Data Sheet - Freescale Semiconductor

Addendum to MC68HC908QY4A, rev. 3
This addendum introduces a change to this data sheet.
Chapter 15 Development Support, Section 15.3.2 Security
A security feature discourages unauthorized reading of FLASH locations while in monitor mode. The host
can bypass the security feature at monitor mode entry by sending eight security bytes that match the
bytes at locations $FFF6–$FFFD. Locations $FFF6–$FFFD contain user-defined data.
NOTE
Do not leave locations $FFF6–$FFFD blank. For security reasons, program
locations $FFF6–$FFFD even if they are not used for vectors.
Changes to:
Chapter 15 Development Support, Section 15.3.2 Security
A security feature discourages unauthorized reading of FLASH locations while in monitor mode. The host
can bypass the security feature at monitor mode entry by sending eight security bytes that match the
bytes at locations $FFF6–$FFFD. Locations $FFF6–$FFFD contain user-defined data.
NOTE
Do not leave locations $FFF6–$FFFD blank. For security reasons, program
locations $FFF6–$FFFD even if they are not used for vectors. An improved
security function denies monitor mode entry if five or more of the eight
security bytes are $00 (zero bytes).
MC68HC908QY4A Data Sheet, Addendum 5/2012
Freescale Semiconductor
1
This page intentionally blank.
MC68HC908QY4A Data Sheet, Addendum 5/2012
2
Freescale Semiconductor
MC68HC908QY4A
MC68HC908QT4A
MC68HC908QY2A
MC68HC908QT2A
MC68HC908QY1A
MC68HC908QT1A
Data Sheet
M68HC08
Microcontrollers
MC68HC908QY4A
Rev. 3
03/2010
freescale.com
MC68HC908QY4A
MC68HC908QY2A
MC68HC908QY1A
MC68HC908QT4A
MC68HC908QT2A
MC68HC908QT1A
Data Sheet
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available, refer to:
http://freescale.com/
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This product incorporates SuperFlash® technology licensed from SST.
© Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2007–2010. All rights reserved.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
3
Revision History
The following revision history table summarizes changes contained in this document. For your
convenience, the page number designators have been linked to the appropriate location.
Revision History
Date
Revision
Level
December,
2005
N/A
August,
2006
April,
2007
March,
2010
1
2
3
Page
Number(s)
Description
Initial release
N/A
Added 1.7 Unused Pin Termination.
20
Figure 4-1. Auto Wakeup Interrupt Request Generation Logic — Corrected
clock source.
51
4.3 Functional Description — Clarified operation.
52
4.5.1 Wait Mode — Corrected operation details.
53
4.6.4 Configuration Register 2 — Corrected clock source.
55
4.6.5 Configuration Register 1 — Added SSREC bit description.
55
5.2 Functional Description — Corrected clock source.
58
12.1 Introduction — Replaced note.
103
13.7.2 Stop Mode — Corrected clock source.
121
16.12 Supply Current Characteristics — Updated maximum values for SIDD
at both 5 V and 3 V.
165
A.2.3 Improved Auto Wakeup Module (AWU) — Corrected clock source.
194
Chapter 3 Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC10) Module — Renamed ADCSC
register to ADSCR to be consistent with development tools.
37
Figure 15-18. Monitor Mode Entry Timing — Changed CGMXCLK to
BUSCLKX4
154
16.12 Supply Current Characteristics — Added note 6 below table
165
Chapter 17 Ordering Information and Mechanical Specifications — Updated
chapter to include:
Table 17-1. Consumer and Industrial Device Numbering System
Table 17-2. Automotive Device Numbering System
17.3 Orderable Part Numbering System
17.3.1 Consumer and Industrial Orderable Part Numbering System
17.3.2 Automotive Orderable Part Number System
171
171
172
172
172
Clarify internal oscillator trim register information.
27, 30, 31,
34, 95, 101
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
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Freescale Semiconductor
List of Chapters
Chapter 1 General Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Chapter 2 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Chapter 3 Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC10) Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Chapter 4 Auto Wakeup Module (AWU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Chapter 5 Configuration Register (CONFIG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Chapter 6 Computer Operating Properly (COP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (CPU). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Chapter 8 External Interrupt (IRQ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Chapter 9 Keyboard Interrupt Module (KBI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Chapter 10 Low-Voltage Inhibit (LVI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Chapter 11 Oscillator (OSC) Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Chapter 12 Input/Output Ports (PORTS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Chapter 13 System Integration Module (SIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Chapter 14 Timer Interface Module (TIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Chapter 15 Development Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Chapter 16 Electrical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Chapter 17 Ordering Information and Mechanical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Appendix A 908QTA/QYxA Conversion Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
5
List of Chapters
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
6
Freescale Semiconductor
Table of Contents
Chapter 1
General Description
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MCU Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pin Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pin Function Priority. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unused Pin Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
15
17
18
19
20
20
Chapter 2
Memory
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.3
2.6.4
2.6.5
2.6.6
2.6.7
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unimplemented Memory Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reserved Memory Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Direct Page Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Random-Access Memory (RAM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FLASH Memory (FLASH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FLASH Control Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FLASH Page Erase Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FLASH Mass Erase Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FLASH Program Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FLASH Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FLASH Block Protect Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EEPROM Memory Emulation Using FLASH Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
21
21
21
28
29
29
30
31
31
32
34
35
Chapter 3
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC10) Module
3.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2
Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3
Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1
Clock Select and Divide Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2
Input Select and Pin Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.3
Conversion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.3.1
Initiating Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.3.2
Completing Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.3.3
Aborting Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.3.4
Total Conversion Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
37
37
39
40
40
40
40
40
41
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
7
Table of Contents
3.3.4
Sources of Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.4.1
Sampling Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.4.2
Pin Leakage Error. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.4.3
Noise-Induced Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.4.4
Code Width and Quantization Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.4.5
Linearity Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.4.6
Code Jitter, Non-Monotonicity and Missing Codes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4
Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5
Low-Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.1
Wait Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.2
Stop Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6
ADC10 During Break Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7
I/O Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.1
ADC10 Analog Power Pin (VDDA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.2
ADC10 Analog Ground Pin (VSSA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.3
ADC10 Voltage Reference High Pin (VREFH). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.4
ADC10 Voltage Reference Low Pin (VREFL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.5
ADC10 Channel Pins (ADn). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8
Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.1
ADC10 Status and Control Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.2
ADC10 Result High Register (ADRH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.3
ADC10 Result Low Register (ADRL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.4
ADC10 Clock Register (ADCLK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42
42
42
42
43
43
43
44
44
44
44
44
45
45
45
45
45
46
46
46
47
48
48
Chapter 4
Auto Wakeup Module (AWU)
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.6.5
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low-Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wait Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stop Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port A I/O Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard Status and Control Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard Interrupt Enable Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Register 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Register 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
51
52
52
53
53
53
53
53
54
54
55
55
Chapter 5
Configuration Register (CONFIG)
5.1
5.2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
8
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 6
Computer Operating Properly (COP)
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.3.5
6.3.6
6.3.7
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.6.1
6.6.2
6.7
6.8
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I/O Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BUSCLKX4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STOP Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COPCTL Write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power-On Reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internal Reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COPD (COP Disable). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COPRS (COP Rate Select) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitor Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low-Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wait Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stop Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COP Module During Break Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
61
61
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
Chapter 7
Central Processor Unit (CPU)
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5
7.4
7.5
7.5.1
7.5.2
7.6
7.7
7.8
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CPU Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stack Pointer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Program Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Condition Code Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low-Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wait Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stop Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CPU During Break Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instruction Set Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opcode Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65
65
65
66
66
67
67
68
69
69
69
69
69
70
75
Chapter 8
External Interrupt (IRQ)
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MODE = 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MODE = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
77
77
77
79
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Table of Contents
8.4
8.5
8.5.1
8.5.2
8.6
8.7
8.7.1
8.8
Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low-Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wait Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stop Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IRQ Module During Break Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I/O Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IRQ Input Pins (IRQ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
81
Chapter 9
Keyboard Interrupt Module (KBI)
9.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2
Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3
Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.1
Keyboard Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.1.1
MODEK = 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.1.2
MODEK = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.2
Keyboard Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4
Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.5
Low-Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.5.1
Wait Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.5.2
Stop Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6
KBI During Break Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7
I/O Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.1
KBI Input Pins (KBIx:KBI0). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.8
Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.8.1
Keyboard Status and Control Register (KBSCR). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.8.2
Keyboard Interrupt Enable Register (KBIER). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.8.3
Keyboard Interrupt Polarity Register (KBIPR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
83
83
83
83
84
85
86
86
86
86
86
86
87
87
87
87
88
88
Chapter 10
Low-Voltage Inhibit (LVI)
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.3.1
10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4
10.4
10.5
10.5.1
10.5.2
10.6
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Polled LVI Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Forced Reset Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LVI Hysteresis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LVI Trip Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LVI Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low-Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wait Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stop Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
89
89
89
90
90
90
90
91
91
91
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Chapter 11
Oscillator (OSC) Module
11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
11.2 Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
11.3 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
11.3.1
Internal Signal Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
11.3.1.1
Oscillator Enable Signal (SIMOSCEN). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
11.3.1.2
XTAL Oscillator Clock (XTALCLK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
11.3.1.3
RC Oscillator Clock (RCCLK). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
11.3.1.4
Internal Oscillator Clock (INTCLK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
11.3.1.5
Bus Clock Times 4 (BUSCLKX4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
11.3.1.6
Bus Clock Times 2 (BUSCLKX2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
11.3.2
Internal Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
11.3.2.1
Internal Oscillator Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
11.3.2.2
Internal to External Clock Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
11.3.2.3
External to Internal Clock Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
11.3.3
External Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
11.3.4
XTAL Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
11.3.5
RC Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
11.4 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
11.5 Low-Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
11.5.1
Wait Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
11.5.2
Stop Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
11.6 OSC During Break Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
11.7 I/O Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
11.7.1
Oscillator Input Pin (OSC1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
11.7.2
Oscillator Output Pin (OSC2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
11.8 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
11.8.1
Oscillator Status and Control Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
11.8.2
Oscillator Trim Register (OSCTRIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Chapter 12
Input/Output Ports (PORTS)
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.3.1
12.3.2
12.3.3
12.3.4
12.4
12.4.1
12.4.2
12.4.3
12.4.4
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unused Pin Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port A Data Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Direction Register A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port A Input Pullup Enable Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port A Summary Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port B Data Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Direction Register B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port B Input Pullup Enable Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port B Summary Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
103
103
103
104
104
105
106
106
106
107
108
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Chapter 13
System Integration Module (SIM)
13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2 RST and IRQ Pins Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3 SIM Bus Clock Control and Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.1
Bus Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.2
Clock Start-Up from POR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.3
Clocks in Stop Mode and Wait Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4 Reset and System Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.1
External Pin Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.2
Active Resets from Internal Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.2.1
Power-On Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.2.2
Computer Operating Properly (COP) Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.2.3
Illegal Opcode Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.2.4
Illegal Address Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.2.5
Low-Voltage Inhibit (LVI) Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.5 SIM Counter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.5.1
SIM Counter During Power-On Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.5.2
SIM Counter During Stop Mode Recovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.5.3
SIM Counter and Reset States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6 Exception Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6.1
Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6.1.1
Hardware Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6.1.2
SWI Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6.2
Interrupt Status Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6.2.1
Interrupt Status Register 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6.2.2
Interrupt Status Register 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6.2.3
Interrupt Status Register 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6.3
Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6.4
Break Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6.5
Status Flag Protection in Break Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.7 Low-Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.7.1
Wait Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.7.2
Stop Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.8 SIM Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.8.1
SIM Reset Status Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.8.2
Break Flag Control Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
109
109
110
111
111
111
111
111
112
113
113
113
114
114
114
114
114
114
115
115
115
118
118
119
119
119
120
120
120
120
120
121
122
122
123
Chapter 14
Timer Interface Module (TIM)
14.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2 Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3.1
TIM Counter Prescaler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3.2
Input Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
125
125
125
125
126
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14.3.3
Output Compare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3.3.1
Unbuffered Output Compare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3.3.2
Buffered Output Compare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3.4
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3.4.1
Unbuffered PWM Signal Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3.4.2
Buffered PWM Signal Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3.4.3
PWM Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5 Low-Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.1
Wait Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.2
Stop Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.6 TIM During Break Interrupts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.7 I/O Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.7.1
TIM Channel I/O Pins (TCH1:TCH0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.7.2
TIM Clock Pin (TCLK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.8 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.8.1
TIM Status and Control Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.8.2
TIM Counter Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.8.3
TIM Counter Modulo Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.8.4
TIM Channel Status and Control Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.8.5
TIM Channel Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
126
127
128
128
129
129
130
131
131
131
131
131
132
132
132
132
132
134
134
135
137
Chapter 15
Development Support
15.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2 Break Module (BRK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2.1
Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2.1.1
Flag Protection During Break Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2.1.2
TIM During Break Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2.1.3
COP During Break Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2.2
Break Module Registers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2.2.1
Break Status and Control Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2.2.2
Break Address Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2.2.3
Break Auxiliary Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2.2.4
Break Status Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2.2.5
Break Flag Control Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2.3
Low-Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3 Monitor Module (MON) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.1
Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.1.1
Normal Monitor Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.1.2
Forced Monitor Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.1.3
Monitor Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.1.4
Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.1.5
Break Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.1.6
Baud Rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.1.7
Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.2
Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
139
139
139
141
141
141
141
142
142
143
143
143
144
144
144
148
148
149
150
150
150
150
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13
Table of Contents
Chapter 16
Electrical Specifications
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6
16.7
16.8
16.9
16.10
16.11
16.12
16.13
16.14
16.15
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Absolute Maximum Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Functional Operating Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thermal Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-V DC Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical 5-V Output Drive Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-V Control Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-V DC Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical 3-V Output Drive Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-V Control Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oscillator Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supply Current Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADC10 Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timer Interface Module Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
155
155
156
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
165
167
169
170
Chapter 17
Ordering Information and Mechanical Specifications
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.3.1
17.3.2
17.4
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ordering Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Orderable Part Numbering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consumer and Industrial Orderable Part Numbering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automotive Orderable Part Number System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
171
171
172
172
172
172
Appendix A
908QTA/QYxA Conversion Guidelines
A.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2
Benefits of the Enhanced QYxA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.1
New Analog-to-Digital Converter Module (ADC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.1.1
Registers Affected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.2
Enhanced Oscillator Module (OSC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.2.1
Registers Affected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.3
Improved Auto Wakeup Module (AWU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.3.1
Registers Affected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.4
New Power-on Reset Module (POR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.5
Keyboard Interface Module (KBI) Functionality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.5.1
Registers Affected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.6
On-Chip Routine Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.3
Conversion Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.4
Code Changes Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.5
Development Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.6
Differences in Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
191
191
191
192
193
193
194
194
194
195
195
195
196
196
197
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Chapter 1
General Description
1.1 Introduction
The MC68HC908QY4A is a member of the low-cost, high-performance M68HC08 Family of 8-bit
microcontroller units (MCUs). All MCUs in the family use the enhanced M68HC08 central processor unit
(CPU08) and are available with a variety of modules, memory sizes and types, and package types.
0.4
Table 1-1. Summary of Device Variations
Device
FLASH
Memory Size
ADC
Pin
Count
MC68HC908QT1A
MC68HC908QT2A
1536 bytes
—
8 pins
1536 bytes
6 channel, 10 bit
8 pins
MC68HC908QT4A
4096 bytes
6 channel, 10 bit
8 pins
MC68HC908QY1A
1536 bytes
—
16 pins
MC68HC908QY2A
1536 bytes
6 channel, 10 bit
16 pins
MC68HC908QY4A
4096 bytes
6 channel, 10 bit
16 pins
1.2 Features
Features include:
• High-performance M68HC08 CPU core
• Fully upward-compatible object code with M68HC05 Family
• 5-V and 3-V operating voltages (VDD)
• 8-MHz internal bus operation at 5 V, 4-MHz at 3 V
• Trimmable internal oscillator
– Software selectable 1 MHz, 2 MHz, or 3.2 MHz internal bus operation
– 8-bit trim capability
– ±25% untrimmed
– Trimmable to approximately 0.4%(1)
• Software selectable crystal oscillator range, 32–100 kHz, 1–8 MHz and 8–32 MHz
• Software configurable input clock from either internal or external source
• Auto wakeup from STOP capability using dedicated internal 32-kHz RC or bus clock source
• On-chip in-application programmable FLASH memory
– Internal program/erase voltage generation
– Monitor ROM containing user callable program/erase routines
– FLASH security(2)
1. See 16.11 Oscillator Characteristics for internal oscillator specifications
2. No security feature is absolutely secure. However, Freescale’s strategy is to make reading or copying the FLASH difficult for
unauthorized users.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
15
General Description
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
On-chip random-access memory (RAM)
2-channel, 16-bit timer interface (TIM) module
6-channel, 10-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with internal bandgap reference channel
(ADC10)
Up to 13 bidirectional input/output (I/O) lines and one input only:
– Six shared with KBI
– Six shared with ADC
– Two shared with TIM
– One input only shared with IRQ
– High current sink/source capability on all port pins
– Selectable pullups on all ports, selectable on an individual bit basis
– Three-state ability on all port pins
6-bit keyboard interrupt with wakeup feature (KBI)
– Programmable for rising/falling or high/low level detect
Low-voltage inhibit (LVI) module features:
– Software selectable trip point
System protection features:
– Computer operating properly (COP) watchdog
– Low-voltage detection with reset
– Illegal opcode detection with reset
– Illegal address detection with reset
External asynchronous interrupt pin with internal pullup (IRQ) shared with general-purpose input
pin
Master asynchronous reset pin with internal pullup (RST) shared with general-purpose input/output
(I/O) pin
Memory mapped I/O registers
Power saving stop and wait modes
MC68HC908QY4A, MC68HC908QY2A and MC68HC908QY1A are available in these packages:
– 16-pin plastic dual in-line package (PDIP)
– 16-pin small outline integrated circuit (SOIC) package
– 16-pin thin shrink small outline packages (TSSOP)
MC68HC908QT4A, MC68HC908QT2A and MC68HC908QT1A are available in these packages:
– 8-pin PDIP
– 8-pin SOIC
– 8-pin dual flat no lead (DFN) package
Features of the CPU08 include the following:
• Enhanced HC05 programming model
• Extensive loop control functions
• 16 addressing modes (eight more than the HC05)
• 16-bit index register and stack pointer
• Memory-to-memory data transfers
• Fast 8 × 8 multiply instruction
• Fast 16/8 divide instruction
• Binary-coded decimal (BCD) instructions
• Optimization for controller applications
• Efficient C language support
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
16
Freescale Semiconductor
MCU Block Diagram
1.3 MCU Block Diagram
Figure 1-1 shows the structure of the MC68HC908QY4A.
PTA0/TCH0/AD0/KBI0
CLOCK
GENERATOR
PTA3/RST/KBI3
PTA
PTA2/IRQ/KBI2/TCLK
DDRA
PTA1/TCH1/AD1/KBI1
KEYBOARD INTERRUPT
MODULE
PTA4/OSC2/AD2/KBI4
PTA5/OSC1/AD3/KBI5
SINGLE INTERRUPT
MODULE
AUTO WAKEUP
MODULE
DDRB
PTB0/AD4
PTB1/AD5
PTB2
PTB3
PTB4
PTB5
PTB6
PTB7
PTB
M68HC08 CPU
LOW-VOLTAGE
INHIBIT
2-CHANNEL 16-BIT
TIMER MODULE
MC68HC908QY4A
MC68HC908QY4A
128 BYTES
4096 BYTES
USER RAM
USER FLASH
COP
MODULE
6-CHANNEL
10-BIT ADC
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
MONITOR ROM
BREAK MODULE
VDD
POWER SUPPLY
VSS
RST, IRQ: Pins have internal pull up device
All port pins have programmable pull up device
PTA[0:5]: Higher current sink and source capability
PTB[0:7]: Not available on 8-pin devices
Figure 1-1. Block Diagram
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
17
General Description
1.4 Pin Assignments
The MC68HC908QT4A, MC68H908QT2A, and MC68HC098QT1A are available in 8-pin packages. The
MC68HC908QY4A, MC68HC908QY2A, and MC68HC908QY1A are available in 16-pin packages.
Figure 1-2 shows the pin assignment for these packages.
