 Thermal Performance
Thermal performance was measured inside a plastic enclosure, at full load, with no
airflow over the power supply components or the housing they were enclosed within.
Item
Ambient
LNK362P
(source pin)
90 VAC
265 VAC
40°C
40°C
93.0°C at 2.0 W output
(6.2V, 322mA)
111.8°C at 2.0 W output
(6.2V, 322mA).
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
Page 20 of 32
08-Nov-2005
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
85 VAC, 2 W load, 22 °C Ambient
265 VAC, 2 W load, 22 °C Ambient
Figure 12 – Infra-red Thermograph of Operating Unit: Open Frame, 22 °C Ambient.
Page 21 of 32
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
08-Nov-2005
11 Waveforms
11.1 Drain Voltage and Current, Normal Operation
Figure 13 – 85 VAC, Full Load.
Upper: IDRAIN, 0.1 A / div.
Lower: VDRAIN, 100 V / div.
Figure 14 – 265 VAC, Full Load.
Upper: IDRAIN, 0.1 A / div.
Lower: VDRAIN, 200 V / div.
11.2 Output Voltage Start-up Profile
Figure 15 – Start-up Profile, 115 VAC.
1 V, 20 ms / div.
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
Figure 16 – Start-up Profile, 230 VAC.
1 V, 20 ms / div.
Page 22 of 32
08-Nov-2005
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
11.3 Drain Voltage and Current Start-up Profile
Figure 17 – 85 VAC Input and Maximum Load.
Upper: IDRAIN, 0.1 A / div.
Lower: VDRAIN, 100 V & 1 ms / div.
Figure 18 – 265 VAC Input and Maximum Load.
Upper: IDRAIN, 0.1 A / div.
Lower: VDRAIN, 200 V & 1 ms / div.
11.4 Load Transient Response (75% to 100% Load Step)
Figure 19 – Transient Response, 115 VAC, 100-75100% Load Step.
Output Voltage
50 mV, 20 ms / div.
Page 23 of 32
Figure 20 – Transient Response, 230 VAC, 100-75100% Load Step.
Output Voltage
50 mV, 20 ms / div.
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
08-Nov-2005
11.5 Output Ripple Measurements
11.5.1 Ripple Measurement Technique
For DC output ripple measurements, a modified oscilloscope test probe must be utilized
in order to reduce spurious signals due to pickup. Details of the probe modification are
provided in Figure 21 and Figure 22.
The 5125BA probe adapter is affixed with two capacitors tied in parallel across the probe
tip. The capacitors include one (1) 0.1 µF/50 V ceramic type and one (1) 1.0 µF/50 V
aluminum electrolytic. The aluminum electrolytic type capacitor is polarized, so
proper polarity across DC outputs must be maintained (see below).
Probe Ground
Probe Tip
Figure 21 – Oscilloscope Probe Prepared for Ripple Measurement. (End Cap and Ground Lead Removed)
Figure 22 – Oscilloscope Probe with Probe Master 5125BA BNC Adapter. (Modified with wires for probe
ground for ripple measurement, and two parallel decoupling capacitors added)
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
Page 24 of 32
08-Nov-2005
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
11.5.2 Measurement Results
Figure 23 – Ripple, 85 VAC, Full Load.
50 us, 20 mV / div.
Figure 24 – 5 V Ripple, 115 VAC, Full Load.
50 us, 20 mV / div.
Figure 25 – Ripple, 230 VAC, Full Load.
50 us, 20 mV / div.
Figure 26 – Ripple, 265 VAC, Full Load.
50 us, 20 mV / div.
Page 25 of 32
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
08-Nov-2005
12 Line Surge
Differential input line 1.2/50 µs surge testing was completed on a single test unit to
IEC61000-4-5. Input voltage was set at 230 VAC / 60 Hz. Output was loaded at full load
and operation was verified following each surge event.
Surge
Level (V)
+500
-500
+750
-750
+1000
-1000
+1500
-1500
Input
Voltage
(VAC)
230
230
230
230
230
230
230
230
Injection
Location
Injection
Phase (°)
Test Result
(Pass/Fail)
L to N
L to N
L to N
L to N
L to N
L to N
L to N
L to N
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass
Pass
Unit passes under all test conditions.
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
Page 26 of 32
08-Nov-2005
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
13 Conducted EMI
Power Integrations
27.Oct 05 15:50
Att 10 dB AUTO
dBµV
1 MHz
80
RBW
9 kHz
Marker 1 [T1 ]