VDD
1
8
VSS
PTA0/TCH0/KBI0
PTA5/OSC1/AD3/KBI5
2
7
PTA0/TCH0/AD0/KBI0
6
PTA1/TCH1/KBI1
PTA4/OSC2/AD2/KBI4
3
6
PTA1/TCH1/AD1/KBI1
5
PTA2/IRQ/KBI2/TCLK
PTA3/RST/KBI3
4
5
PTA2/IRQ/KBI2/TCLK
VDD
1
8
VSS
PTA5/OSC1/KBI5
2
7
PTA4/OSC2/KBI4
3
PTA3/RST/KBI3
4
8-PIN ASSIGNMENT
MC68HC908QT1A PDIP/SOIC
8-PIN ASSIGNMENT
MC68HC908QT2A AND MC68HC908QT4A PDIP/SOIC
VDD
1
16
VSS
PTB0
PTB7
2
15
PTB0/AD4
14
PTB1
PTB6
3
14
PTB1/AD5
13
PTA0/TCH0/KBI0
PTA5/OSC1/AD3/KBI5
4
13
PTA0/TCH0/AD0/KBI0
PTA1/TCH1/KBI1
PTA4/OSC2/AD2/KBI4
5
12
PTA1/TCH1/AD1/KBI1
PTB2
PTB5
6
11
PTB2
PTB3
PTB4
7
10
PTB3
PTA3/RST/KBI3
8
9
VDD
1
16
VSS
PTB7
2
15
PTB6
3
PTA5/OSC1/KBI5
4
PTA4/OSC2/KBI4
5
PTB5
6
12
11
PTB4
7
10
PTA3/RST/KBI3
8
9
PTA2/IRQ/KBI2/TCLK
16-PIN ASSIGNMENT
MC68HC908QY2A AND MC68HC908QY4A PDIP/SOIC
16-PIN ASSIGNMENT
MC68HC908QY1A PDIP/SOIC
PTA0/TCH0/KBI0
PTB1
PTB0
VSS
VDD
PTB7
PTB6
PTA5/OSC1/KBI5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
PTA1/TCH1/KBI1
PTB2
PTB3
PTA2/IRQ/KBI2/TCLK
PTA3/RST/KBI3
PTB4
PTB5
PTA4/OSC2/KBI4
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
16-PIN ASSIGNMENT
MC68HC908QY1A TSSOP
PTA0/TCH0/KBI0 1
PTA2/IRQ/KBI2/TCLK
PTA0/TCH0/AD0/KBI0
PTB1/AD5
PTB0/AD4
VSS
VDD
PTB7
PTB6
PTA5/OSC1/AD3/KBI5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
PTA1/TCH1/AD1/KBI1
PTB2
PTB3
PTA2/IRQ/KBI2/TCLK
PTA3/RST/KBI3
PTB4
PTB5
PTA4/OSC2/AD2/KBI4
16-PIN ASSIGNMENT
MC68HC908QY2A AND MC68HC908QY4A TSSOP
8 PTA1/TCH1/KBI1
PTA0/TCH0/AD0/KBI0 1
8 PTA1/TCH1/AD1/KBI1
VSS 2
7 PTA2/IRQ/KBI2/TCLK
VSS 2
7 PTA2/IRQ/KBI2/TCLK
VDD 3
6 PTA3/RST/KBI3
VDD 3
6 PTA3/RST/KBI3
PTA5/OSC1/KB15 4
5 PTA4/OSC2/KBI4
8-PIN ASSIGNMENT
MC68HC908QT1A DFN
PTA5//OSC1/AD3/KB15 4
5 PTA4/OSC2/AD2/KBI4
8-PIN ASSIGNMENT
MC68HC908QT2A AND MC68HC908QT4A DFN
Figure 1-2. MCU Pin Assignments
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
18
Freescale Semiconductor
Pin Functions
1.5 Pin Functions
Table 1-2 provides a description of the pin functions.
Table 1-2. Pin Functions
Pin
Name
Description
Input/Output
VDD
Power supply
Power
VSS
Power supply ground
Power
PTA0
PTA1
PTA2
PTA0 — General purpose I/O port
Input/Output
TCH0 — Timer Channel 0 I/O
Input/Output
AD0 — A/D channel 0 input
Input
KBI0 — Keyboard interrupt input 0
Input
PTA1 — General purpose I/O port
Input/Output
TCH1 — Timer Channel 1 I/O
Input/Output
AD1 — A/D channel 1 input
Input
KBI1 — Keyboard interrupt input 1
Input
PTA2 — General purpose input-only port
Input
IRQ — External interrupt with programmable pullup and Schmitt trigger input
Input
KBI2 — Keyboard interrupt input 2
Input
TCLK — Timer clock input
Input
PTA3 — General purpose I/O port
PTA3
PTA4
PTA5
PTB0(1)
PTB1(1)
PTB2PTB7(1)
RST — Reset input, active low with internal pullup and Schmitt trigger
Input/Output
Input
KBI3 — Keyboard interrupt input 3
Input
PTA4 — General purpose I/O port
Input/Output
OSC2 —XTAL oscillator output (XTAL option only)
RC or internal oscillator output (OSC2EN = 1 in PTAPUE register)
Output
Output
AD2 — A/D channel 2 input
Input
KBI4 — Keyboard interrupt input 4
Input
PTA5 — General purpose I/O port
Input/Output
OSC1 — XTAL, RC, or external oscillator input
Input
AD3 — A/D channel 3 input
Input
KBI5 — Keyboard interrupt input 5
Input
PTB0 — General-purpose I/O port
Input/Output
AD4 — A/D channel 4 input
PTB1 — General-purpose I/O port
Input
Input/Output
AD5 — A/D channel 5 input
Input
6 General-purpose I/O port
Input/Output
1. The PTB pins are not available on the 8-pin packages.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
19
General Description
1.6 Pin Function Priority
Table 1-3 is meant to resolve the priority if multiple functions are enabled on a single pin.
NOTE
Upon reset all pins come up as input ports regardless of the priority table.
Table 1-3. Function Priority in Shared Pins
Pin Name
Highest-to-Lowest Priority Sequence
PTA0(1)
AD0 → TCH0 → KBI0 → PTA0
PTA1(1)
AD1 → TCH1 → KBI1 → PTA1
PTA2
IRQ → TCLK → KBI2 → PTA2
PTA3
RST → KBI3 → PTA3
PTA4(1)
OSC2 → AD2 → KBI4 → PTA4
PTA5(1)
OSC1 → AD3 → KBI5 → PTA5
PTB0(1)
AD4 → PTB0
PTB1(1)
AD5 → PTB1
1. When a pin is to be used as an ADC pin, the I/O port function should be left as
an input and all other shared modules should be disabled. The ADC does not
override additional modules using the pin.
1.7 Unused Pin Termination
Input pins and I/O port pins that are not used in the application must be terminated. This prevents excess
current caused by floating inputs, and enhances immunity during noise or transient events. Termination
methods include:
1. Configuring unused pins as outputs and driving high or low;
2. Configuring unused pins as inputs and enabling internal pull-ups;
3. Configuring unused pins as inputs and using external pull-up or pull-down resistors.
Never connect unused pins directly to VDD or VSS.
Since some general-purpose I/O pins are not available on all packages, these pins must be terminated
as well. Either method 1 or 2 above are appropriate.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
20
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 2
Memory
2.1 Introduction
The central processor unit (CPU08) can address 64 Kbytes of memory space. The memory map, shown
in Figure 2-1.
2.2 Unimplemented Memory Locations
Executing code from an unimplemented location will cause an illegal address reset. In Figure 2-1,
unimplemented locations are shaded.
2.3 Reserved Memory Locations
Accessing a reserved location can have unpredictable effects on MCU operation. In Figure 2-1, register
locations are marked with the word Reserved or with the letter R.
2.4 Direct Page Registers
Figure 2-2 shows the memory mapped registers of the MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family. Registers with
addresses between $0000 and $00FF are considered direct page registers and all instructions including
those with direct page addressing modes can access them. Registers between $0100 and $FFFF require
non-direct page addressing modes. See Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (CPU) for more information on
addressing modes.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
21
Memory
$0000
↓
$003F
IDIRECT PAGE REGISTERS
64 BYTES
$0040
↓
$007F
UNIMPLEMENTED
64 BYTES
$0080
↓
$00FF
RAM
128 BYTES
$0100
↓
$27FF
UNIMPLEMENTED
9984 BYTES
$2800
↓
$2A1F
AUXILIARY ROM
544 BYTES
$2A20
↓
$2F7D
UNIMPLEMENTED
1374 BYTES
$2F7E
↓
$2FFF
AUXILIARY ROM
130 BYTES
$3000
↓
$EDFF
UNIMPLEMENTED
48640 BYTES
$EE00
↓
$FDFF
FLASH MEMORY
4096 BYTES
RESERVED
2560 BYTES
$EE00
↓
$F7FF
$FE00
↓
$FE1F
MISCELLANEOUS REGISTERS
32 BYTES
FLASH MEMORY
1536 BYTES
$F800
↓
$FDFF
$FE20
↓
$FF7D
MONITOR ROM
350 BYTES
$FF7E
↓
$FFAF
UNIMPLEMENTED
50BYTES
$FFB0
↓
$FFBD
FLASH
14 BYTES
$FFBE
↓
$FFC1
MISCELLANEOUS REGISTERS
4 BYTES
$FFC2
↓
$FFCF
FLASH
14 BYTES
$FFD0
↓
$FFFF
USER VECTORS
48 BYTES
MC68HC908QY4A, MC68HC908QT4A
Memory Map
MC68HC908QT1A, MC68HC908QT2A,
MC68HC908QY1A, and MC68HC908QY2A
Memory Map
Figure 2-1. Memory Map
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
22
Freescale Semiconductor
Direct Page Registers
Addr.
Register Name
Bit 7
Read:
$0000
$0001
$0002
↓
$0003
$0004
$0005
$0006
↓
$000A
$000B
$000C
$000D
↓
$0019
$001A
$001B
$001C
Port A Data Register
(PTA) Write:
See page 104. Reset:
Port B Data Register Read:
(PTB) Write:
See page 106. Reset:
R
6
AWUL
5
PTA5
4
PTA4
3
PTA3
2
PTA2
1
Bit 0
PTA1
PTA0
PTB1
PTB0
DDRA1
DDRA0
Unaffected by reset
PTB7
PTB6
PTB5
PTB4
PTB3
PTB2
Unaffected by reset
Reserved
Data Direction Register A Read:
(DDRA) Write:
See page 104. Reset:
Data Direction Register B Read:
(DDRB) Write:
See page 107. Reset:
0
R
R
DDRA5
DDRA4
DDRA3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DDRB7
DDRB6
DDRB5
DDRB4
DDRB3
DDRB2
DDRB1
DDRB0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PTAPUE5
PTAPUE4
PTAPUE3
PTAPUE2
PTAPUE1
PTAPUE0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PTBPUE6
PTBPUE5
PTBPUE4
PTBPUE3
PTBPUE2
PTBPUE1
PTBPUE0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
KEYF
0
IMASKK
MODEK
Reserved
Port A Input Pullup Enable Read: OSC2EN
Register (PTAPUE) Write:
See page 105. Reset:
0
Port B Input Pullup Enable Read: PTBPUE7
Register (PTBPUE) Write:
See page 108. Reset:
0
0
Reserved
Keyboard Status and Read:
Control Register (KBSCR) Write:
See page 87. Reset:
0
Keyboard Interrupt Read:
Enable Register (KBIER) Write:
See page 88. Reset:
0
Read:
0
0
Keyboard Interrupt Polarity
Register (KBIPR) Write:
See page 88. Reset:
ACKK
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
AWUIE
KBIE5
KBIE4
KBIE3
KBIE2
KBIE1
KBIE0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
KBIP5
KBIP4
KBIP3
KBIP2
KBIP1
KBIP0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
= Reserved
= Unimplemented
U = Unaffected
Figure 2-2. Control, Status, and Data Registers (Sheet 1 of 5)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
23
Memory
Addr.
Register Name
Read:
$001D
$001E
IRQ Status and Control
Register (INTSCR) Write:
See page 81. Reset:
Configuration Register 2 Read:
(CONFIG2)(1) Write:
See page 57. Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
0
0
0
0
IRQF
0
ACK
1
Bit 0
IMASK
MODE
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
IRQPUD
IRQEN
R
R
R
R
OSCENINSTOP
RSTEN
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0(2)
1. One-time writable register after each reset.
2. RSTEN reset to 0 by a power-on reset (POR) only.
$001F
Configuration Register 1 Read:
(CONFIG1)(1) Write:
See page 58. Reset:
COPRS
LVISTOP
LVIRSTD
LVIPWRD
LVITRIP
SSREC
STOP
COPD
0
0
0
0
0(2)
0
0
0
PS2
PS1
PS0
1. One-time writable register after each reset.
2. LVITRIP reset to 0 by a power-on reset (POR) only.
$0020
$0021
$0022
TIM Status and Control Read:
Register (TSC) Write:
See page 132. Reset:
TOF
$0024
$0025
$0026
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
TIM Counter Register High Read:
(TCNTH) Write:
See page 134. Reset:
Bit 15
Bit 14
Bit 13
Bit 12
Bit 11
Bit 10
Bit 9
Bit 8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TIM Counter Register Low Read:
(TCNTL) Write:
See page 134. Reset:
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit 15
Bit 14
Bit 13
Bit 12
Bit 11
Bit 10
Bit 9
Bit 8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
CH0IE
MS0B
MS0A
ELS0B
ELS0A
TOV0
CH0MAX
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit 15
Bit 14
Bit 13
Bit 12
Bit 11
Bit 10
Bit 9
Bit 8
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
TIM Counter Modulo
Register High (TMODH) Write:
See page 134. Reset:
TIM Counter Modulo Read:
Register Low (TMODL) Write:
See page 134. Reset:
TIM Channel 0 Status and Read:
Control Register (TSC0) Write:
See page 135. Reset:
TIM Channel 0 Read:
Register High (TCH0H) Write:
See page 137. Reset:
Read:
$0027
0
TSTOP
Read:
$0023
0
TOIE
TIM Channel 0
Register Low (TCH0L) Write:
See page 137. Reset:
0
CH0F
0
TRST
Indeterminate after reset
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Indeterminate after reset
= Unimplemented
R
= Reserved
U = Unaffected
Figure 2-2. Control, Status, and Data Registers (Sheet 2 of 5)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
24
Freescale Semiconductor
Direct Page Registers
Addr.
Register Name
Bit 7
Read:
$0028
$0029
$002A
$002B
↓
$0035
$0036
$0037
$0038
$0039
↓
$003B
$003C
TIM Channel 1 Status and
Control Register (TSC1) Write:
See page 135. Reset:
TIM Channel 1 Read:
Register High (TCH1H) Write:
See page 137. Reset:
TIM Channel 1 Read:
Register Low (TCH1L) Write:
See page 137. Reset:
$003E
$003F
0
6
5
0
CH1IE
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
MS1A
ELS1B
ELS1A
TOV1
CH1MAX
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit 15
Bit 14
Bit 13
Bit 12
Bit 11
Bit 10
Bit 9
Bit 8
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Indeterminate after reset
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Indeterminate after reset
Reserved
Oscillator Status and Read: OSCOPT1 OSCOPT0
Control Register (OSCSC) Write:
See page 100. Reset:
0
0
ECGST
ICFS1
ICFS0
ECFS1
ECFS0
ECGON
1
0
0
0
0
0
Reserved
Oscillator Trim Register
(OSCTRIM)
See page 101.
Read:
Write:
Reset:
TRIM7
TRIM6
TRIM5
TRIM4
TRIM3
TRIM2
TRIM1
TRIM0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
COCO
AIEN
ADCO
ADCH4
ADCH3
ADCH2
ADCH1
ADCH0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
AD9
AD8
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
AD7
AD6
AD5
AD4
AD3
AD2
AD1
AD0
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADLPC
ADIV1
ADIV0
ADICLK
MODE1
MODE0
ADLSMP
ACLKEN
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
= Reserved
Reserved
ADC10 Status and Control Read:
Register (ADSCR) Write:
See page 46. Reset:
Read:
$003D
CH1F
ADC10 Data Register High
(ADRH) Write:
See page 48. Reset:
ADC10 Data Register Low Read:
(ADRL) Write:
See page 48. Reset:
ADC10 Clock Register Read:
(ADCLK) Write:
See page 48. Reset:
= Unimplemented
U = Unaffected
Figure 2-2. Control, Status, and Data Registers (Sheet 3 of 5)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
25
Memory
Addr.
Register Name
Bit 7
Read:
$FE00
$FE01
$FE02
$FE03
Break Status Register
(BSR) Write:
See page 143. Reset:
$FE05
$FE06
$FE07
$FE08
$FE0A
$FE0B
R
R
3
R
2
1
SBSW
R
0
Bit 0
R
0
PIN
COP
ILOP
ILAD
MODRST
LVI
0
POR:
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Break Auxiliary Read:
Register (BRKAR) Write:
See page 143. Reset:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
BCFE
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Interrupt Status Register 1
(INT1) Write:
See page 119. Reset:
IF6
IF5
IF4
IF3
IF2
IF1
0
0
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Interrupt Status Register 2 Read:
(INT2) Write:
See page 119. Reset:
IF14
IF13
IF12
IF11
IF10
IF9
IF8
IF7
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Interrupt Status Register 3 Read:
(INT3) Write:
See page 119. Reset:
IF22
IF21
IF20
IF19
IF18
IF17
IF16
IF15
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
HVEN
MASS
ERASE
PGM
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit 15
Bit 14
Bit 13
Bit 12
Bit 11
Bit 10
Bit 9
Bit 8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
BRKE
BRKA
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
= Reserved
Break Flag Control Read:
Register (BFCR) Write:
See page 143. Reset:
BDCOP
0
Reserved
FLASH Control Register Read:
(FLCR) Write:
See page 29. Reset:
Read:
$FE09
R
4
Write:
Read:
$FE04
5
POR
SIM Reset Status Register
(SRSR)
See page 122.
Read:
R
6
Break Address High
Register (BRKH) Write:
See page 142. Reset:
Break Address low Read:
Register (BRKL) Write:
See page 142. Reset:
Break Status and Control Read:
Register (BRKSCR) Write:
See page 143. Reset:
= Unimplemented
U = Unaffected
Figure 2-2. Control, Status, and Data Registers (Sheet 4 of 5)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
26
Freescale Semiconductor
Direct Page Registers
Addr.
Register Name
Read:
$FE0C
$FE0D
↓
$FE0F
$FFBE
$FFBF
$FFC0
$FFC1
$FFFF
LVI Status Register
(LVISR) Write:
See page 91. Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
LVIOUT
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
BPR7
BPR6
BPR5
BPR4
BPR3
BPR2
BPR1
BPR0
TRIM2
TRIM1
TRIM0
TRIM2
TRIM1
TRIM0
Reserved
FLASH Block Protect Read:
Register (FLBPR) Write:
See page 34. Reset:
Unaffected by reset
Reserved
Internal Oscillator Trim Read:
(Factory Programmed Write:
VDD = 3.0 V) Reset:
Internal Oscillator Trim Read:
(Factory Programmed Write:
VDD = 5.0 V) Reset:
COP Control Register Read:
(COPCTL) Write:
See page 63. Reset:
TRIM7
TRIM6
TRIM5
TRIM4
TRIM3
Unaffected by reset
TRIM7
TRIM6
TRIM5
TRIM4
TRIM3
Unaffected by reset
LOW BYTE OF RESET VECTOR
WRITING CLEARS COP COUNTER (ANY VALUE)
Unaffected by reset
= Unimplemented
R
= Reserved
U = Unaffected
Figure 2-2. Control, Status, and Data Registers (Sheet 5 of 5)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
27
Memory
Table 2-1. Vector Addresses
Vector Priority
Vector
Address
Lowest
IF22IF16
$FFD0,1$FFDC,D
Not used
IF15
$FFDE,F
ADC conversion complete vector
IF14
$FFE0,1
Keyboard vector
IF13
—
Not used
IF12
—
Not used
IF11
—
Not used
IF10
—
Not used
IF9
—
Not used
IF8
—
Not used
IF7
—
Not used
IF6
—
Not used
IF5
$FFF2,3
TIM overflow vector
IF4
$FFF4,5
TIM channel 1 vector
IF3
$FFF6,7
TIM channel 0 vector
IF2
—
IF1
$FFFA,B
IRQ vector
—
$FFFC,D
SWI vector
—
$FFFE,F
Reset vector
Highest
Vector
Not used
2.5 Random-Access Memory (RAM)
This MCU includes static RAM. The locations in RAM below $0100 can be accessed using the more
efficient direct addressing mode, and any single bit in this area can be accessed with the bit manipulation
instructions (BCLR, BSET, BRCLR, and BRSET). Locating the most frequently accessed program
variables in this area of RAM is preferred.
The RAM retains data when the MCU is in low-power wait or stop mode. At power-on, the contents of
RAM are uninitialized. RAM data is unaffected by any reset provided that the supply voltage does not drop
below the minimum value for RAM retention.
For compatibility with older M68HC05 MCUs, the HC08 resets the stack pointer to $00FF. In the devices
that have RAM above $00FF, it is usually best to reinitialize the stack pointer to the top of the RAM so the
direct page RAM can be used for frequently accessed RAM variables and bit-addressable program
variables. Include the following 2-instruction sequence in your reset initialization routine (where RamLast
is equated to the highest address of the RAM).
LDHX
TXS
#RamLast+1
;point one past RAM
;SP<-(H:X-1)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
28
Freescale Semiconductor
FLASH Memory (FLASH)
2.6 FLASH Memory (FLASH)
The FLASH memory is intended primarily for program storage. In-circuit programming allows the
operating program to be loaded into the FLASH memory after final assembly of the application product.
It is possible to program the entire array through the single-wire monitor mode interface. Because no
special voltages are needed for FLASH erase and programming operations, in-application programming
is also possible through other software-controlled communication paths.
This subsection describes the operation of the embedded FLASH memory. The FLASH memory can be
read, programmed, and erased from the internal VDD supply. The program and erase operations are
enabled through the use of an internal charge pump.
The minimum size of FLASH memory that can be erased is 64 bytes; and the maximum size of FLASH
memory that can be programmed in a program cycle is 32 bytes (a row). Program and erase operations
are facilitated through control bits in the FLASH control register (FLCR). Details for these operations
appear later in this section.
NOTE
An erased bit reads as a 1 and a programmed bit reads as a 0. A security
feature prevents viewing of the FLASH contents.(1)
2.6.1 FLASH Control Register
The FLASH control register (FLCR) controls FLASH program and erase operations.