MT
500 ms
35.01 dBµV
PREAMP OFF
182.849162999 kHz
10 MHz
LIMIT CHECK
MARG
LINE EN55022A MARG
LINE EN55022Q MARG
70
1 QP
EN55022Q
CLRWR
60
SGL
2 AV
EN55022A
CLRWR
50
TDF
40
1
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
150 kHz
30 MHz
DAK 89: 115VAC with ARTIFICIAL HAND
Date: 27.OCT.2005
15:50:22
Figure 27 – Conducted EMI, Maximum Steady State Load,
115 VAC, 60 Hz, Artificial Hand and EN55022 B Limits.
Power Integrations
27.Oct 05 16:02
Att 10 dB AUTO
dBµV
80
RBW
9 kHz Marker 1 [T1 ]
MT
500 ms
29.68 dBµV
PREAMP OFF
182.849162999 kHz
1 MHz
10 MHz
LIMIT CHECK
MARG
LINE EN55022A MARG
LINE EN55022Q MARG
70
1 QP
EN55022Q
CLRWR
60
SGL
2 AV
EN55022A
CLRWR
50
TDF
40
1
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
150 kHz
30 MHz
DAK 89: 230VAC with ARTIFICIAL HAND
Date: 27.OCT.2005
16:02:19
Figure 28 – Conducted EMI, Maximum Steady State Load,
230 VAC, 60 Hz, Artificial Hand and EN55022 B Limits.
Page 27 of 32
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
08-Nov-2005
14 Revision History
Date
08-Nov-05
Author
JAJ
Revision
1.0
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
Description & changes
Formatted for Final Release
Page 28 of 32
08-Nov-2005
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
Notes
Page 29 of 32
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
08-Nov-2005
Notes
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
Page 30 of 32
08-Nov-2005
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
Notes
Page 31 of 32
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
EP-89 6.2 V, 322 mA Adapter
08-Nov-2005
For the latest updates, visit our website: www.powerint.com
Power Integrations reserves the right to make changes to its products at any time to improve reliability or manufacturability. Power
Integrations does not assume any liability arising from the use of any device or circuit described herein. POWER INTEGRATIONS
MAKES NO WARRANTY HEREIN AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES INCLUDING, WITHOUT
LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND
NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.
PATENT INFORMATION
The products and applications illustrated herein (including transformer construction and circuits external to the products) may be
covered by one or more U.S. and foreign patents, or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign patent applications assigned to Power
Integrations. A complete list of Power Integrations’ patents may be found at www.powerint.com. Power Integrations grants its
customers a license under certain patent rights as set forth at http://www.powerint.com/ip.htm.
The PI Logo, TOPSwitch, TinySwitch, LinkSwitch, DPA-Switch, EcoSmart, Clampless, E-Shield, Filterfuse,
PI Expert and PI FACTS are trademarks of Power Integrations, Inc. Other trademarks are property of their respective companies.
©Copyright 2005 Power Integrations, Inc.
Power Integrations Worldwide Sales Support Locations
WORLD HEADQUARTERS
5245 Hellyer Avenue
San Jose, CA 95138, USA.
Main:
+1-408-414-9200
Customer Service:
Phone:
+1-408-414-9665
Fax:
+1-408-414-9765
e-mail: [email protected]
GERMANY
Rueckertstrasse 3
D-80336, Munich
Germany
Phone:
+49-89-5527-3910
Fax:
+49-89-5527-3920
e-mail: [email protected]
JAPAN
Keihin Tatemono 1st Bldg
2-12-20
Shin-Yokohama, Kohoku-ku,
Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa ken,
Japan 222-0033
Phone:
+81-45-471-1021
Fax:
+81-45-471-3717
e-mail:
[email protected]
TAIWAN
5F, No. 318, Nei Hu Rd., Sec. 1
Nei Hu Dist.
Taipei, Taiwan 114, R.O.C.
Phone:
+886-2-2659-4570
Fax:
+886-2-2659-4550
e-mail:
[email protected]
CHINA (SHANGHAI)
Rm 807-808A,
Pacheer Commercial Centre,
555 Nanjing Rd. West
Shanghai, P.R.C. 200041
Phone:
+86-21-6215-5548
Fax:
+86-21-6215-2468
e-mail: [email protected]int.com
INDIA
261/A, Ground Floor
7th Main, 17th Cross,
Sadashivanagar
Bangalore, India 560080
Phone:
+91-80-5113-8020
Fax:
+91-80-5113-8023
e-mail: [email protected]
KOREA
RM 602, 6FL
Korea City Air Terminal B/D,
159-6
Samsung-Dong, Kangnam-Gu,
Seoul, 135-728, Korea
Phone:
+82-2-2016-6610
Fax:
+82-2-2016-6630
e-mail:
[email protected]
EUROPE HQ
1st Floor, St. James’s House
East Street, Farnham
Surrey, GU9 7TJ
United Kingdom
Phone:
+44 (0) 1252-730-140
Fax:
+44 (0) 1252-727-689
e-mail: [email protected]
CHINA (SHENZHEN)
Room 2206-2207, Block A,
Elec. Sci. Tech. Bldg.
2070 Shennan Zhong Rd.
Shenzhen, Guangdong,
China, 518031
Phone:
+86-755-8379-3243
Fax:
+86-755-8379-5828
e-mail: [email protected]
ITALY
Via Vittorio Veneto 12
20091 Bresso MI
Italy
Phone: +39-028-928-6000
Fax: +39-028-928-6009
e-mail: [email protected]
SINGAPORE
51 Newton Road,
#15-08/10 Goldhill Plaza,
Singapore, 308900
Phone:
+65-6358-2160
Fax:
+65-6358-2015
e-mail:
[email protected]
APPLICATIONS HOTLINE
World Wide +1-408-414-9660
Power Integrations
Tel: +1 408 414 9200 Fax: +1 408 414 9201
www.powerint.com
APPLICATIONS FAX
World Wide +1-408-414-9760
Page 32 of 32