Read:
Bit 7
6
5
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Write:
Reset:
3
2
1
Bit 0
HVEN
MASS
ERASE
PGM
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented
Figure 2-3. FLASH Control Register (FLCR)
HVEN — High Voltage Enable Bit
This read/write bit enables high voltage from the charge pump to the memory for either program or
erase operation. It can only be set if either PGM =1 or ERASE =1 and the proper sequence for
program or erase is followed.
1 = High voltage enabled to array and charge pump on
0 = High voltage disabled to array and charge pump off
MASS — Mass Erase Control Bit
This read/write bit configures the memory for mass erase operation.
1 = Mass erase operation selected
0 = Mass erase operation unselected
1. No security feature is absolutely secure. However, Freescale’s strategy is to make reading or copying the FLASH difficult
for unauthorized users.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
29
Memory
ERASE — Erase Control Bit
This read/write bit configures the memory for erase operation. ERASE is interlocked with the PGM bit
such that both bits cannot be equal to 1 or set to 1 at the same time.
1 = Erase operation selected
0 = Erase operation unselected
PGM — Program Control Bit
This read/write bit configures the memory for program operation. PGM is interlocked with the ERASE
bit such that both bits cannot be equal to 1 or set to 1 at the same time.
1 = Program operation selected
0 = Program operation unselected
2.6.2 FLASH Page Erase Operation
Use the following procedure to erase a page of FLASH memory. A page consists of 64 consecutive bytes
starting from addresses $XX00, $XX40, $XX80, or $XXC0. The user interrupt vector area resides in the
$FFC0–$FFFF page. Any FLASH memory page can be erased alone.
1. Set the ERASE bit and clear the MASS bit in the FLASH control register.
2. Read the FLASH block protect register.
3. Write any data to any FLASH location within the address range of the block to be erased.
4. Wait for a time, tNVS.
5. Set the HVEN bit.
6. Wait for a time, tErase.
7. Clear the ERASE bit.
8. Wait for a time, tNVH.
9. Clear the HVEN bit.
10. After time, tRCV, the memory can be accessed in read mode again.
NOTE
The COP register at location $FFFF should not be written between steps
5-9, when the HVEN bit is set. Since this register is located at a valid
FLASH address, unpredictable behavior may occur if this location is written
while HVEN is set.
NOTE
Programming and erasing of FLASH locations cannot be performed by
code being executed from the FLASH memory. While these operations
must be performed in the order as shown, other unrelated operations may
occur between the steps.
CAUTION
A page erase of the vector page will erase the internal oscillator trim values
at $FFC0 and $FFC1.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
30
Freescale Semiconductor
FLASH Memory (FLASH)
2.6.3 FLASH Mass Erase Operation
Use the following procedure to erase the entire FLASH memory to read as a 1:
1. Set both the ERASE bit and the MASS bit in the FLASH control register.
2. Read the FLASH block protect register.
3. Write any data to any FLASH address(1) within the FLASH memory address range.
4. Wait for a time, tNVS.
5. Set the HVEN bit.
6. Wait for a time, tMErase.
7. Clear the ERASE and MASS bits.
NOTE
Mass erase is disabled whenever any block is protected (FLBPR does not
equal $FF).
8. Wait for a time, tNVHL.
9. Clear the HVEN bit.
10. After time, tRCV, the memory can be accessed in read mode again.
NOTE
Programming and erasing of FLASH locations cannot be performed by
code being executed from the FLASH memory. While these operations
must be performed in the order as shown, other unrelated operations may
occur between the steps.
CAUTION
A mass erase will erase the internal oscillator trim values at $FFC0 and $FFC1.
2.6.4 FLASH Program Operation
Programming of the FLASH memory is done on a row basis. A row consists of 32 consecutive bytes
starting from addresses $XX00, $XX20, $XX40, $XX60, $XX80, $XXA0, $XXC0, or $XXE0. Use the
following step-by-step procedure to program a row of FLASH memory
Figure 2-4 shows a flowchart of the programming algorithm.
NOTE
Do not program any byte in the FLASH more than once after a successful
erase operation. Reprogramming bits to a byte which is already
programmed is not allowed without first erasing the page in which the byte
resides or mass erasing the entire FLASH memory. Programming without
first erasing may disturb data stored in the FLASH.
1. Set the PGM bit. This configures the memory for program operation and enables the latching of
address and data for programming.
2. Read the FLASH block protect register.
3. Write any data to any FLASH location within the address range desired.
4. Wait for a time, tNVS.
5. Set the HVEN bit.
1. When in monitor mode, with security sequence failed (see 15.3.2 Security), write to the FLASH block protect register instead of any FLASH address.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
31
Memory
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Wait for a time, tPGS.
Write data to the FLASH address being programmed(1).
Wait for time, tPROG.
Repeat step 7 and 8 until all desired bytes within the row are programmed.
Clear the PGM bit (1).
Wait for time, tNVH.
Clear the HVEN bit.
After time, tRCV, the memory can be accessed in read mode again.
NOTE
The COP register at location $FFFF should not be written between steps
5-12, when the HVEN bit is set. Since this register is located at a valid
FLASH address, unpredictable behavior may occur if this location is written
while HVEN is set.
This program sequence is repeated throughout the memory until all data is programmed.
NOTE
Programming and erasing of FLASH locations cannot be performed by
code being executed from the FLASH memory. While these operations
must be performed in the order shown, other unrelated operations may
occur between the steps. Do not exceed tPROG maximum, see 16.15
Memory Characteristics.
2.6.5 FLASH Protection
Due to the ability of the on-board charge pump to erase and program the FLASH memory in the target
application, provision is made to protect blocks of memory from unintentional erase or program operations
due to system malfunction. This protection is done by use of a FLASH block protect register (FLBPR).
The FLBPR determines the range of the FLASH memory which is to be protected. The range of the
protected area starts from a location defined by FLBPR and ends to the bottom of the FLASH memory
($FFFF). When the memory is protected, the HVEN bit cannot be set in either ERASE or PROGRAM
operations.
NOTE
In performing a program or erase operation, the FLASH block protect
register must be read after setting the PGM or ERASE bit and before
asserting the HVEN bit.
When the FLBPR is programmed with all 0 s, the entire memory is protected from being programmed and
erased. When all the bits are erased (all 1’s), the entire memory is accessible for program and erase.
When bits within the FLBPR are programmed, they lock a block of memory. The address ranges are
shown in 2.6.6 FLASH Block Protect Register. Once the FLBPR is programmed with a value other than
$FF, any erase or program of the FLBPR or the protected block of FLASH memory is prohibited. Mass
erase is disabled whenever any block is protected (FLBPR does not equal $FF). The FLBPR itself can be
erased or programmed only with an external voltage, VTST, present on the IRQ pin. This voltage also
allows entry from reset into the monitor mode.
1. The time between each FLASH address change, or the time between the last FLASH address programmed to clearing
PGM bit, must not exceed the maximum programming time, tPROG maximum.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
32
Freescale Semiconductor
FLASH Memory (FLASH)
Algorithm for Programming
a Row (32 Bytes) of FLASH Memory
1
SET PGM BIT
2 READ THE FLASH BLOCK PROTECT REGISTER
3
WRITE ANY DATA TO ANY FLASH ADDRESS
WITHIN THE ROW ADDRESS RANGE DESIRED
4
WAIT FOR A TIME, tNVS
5
SET HVEN BIT
6
WAIT FOR A TIME, tPGS
7
WRITE DATA TO THE FLASH ADDRESS
TO BE PROGRAMMED
8
WAIT FOR A TIME, tPROG
9
COMPLETED
PROGRAMMING
THIS ROW?
Y
N
10
11
12
NOTES:
The time between each FLASH address change (step 7 to step 7 loop),
or the time between the last FLASH address programmed
to clearing PGM bit (step 7 to step 10)
must not exceed the maximum programming
time, tPROG max.
13
This row program algorithm assumes the row/s
to be programmed are initially erased.
CLEAR PGM BIT
WAIT FOR A TIME, tNVH
CLEAR HVEN BIT
WAIT FOR A TIME, tRCV
END OF PROGRAMMING
Figure 2-4. FLASH Programming Flowchart
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
33
Memory
2.6.6 FLASH Block Protect Register
The FLASH block protect register is implemented as a byte within the FLASH memory, and therefore can
only be written during a programming sequence of the FLASH memory. The value in this register
determines the starting address of the protected range within the FLASH memory.
Read:
Write:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
BPR7
BPR6
BPR5
BPR4
BPR3
BPR2
BPR1
BPR0
Reset:
Unaffected by reset. Initial value from factory is 1.
Write to this register is by a programming sequence to the FLASH memory.
Figure 2-5. FLASH Block Protect Register (FLBPR)
BPR[7:0] — FLASH Protection Register Bits [7:0]
These eight bits in FLBPR represent bits [13:6] of a 16-bit memory address. Bits [15:14] are 1s and
bits [5:0] are 0s.
The resultant 16-bit address is used for specifying the start address of the FLASH memory for block
protection. The FLASH is protected from this start address to the end of FLASH memory, at $FFFF.
With this mechanism, the protect start address can be XX00, XX40, XX80, or XXC0 within the FLASH
memory. See Figure 2-6 and Table 2-2.
16-BIT MEMORY ADDRESS
START ADDRESS OF
FLASH BLOCK PROTECT
1
1
FLBPR VALUE
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 2-6. FLASH Block Protect Start Address
Table 2-2. Examples of Protect Start Address
BPR[7:0]
Start of Address of Protect Range
$00–$B8
The entire FLASH memory is protected.
$B8 (1011 1000)
$EE00 (1110 1110 0000 0000)
$B9 (1011 1001)
$EE40 (1110 1110 0100 0000)
$BA (1011 1010)
$EE80 (1110 1110 1000 0000)
$BB (1011 1011)
$EFC0 (1110 1110 1100 0000)
and so on...
$DE (1101 1110)
$F780 (1111 0111 1000 0000)
$DF (1101 1111)
$F7C0 (1111 0111 1100 0000)
$FE (1111 1110)
$FF80 (1111 1111 1000 0000)
FLBPR, internal oscillator trim values, and vectors are protected
$FF
The entire FLASH memory is not protected.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
34
Freescale Semiconductor
FLASH Memory (FLASH)
2.6.7 EEPROM Memory Emulation Using FLASH Memory
In some applications, the user may want to repeatedly store and read a set of data from an area of
nonvolatile memory. This is easily implemented in EEPROM memory because single byte erase is
allowed in EEPROM.
When using FLASH memory, the minimum erase size is a page. However, the FLASH can be used as
EEPROM memory. This technique is called “EEPROM emulation”.
The basic concept of EEPROM emulation using FLASH is that a page is continuously programmed with
a new data set without erasing the previously programmed locations. Once the whole page is completely
programmed or the page does not have enough bytes to program a new data set, the user software
automatically erases the page and then programs a new data set in the erased page.
In EEPROM emulation when data is read from the page, the user software must find the latest data set
in the page since the previous data still remains in the same page. There are many ways to monitor the
page erase timing and the latest data set. One example is unprogrammed FLASH bytes are detected by
checking programmed bytes (non-$FF value) in a page. In this way, the end of the data set will contain
unprogrammed data ($FF value).
A couple of application notes, describing how to emulate EEPROM using FLASH, are available on our
web site. Titles and order numbers for these application notes are given at the end of this subsection.
For EEPROM emulation software to work successfully, the following items must be taken care of in the
user software:
1. Each FLASH byte in a page must be programmed only one time until the page is erased.
2. A page must be erased before the FLASH cumulative program HV period (tHV) is beyond the
maximum tHV. tHV is defined as the cumulative high-voltage programming time to the same row
before the next erase. For more detailed information, refer to 16.15 Memory Characteristics.
3. FLASH row erase and program cycles should not exceed 10,000 cycles, respectively.
The above EEPROM emulation software can be easily developed by using the on-chip FLASH routines
implemented in the MCU. These routines are located in the ROM memory and support FLASH program
and erase operations. Proper utilization of the on-chip FLASH routines guarantee conformance to the
FLASH specifications.
In the on-chip FLASH programming routine called PRGRNGE, the high-voltage programming time is
enabled for less than 125 μs when programming a single byte at any operating bus frequency between
1.0 MHz and 8.4 MHz. Therefore, even when a row is programmed by 32 separate single-byte
programming operations, tHV is less than the maximum tHV. Hence, item 2 listed above is already taken
care of by using this routine.
A page erased operation is provided in the FLASH erase routine called ERARNGE.
Application note AN2635 (On-Chip FLASH Programming Routines) describes how to use these routines.
The following application notes, available at www.freescale.com, describe how EERPOM emulation is
implemented using FLASH:
AN2183 — Using FLASH as EEPROM on the MC68HC908GP32
AN2346 — EEPROM Emulation Using FLASH in MC68HC908QY/QT MCUs
AN2690 — Low Frequency EEPROM Emulation on the MC68HC908QY4
An EEPROM emulation driver, available at www.freescale.com, has been developed and qualified:
AN3040 — M68HC08 EEPROM Emulation Driver
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
35
Memory
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
36
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 3
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC10) Module
3.1 Introduction
This section describes the 10-bit successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (ADC10).
The ADC10 module shares its pins with general-purpose input/output (I/O) port pins. See Figure 3-1 for
port location of these shared pins. The ADC10 on this MCU uses VDD and VSS as its supply and reference
pins. This MCU uses BUSCLKX4 as its alternate clock source for the ADC. This MCU does not have a
hardware conversion trigger.
3.2 Features
Features of the ADC10 module include:
• Linear successive approximation algorithm with 10-bit resolution
• Output formatted in 10- or 8-bit right-justified format
• Single or continuous conversion (automatic power-down in single conversion mode)
• Configurable sample time and conversion speed (to save power)
• Conversion complete flag and interrupt
• Input clock selectable from up to three sources
• Operation in wait and stop modes for lower noise operation
• Selectable asynchronous hardware conversion trigger
3.3 Functional Description
The ADC10 uses successive approximation to convert the input sample taken from ADVIN to a digital
representation. The approximation is taken and then rounded to the nearest 10- or 8-bit value to provide
greater accuracy and to provide a more robust mechanism for achieving the ideal code-transition voltage.
Figure 3-2 shows a block diagram of the ADC10
For proper conversion, the voltage on ADVIN must fall between VREFH and VREFL. If ADVIN is equal to
or exceeds VREFH, the converter circuit converts the signal to $3FF for a 10-bit representation or $FF for
a 8-bit representation. If ADVIN is equal to or less than VREFL, the converter circuit converts it to $000.
Input voltages between VREFH and VREFL are straight-line linear conversions.
NOTE
Input voltage must not exceed the analog supply voltages.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
37
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC10) Module
PTA0/TCH0/AD0/KBI0
CLOCK
GENERATOR
PTA3/RST/KBI3
PTA
PTA2/IRQ/KBI2/TCLK
DDRA
PTA1/TCH1/AD1/KBI1
KEYBOARD INTERRUPT
MODULE
PTA4/OSC2/AD2/KBI4
PTA5/OSC1/AD3/KBI5
SINGLE INTERRUPT
MODULE
AUTO WAKEUP
MODULE
DDRB
PTB0/AD4
PTB1/AD5
PTB2
PTB3
PTB4
PTB5
PTB6
PTB7
PTB
M68HC08 CPU
LOW-VOLTAGE
INHIBIT
2-CHANNEL 16-BIT
TIMER MODULE
MC68HC908QY4A
MC68HC908QY4A
128 BYTES
4096 BYTES
USER RAM
USER FLASH
COP
MODULE
6-CHANNEL
10-BIT ADC
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
VDD
POWER SUPPLY
MONITOR ROM
BREAK MODULE
VSS
RST, IRQ: Pins have internal pull up device
All port pins have programmable pull up device
PTA[0:5]: Higher current sink and source capability
PTB[0:7]: Not available on 8-pin devices
Figure 3-1. Block Diagram Highlighting ADC10 Block and Pins
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
38
Freescale Semiconductor
Functional Description
ADIV
ADLPC
ADLSMP
MODE
COMPLETE
2
ADCO
COCO
AIEN
ADCH
1
ADCK
MCU STOP
CONTROL SEQUENCER
ADHWT
ADICLK
ADCLK
ADSCR
ACLKEN
ASYNC
CLOCK
GENERATOR
ACLK
CLOCK
DIVIDE
BUS CLOCK
•••
ADVIN
ABORT
CONVERT
TRANSFER
AD0
SAMPLE
INITIALIZE
ALTERNATE CLOCK SOURCE
SAR CONVERTER
AIEN 1
COCO 2
INTERRUPT
ADn
VREFH
VREFL
DATA REGISTERS ADRH:ADRL
Figure 3-2. ADC10 Block Diagram
The ADC10 can perform an analog-to-digital conversion on one of the software selectable channels. The
output of the input multiplexer (ADVIN) is converted by a successive approximation algorithm into a 10-bit
digital result. When the conversion is completed, the result is placed in the data registers (ADRH and
ADRL). In 8-bit mode, the result is rounded to 8 bits and placed in ADRL. The conversion complete flag
is then set and an interrupt is generated if the interrupt has been enabled.
3.3.1 Clock Select and Divide Circuit
The clock select and divide circuit selects one of three clock sources and divides it by a configurable value
to generate the input clock to the converter (ADCK). The clock can be selected from one of the following
sources:
• The asynchronous clock source (ACLK) — This clock source is generated from a dedicated clock
source which is enabled when the ADC10 is converting and the clock source is selected by setting
the ACLKEN bit. When the ADLPC bit is clear, this clock operates from 1–2 MHz; when ADLPC is
set it operates at 0.5–1 MHz. This clock is not disabled in STOP and allows conversions in stop
mode for lower noise operation.
• Alternate Clock Source — This clock source is equal to the external oscillator clock or a four times
the bus clock. The alternate clock source is MCU specific, see 3.1 Introduction to determine source
and availability of this clock source option. This clock is selected when ADICLK and ACLKEN are
both low.
• The bus clock — This clock source is equal to the bus frequency. This clock is selected when
ADICLK is high and ACLKEN is low.
Whichever clock is selected, its frequency must fall within the acceptable frequency range for ADCK. If
the available clocks are too slow, the ADC10 will not perform according to specifications. If the available
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
39
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC10) Module
clocks are too fast, then the clock must be divided to the appropriate frequency. This divider is specified
by the ADIV[1:0] bits and can be divide-by 1, 2, 4, or 8.
3.3.2 Input Select and Pin Control
Only one analog input may be used for conversion at any given time. The channel select bits in ADSCR
are used to select the input signal for conversion.
3.3.3 Conversion Control
Conversions can be performed in either 10-bit mode or 8-bit mode as determined by the MODE bits.
Conversions can be initiated by either a software or hardware trigger. In addition, the ADC10 module can
be configured for low power operation, long sample time, and continuous conversion.
3.3.3.1 Initiating Conversions
A conversion is initiated:
• Following a write to ADSCR (with ADCH bits not all 1s) if software triggered operation is selected.
• Following a hardware trigger event if hardware triggered operation is selected.
• Following the transfer of the result to the data registers when continuous conversion is enabled.
If continuous conversions are enabled a new conversion is automatically initiated after the completion of
the current conversion. In software triggered operation, continuous conversions begin after ADSCR is
written and continue until aborted. In hardware triggered operation, continuous conversions begin after a
hardware trigger event and continue until aborted.
3.3.3.2 Completing Conversions
A conversion is completed when the result of the conversion is transferred into the data result registers,
ADRH and ADRL. This is indicated by the setting of the COCO bit. An interrupt is generated if AIEN is
high at the time that COCO is set.
A blocking mechanism prevents a new result from overwriting previous data in ADRH and ADRL if the
previous data is in the process of being read while in 10-bit mode (ADRH has been read but ADRL has
not). In this case the data transfer is blocked, COCO is not set, and the new result is lost. When a data
transfer is blocked, another conversion is initiated regardless of the state of ADCO (single or continuous
conversions enabled). If single conversions are enabled, this could result in several discarded
conversions and excess power consumption. To avoid this issue, the data registers must not be read after
initiating a single conversion until the conversion completes.
3.3.3.3 Aborting Conversions
Any conversion in progress will be aborted when:
• A write to ADSCR occurs (the current conversion will be aborted and a new conversion will be
initiated, if ADCH are not all 1s).
• A write to ADCLK occurs.
• The MCU is reset.
• The MCU enters stop mode with ACLK not enabled.
When a conversion is aborted, the contents of the data registers, ADRH and ADRL, are not altered but
continue to be the values transferred after the completion of the last successful conversion. In the case
that the conversion was aborted by a reset, ADRH and ADRL return to their reset states.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
40
Freescale Semiconductor
Functional Description
Upon reset or when a conversion is otherwise aborted, the ADC10 module will enter a low power, inactive
state. In this state, all internal clocks and references are disabled. This state is entered asynchronously
and immediately upon aborting of a conversion.
3.3.3.4 Total Conversion Time
The total conversion time depends on many factors such as sample time, bus frequency, whether
ACLKEN is set, and synchronization time. The total conversion time is summarized in Table 3-1.
Table 3-1. Total Conversion Time versus Control Conditions
Conversion Mode
ACLKEN
Maximum Conversion Time
8-Bit Mode (short sample — ADLSMP = 0):
Single or 1st continuous
Single or 1st continuous
Subsequent continuous (fBus ≥ fADCK)
0
1
X
18 ADCK + 3 bus clock
18 ADCK + 3 bus clock + 5 μs
16 ADCK
8-Bit Mode (long sample — ADLSMP = 1):
Single or 1st continuous
Single or 1st continuous
Subsequent continuous (fBus ≥ fADCK)
0
1
X
38 ADCK + 3 bus clock
38 ADCK + 3 bus clock + 5 μs
36 ADCK
10-Bit Mode (short sample — ADLSMP = 0):
Single or 1st continuous
Single or 1st continuous
Subsequent continuous (fBus ≥ fADCK)
0
1
X
21 ADCK + 3 bus clock
21 ADCK + 3 bus clock + 5 μs
19 ADCK
10-Bit Mode (long sample — ADLSMP = 1):
Single or 1st continuous
Single or 1st continuous
Subsequent continuous (fBus ≥ fADCK)
0
1
X
41 ADCK + 3 bus clock
41 ADCK + 3 bus clock + 5 μs
39 ADCK
The maximum total conversion time for a single conversion or the first conversion in continuous
conversion mode is determined by the clock source chosen and the divide ratio selected. The clock
source is selectable by the ADICLK and ACLKEN bits, and the divide ratio is specified by the ADIV bits.
For example, if the alternate clock source is 16 MHz and is selected as the input clock source, the input
clock divide-by-8 ratio is selected and the bus frequency is 4 MHz, then the conversion time for a single
10-bit conversion is:
Maximum Conversion time =
21 ADCK cycles
16 MHz/8
+
3 bus cycles
4 MHz
= 11.25 μs
Number of bus cycles = 11.25 μs x 4 MHz = 45 cycles
NOTE
The ADCK frequency must be between fADCK minimum and fADCK
maximum to meet A/D specifications.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
41
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC10) Module
3.3.4 Sources of Error
Several sources of error exist for ADC conversions. These are discussed in the following sections.
3.3.4.1 Sampling Error
For proper conversions, the input must be sampled long enough to achieve the proper accuracy. Given
the maximum input resistance of approximately 15 kΩ and input capacitance of approximately 10 pF,
sampling to within
1/4LSB (at 10-bit resolution) can be achieved within the minimum sample window (3.5 cycles / 2 MHz
maximum ADCK frequency) provided the resistance of the external analog source (RAS) is kept below 10
kΩ. Higher source resistances or higher-accuracy sampling is possible by setting ADLSMP (to increase
the sample window to 23.5 cycles) or decreasing ADCK frequency to increase sample time.
3.3.4.2 Pin Leakage Error
Leakage on the I/O pins can cause conversion error if the external analog source resistance (RAS) is high.
If this error cannot be tolerated by the application, keep RAS lower than VADVIN / (4096*ILeak) for less than
1/4LSB leakage error (at 10-bit resolution).
3.3.4.3 Noise-Induced Errors
System noise which occurs during the sample or conversion process can affect the accuracy of the
conversion. The ADC10 accuracy numbers are guaranteed as specified only if the following conditions
are met:
• There is a 0.1μF low-ESR capacitor from VREFH to VREFL (if available).
• There is a 0.1μF low-ESR capacitor from VDDA to VSSA (if available).
• If inductive isolation is used from the primary supply, an additional 1μF capacitor is placed from
VDDA to VSSA (if available).
• VSSA and VREFL (if available) is connected to VSS at a quiet point in the ground plane.
• The MCU is placed in wait mode immediately after initiating the conversion (next instruction after
write to ADSCR).
• There is no I/O switching, input or output, on the MCU during the conversion.
There are some situations where external system activity causes radiated or conducted noise emissions
or excessive VDD noise is coupled into the ADC10. In these cases, or when the MCU cannot be placed
in wait or I/O activity cannot be halted, the following recommendations may reduce the effect of noise on
the accuracy:
• Place a 0.01 μF capacitor on the selected input channel to VREFL or VSSA (if available). This will
improve noise issues but will affect sample rate based on the external analog source resistance.
• Operate the ADC10 in stop mode by setting ACLKEN, selecting the channel in ADSCR, and
executing a STOP instruction. This will reduce VDD noise but will increase effective conversion time
due to stop recovery.
• Average the input by converting the output many times in succession and dividing the sum of the
results. Four samples are required to eliminate the effect of a 1LSB, one-time error.
• Reduce the effect of synchronous noise by operating off the asynchronous clock (ACLKEN=1) and
averaging. Noise that is synchronous to the ADCK cannot be averaged out.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
42
Freescale Semiconductor
Functional Description
3.3.4.4 Code Width and Quantization Error
The ADC10 quantizes the ideal straight-line transfer function into 1024 steps (in 10-bit mode). Each step
ideally has the same height (1 code) and width. The width is defined as the delta between the transition
points from one code to the next. The ideal code width for an N bit converter (in this case N can be 8 or
10), defined as 1LSB, is:
1LSB = (VREFH–VREFL) / 2N
Because of this quantization, there is an inherent quantization error. Because the converter performs a
conversion and then rounds to 8 or 10 bits, the code will transition when the voltage is at the midpoint
between the points where the straight line transfer function is exactly represented by the actual transfer
function. Therefore, the quantization error will be ± 1/2LSB in 8- or 10-bit mode. As a consequence,
however, the code width of the first ($000) conversion is only 1/2LSB and the code width of the last ($FF
or $3FF) is 1.5LSB.
3.3.4.5 Linearity Errors
The ADC10 may also exhibit non-linearity of several forms. Every effort has been made to reduce these
errors but the user should be aware of them because they affect overall accuracy. These errors are:
• Zero-Scale Error (EZS) (sometimes called offset) — This error is defined as the difference between
the actual code width of the first conversion and the ideal code width (1/2LSB). Note, if the first
conversion is $001, then the difference between the actual $001 code width and its ideal (1LSB) is
used.
• Full-Scale Error (EFS) — This error is defined as the difference between the actual code width of
the last conversion and the ideal code width (1.5LSB). Note, if the last conversion is $3FE, then the
difference between the actual $3FE code width and its ideal (1LSB) is used.
• Differential Non-Linearity (DNL) — This error is defined as the worst-case difference between the
actual code width and the ideal code width for all conversions.
• Integral Non-Linearity (INL) — This error is defined as the highest-value the (absolute value of the)
running sum of DNL achieves. More simply, this is the worst-case difference of the actual transition
voltage to a given code and its corresponding ideal transition voltage, for all codes.
• Total Unadjusted Error (TUE) — This error is defined as the difference between the actual transfer
function and the ideal straight-line transfer function, and therefore includes all forms of error.
3.3.4.6 Code Jitter, Non-Monotonicity and Missing Codes
Analog-to-digital converters are susceptible to three special forms of error. These are code jitter,
non-monotonicity, and missing codes.
• Code jitter is when, at certain points, a given input voltage converts to one of two values when
sampled repeatedly. Ideally, when the input voltage is infinitesimally smaller than the transition
voltage, the converter yields the lower code (and vice-versa). However, even very small amounts
of system noise can cause the converter to be indeterminate (between two codes) for a range of
input voltages around the transition voltage. This range is normally around ±1/2LSB but will
increase with noise.
• Non-monotonicity is defined as when, except for code jitter, the converter converts to a lower code
for a higher input voltage. Non-monotonicity is present if the apparent code jitter covers three codes
(when the converter’s output is indeterminate between three values for a given input voltage) or is
greater than 1LSB.
• Missing codes are those which are never converted for any input value. In 8-bit or 10-bit mode, the
ADC10 is guaranteed to be monotonic and to have no missing codes.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
43
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC10) Module
3.4 Interrupts
When AIEN is set, the ADC10 is capable of generating a CPU interrupt after each conversion. A CPU
interrupt is generated when the conversion completes (indicated by COCO being set). COCO will set at
the end of a conversion regardless of the state of AIEN.
3.5 Low-Power Modes
The WAIT and STOP instructions put the MCU in low power-consumption standby modes.
3.5.1 Wait Mode
The ADC10 will continue the conversion process and will generate an interrupt following a conversion if
AIEN is set. If the ADC10 is not required to bring the MCU out of wait mode, ensure that the ADC10 is not
in continuous conversion mode by clearing ADCO in the ADC10 status and control register before
executing the WAIT instruction. In single conversion mode the ADC10 automatically enters a low-power
state when the conversion is complete. It is not necessary to set the channel select bits (ADCH[4:0]) to
all 1s to enter a low power state.
3.5.2 Stop Mode
If ACLKEN is clear, executing a STOP instruction will abort the current conversion and place the ADC10
in a low-power state. Upon return from stop mode, a write to ADSCR is required to resume conversions,
and the result stored in ADRH and ADRL will represent the last completed conversion until the new
conversion completes.
If ACLKEN is set, the ADC10 continues normal operation during stop mode. The ADC10 will continue the
conversion process and will generate an interrupt following a conversion if AIEN is set. If the ADC10 is
not required to bring the MCU out of stop mode, ensure that the ADC10 is not in continuous conversion
mode by clearing ADCO in the ADC10 status and control register before executing the STOP instruction.
In single conversion mode the ADC10 automatically enters a low-power state when the conversion is
complete. It is not necessary to set the channel select bits (ADCH[4:0]) to all 1s to enter a low-power state.
If ACLKEN is set, a conversion can be initiated while in stop using the external hardware trigger
ADEXTCO when in external convert mode. The ADC10 will operate in a low-power mode until the trigger
is asserted, at which point it will perform a conversion and assert the interrupt when complete (if AIEN is
set).
3.6 ADC10 During Break Interrupts
The system integration module (SIM) controls whether status bits in other modules can be cleared during
the break state. BCFE in the break flag control register (BFCR) enables software to clear status bits during
the break state. See BFCR in the SIM section of this data sheet.
To allow software to clear status bits during a break interrupt, write a 1 to BCFE. If a status bit is cleared
during the break state, it remains cleared when the MCU exits the break state.
To protect status bits during the break state, write a 0 to BCFE. With BCFE cleared (its default state),
software can read and write registers during the break state without affecting status bits. Some status bits
have a two-step read/write clearing procedure. If software does the first step on such a bit before the
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
44
Freescale Semiconductor
I/O Signals
break, the bit cannot change during the break state as long as BCFE is cleared. After the break, doing the
second step clears the status bit.
3.7 I/O Signals
The ADC10 module shares its pins with general-purpose input/output (I/O) port pins. See Figure 3-1 for
port location of these shared pins. The ADC10 on this MCU uses VDD and VSS as its supply and reference
pins. This MCU does not have an external trigger source.
3.7.1 ADC10 Analog Power Pin (VDDA)
The ADC10 analog portion uses VDDA as its power pin. In some packages, VDDA is connected internally
to VDD. If externally available, connect the VDDA pin to the same voltage potential as VDD. External filtering
may be necessary to ensure clean VDDA for good results.
NOTE
If externally available, route VDDA carefully for maximum noise immunity
and place bypass capacitors as near as possible to the package.
3.7.2 ADC10 Analog Ground Pin (VSSA)
The ADC10 analog portion uses VSSA as its ground pin. In some packages, VSSA is connected internally
to VSS. If externally available, connect the VSSA pin to the same voltage potential as VSS.
In cases where separate power supplies are used for analog and digital power, the ground connection
between these supplies should be at the VSSA pin. This should be the only ground connection between
these supplies if possible. The VSSA pin makes a good single point ground location.
3.7.3 ADC10 Voltage Reference High Pin (VREFH)
VREFH is the power supply for setting the high-reference voltage for the converter. In some packages,
VREFH is connected internally to VDDA. If externally available, VREFH may be connected to the same
potential as VDDA, or may be driven by an external source that is between the minimum VDDA spec and
the VDDA potential (VREFH must never exceed VDDA).
NOTE
Route VREFH carefully for maximum noise immunity and place bypass
capacitors as near as possible to the package.
AC current in the form of current spikes required to supply charge to the capacitor array at each
successive approximation step is drawn through the VREFH and VREFL loop. The best external component
to meet this current demand is a 0.1 μF capacitor with good high frequency characteristics. This capacitor
is connected between VREFH and VREFL and must be placed as close as possible to the package pins.
Resistance in the path is not recommended because the current will cause a voltage drop which could
result in conversion errors. Inductance in this path must be minimum (parasitic only).
3.7.4 ADC10 Voltage Reference Low Pin (VREFL)
VREFL is the power supply for setting the low-reference voltage for the converter. In some packages,
VREFL is connected internally to VSSA. If externally available, connect the VREFL pin to the same voltage
potential as VSSA. There will be a brief current associated with VREFL when the sampling capacitor is
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
45
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC10) Module
charging. If externally available, connect the VREFL pin to the same potential as VSSA at the single point
ground location.
3.7.5 ADC10 Channel Pins (ADn)
The ADC10 has multiple input channels. Empirical data shows that capacitors on the analog inputs
improve performance in the presence of noise or when the source impedance is high. 0.01 μF capacitors
with good high-frequency characteristics are sufficient. These capacitors are not necessary in all cases,
but when used they must be placed as close as possible to the package pins and be referenced to VSSA.
3.8 Registers
These registers control and monitor operation of the ADC10:
• ADC10 status and control register, ADSCR
• ADC10 data registers, ADRH and ADRL
• ADC10 clock register, ADCLK
3.8.1 ADC10 Status and Control Register
This section describes the function of the ADC10 status and control register (ADSCR). Writing ADSCR
aborts the current conversion and initiates a new conversion (if the ADCH[4:0] bits are equal to a value
other than all 1s).
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
COCO
AIEN
ADCO
ADCH4
ADCH3
ADCH2
ADCH1
ADCH0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
Figure 3-3. ADC10 Status and Control Register (ADSCR)
COCO — Conversion Complete Bit
COCO is a read-only bit which is set each time a conversion is completed. This bit is cleared whenever
the status and control register is written or whenever the data register (low) is read.
1 = Conversion completed
0 = Conversion not completed
AIEN — ADC10 Interrupt Enable Bit
When this bit is set, an interrupt is generated at the end of a conversion. The interrupt signal is cleared
when the data register is read or the status/control register is written.
1 = ADC10 interrupt enabled
0 = ADC10 interrupt disabled
ADCO — ADC10 Continuous Conversion Bit
When this bit is set, the ADC10 will begin to convert samples continuously (continuous conversion
mode) and update the result registers at the end of each conversion, provided the ADCH[4:0] bits do
not decode to all 1s. The ADC10 will continue to convert until the MCU enters reset, the MCU enters
stop mode (if ACLKEN is clear), ADCLK is written, or until ADSCR is written again. If stop is entered
(with ACLKEN low), continuous conversions will cease and can be restarted only with a write to
ADSCR. Any write to ADSCR with ADCO set and the ADCH bits not all 1s will abort the current
conversion and begin continuous conversions.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
46
Freescale Semiconductor
Registers
If the bus frequency is less than the ADCK frequency, precise sample time for continuous conversions
cannot be guaranteed in short-sample mode (ADLSMP = 0). If the bus frequency is less than 1/11th
of the ADCK frequency, precise sample time for continuous conversions cannot be guaranteed in
long-sample mode (ADLSMP = 1).
When clear, the ADC10 will perform a single conversion (single conversion mode) each time ADSCR
is written (assuming the ADCH[4:0] bits do not decode all 1s).
1 = Continuous conversion following a write to ADSCR
0 = One conversion following a write to ADSCR
ADCH[4:0] — Channel Select Bits
The ADCH[4:0] bits form a 5-bit field that is used to select one of the input channels. The input
channels are detailed in Table 3-2. The successive approximation converter subsystem is turned off
when the channel select bits are all set to 1. This feature allows explicit disabling of the ADC10 and
isolation of the input channel from the I/O pad. Terminating continuous conversion mode this way will
prevent an additional, single conversion from being performed. It is not necessary to set the channel
select bits to all 1s to place the ADC10 in a low-power state, however, because the module is
automatically placed in a low-power state when a conversion completes.
Table 3-2. Input Channel Select
ADCH4
ADCH3
ADCH2
ADCH1
ADCH0
Input Select(1)
0
0
0
0
0
AD0
0
0
0
0
1
AD1
0
0
0
1
0
AD2
0
0
0
1
1
AD3
0
0
1
0
0
AD4
0
0
1
0
1
AD5
0
0
1
1
0
Unused
1
1
0
0
1
Unused
1
1
0
1
0
BANDGAP REF(2)
1
1
0
1
1
Reserved
1
1
1
0
0
Reserved
1
1
1
0
1
VREFH
1
1
1
1
0
VREFL
1
1
1
1
1
Low-power state
Continuing through
Unused
1. If any unused or reserved channels are selected, the resulting conversion will
be unknown.
2. Requires LVI to be powered (LVIPWRD =0, in CONFIG1)
3.8.2 ADC10 Result High Register (ADRH)
This register holds the MSBs of the result and is updated each time a conversion completes. All other bits
read as 0s. Reading ADRH prevents the ADC10 from transferring subsequent conversion results into the
result registers until ADRL is read. If ADRL is not read until the after next conversion is completed, then
the intermediate conversion result will be lost. In 8-bit mode, this register contains no interlocking with
ADRL.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
47
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC10) Module
Read:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Write:
Reset:
= Unimplemented
Figure 3-4. ADC10 Data Register High (ADRH), 8-Bit Mode
Read:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
AD9
AD8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Write:
Reset:
= Unimplemented
Figure 3-5. ADC10 Data Register High (ADRH), 10-Bit Mode
3.8.3 ADC10 Result Low Register (ADRL)
This register holds the LSBs of the result. This register is updated each time a conversion completes.
Reading ADRH prevents the ADC10 from transferring subsequent conversion results into the result
registers until ADRL is read. If ADRL is not read until the after next conversion is completed, then the
intermediate conversion result will be lost. In 8-bit mode, there is no interlocking with ADRH.
Read:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
AD7
AD6
AD5
AD4
AD3
AD2
AD1
AD0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Write:
Reset:
= Unimplemented
Figure 3-6. ADC10 Data Register Low (ADRL)
3.8.4 ADC10 Clock Register (ADCLK)
This register selects the clock frequency for the ADC10 and the modes of operation.
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
ADLPC
ADIV1
ADIV0
ADICLK
MODE1
MODE0
ADLSMP
ACLKEN
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 3-7. ADC10 Clock Register (ADCLK)
ADLPC — ADC10 Low-Power Configuration Bit
ADLPC controls the speed and power configuration of the successive approximation converter. This
is used to optimize power consumption when higher sample rates are not required.
1 = Low-power configuration: The power is reduced at the expense of maximum clock speed.
0 = High-speed configuration
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
48
Freescale Semiconductor
Registers
ADIV[1:0] — ADC10 Clock Divider Bits
ADIV1 and ADIV0 select the divide ratio used by the ADC10 to generate the internal clock ADCK.
Table 3-3 shows the available clock configurations.
Table 3-3. ADC10 Clock Divide Ratio
ADIV1
ADIV0
Divide Ratio (ADIV)
Clock Rate
0
0
1
Input clock ÷ 1
0
1
2
Input clock ÷ 2
1
0
4
Input clock ÷ 4
1
1
8
Input clock ÷ 8
ADICLK — Input Clock Select Bit
If ACLKEN is clear, ADICLK selects either the bus clock or an alternate clock source as the input clock
source to generate the internal clock ADCK. If the alternate clock source is less than the minimum
clock speed, use the internally-generated bus clock as the clock source. As long as the internal clock
ADCK, which is equal to the selected input clock divided by ADIV, is at a frequency (fADCK) between
the minimum and maximum clock speeds (considering ALPC), correct operation can be guaranteed.
1 = The internal bus clock is selected as the input clock source
0 = The alternate clock source IS SELECTED
MODE[1:0] — 10- or 8-Bit or Hardware Triggered Mode Selection
These bits select 10- or 8-bit operation. The successive approximation converter generates a result
that is rounded to 8- or 10-bit value based on the mode selection. This rounding process sets the
transfer function to transition at the midpoint between the ideal code voltages, causing a quantization
error of ± 1/2LSB.
Reset returns 8-bit mode.
00 = 8-bit, right-justified, ADSCR software triggered mode enabled
01 = 10-bit, right-justified, ADSCR software triggered mode enabled
10 = Reserved
11 = 10-bit, right-justified, hardware triggered mode enabled
ADLSMP — Long Sample Time Configuration
This bit configures the sample time of the ADC10 to either 3.5 or 23.5 ADCK clock cycles. This adjusts
the sample period to allow higher impedance inputs to be accurately sampled or to maximize
conversion speed for lower impedance inputs. Longer sample times can also be used to lower overall
power consumption in continuous conversion mode if high conversion rates are not required.
1 = Long sample time (23.5 cycles)
0 = Short sample time (3.5 cycles)
ACLKEN — Asynchronous Clock Source Enable
This bit enables the asynchronous clock source as the input clock to generate the internal clock ADCK,
and allows operation in stop mode. The asynchronous clock source will operate between 1 MHz and
2 MHz if ADLPC is clear, and between 0.5 MHz and 1 MHz if ADLPC is set.
1 = The asynchronous clock is selected as the input clock source (the clock generator is only
enabled during the conversion)
0 = ADICLK specifies the input clock source and conversions will not continue in stop mode
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
49
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC10) Module
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
50
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 4
Auto Wakeup Module (AWU)
4.1 Introduction
This section describes the auto wakeup module (AWU). The AWU generates a periodic interrupt during
stop mode to wake the part up without requiring an external signal. Figure 4-1 is a block diagram of the
AWU.
COPRS (FROM CONFIG1)
VDD
AUTOWUGEN
OSCENINSTOP (FROM CONFIG2)
BUSCLKX2
EN
32 kHz
TO PTA READ, BIT 6
1 = DIV 29
SHORT 0 = DIV 214
D
OVERFLOW
M
U
X
CLK
E
RST
AWUL
Q
AWUIREQ
R
TO KBI INTERRUPT LOGIC
(SEE Figure 9-2)
INT RC OSC
CLRLOGIC
RESET
CLEAR
BUSCLKX2
CLK
ACKK
RST
RESET
RESET
ISTOP
AWUIE
Figure 4-1. Auto Wakeup Interrupt Request Generation Logic
4.2 Features
Features of the auto wakeup module include:
• One internal interrupt with separate interrupt enable bit, sharing the same keyboard interrupt vector
and keyboard interrupt mask bit
• Exit from low-power stop mode without external signals
• Selectable timeout periods
• Dedicated low-power internal oscillator separate from the main system clock sources
• Option to allow bus clock source to run the AWU if enabled in STOP
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
51
Auto Wakeup Module (AWU)
4.3 Functional Description
The function of the auto wakeup logic is to generate periodic wakeup requests to bring the microcontroller
unit (MCU) out of stop mode. The wakeup requests are treated as regular keyboard interrupt requests,
with the difference that instead of a pin, the interrupt signal is generated by an internal logic.
Entering stop mode will enable the auto wakeup generation logic. Writing the AWUIE bit in the keyboard
interrupt enable register enables or disables the auto wakeup interrupt input (see Figure 4-1). A 1 applied
to the AWUIREQ input with auto wakeup interrupt request enabled, latches an auto wakeup interrupt
request.
Auto wakeup latch, AWUL, can be read directly from the bit 6 position of port A data register (PTA). This
is a read-only bit which is occupying an empty bit position on PTA. No PTA associated registers, such as
PTA6 data direction or PTA6 pullup exist for this bit.
There are two clock sources for the AWU. An internal RC oscillator (INTRCOSC, exclusive for the auto
wakeup feature) drives the wakeup request generator provided the OSCENINSTOP bit in the CONFIG2
register Figure 4-1 is cleared. More accurate wakeup periods are possible using the BUSCLKX2 signal
(from the oscillator module) which is selected by setting OSCENINSTOP.
Once the overflow count is reached in the generator counter, a wakeup request, AWUIREQ, is latched
and sent to the KBI logic. See Figure 4-1.
Wakeup interrupt requests will only be serviced if the associated interrupt enable bit, AWUIE, in KBIER
is set. The AWU shares the keyboard interrupt vector.
The overflow count can be selected from two options defined by the COPRS bit in CONFIG1. This bit was
“borrowed” from the computer operating properly (COP) using the fact that the COP feature is idle (no
MCU clock available) in stop mode. COPRS = 1 selects the short wakeup period while COPRS = 0 selects
the long wakeup period.
The auto wakeup RC oscillator (INTRCOSC) is highly dependent on operating voltage and temperature.
This feature is not recommended for use as a time-keeping function.
The wakeup request is latched to allow the interrupt source identification. The latched value, AWUL, can
be read directly from the bit 6 position of PTA data register. This is a read-only bit which is occupying an
empty bit position on PTA. No PTA associated registers, such as PTA6 data, PTA6 direction, and PTA6
pullup exist for this bit. The latch can be cleared by writing to the ACKK bit in the KBSCR register. Reset
also clears the latch. AWUIE bit in KBI interrupt enable register (see Figure 4-1) has no effect on AWUL
reading.
The AWU oscillator and counters are inactive in normal operating mode and become active only upon
entering stop mode.
4.4 Interrupts
The AWU can generate an interrupt request:
AWU Latch (AWUL) — The AWUL bit is set when the AWU counter overflows. The auto wakeup
interrupt mask bit, AWUIE, is used to enable or disable AWU interrupt requests.
The AWU shares its interrupt with the KBI vector.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
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Freescale Semiconductor
Low-Power Modes
4.5 Low-Power Modes
The WAIT and STOP instructions put the MCU in low power-consumption standby modes.
4.5.1 Wait Mode
The AWU module is inactive in wait mode.
4.5.2 Stop Mode
When the AWU module is enabled (AWUIE = 1 in the keyboard interrupt enable register) it is activated
automatically upon entering stop mode. Clearing the IMASKK bit in the keyboard status and control
register enables keyboard interrupt requests to bring the MCU out of stop mode. The AWU counters start
from 0 each time stop mode is entered.
4.6 Registers
The AWU shares registers with the keyboard interrupt (KBI) module, the port A I/O module and
configuration register 2. The following I/O registers control and monitor operation of the AWU:
• Port A data register (PTA)
• Keyboard interrupt status and control register (KBSCR)
• Keyboard interrupt enable register (KBIER)
• Configuration register 1 (CONFIG1)
• Configuration register 2 (CONFIG2)
4.6.1 Port A I/O Register
The port A data register (PTA) contains a data latch for the state of the AWU interrupt request, in addition
to the data latches for port A.
Read:
Bit 7
6
0
AWUL
0
0
Write:
Reset:
5
PTA5
4
PTA4
3
PTA3
2
PTA2
1
Bit 0
PTA1
PTA0
Unaffected by reset
= Unimplemented
Figure 4-2. Port A Data Register (PTA)
AWUL — Auto Wakeup Latch
This is a read-only bit which has the value of the auto wakeup interrupt request latch. The wakeup
request signal is generated internally. There is no PTA6 port or any of the associated bits such as
PTA6 data direction or pullup bits.
1 = Auto wakeup interrupt request is pending
0 = Auto wakeup interrupt request is not pending
NOTE
PTA5–PTA0 bits are not used in conjuction with the auto wakeup feature.
To see a description of these bits, see 12.3.1 Port A Data Register.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
53
Auto Wakeup Module (AWU)
4.6.2 Keyboard Status and Control Register
The keyboard status and control register (KBSCR):
• Flags keyboard/auto wakeup interrupt requests
• Acknowledges keyboard/auto wakeup interrupt requests
• Masks keyboard/auto wakeup interrupt requests
Read:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
0
0
0
0
KEYF
Write:
Reset:
2
0
ACKK
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Bit 0
IMASKK
MODEK
0
0
= Unimplemented
Figure 4-3. Keyboard Status and Control Register (KBSCR)
Bits 7–4 — Not used
These read-only bits always read as 0s.
KEYF — Keyboard Flag Bit
This read-only bit is set when a keyboard interrupt is pending on port A or auto wakeup. Reset clears
the KEYF bit.
1 = Keyboard/auto wakeup interrupt pending
0 = No keyboard/auto wakeup interrupt pending
ACKK — Keyboard Acknowledge Bit
Writing a 1 to this write-only bit clears the keyboard/auto wakeup interrupt request on port A and auto
wakeup logic. ACKK always reads as 0. Reset clears ACKK.
IMASKK— Keyboard Interrupt Mask Bit
Writing a 1 to this read/write bit prevents the output of the keyboard interrupt mask from generating
interrupt requests on port A or auto wakeup. Reset clears the IMASKK bit.
1 = Keyboard/auto wakeup interrupt requests masked
0 = Keyboard/auto wakeup interrupt requests not masked
NOTE
MODEK is not used in conjuction with the auto wakeup feature. To see a
description of this bit, see 9.8.1 Keyboard Status and Control Register
(KBSCR).
4.6.3 Keyboard Interrupt Enable Register
The keyboard interrupt enable register (KBIER) enables or disables the auto wakeup to operate as a
keyboard/auto wakeup interrupt input.
Bit 7
Read:
0
Write:
Reset:
0
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
AWUIE
KBIE5
KBIE4
KBIE3
KBIE2
KBIE1
KBIE0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented
Figure 4-4. Keyboard Interrupt Enable Register (KBIER)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
54
Freescale Semiconductor
Registers
AWUIE — Auto Wakeup Interrupt Enable Bit
This read/write bit enables the auto wakeup interrupt input to latch interrupt requests. Reset clears
AWUIE.
1 = Auto wakeup enabled as interrupt input
0 = Auto wakeup not enabled as interrupt input
NOTE
KBIE5–KBIE0 bits are not used in conjuction with the auto wakeup feature.
To see a description of these bits, see 9.8.2 Keyboard Interrupt Enable
Register (KBIER).
4.6.4 Configuration Register 2
The configuration register 2 (CONFIG2), is used to allow the bus clock source to run in STOP. In this case,
the clock, BUSCLKX2 will be used to drive the AWU request generator.
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
IRQPUD
IRQEN
R
R
R
R
OSCENINSTOP
RSTEN
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 4-5. Configuration Register 2 (CONFIG2)
OSCENINSTOP — Oscillator Enable in Stop Mode Bit
OSCENINSTOP, when set, will allow the bus clock source (BUSCLKX2) to generate clocks for the
AWU in stop mode. See 11.8.1 Oscillator Status and Control Register for information on enabling the
external clock sources.
1 = Oscillator enabled to operate during stop mode
0 = Oscillator disabled during stop mode
NOTE
IRQPUD, IRQEN, and RSTEN bits are not used in conjuction with the auto
wakeup feature. To see a description of these bits, see Chapter 5
Configuration Register (CONFIG).
4.6.5 Configuration Register 1
The configuration register 1 (CONFIG1), is used to select the period for the AWU. The timeout will be
based on the COPRS bit along with the clock source for the AWU.
Read:
Write:
Reset: POR:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
COPRS
LVISTOP
LVIRSTD
LVIPWRD
LVITRIP
SSREC
STOP
COPD
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
U
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
U = Unaffected
Figure 4-6. Configuration Register 1 (CONFIG1)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
55
Auto Wakeup Module (AWU)
COPRS (In Stop Mode) — Auto Wakeup Period Selection Bit, depends on OSCSTOPEN in
CONFIG2 and bus clock source (BUSCLKX2).
1 = Auto wakeup short cycle = 512 × (INTRCOSC or BUSCLKX2)
0 = Auto wakeup long cycle = 16,384 × (INTRCOSC or BUSCLKX2)
SSREC — Short Stop Recovery Bit
SSREC enables the CPU to exit stop mode with a delay of 32 BUSCLKX4 cycles instead of a 4096
BUSCLKX4 cycle delay.
1 = Stop mode recovery after 32 BUSCLKX4 cycles
0 = Stop mode recovery after 4096 BUSCLKX4 cycles
NOTE
LVISTOP, LVIRST, LVIPWRD, LVITRIP, and COPD bits are not used in
conjuction with the auto wakeup feature. To see a description of these bits,
see Chapter 5 Configuration Register (CONFIG)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
56
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 5
Configuration Register (CONFIG)
5.1 Introduction
This section describes the configuration registers (CONFIG1 and CONFIG2). The configuration registers
enable or disable the following options:
• Stop mode recovery time (32 × BUSCLKX4 cycles or 4096 × BUSCLKX4 cycles)
• STOP instruction
• Computer operating properly module (COP)
• COP reset period (COPRS): 8176 × BUSCLKX4 or 262,128 × BUSCLKX4
• Low-voltage inhibit (LVI) enable and trip voltage selection
• Auto wakeup timeout period
• Allow clock source to remain enabled in STOP
• Enable IRQ pin
• Disable IRQ pin pullup device
• Enable RST pin
5.2 Functional Description
The configuration registers are used in the initialization of various options. The configuration registers can
be written once after each reset. Most of the configuration register bits are cleared during reset. Since the
various options affect the operation of the microcontroller unit (MCU) it is recommended that this register
be written immediately after reset. The configuration registers are located at $001E and $001F, and may
be read at anytime.
NOTE
The CONFIG registers are one-time writable by the user after each reset.
Upon a reset, the CONFIG registers default to predetermined settings as
shown in Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2.
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
IRQPUD
IRQEN
R
R
R
R
OSCENINSTOP
RSTEN
Reset:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
U
POR:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
= Reserved
Read:
Write:
U = Unaffected
Figure 5-1. Configuration Register 2 (CONFIG2)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
57
Configuration Register (CONFIG)
IRQPUD — IRQ Pin Pullup Control Bit
1 = Internal pullup is disconnected
0 = Internal pullup is connected between IRQ pin and VDD
IRQEN — IRQ Pin Function Selection Bit
1 = Interrupt request function active in pin
0 = Interrupt request function inactive in pin
OSCENINSTOP— Oscillator Enable in Stop Mode Bit
OSCENINSTOP, when set, will allow the clock source to continue to generate clocks in stop mode.
This function can be used to keep the auto-wakeup running while the rest of the microcontroller stops.
When clear, the clock source is disabled when the microcontroller enters stop mode.
1 = Oscillator enabled to operate during stop mode
0 = Oscillator disabled during stop mode
RSTEN — RST Pin Function Selection
1 = Reset function active in pin
0 = Reset function inactive in pin
NOTE
The RSTEN bit is cleared by a power-on reset (POR) only. Other resets will
leave this bit unaffected.
Read:
Write:
Reset:
POR:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
COPRS
LVISTOP
LVIRSTD
LVIPWRD
LVITRIP
SSREC
STOP
COPD
0
0
0
0
U
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
U = Unaffected
Figure 5-2. Configuration Register 1 (CONFIG1)
COPRS (Out of Stop Mode) — COP Reset Period Selection Bit
1 = COP reset short cycle = 8176 × BUSCLKX4
0 = COP reset long cycle = 262,128 × BUSCLKX4
COPRS (In Stop Mode) — Auto Wakeup Period Selection Bit, depends on OSCSTOPEN in
CONFIG2 and external clock source
1 = Auto wakeup short cycle = 512 × (INTRCOSC or BUSCLKX2)
0 = Auto wakeup long cycle = 16,384 × (INTRCOSC or BUSCLKX2)
LVISTOP — LVI Enable in Stop Mode Bit
When the LVIPWRD bit is clear, setting the LVISTOP bit enables the LVI to operate during stop mode.
Reset clears LVISTOP.
1 = LVI enabled during stop mode
0 = LVI disabled during stop mode
LVIRSTD — LVI Reset Disable Bit
LVIRSTD disables the reset signal from the LVI module.
1 = LVI module resets disabled
0 = LVI module resets enabled
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
58
Freescale Semiconductor
Functional Description
LVIPWRD — LVI Power Disable Bit
LVIPWRD disables the LVI module.
1 = LVI module power disabled
0 = LVI module power enabled
LVITRIP — LVI Trip Point Selection Bit
LVITRIP selects the voltage operating mode of the LVI module. The voltage mode selected for the LVI
should match the operating VDD for the LVI’s voltage trip points for each of the modes.
1 = LVI operates for a 5-V protection
0 = LVI operates for a 3-V protection
NOTE
The LVITRIP bit is cleared by a power-on reset (POR) only. Other resets
will leave this bit unaffected.
SSREC — Short Stop Recovery Bit
SSREC enables the CPU to exit stop mode with a delay of 32 BUSCLKX4 cycles instead of a 4096
BUSCLKX4 cycle delay.
1 = Stop mode recovery after 32 BUSCLKX4 cycles
0 = Stop mode recovery after 4096 BUSCLKX4 cycles
NOTE
Exiting stop mode by an LVI reset will result in the long stop recovery.
When using the LVI during normal operation but disabling during stop mode, the LVI will have an
enable time of tEN. The system stabilization time for power-on reset and long stop recovery (both 4096
BUSCLKX4 cycles) gives a delay longer than the LVI enable time for these startup scenarios. There
is no period where the MCU is not protected from a low-power condition. However, when using the
short stop recovery configuration option, the 32 BUSCLKX4 delay must be greater than the LVI’s turn
on time to avoid a period in startup where the LVI is not protecting the MCU.
STOP — STOP Instruction Enable Bit
STOP enables the STOP instruction.
1 = STOP instruction enabled
0 = STOP instruction treated as illegal opcode
COPD — COP Disable Bit
COPD disables the COP module.
1 = COP module disabled
0 = COP module enabled
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
59
Configuration Register (CONFIG)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
60
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 6
Computer Operating Properly (COP)
6.1 Introduction
The computer operating properly (COP) module contains a free-running counter that generates a reset if
allowed to overflow. The COP module helps software recover from runaway code. Prevent a COP reset
by clearing the COP counter periodically. The COP module can be disabled through the COPD bit in the
configuration 1 (CONFIG1) register.
6.2 Functional Description
SIM MODULE
STOP INSTRUCTION
RESET STATUS REGISTER
COP TIMEOUT
CLEAR STAGES 5–12
CLEAR ALL STAGES
INTERNAL RESET SOURCES(1)
SIM RESET CIRCUIT
12-BIT SIM COUNTER
BUSCLKX4
COPCTL WRITE
COP CLOCK
COP MODULE
6-BIT COP COUNTER
COPEN (FROM SIM)
COPD (FROM CONFIG1)
RESET
CLEAR
COP COUNTER
COPCTL WRITE
COP RATE SELECT
(COPRS FROM CONFIG1)
1. See Chapter 13 System Integration Module (SIM) for more details.
Figure 6-1. COP Block Diagram
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
61
Computer Operating Properly (COP)
The COP counter is a free-running 6-bit counter preceded by the 12-bit system integration module (SIM)
counter. If not cleared by software, the COP counter overflows and generates an asynchronous reset after
262,128 or 8176 BUSCLKX4 cycles; depending on the state of the COP rate select bit, COPRS, in
configuration register 1. With a 262,128 BUSCLKX4 cycle overflow option, the internal 12.8-MHz
oscillator gives a COP timeout period of 20.48 ms. Writing any value to location $FFFF before an overflow
occurs prevents a COP reset by clearing the COP counter and stages 12–5 of the SIM counter.
NOTE
Service the COP immediately after reset and before entering or after exiting
stop mode to guarantee the maximum time before the first COP counter
overflow.
A COP reset pulls the RST pin low (if the RSTEN bit is set in the CONFIG1 register) for 32 × BUSCLKX4
cycles and sets the COP bit in the reset status register (RSR). See 13.8.1 SIM Reset Status Register.
NOTE
Place COP clearing instructions in the main program and not in an interrupt
subroutine. Such an interrupt subroutine could keep the COP from
generating a reset even while the main program is not working properly.
6.3 I/O Signals
The following paragraphs describe the signals shown in Figure 6-1.
6.3.1 BUSCLKX4
BUSCLKX4 is the oscillator output signal. BUSCLKX4 frequency is equal to the crystal frequency or the
RC-oscillator frequency.
6.3.2 STOP Instruction
The STOP instruction clears the SIM counter.
6.3.3 COPCTL Write
Writing any value to the COP control register (COPCTL) (see Figure 6-2) clears the COP counter and
clears stages 12–5 of the SIM counter. Reading the COP control register returns the low byte of the reset
vector.
6.3.4 Power-On Reset
The power-on reset (POR) circuit in the SIM clears the SIM counter 4096 × BUSCLKX4 cycles after power
up.
6.3.5 Internal Reset
An internal reset clears the SIM counter and the COP counter.
6.3.6 COPD (COP Disable)
The COPD signal reflects the state of the COP disable bit (COPD) in the configuration register (CONFIG).
See Chapter 5 Configuration Register (CONFIG).
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
62
Freescale Semiconductor
Interrupts
6.3.7 COPRS (COP Rate Select)
The COPRS signal reflects the state of the COP rate select bit (COPRS) in the configuration register 1
(CONFIG1). See Chapter 5 Configuration Register (CONFIG).
6.4 Interrupts
The COP does not generate CPU interrupt requests.
6.5 Monitor Mode
The COP is disabled in monitor mode when VTST is present on the IRQ pin.
6.6 Low-Power Modes
The WAIT and STOP instructions put the MCU in low power-consumption standby modes.
6.6.1 Wait Mode
The COP continues to operate during wait mode. To prevent a COP reset during wait mode, periodically
clear the COP counter.
6.6.2 Stop Mode
Stop mode turns off the BUSCLKX4 input to the COP and clears the SIM counter. Service the COP
immediately before entering or after exiting stop mode to ensure a full COP timeout period after entering
or exiting stop mode.
6.7 COP Module During Break Mode
The COP is disabled during a break interrupt with monitor mode when BDCOP bit is set in break auxiliary
register (BRKAR).
6.8 Register
The COP control register (COPCTL) is located at address $FFFF and overlaps the reset vector. Writing
any value to $FFFF clears the COP counter and starts a new timeout period. Reading location $FFFF
returns the low byte of the reset vector.
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
Read:
LOW BYTE OF RESET VECTOR
Write:
CLEAR COP COUNTER
Reset:
Unaffected by reset
2
1
Bit 0
Figure 6-2. COP Control Register (COPCTL)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
63
Computer Operating Properly (COP)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
64
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 7
Central Processor Unit (CPU)
7.1 Introduction
The M68HC08 CPU (central processor unit) is an enhanced and fully object-code-compatible version of
the M68HC05 CPU. The CPU08 Reference Manual (document order number CPU08RM/AD) contains a
description of the CPU instruction set, addressing modes, and architecture.
7.2 Features
Features of the CPU include:
• Object code fully upward-compatible with M68HC05 Family
• 16-bit stack pointer with stack manipulation instructions
• 16-bit index register with x-register manipulation instructions
• 8-MHz CPU internal bus frequency
• 64-Kbyte program/data memory space
• 16 addressing modes
• Memory-to-memory data moves without using accumulator
• Fast 8-bit by 8-bit multiply and 16-bit by 8-bit divide instructions
• Enhanced binary-coded decimal (BCD) data handling
• Modular architecture with expandable internal bus definition for extension of addressing range
beyond 64 Kbytes
• Low-power stop and wait modes
7.3 CPU Registers
Figure 7-1 shows the five CPU registers. CPU registers are not part of the memory map.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
65
Central Processor Unit (CPU)
0
7
ACCUMULATOR (A)
0
15
H
X
INDEX REGISTER (H:X)
15
0
STACK POINTER (SP)
15
0
PROGRAM COUNTER (PC)
7
0
V 1 1 H I N Z C
CONDITION CODE REGISTER (CCR)
CARRY/BORROW FLAG
ZERO FLAG
NEGATIVE FLAG
INTERRUPT MASK
HALF-CARRY FLAG
TWO’S COMPLEMENT OVERFLOW FLAG
Figure 7-1. CPU Registers
7.3.1 Accumulator
The accumulator is a general-purpose 8-bit register. The CPU uses the accumulator to hold operands and
the results of arithmetic/logic operations.
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Unaffected by reset
Figure 7-2. Accumulator (A)
7.3.2 Index Register
The 16-bit index register allows indexed addressing of a 64-Kbyte memory space. H is the upper byte of
the index register, and X is the lower byte. H:X is the concatenated 16-bit index register.
In the indexed addressing modes, the CPU uses the contents of the index register to determine the
conditional address of the operand.
The index register can serve also as a temporary data storage location.
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Read:
Write:
Reset:
X = Indeterminate
Figure 7-3. Index Register (H:X)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
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Freescale Semiconductor
CPU Registers
7.3.3 Stack Pointer
The stack pointer is a 16-bit register that contains the address of the next location on the stack. During a
reset, the stack pointer is preset to $00FF. The reset stack pointer (RSP) instruction sets the least
significant byte to $FF and does not affect the most significant byte. The stack pointer decrements as data
is pushed onto the stack and increments as data is pulled from the stack.
In the stack pointer 8-bit offset and 16-bit offset addressing modes, the stack pointer can function as an
index register to access data on the stack. The CPU uses the contents of the stack pointer to determine
the conditional address of the operand.
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Figure 7-4. Stack Pointer (SP)
NOTE
The location of the stack is arbitrary and may be relocated anywhere in
random-access memory (RAM). Moving the SP out of page 0 ($0000 to
$00FF) frees direct address (page 0) space. For correct operation, the
stack pointer must point only to RAM locations.
7.3.4 Program Counter
The program counter is a 16-bit register that contains the address of the next instruction or operand to be
fetched.
Normally, the program counter automatically increments to the next sequential memory location every
time an instruction or operand is fetched. Jump, branch, and interrupt operations load the program
counter with an address other than that of the next sequential location.
During reset, the program counter is loaded with the reset vector address located at $FFFE and $FFFF.
The vector address is the address of the first instruction to be executed after exiting the reset state.
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit
0
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Loaded with vector from $FFFE and $FFFF
Figure 7-5. Program Counter (PC)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
67
Central Processor Unit (CPU)
7.3.5 Condition Code Register
The 8-bit condition code register contains the interrupt mask and five flags that indicate the results of the
instruction just executed. Bits 6 and 5 are set permanently to 1. The following paragraphs describe the
functions of the condition code register.
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
V
1
1
H
I
N
Z
C
X
1
1
X
1
X
X
X
X = Indeterminate
Figure 7-6. Condition Code Register (CCR)
V — Overflow Flag
The CPU sets the overflow flag when a two's complement overflow occurs. The signed branch
instructions BGT, BGE, BLE, and BLT use the overflow flag.
1 = Overflow
0 = No overflow
H — Half-Carry Flag
The CPU sets the half-carry flag when a carry occurs between accumulator bits 3 and 4 during an
add-without-carry (ADD) or add-with-carry (ADC) operation. The half-carry flag is required for
binary-coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic operations. The DAA instruction uses the states of the H and
C flags to determine the appropriate correction factor.
1 = Carry between bits 3 and 4
0 = No carry between bits 3 and 4
I — Interrupt Mask
When the interrupt mask is set, all maskable CPU interrupts are disabled. CPU interrupts are enabled
when the interrupt mask is cleared. When a CPU interrupt occurs, the interrupt mask is set
automatically after the CPU registers are saved on the stack, but before the interrupt vector is fetched.
1 = Interrupts disabled
0 = Interrupts enabled
NOTE
To maintain M6805 Family compatibility, the upper byte of the index
register (H) is not stacked automatically. If the interrupt service routine
modifies H, then the user must stack and unstack H using the PSHH and
PULH instructions.
After the I bit is cleared, the highest-priority interrupt request is serviced first.
A return-from-interrupt (RTI) instruction pulls the CPU registers from the stack and restores the
interrupt mask from the stack. After any reset, the interrupt mask is set and can be cleared only by the
clear interrupt mask software instruction (CLI).
N — Negative Flag
The CPU sets the negative flag when an arithmetic operation, logic operation, or data manipulation
produces a negative result, setting bit 7 of the result.
1 = Negative result
0 = Non-negative result
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
68
Freescale Semiconductor
Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)
Z — Zero Flag
The CPU sets the zero flag when an arithmetic operation, logic operation, or data manipulation
produces a result of $00.
1 = Zero result
0 = Non-zero result
C — Carry/Borrow Flag
The CPU sets the carry/borrow flag when an addition operation produces a carry out of bit 7 of the
accumulator or when a subtraction operation requires a borrow. Some instructions — such as bit test
and branch, shift, and rotate — also clear or set the carry/borrow flag.
1 = Carry out of bit 7
0 = No carry out of bit 7
7.4 Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)
The ALU performs the arithmetic and logic operations defined by the instruction set.
Refer to the CPU08 Reference Manual (document order number CPU08RM/AD) for a description of the
instructions and addressing modes and more detail about the architecture of the CPU.
7.5 Low-Power Modes
The WAIT and STOP instructions put the MCU in low power-consumption standby modes.
7.5.1 Wait Mode
The WAIT instruction:
• Clears the interrupt mask (I bit) in the condition code register, enabling interrupts. After exit from
wait mode by interrupt, the I bit remains clear. After exit by reset, the I bit is set.
• Disables the CPU clock
7.5.2 Stop Mode
The STOP instruction:
• Clears the interrupt mask (I bit) in the condition code register, enabling external interrupts. After
exit from stop mode by external interrupt, the I bit remains clear. After exit by reset, the I bit is set.
• Disables the CPU clock
After exiting stop mode, the CPU clock begins running after the oscillator stabilization delay.
7.6 CPU During Break Interrupts
If a break module is present on the MCU, the CPU starts a break interrupt by:
• Loading the instruction register with the SWI instruction
• Loading the program counter with $FFFC:$FFFD or with $FEFC:$FEFD in monitor mode
The break interrupt begins after completion of the CPU instruction in progress. If the break address
register match occurs on the last cycle of a CPU instruction, the break interrupt begins immediately.
A return-from-interrupt instruction (RTI) in the break routine ends the break interrupt and returns the MCU
to normal operation if the break interrupt has been deasserted.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
69
Central Processor Unit (CPU)
7.7 Instruction Set Summary
Table 7-1 provides a summary of the M68HC08 instruction set.
ADC #opr
ADC opr
ADC opr
ADC opr,X
ADC opr,X
ADC ,X
ADC opr,SP
ADC opr,SP
ADD #opr
ADD opr
ADD opr
ADD opr,X
ADD opr,X
ADD ,X
ADD opr,SP
ADD opr,SP
V H I N Z C
A ← (A) + (M) + (C)
Add with Carry
A ← (A) + (M)
Add without Carry
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
– IX1
IX
SP1
SP2
A9
B9
C9
D9
E9
F9
9EE9
9ED9
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
IMM
DIR
EXT
– IX2
IX1
IX
SP1
SP2
AB
BB
CB
DB
EB
FB
9EEB
9EDB
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
ff
ee ff
Cycles
Effect
on CCR
Description
Operand
Operation
Opcode
Source
Form
Address
Mode
Table 7-1. Instruction Set Summary (Sheet 1 of 6)
2
3
4
4
3
2
4
5
ff
ee ff
2
3
4
4
3
2
4
5
AIS #opr
Add Immediate Value (Signed) to SP
SP ← (SP) + (16 « M)
– – – – – – IMM
A7
ii
2
AIX #opr
Add Immediate Value (Signed) to H:X
H:X ← (H:X) + (16 « M)
– – – – – – IMM
AF
ii
2
A ← (A) & (M)
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
0 – – – IX1
IX
SP1
SP2
A4
B4
C4
D4
E4
F4
9EE4
9ED4
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
2
3
4
4
3
2
4
5
0
DIR
INH
INH
– – IX1
IX
SP1
38 dd
48
58
68 ff
78
9E68 ff
4
1
1
4
3
5
C
DIR
INH
– – INH
IX1
IX
SP1
37 dd
47
57
67 ff
77
9E67 ff
4
1
1
4
3
5
AND #opr
AND opr
AND opr
AND opr,X
AND opr,X
AND ,X
AND opr,SP
AND opr,SP
ASL opr
ASLA
ASLX
ASL opr,X
ASL ,X
ASL opr,SP
Logical AND
Arithmetic Shift Left
(Same as LSL)
C
b7
ASR opr
ASRA
ASRX
ASR opr,X
ASR opr,X
ASR opr,SP
Arithmetic Shift Right
BCC rel
Branch if Carry Bit Clear
b0
b7
BCLR n, opr
Clear Bit n in M
b0
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (C) = 0
Mn ← 0
ff
ee ff
– – – – – – REL
24
rr
3
DIR (b0)
DIR (b1)
DIR (b2)
– – – – – – DIR (b3)
DIR (b4)
DIR (b5)
DIR (b6)
DIR (b7)
11
13
15
17
19
1B
1D
1F
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
BCS rel
Branch if Carry Bit Set (Same as BLO)
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (C) = 1
– – – – – – REL
25
rr
3
BEQ rel
Branch if Equal
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (Z) = 1
– – – – – – REL
27
rr
3
BGE opr
Branch if Greater Than or Equal To
(Signed Operands)
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (N ⊕ V) = 0
– – – – – – REL
90
rr
3
BGT opr
Branch if Greater Than (Signed
Operands)
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (Z) | (N ⊕ V) = 0 – – – – – – REL
92
rr
3
BHCC rel
Branch if Half Carry Bit Clear
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (H) = 0
– – – – – – REL
28
rr
BHCS rel
Branch if Half Carry Bit Set
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (H) = 1
– – – – – – REL
29
rr
BHI rel
Branch if Higher
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (C) | (Z) = 0
– – – – – – REL
22
rr
3
3
3
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
70
Freescale Semiconductor
Instruction Set Summary
V H I N Z C
BHS rel
Branch if Higher or Same
(Same as BCC)
BIH rel
BIL rel
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (C) = 0
– – – – – – REL
Branch if IRQ Pin High
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? IRQ = 1
Branch if IRQ Pin Low
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? IRQ = 0
(A) & (M)
BIT #opr
BIT opr
BIT opr
BIT opr,X
BIT opr,X
BIT ,X
BIT opr,SP
BIT opr,SP
Bit Test
BLE opr
Branch if Less Than or Equal To
(Signed Operands)
Cycles
Effect
on CCR
Description
Operand
Operation
Opcode
Source
Form
Address
Mode
Table 7-1. Instruction Set Summary (Sheet 2 of 6)
24
rr
3
– – – – – – REL
2F
rr
3
– – – – – – REL
2E
rr
3
IMM
DIR
EXT
0 – – – IX2
IX1
IX
SP1
SP2
A5
B5
C5
D5
E5
F5
9EE5
9ED5
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
ff
ee ff
2
3
4
4
3
2
4
5
rr
3
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (Z) | (N ⊕ V) = 1 – – – – – – REL
93
BLO rel
Branch if Lower (Same as BCS)
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (C) = 1
– – – – – – REL
25
rr
3
BLS rel
Branch if Lower or Same
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (C) | (Z) = 1
– – – – – – REL
23
rr
3
BLT opr
Branch if Less Than (Signed Operands)
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (N ⊕ V) =1
– – – – – – REL
91
rr
3
BMC rel
Branch if Interrupt Mask Clear
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (I) = 0
– – – – – – REL
2C
rr
3
BMI rel
Branch if Minus
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (N) = 1
– – – – – – REL
2B
rr
3
BMS rel
Branch if Interrupt Mask Set
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (I) = 1
– – – – – – REL
2D
rr
3
3
BNE rel
Branch if Not Equal
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (Z) = 0
– – – – – – REL
26
rr
BPL rel
Branch if Plus
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (N) = 0
– – – – – – REL
2A
rr
3
BRA rel
Branch Always
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel
– – – – – – REL
20
rr
3
DIR (b0)
DIR (b1)
DIR (b2)
DIR (b3)
– – – – – DIR (b4)
DIR (b5)
DIR (b6)
DIR (b7)
01
03
05
07
09
0B
0D
0F
dd rr
dd rr
dd rr
dd rr
dd rr
dd rr
dd rr
dd rr
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
BRCLR n,opr,rel Branch if Bit n in M Clear
BRN rel
PC ← (PC) + 2
Branch Never
BRSET n,opr,rel Branch if Bit n in M Set
BSET n,opr
Set Bit n in M
BSR rel
Branch to Subroutine
PC ← (PC) + 3 + rel ? (Mn) = 0
CBEQ opr,rel
CBEQA #opr,rel
CBEQX #opr,rel Compare and Branch if Equal
CBEQ opr,X+,rel
CBEQ X+,rel
CBEQ opr,SP,rel
– – – – – – REL
21
rr
3
PC ← (PC) + 3 + rel ? (Mn) = 1
DIR (b0)
DIR (b1)
DIR (b2)
DIR (b3)
– – – – – DIR (b4)
DIR (b5)
DIR (b6)
DIR (b7)
00
02
04
06
08
0A
0C
0E
dd rr
dd rr
dd rr
dd rr
dd rr
dd rr
dd rr
dd rr
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
Mn ← 1
DIR (b0)
DIR (b1)
DIR (b2)
– – – – – – DIR (b3)
DIR (b4)
DIR (b5)
DIR (b6)
DIR (b7)
10
12
14
16
18
1A
1C
1E
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
PC ← (PC) + 2; push (PCL)
SP ← (SP) – 1; push (PCH)
SP ← (SP) – 1
PC ← (PC) + rel
– – – – – – REL
AD
rr
4
PC ← (PC) + 3 + rel ? (A) – (M) = $00
PC ← (PC) + 3 + rel ? (A) – (M) = $00
PC ← (PC) + 3 + rel ? (X) – (M) = $00
PC ← (PC) + 3 + rel ? (A) – (M) = $00
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (A) – (M) = $00
PC ← (PC) + 4 + rel ? (A) – (M) = $00
DIR
IMM
– – – – – – IMM
IX1+
IX+
SP1
31
41
51
61
71
9E61
dd rr
ii rr
ii rr
ff rr
rr
ff rr
5
4
4
5
4
6
CLC
Clear Carry Bit
C←0
– – – – – 0 INH
98
1
CLI
Clear Interrupt Mask
I←0
– – 0 – – – INH
9A
2
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
71
Central Processor Unit (CPU)
CLR opr
CLRA
CLRX
CLRH
CLR opr,X
CLR ,X
CLR opr,SP
CMP #opr
CMP opr
CMP opr
CMP opr,X
CMP opr,X
CMP ,X
CMP opr,SP
CMP opr,SP
Clear
Compare A with M
Complement (One’s Complement)
CPHX #opr
CPHX opr
Compare H:X with M
CPX #opr
CPX opr
CPX opr
CPX ,X
CPX opr,X
CPX opr,X
CPX opr,SP
CPX opr,SP
Compare X with M
DAA
Decimal Adjust A
Decrement
DIV
Divide
INC opr
INCA
INCX
INC opr,X
INC ,X
INC opr,SP
Exclusive OR M with A
Increment
DIR
INH
INH
0 – – 0 1 – INH
IX1
IX
SP1
3F dd
4F
5F
8C
6F ff
7F
9E6F ff
(A) – (M)
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
– – IX1
IX
SP1
SP2
A1
B1
C1
D1
E1
F1
9EE1
9ED1
DIR
INH
INH
0 – – 1
IX1
IX
SP1
33 dd
43
53
63 ff
73
9E63 ff
M ← (M) = $FF – (M)
A ← (A) = $FF – (M)
X ← (X) = $FF – (M)
M ← (M) = $FF – (M)
M ← (M) = $FF – (M)
M ← (M) = $FF – (M)
(H:X) – (M:M + 1)
(X) – (M)
(A)10
DBNZ opr,rel
DBNZA rel
DBNZX rel
Decrement and Branch if Not Zero
DBNZ opr,X,rel
DBNZ X,rel
DBNZ opr,SP,rel
DEC opr
DECA
DECX
DEC opr,X
DEC ,X
DEC opr,SP
M ← $00
A ← $00
X ← $00
H ← $00
M ← $00
M ← $00
M ← $00
ff
ee ff
2
3
4
4
3
2
4
5
4
1
1
4
3
5
ii ii+1
dd
3
4
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
– – IX1
IX
SP1
SP2
A3
B3
C3
D3
E3
F3
9EE3
9ED3
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
2
3
4
4
3
2
4
5
U – – INH
72
A ← (A) – 1 or M ← (M) – 1 or X ← (X) – 1
PC ← (PC) + 3 + rel ? (result) ≠ 0
DIR
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (result) ≠ 0
INH
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (result) ≠ 0
– – – – – – INH
PC ← (PC) + 3 + rel ? (result) ≠ 0
IX1
PC ← (PC) + 2 + rel ? (result) ≠ 0
IX
PC ← (PC) + 4 + rel ? (result) ≠ 0
SP1
3B
4B
5B
6B
7B
9E6B
ff
ee ff
2
dd rr
rr
rr
ff rr
rr
ff rr
M ← (M) – 1
A ← (A) – 1
X ← (X) – 1
M ← (M) – 1
M ← (M) – 1
M ← (M) – 1
DIR
INH
INH
– – –
IX1
IX
SP1
A ← (H:A)/(X)
H ← Remainder
– – – – INH
52
A ← (A ⊕ M)
IMM
DIR
EXT
0 – – – IX2
IX1
IX
SP1
SP2
A8
B8
C8
D8
E8
F8
9EE8
9ED8
DIR
INH
– – – INH
IX1
IX
SP1
3C dd
4C
5C
6C ff
7C
9E6C ff
M ← (M) + 1
A ← (A) + 1
X ← (X) + 1
M ← (M) + 1
M ← (M) + 1
M ← (M) + 1
3
1
1
1
3
2
4
65
75
– – IMM
DIR
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
Cycles
V H I N Z C
COM opr
COMA
COMX
COM opr,X
COM ,X
COM opr,SP
EOR #opr
EOR opr
EOR opr
EOR opr,X
EOR opr,X
EOR ,X
EOR opr,SP
EOR opr,SP
Effect
on CCR
Description
Operand
Operation
Opcode
Source
Form
Address
Mode
Table 7-1. Instruction Set Summary (Sheet 3 of 6)
3A dd
4A
5A
6A ff
7A
9E6A ff
5
3
3
5
4
6
4
1
1
4
3
5
7
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
ff
ee ff
2
3
4
4
3
2
4
5
4
1
1
4
3
5
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
72
Freescale Semiconductor
Instruction Set Summary
JSR opr
JSR opr
JSR opr,X
JSR opr,X
JSR ,X
Jump to Subroutine
LDHX #opr
LDHX opr
Load H:X from M
2
3
4
3
2
PC ← (PC) + n (n = 1, 2, or 3)
Push (PCL); SP ← (SP) – 1
Push (PCH); SP ← (SP) – 1
PC ← Unconditional Address
DIR
EXT
– – – – – – IX2
IX1
IX
BD
CD
DD
ED
FD
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
4
5
6
5
4
A ← (M)
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
0 – – – IX1
IX
SP1
SP2
A6
B6
C6
D6
E6
F6
9EE6
9ED6
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
ff
ee ff
2
3
4
4
3
2
4
5
ii jj
dd
3
4
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
2
3
4
4
3
2
4
5
H:X ← (M:M + 1)
MOV opr,opr
MOV opr,X+
MOV #opr,opr
MOV X+,opr
Move
MUL
Unsigned multiply
C
b7
b7
0
DIR
INH
INH
– – IX1
IX
SP1
38 dd
48
58
68 ff
78
9E68 ff
4
1
1
4
3
5
C
DIR
INH
– – 0 INH
IX1
IX
SP1
34 dd
44
54
64 ff
74
9E64 ff
4
1
1
4
3
5
b0
H:X ← (H:X) + 1 (IX+D, DIX+)
DD
DIX+
0 – – – IMD
IX+D
X:A ← (X) × (A)
– 0 – – – 0 INH
M ← –(M) = $00 – (M)
A ← –(A) = $00 – (A)
X ← –(X) = $00 – (X)
M ← –(M) = $00 – (M)
M ← –(M) = $00 – (M)
DIR
INH
INH
– – IX1
IX
SP1
(M)Destination ← (M)Source
Negate (Two’s Complement)
45
55
AE
BE
CE
DE
EE
FE
9EEE
9EDE
b0
0
IMM
DIR
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
0 – – – IX1
IX
SP1
SP2
X ← (M)
Logical Shift Left
(Same as ASL)
Logical Shift Right
0 – – –
4E
5E
6E
7E
dd dd
dd
ii dd
dd
42
No Operation
None
– – – – – – INH
9D
NSA
Nibble Swap A
A ← (A[3:0]:A[7:4])
– – – – – – INH
62
A ← (A) | (M)
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
0 – – –
IX1
IX
SP1
SP2
AA
BA
CA
DA
EA
FA
9EEA
9EDA
Inclusive OR A and M
ff
ee ff
5
4
4
4
5
30 dd
40
50
60 ff
70
9E60 ff
NOP
ORA #opr
ORA opr
ORA opr
ORA opr,X
ORA opr,X
ORA ,X
ORA opr,SP
ORA opr,SP
Cycles
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
Load X from M
LSR opr
LSRA
LSRX
LSR opr,X
LSR ,X
LSR opr,SP
NEG opr
NEGA
NEGX
NEG opr,X
NEG ,X
NEG opr,SP
BC
CC
DC
EC
FC
Jump
Load A from M
LSL opr
LSLA
LSLX
LSL opr,X
LSL ,X
LSL opr,SP
PC ← Jump Address
DIR
EXT
– – – – – – IX2
IX1
IX
Effect
on CCR
Description
V H I N Z C
LDA #opr
LDA opr
LDA opr
LDA opr,X
LDA opr,X
LDA ,X
LDA opr,SP
LDA opr,SP
LDX #opr
LDX opr
LDX opr
LDX opr,X
LDX opr,X
LDX ,X
LDX opr,SP
LDX opr,SP
Operand
JMP opr
JMP opr
JMP opr,X
JMP opr,X
JMP ,X
Operation
Address
Mode
Source
Form
Opcode
Table 7-1. Instruction Set Summary (Sheet 4 of 6)
4
1
1
4
3
5
1
3
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
ff
ee ff
2
3
4
4
3
2
4
5
PSHA
Push A onto Stack
Push (A); SP ← (SP) – 1
– – – – – – INH
87
2
PSHH
Push H onto Stack
Push (H); SP ← (SP) – 1
– – – – – – INH
8B
2
PSHX
Push X onto Stack
Push (X); SP ← (SP) – 1
– – – – – – INH
89
2
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
73
Central Processor Unit (CPU)
V H I N Z C
Cycles
Effect
on CCR
Description
Operand
Operation
Opcode
Source
Form
Address
Mode
Table 7-1. Instruction Set Summary (Sheet 5 of 6)
PULA
Pull A from Stack
SP ← (SP + 1); Pull (A)
– – – – – – INH
86
2
PULH
Pull H from Stack
SP ← (SP + 1); Pull (H)
– – – – – – INH
8A
2
PULX
Pull X from Stack
SP ← (SP + 1); Pull (X)
– – – – – – INH
C
DIR
INH
INH
– – IX1
IX
SP1
39 dd
49
59
69 ff
79
9E69 ff
4
1
1
4
3
5
DIR
INH
– – INH
IX1
IX
SP1
36 dd
46
56
66 ff
76
9E66 ff
4
1
1
4
3
5
ROL opr
ROLA
ROLX
ROL opr,X
ROL ,X
ROL opr,SP
Rotate Left through Carry
b7
b0
88
2
ROR opr
RORA
RORX
ROR opr,X
ROR ,X
ROR opr,SP
Rotate Right through Carry
RSP
Reset Stack Pointer
SP ← $FF
– – – – – – INH
9C
1
RTI
Return from Interrupt
SP ← (SP) + 1; Pull (CCR)
SP ← (SP) + 1; Pull (A)
SP ← (SP) + 1; Pull (X)
SP ← (SP) + 1; Pull (PCH)
SP ← (SP) + 1; Pull (PCL)
INH
80
7
RTS
Return from Subroutine
SP ← SP + 1; Pull (PCH)
SP ← SP + 1; Pull (PCL)
– – – – – – INH
81
4
A ← (A) – (M) – (C)
IMM
DIR
EXT
– – IX2
IX1
IX
SP1
SP2
A2
B2
C2
D2
E2
F2
9EE2
9ED2
SBC #opr
SBC opr
SBC opr
SBC opr,X
SBC opr,X
SBC ,X
SBC opr,SP
SBC opr,SP
C
b7
Subtract with Carry
b0
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
ff
ee ff
2
3
4
4
3
2
4
5
SEC
Set Carry Bit
C←1
– – – – – 1 INH
99
1
SEI
Set Interrupt Mask
I←1
– – 1 – – – INH
9B
2
M ← (A)
DIR
EXT
IX2
0 – – – IX1
IX
SP1
SP2
B7
C7
D7
E7
F7
9EE7
9ED7
(M:M + 1) ← (H:X)
0 – – – DIR
35
I ← 0; Stop Processing
– – 0 – – – INH
8E
M ← (X)
DIR
EXT
IX2
0 – – – IX1
IX
SP1
SP2
BF
CF
DF
EF
FF
9EEF
9EDF
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
IMM
DIR
EXT
– – IX2
IX1
IX
SP1
SP2
A0
B0
C0
D0
E0
F0
9EE0
9ED0
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
STA opr
STA opr
STA opr,X
STA opr,X
STA ,X
STA opr,SP
STA opr,SP
Store A in M
STHX opr
Store H:X in M
STOP
Enable Interrupts, Stop Processing,
Refer to MCU Documentation
STX opr
STX opr
STX opr,X
STX opr,X
STX ,X
STX opr,SP
STX opr,SP
SUB #opr
SUB opr
SUB opr
SUB opr,X
SUB opr,X
SUB ,X
SUB opr,SP
SUB opr,SP
Store X in M
Subtract
A ← (A) – (M)
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
ff
ee ff
3
4
4
3
2
4
5
dd
4
1
ff
ee ff
ff
ee ff
3
4
4
3
2
4
5
2
3
4
4
3
2
4
5
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
74
Freescale Semiconductor
Opcode Map
SWI
Software Interrupt
PC ← (PC) + 1; Push (PCL)
SP ← (SP) – 1; Push (PCH)
SP ← (SP) – 1; Push (X)
SP ← (SP) – 1; Push (A)
SP ← (SP) – 1; Push (CCR)
SP ← (SP) – 1; I ← 1
PCH ← Interrupt Vector High Byte
PCL ← Interrupt Vector Low Byte
– – 1 – – – INH
83
9
CCR ← (A)
INH
84
2
X ← (A)
– – – – – – INH
97
1
A ← (CCR)
– – – – – – INH
85
(A) – $00 or (X) – $00 or (M) – $00
DIR
INH
INH
0 – – –
IX1
IX
SP1
H:X ← (SP) + 1
– – – – – – INH
95
2
A ← (X)
– – – – – – INH
9F
1
(SP) ← (H:X) – 1
– – – – – – INH
94
2
I bit ← 0; Inhibit CPU clocking
until interrupted
– – 0 – – – INH
8F
1
TAP
Transfer A to CCR
Transfer A to X
TPA
Transfer CCR to A
Test for Negative or Zero
TSX
Transfer SP to H:X
TXA
Transfer X to A
TXS
Transfer H:X to SP
WAIT
A
C
CCR
dd
dd rr
DD
DIR
DIX+
ee ff
EXT
ff
H
H
hh ll
I
ii
IMD
IMM
INH
IX
IX+
IX+D
IX1
IX1+
IX2
M
N
Cycles
V H I N Z C
TAX
TST opr
TSTA
TSTX
TST opr,X
TST ,X
TST opr,SP
Effect
on CCR
Description
Operand
Operation
Opcode
Source
Form
Address
Mode
Table 7-1. Instruction Set Summary (Sheet 6 of 6)
Enable Interrupts; Wait for Interrupt
Accumulator
Carry/borrow bit
Condition code register
Direct address of operand
Direct address of operand and relative offset of branch instruction
Direct to direct addressing mode
Direct addressing mode
Direct to indexed with post increment addressing mode
High and low bytes of offset in indexed, 16-bit offset addressing
Extended addressing mode
Offset byte in indexed, 8-bit offset addressing
Half-carry bit
Index register high byte
High and low bytes of operand address in extended addressing
Interrupt mask
Immediate operand byte
Immediate source to direct destination addressing mode
Immediate addressing mode
Inherent addressing mode
Indexed, no offset addressing mode
Indexed, no offset, post increment addressing mode
Indexed with post increment to direct addressing mode
Indexed, 8-bit offset addressing mode
Indexed, 8-bit offset, post increment addressing mode
Indexed, 16-bit offset addressing mode
Memory location
Negative bit
n
opr
PC
PCH
PCL
REL
rel
rr
SP1
SP2
SP
U
V
X
Z
&
|
⊕
()
–( )
#
«
←
?
:
—
3D dd
4D
5D
6D ff
7D
9E6D ff
1
3
1
1
3
2
4
Any bit
Operand (one or two bytes)
Program counter
Program counter high byte
Program counter low byte
Relative addressing mode
Relative program counter offset byte
Relative program counter offset byte
Stack pointer, 8-bit offset addressing mode
Stack pointer 16-bit offset addressing mode
Stack pointer
Undefined
Overflow bit
Index register low byte
Zero bit
Logical AND
Logical OR
Logical EXCLUSIVE OR
Contents of
Negation (two’s complement)
Immediate value
Sign extend
Loaded with
If
Concatenated with
Set or cleared
Not affected
7.8 Opcode Map
See Table 7-2.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
75
MSB
Branch
REL
DIR
INH
3
4
0
1
2
5
BRSET0
3 DIR
5
BRCLR0
3 DIR
5
BRSET1
3 DIR
5
BRCLR1
3 DIR
5
BRSET2
3 DIR
5
BRCLR2
3 DIR
5
BRSET3
3 DIR
5
BRCLR3
3 DIR
5
BRSET4
3 DIR
5
BRCLR4
3 DIR
5
BRSET5
3 DIR
5
BRCLR5
3 DIR
5
BRSET6
3 DIR
5
BRCLR6
3 DIR
5
BRSET7
3 DIR
5
BRCLR7
3 DIR
4
BSET0
2 DIR
4
BCLR0
2 DIR
4
BSET1
2 DIR
4
BCLR1
2 DIR
4
BSET2
2 DIR
4
BCLR2
2 DIR
4
BSET3
2 DIR
4
BCLR3
2 DIR
4
BSET4
2 DIR
4
BCLR4
2 DIR
4
BSET5
2 DIR
4
BCLR5
2 DIR
4
BSET6
2 DIR
4
BCLR6
2 DIR
4
BSET7
2 DIR
4
BCLR7
2 DIR
3
BRA
2 REL
3
BRN
2 REL
3
BHI
2 REL
3
BLS
2 REL
3
BCC
2 REL
3
BCS
2 REL
3
BNE
2 REL
3
BEQ
2 REL
3
BHCC
2 REL
3
BHCS
2 REL
3
BPL
2 REL
3
BMI
2 REL
3
BMC
2 REL
3
BMS
2 REL
3
BIL
2 REL
3
BIH
2 REL
Read-Modify-Write
INH
IX1
5
6
1
NEGX
1 INH
4
CBEQX
3 IMM
7
DIV
1 INH
1
COMX
1 INH
1
LSRX
1 INH
4
LDHX
2 DIR
1
RORX
1 INH
1
ASRX
1 INH
1
LSLX
1 INH
1
ROLX
1 INH
1
DECX
1 INH
3
DBNZX
2 INH
1
INCX
1 INH
1
TSTX
1 INH
4
MOV
2 DIX+
1
CLRX
1 INH
4
NEG
2
IX1
5
CBEQ
3 IX1+
3
NSA
1 INH
4
COM
2 IX1
4
LSR
2 IX1
3
CPHX
3 IMM
4
ROR
2 IX1
4
ASR
2 IX1
4
LSL
2 IX1
4
ROL
2 IX1
4
DEC
2 IX1
5
DBNZ
3 IX1
4
INC
2 IX1
3
TST
2 IX1
4
MOV
3 IMD
3
CLR
2 IX1
SP1
IX
9E6
7
Control
INH
INH
8
9
Register/Memory
IX2
SP2
IMM
DIR
EXT
A
B
C
D
9ED
4
SUB
3 EXT
4
CMP
3 EXT
4
SBC
3 EXT
4
CPX
3 EXT
4
AND
3 EXT
4
BIT
3 EXT
4
LDA
3 EXT
4
STA
3 EXT
4
EOR
3 EXT
4
ADC
3 EXT
4
ORA
3 EXT
4
ADD
3 EXT
3
JMP
3 EXT
5
JSR
3 EXT
4
LDX
3 EXT
4
STX
3 EXT
4
SUB
3 IX2
4
CMP
3 IX2
4
SBC
3 IX2
4
CPX
3 IX2
4
AND
3 IX2
4
BIT
3 IX2
4
LDA
3 IX2
4
STA
3 IX2
4
EOR
3 IX2
4
ADC
3 IX2
4
ORA
3 IX2
4
ADD
3 IX2
4
JMP
3 IX2
6
JSR
3 IX2
4
LDX
3 IX2
4
STX
3 IX2
5
SUB
4 SP2
5
CMP
4 SP2
5
SBC
4 SP2
5
CPX
4 SP2
5
AND
4 SP2
5
BIT
4 SP2
5
LDA
4 SP2
5
STA
4 SP2
5
EOR
4 SP2
5
ADC
4 SP2
5
ORA
4 SP2
5
ADD
4 SP2
IX1
SP1
IX
E
9EE
F
LSB
0
1
2
3
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
Freescale Semiconductor
F
4
1
NEG
NEGA
2 DIR 1 INH
5
4
CBEQ CBEQA
3 DIR 3 IMM
5
MUL
1 INH
4
1
COM
COMA
2 DIR 1 INH
4
1
LSR
LSRA
2 DIR 1 INH
4
3
STHX
LDHX
2 DIR 3 IMM
4
1
ROR
RORA
2 DIR 1 INH
4
1
ASR
ASRA
2 DIR 1 INH
4
1
LSL
LSLA
2 DIR 1 INH
4
1
ROL
ROLA
2 DIR 1 INH
4
1
DEC
DECA
2 DIR 1 INH
5
3
DBNZ DBNZA
3 DIR 2 INH
4
1
INC
INCA
2 DIR 1 INH
3
1
TST
TSTA
2 DIR 1 INH
5
MOV
3 DD
3
1
CLR
CLRA
2 DIR 1 INH
INH Inherent
REL Relative
IMM Immediate
IX
Indexed, No Offset
DIR Direct
IX1 Indexed, 8-Bit Offset
EXT Extended
IX2 Indexed, 16-Bit Offset
DD Direct-Direct
IMD Immediate-Direct
IX+D Indexed-Direct DIX+ Direct-Indexed
*Pre-byte for stack pointer indexed instructions
5
3
NEG
NEG
3 SP1 1 IX
6
4
CBEQ
CBEQ
4 SP1 2 IX+
2
DAA
1 INH
5
3
COM
COM
3 SP1 1 IX
5
3
LSR
LSR
3 SP1 1 IX
4
CPHX
2 DIR
5
3
ROR
ROR
3 SP1 1 IX
5
3
ASR
ASR
3 SP1 1 IX
5
3
LSL
LSL
3 SP1 1 IX
5
3
ROL
ROL
3 SP1 1 IX
5
3
DEC
DEC
3 SP1 1 IX
6
4
DBNZ
DBNZ
4 SP1 2 IX
5
3
INC
INC
3 SP1 1 IX
4
2
TST
TST
3 SP1 1 IX
4
MOV
2 IX+D
4
2
CLR
CLR
3 SP1 1 IX
SP1 Stack Pointer, 8-Bit Offset
SP2 Stack Pointer, 16-Bit Offset
IX+ Indexed, No Offset with
Post Increment
IX1+ Indexed, 1-Byte Offset with
Post Increment
7
3
RTI
BGE
1 INH 2 REL
4
3
RTS
BLT
1 INH 2 REL
3
BGT
2 REL
9
3
SWI
BLE
1 INH 2 REL
2
2
TAP
TXS
1 INH 1 INH
1
2
TPA
TSX
1 INH 1 INH
2
PULA
1 INH
2
1
PSHA
TAX
1 INH 1 INH
2
1
PULX
CLC
1 INH 1 INH
2
1
PSHX
SEC
1 INH 1 INH
2
2
PULH
CLI
1 INH 1 INH
2
2
PSHH
SEI
1 INH 1 INH
1
1
CLRH
RSP
1 INH 1 INH
1
NOP
1 INH
1
STOP
*
1 INH
1
1
WAIT
TXA
1 INH 1 INH
2
SUB
2 IMM
2
CMP
2 IMM
2
SBC
2 IMM
2
CPX
2 IMM
2
AND
2 IMM
2
BIT
2 IMM
2
LDA
2 IMM
2
AIS
2 IMM
2
EOR
2 IMM
2
ADC
2 IMM
2
ORA
2 IMM
2
ADD
2 IMM
3
SUB
2 DIR
3
CMP
2 DIR
3
SBC
2 DIR
3
CPX
2 DIR
3
AND
2 DIR
3
BIT
2 DIR
3
LDA
2 DIR
3
STA
2 DIR
3
EOR
2 DIR
3
ADC
2 DIR
3
ORA
2 DIR
3
ADD
2 DIR
2
JMP
2 DIR
4
4
BSR
JSR
2 REL 2 DIR
2
3
LDX
LDX
2 IMM 2 DIR
2
3
AIX
STX
2 IMM 2 DIR
MSB
0
3
SUB
2 IX1
3
CMP
2 IX1
3
SBC
2 IX1
3
CPX
2 IX1
3
AND
2 IX1
3
BIT
2 IX1
3
LDA
2 IX1
3
STA
2 IX1
3
EOR
2 IX1
3
ADC
2 IX1
3
ORA
2 IX1
3
ADD
2 IX1
3
JMP
2 IX1
5
JSR
2 IX1
5
3
LDX
LDX
4 SP2 2 IX1
5
3
STX
STX
4 SP2 2 IX1
4
SUB
3 SP1
4
CMP
3 SP1
4
SBC
3 SP1
4
CPX
3 SP1
4
AND
3 SP1
4
BIT
3 SP1
4
LDA
3 SP1
4
STA
3 SP1
4
EOR
3 SP1
4
ADC
3 SP1
4
ORA
3 SP1
4
ADD
3 SP1
2
SUB
1 IX
2
CMP
1 IX
2
SBC
1 IX
2
CPX
1 IX
2
AND
1 IX
2
BIT
1 IX
2
LDA
1 IX
2
STA
1 IX
2
EOR
1 IX
2
ADC
1 IX
2
ORA
1 IX
2
ADD
1 IX
2
JMP
1 IX
4
JSR
1 IX
4
2
LDX
LDX
3 SP1 1 IX
4
2
STX
STX
3 SP1 1 IX
High Byte of Opcode in Hexadecimal
LSB
Low Byte of Opcode in Hexadecimal
0
5
Cycles
BRSET0 Opcode Mnemonic
3 DIR Number of Bytes / Addressing Mode
Central Processor Unit (CPU)
76
Table 7-2. Opcode Map
Bit Manipulation
DIR
DIR
Chapter 8
External Interrupt (IRQ)
8.1 Introduction
The IRQ (external interrupt) module provides a maskable interrupt input.
IRQ functionality is enabled by setting configuration register 2 (CONFIG2) IRQEN bit accordingly. A zero
disables the IRQ function and IRQ will assume the other shared functionalities. A one enables the IRQ
function. See Chapter 5 Configuration Register (CONFIG) for more information on enabling the IRQ pin.
The IRQ pin shares its pin with general-purpose input/output (I/O) port pins. See Figure 8-1 for port
location of this shared pin.
8.2 Features
Features of the IRQ module include:
• A dedicated external interrupt pin IRQ
• IRQ interrupt control bits
• Programmable edge-only or edge and level interrupt sensitivity
• Automatic interrupt acknowledge
• Internal pullup device
8.3 Functional Description
A low level applied to the external interrupt request (IRQ) pin can latch a CPU interrupt request. Figure 8-2
shows the structure of the IRQ module.
Interrupt signals on the IRQ pin are latched into the IRQ latch. The IRQ latch remains set until one of the
following actions occurs:
• IRQ vector fetch. An IRQ vector fetch automatically generates an interrupt acknowledge signal that
clears the latch that caused the vector fetch.
• Software clear. Software can clear the IRQ latch by writing a 1 to the ACK bit in the interrupt status
and control register (INTSCR).
• Reset. A reset automatically clears the IRQ latch.
The external IRQ pin is falling edge sensitive out of reset and is software-configurable to be either falling
edge or falling edge and low level sensitive. The MODE bit in INTSCR controls the triggering sensitivity
of the IRQ pin.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
77
External Interrupt (IRQ)
PTA0/TCH0/AD0/KBI0
CLOCK
GENERATOR
PTA3/RST/KBI3
PTA
PTA2/IRQ/KBI2/TCLK
DDRA
PTA1/TCH1/AD1/KBI1
KEYBOARD INTERRUPT
MODULE
PTA4/OSC2/AD2/KBI4
PTA5/OSC1/AD3/KBI5
SINGLE INTERRUPT
MODULE
AUTO WAKEUP
MODULE
DDRB
PTB0/AD4
PTB1/AD5
PTB2
PTB3
PTB4
PTB5
PTB6
PTB7
PTB
M68HC08 CPU
LOW-VOLTAGE
INHIBIT
2-CHANNEL 16-BIT
TIMER MODULE
MC68HC908QY4A
MC68HC908QY4A
128 BYTES
4096 BYTES
USER RAM
USER FLASH
COP
MODULE
6-CHANNEL
10-BIT ADC
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
MONITOR ROM
BREAK MODULE
VDD
POWER SUPPLY
VSS
RST, IRQ: Pins have internal pull up device
All port pins have programmable pull up device
PTA[0:5]: Higher current sink and source capability
PTB[0:7]: Not available on 8-pin devices
Figure 8-1. Block Diagram Highlighting IRQ Block and Pin
When set, the IMASK bit in INTSCR masks the IRQ interrupt request. A latched interrupt request is not
presented to the interrupt priority logic unless IMASK is clear.
NOTE
The interrupt mask (I) in the condition code register (CCR) masks all
interrupt requests, including the IRQ interrupt request.
A falling edge on the IRQ pin can latch an interrupt request into the IRQ latch. An IRQ vector fetch,
software clear, or reset clears the IRQ latch.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
78
Freescale Semiconductor
Functional Description
RESET
ACK
TO CPU FOR
BIL/BIH
INSTRUCTIONS
INTERNAL ADDRESS BUS
IRQ VECTOR
FETCH
DECODER
VDD
INTERNAL
PULLUP
DEVICE
VDD
IRQF
D
CLR
Q
CK
IRQ
IRQ LATCH
SYNCHRONIZER
IRQ
INTERRUPT
REQUEST
IMASK
MODE
HIGH
VOLTAGE
DETECT
TO MODE
SELECT
LOGIC
Figure 8-2. IRQ Module Block Diagram
8.3.1 MODE = 1
If the MODE bit is set, the IRQ pin is both falling edge sensitive and low level sensitive. With MODE set,
both of the following actions must occur to clear the IRQ interrupt request:
• Return of the IRQ pin to a high level. As long as the IRQ pin is low, the IRQ request remains active.
• IRQ vector fetch or software clear. An IRQ vector fetch generates an interrupt acknowledge signal
to clear the IRQ latch. Software generates the interrupt acknowledge signal by writing a 1 to ACK
in INTSCR. The ACK bit is useful in applications that poll the IRQ pin and require software to clear
the IRQ latch. Writing to ACK prior to leaving an interrupt service routine can also prevent spurious
interrupts due to noise. Setting ACK does not affect subsequent transitions on the IRQ pin. A falling
edge that occurs after writing to ACK latches another interrupt request. If the IRQ mask bit, IMASK,
is clear, the CPU loads the program counter with the IRQ vector address.
The IRQ vector fetch or software clear and the return of the IRQ pin to a high level may occur in any order.
The interrupt request remains pending as long as the IRQ pin is low. A reset will clear the IRQ latch and
the MODE control bit, thereby clearing the interrupt even if the pin stays low.
Use the BIH or BIL instruction to read the logic level on the IRQ pin.
8.3.2 MODE = 0
If the MODE bit is clear, the IRQ pin is falling edge sensitive only. With MODE clear, an IRQ vector fetch
or software clear immediately clears the IRQ latch.
The IRQF bit in INTSCR can be read to check for pending interrupts. The IRQF bit is not affected by
IMASK, which makes it useful in applications where polling is preferred.
NOTE
When using the level-sensitive interrupt trigger, avoid false IRQ interrupts
by masking interrupt requests in the interrupt routine.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
79
External Interrupt (IRQ)
8.4 Interrupts
The following IRQ source can generate interrupt requests:
• Interrupt flag (IRQF) — The IRQF bit is set when the IRQ pin is asserted based on the IRQ mode.
The IRQ interrupt mask bit, IMASK, is used to enable or disable IRQ interrupt requests.
8.5 Low-Power Modes
The WAIT and STOP instructions put the MCU in low power-consumption standby modes.
8.5.1 Wait Mode
The IRQ module remains active in wait mode. Clearing IMASK in INTSCR enables IRQ interrupt requests
to bring the MCU out of wait mode.
8.5.2 Stop Mode
The IRQ module remains active in stop mode. Clearing IMASK in INTSCR enables IRQ interrupt requests
to bring the MCU out of stop mode.
8.6 IRQ Module During Break Interrupts
The system integration module (SIM) controls whether status bits in other modules can be cleared during
the break state. The BCFE bit in the break flag control register (BFCR) enables software to clear status
bits during the break state. See BFCR in the SIM section of this data sheet.
To allow software to clear status bits during a break interrupt, write a 1 to BCFE. If a status bit is cleared
during the break state, it remains cleared when the MCU exits the break state.
To protect status bits during the break state, write a 0 to BCFE. With BCFE cleared (its default state),
software can read and write registers during the break state without affecting status bits. Some status bits
have a two-step read/write clearing procedure. If software does the first step on such a bit before the
break, the bit cannot change during the break state as long as BCFE is cleared. After the break, doing the
second step clears the status bit.
8.7 I/O Signals
The IRQ module does not share its pin with any module on this MCU.
8.7.1 IRQ Input Pins (IRQ)
The IRQ pin provides a maskable external interrupt source. The IRQ pin contains an internal pullup
device.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
80
Freescale Semiconductor
Registers
8.8 Registers
The IRQ status and control register (INTSCR) controls and monitors operation of the IRQ module. The
INTSCR:
• Shows the state of the IRQ flag
• Clears the IRQ latch
• Masks the IRQ interrupt request
• Controls triggering sensitivity of the IRQ interrupt pin
Read:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
0
0
0
0
IRQF
0
Write:
Reset:
ACK
0
0
0
0
0
1
Bit 0
IMASK
MODE
0
0
0
= Unimplemented
Figure 8-3. IRQ Status and Control Register (INTSCR)
IRQF — IRQ Flag Bit
This read-only status bit is set when the IRQ interrupt is pending.
1 = IRQ interrupt pending
0 = IRQ interrupt not pending
ACK — IRQ Interrupt Request Acknowledge Bit
Writing a 1 to this write-only bit clears the IRQ latch. ACK always reads 0.
IMASK — IRQ Interrupt Mask Bit
Writing a 1 to this read/write bit disables the IRQ interrupt request.
1 = IRQ interrupt request disabled
0 = IRQ interrupt request enabled
MODE — IRQ Edge/Level Select Bit
This read/write bit controls the triggering sensitivity of the IRQ pin.
1 = IRQ interrupt request on falling edges and low levels
0 = IRQ interrupt request on falling edges only
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
81
External Interrupt (IRQ)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
82
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 9
Keyboard Interrupt Module (KBI)
9.1 Introduction
The keyboard interrupt module (KBI) provides independently maskable external interrupts.
The KBI shares its pins with general-purpose input/output (I/O) port pins. See Figure 9-1 for port location
of these shared pins.
9.2 Features
Features of the keyboard interrupt module include:
• Keyboard interrupt pins with separate keyboard interrupt enable bits and one keyboard interrupt
mask
• Programmable edge-only or edge and level interrupt sensitivity
• Edge sensitivity programmable for rising or falling edge
• Level sensitivity programmable for high or low level
• Pullup or pulldown device automatically enabled based on the polarity of edge or level detect
• Exit from low-power modes
9.3 Functional Description
The keyboard interrupt module controls the enabling/disabling of interrupt functions on the KBI pins.
These pins can be enabled/disabled independently of each other. See Figure 9-2.
9.3.1 Keyboard Operation
Writing to the KBIEx bits in the keyboard interrupt enable register (KBIER) independently enables or
disables each KBI pin. The polarity of the keyboard interrupt is controlled using the KBIPx bits in the
keyboard interrupt polarity register (KBIPR). Edge-only or edge and level sensitivity is controlled using the
MODEK bit in the keyboard status and control register (KBISCR).
Enabling a keyboard interrupt pin also enables its internal pullup or pulldown device based on the polarity
enabled. On falling edge or low level detection, a pullup device is configured. On rising edge or high level
detection, a pulldown device is configured.
The keyboard interrupt latch is set when one or more enabled keyboard interrupt inputs are asserted.
• If the keyboard interrupt sensitivity is edge-only, for KBIPx = 0, a falling (for KBIPx = 1, a rising)
edge on a keyboard interrupt input does not latch an interrupt request if another enabled keyboard
pin is already asserted. To prevent losing an interrupt request on one input because another input
remains asserted, software can disable the latter input while it is asserted.
• If the keyboard interrupt is edge and level sensitive, an interrupt request is present as long as any
enabled keyboard interrupt input is asserted.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
83
Keyboard Interrupt Module (KBI)
PTA0/TCH0/AD0/KBI0
CLOCK
GENERATOR
PTA3/RST/KBI3
PTA
PTA2/IRQ/KBI2/TCLK
DDRA
PTA1/TCH1/AD1/KBI1
KEYBOARD INTERRUPT
MODULE
PTA4/OSC2/AD2/KBI4
PTA5/OSC1/AD3/KBI5
SINGLE INTERRUPT
MODULE
AUTO WAKEUP
MODULE
DDRB
PTB0/AD4
PTB1/AD5
PTB2
PTB3
PTB4
PTB5
PTB6
PTB7
PTB
M68HC08 CPU
LOW-VOLTAGE
INHIBIT
2-CHANNEL 16-BIT
TIMER MODULE
MC68HC908QY4A
MC68HC908QY4A
128 BYTES
4096 BYTES
USER RAM
USER FLASH
POWER SUPPLY
COP
MODULE
6-CHANNEL
10-BIT ADC
VDD
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
VSS
MONITOR ROM
BREAK MODULE
RST, IRQ: Pins have internal pull up device
All port pins have programmable pull up device
PTA[0:5]: Higher current sink and source capability
PTB[0:7]: Not available on 8-pin devices
Figure 9-1. Block Diagram Highlighting KBI Block and Pins
9.3.1.1 MODEK = 1
If the MODEK bit is set, the keyboard interrupt inputs are both edge and level sensitive. The KBIPx bit will
determine whether a edge sensitive pin detects rising or falling edges and on level sensitive pins whether
the pin detects low or high levels. With MODEK set, both of the following actions must occur to clear a
keyboard interrupt request:
• Return of all enabled keyboard interrupt inputs to a deasserted level. As long as any enabled
keyboard interrupt pin is asserted, the keyboard interrupt remains active.
• Vector fetch or software clear. A KBI vector fetch generates an interrupt acknowledge signal to
clear the KBI latch. Software generates the interrupt acknowledge signal by writing a 1 to ACKK in
KBSCR. The ACKK bit is useful in applications that poll the keyboard interrupt inputs and require
software to clear the KBI latch. Writing to ACKK prior to leaving an interrupt service routine can
also prevent spurious interrupts due to noise. Setting ACKK does not affect subsequent transitions
on the keyboard interrupt inputs. An edge detect that occurs after writing to ACKK latches another
interrupt request. If the keyboard interrupt mask bit, IMASKK, is clear, the CPU loads the program
counter with the KBI vector address.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
84
Freescale Semiconductor
Functional Description
INTERNAL BUS
VECTOR FETCH
DECODER
ACKK
RESET
1
KBI0
0 S
VDD
KBIE0
TO PULLUP/
PULLDOWN ENABLE
KBIP0
KEYF
D
CLR
Q
CK
1
KBIx
0
KBI LATCH
S
IMASKK
KBIEx
TO PULLUP/
PULLDOWN ENABLE
KBIPx
SYNCHRONIZER
MODEK
KEYBOARD
INTERRUPT
REQUEST
AWUIREQ
(SEE Figure 4-1)
Figure 9-2. Keyboard Interrupt Block Diagram
The KBI vector fetch or software clear and the return of all enabled keyboard interrupt pins to a deasserted
level may occur in any order.
Reset clears the keyboard interrupt request and the MODEK bit, clearing the interrupt request even if a
keyboard interrupt input stays asserted.
9.3.1.2 MODEK = 0
If the MODEK bit is clear, the keyboard interrupt inputs are edge sensitive. The KBIPx bit will determine
whether an edge sensitive pin detects rising or falling edges. A KBI vector fetch or software clear
immediately clears the KBI latch.
The keyboard flag bit (KEYF) in KBSCR can be read to check for pending interrupts. The KEYF bit is not
affected by IMASKK, which makes it useful in applications where polling is preferred.
NOTE
Setting a keyboard interrupt enable bit (KBIEx) forces the corresponding
keyboard interrupt pin to be an input, overriding the data direction register.
However, the data direction register bit must be a 0 for software to read the
pin.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
85
Keyboard Interrupt Module (KBI)
9.3.2 Keyboard Initialization
When a keyboard interrupt pin is enabled, it takes time for the internal pullup or pulldown device to pull
the pin to its deasserted level. Therefore a false interrupt can occur as soon as the pin is enabled.
To prevent a false interrupt on keyboard initialization:
1. Mask keyboard interrupts by setting IMASKK in KBSCR.
2. Enable the KBI polarity by setting the appropriate KBIPx bits in KBIPR.
3. Enable the KBI pins by setting the appropriate KBIEx bits in KBIER.
4. Write to ACKK in KBSCR to clear any false interrupts.
5. Clear IMASKK.
An interrupt signal on an edge sensitive pin can be acknowledged immediately after enabling the pin. An
interrupt signal on an edge and level sensitive pin must be acknowledged after a delay that depends on
the external load.
9.4 Interrupts
The following KBI source can generate interrupt requests:
• Keyboard flag (KEYF) — The KEYF bit is set when any enabled KBI pin is asserted based on the
KBI mode and pin polarity. The keyboard interrupt mask bit, IMASKK, is used to enable or disable
KBI interrupt requests.
9.5 Low-Power Modes
The WAIT and STOP instructions put the MCU in low power-consumption standby modes.
9.5.1 Wait Mode
The KBI module remains active in wait mode. Clearing IMASKK in KBSCR enables keyboard interrupt
requests to bring the MCU out of wait mode.
9.5.2 Stop Mode
The KBI module remains active in stop mode. Clearing IMASKK in KBSCR enables keyboard interrupt
requests to bring the MCU out of stop mode.
9.6 KBI During Break Interrupts
The system integration module (SIM) controls whether status bits in other modules can be cleared during
the break state. The BCFE bit in the break flag control register (BFCR) enables software to clear status
bits during the break state. See BFCR in the SIM section of this data sheet.
To allow software to clear status bits during a break interrupt, write a 1 to BCFE. If a status bit is cleared
during the break state, it remains cleared when the MCU exits the break state.
To protect status bits during the break state, write a 0 to BCFE. With BCFE cleared (its default state),
software can read and write registers during the break state without affecting status bits. Some status bits
have a two-step read/write clearing procedure. If software does the first step on such a bit before the
break, the bit cannot change during the break state as long as BCFE is cleared. After the break, doing the
second step clears the status bit.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
86
Freescale Semiconductor
I/O Signals
9.7 I/O Signals
The KBI module can share its pins with the general-purpose I/O pins. See Figure 9-1 for the port pins that
are shared.
9.7.1 KBI Input Pins (KBIx:KBI0)
Each KBI pin is independently programmable as an external interrupt source. KBI pin polarity can be
controlled independently. Each KBI pin when enabled will automatically configure the appropriate
pullup/pulldown device based on polarity.
9.8 Registers
The following registers control and monitor operation of the KBI module:
• KBSCR (keyboard interrupt status and control register)
• KBIER (keyboard interrupt enable register)
• KBIPR (keyboard interrupt polarity register)
9.8.1 Keyboard Status and Control Register (KBSCR)
Features of the KBSCR:
• Flags keyboard interrupt requests
• Acknowledges keyboard interrupt requests
• Masks keyboard interrupt requests
• Controls keyboard interrupt triggering sensitivity
Read:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
0
0
0
0
KEYF
0
Write:
ACKK
Reset:
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Bit 0
IMASKK
MODEK
0
0
= Unimplemented
Figure 9-3. Keyboard Status and Control Register (KBSCR)
Bits 7–4 — Not used
KEYF — Keyboard Flag Bit
This read-only bit is set when a keyboard interrupt is pending.
1 = Keyboard interrupt pending
0 = No keyboard interrupt pending
ACKK — Keyboard Acknowledge Bit
Writing a 1 to this write-only bit clears the KBI request. ACKK always reads 0.
IMASKK— Keyboard Interrupt Mask Bit
Writing a 1 to this read/write bit prevents the output of the KBI latch from generating interrupt requests.
1 = Keyboard interrupt requests disabled
0 = Keyboard interrupt requests enabled
MODEK — Keyboard Triggering Sensitivity Bit
This read/write bit controls the triggering sensitivity of the keyboard interrupt pins.
1 = Keyboard interrupt requests on edge and level
0 = Keyboard interrupt requests on edge only
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
87
Keyboard Interrupt Module (KBI)
9.8.2 Keyboard Interrupt Enable Register (KBIER)
KBIER enables or disables each keyboard interrupt pin.
Bit 7
Read:
0
Write:
Reset:
0
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
AWUIE
KBIE5
KBIE4
KBIE3
KBIE2
KBIE1
KBIE0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented
Figure 9-4. Keyboard Interrupt Enable Register (KBIER)
KBIE5–KBIE0 — Keyboard Interrupt Enable Bits
Each of these read/write bits enables the corresponding keyboard interrupt pin to latch KBI interrupt
requests.
1 = KBIx pin enabled as keyboard interrupt pin
0 = KBIx pin not enabled as keyboard interrupt pin
NOTE
AWUIE bit is not used in conjunction with the keyboard interrupt feature. To
see a description of this bit, see Chapter 4 Auto Wakeup Module (AWU).
9.8.3 Keyboard Interrupt Polarity Register (KBIPR)
KBIPR determines the polarity of the enabled keyboard interrupt pin and enables the appropriate pullup
or pulldown device.
Read:
Bit 7
6
0
0
0
0
Write:
Reset:
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
KBIP5
KBIP4
KBIP3
KBIP2
KBIP1
KBIP0
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented
Figure 9-5. Keyboard Interrupt Polarity Register (KBIPR)
KBIP5–KBIP0 — Keyboard Interrupt Polarity Bits
Each of these read/write bits enables the polarity of the keyboard interrupt detection.
1 = Keyboard polarity is high level and/or rising edge
0 = Keyboard polarity is low level and/or falling edge
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
88
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 10
Low-Voltage Inhibit (LVI)
10.1 Introduction
The low-voltage inhibit (LVI) module is provided as a system protection mechanism to prevent the MCU
from operating below a certain operating supply voltage level. The module has several configuration
options to allow functionality to be tailored to different system level demands.
The configuration registers (see Chapter 5 Configuration Register (CONFIG)) contain control bits for this
module.
10.2 Features
Features of the LVI module include:
• Programmable LVI reset
• Selectable LVI trip voltage
• Programmable stop mode operation
10.3 Functional Description
Figure 10-1 shows the structure of the LVI module. LVISTOP, LVIPWRD, LVITRIP, and LVIRSTD are
user selectable options found in the configuration register.
VDD
STOP INSTRUCTION
LVISTOP
FROM CONFIGURATION REGISTER
FROM CONFIGURATION REGISTER
LVIRSTD
LVIPWRD
FROM CONFIGURATION REGISTER
LOW VDD
DETECTOR
0 IF VDD > VTRIPR
LVI RESET
1 IF VDD ≤ VTRIPF
LVIOUT
LVITRIP
FROM CONFIGURATION REGISTER
Figure 10-1. LVI Module Block Diagram
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
89
Low-Voltage Inhibit (LVI)
The LVI module contains a bandgap reference circuit and comparator. When the LVITRIP bit is cleared,
the default state at power-on reset, VTRIPF is configured for the lower VDD operating range. The actual
trip points are specified in 16.5 5-V DC Electrical Characteristics and 16.8 3-V DC Electrical
Characteristics.
Because the default LVI trip point after power-on reset is configured for low voltage operation, a system
requiring high voltage LVI operation must set the LVITRIP bit during system initialization. VDD must be
above the LVI trip rising voltage, VTRIPR, for the high voltage operating range or the MCU will immediately
go into LVI reset.
After an LVI reset occurs, the MCU remains in reset until VDD rises above VTRIPR. See Chapter 13 System
Integration Module (SIM) for the reset recovery sequence.
The output of the comparator controls the state of the LVIOUT flag in the LVI status register (LVISR) and
can be used for polling LVI operation when the LVI reset is disabled.
The LVI is enabled out of reset. The following bits located in the configuration register can alter the default
conditions.
• Setting the LVI power disable bit, LVIPWRD, disables the LVI.
• Setting the LVI reset disable bit, LVIRSTD, prevents the LVI module from generating a reset.
• Setting the LVI enable in stop mode bit, LVISTOP, enables the LVI to operate in stop mode.
• Setting the LVI trip point bit, LVITRIP, configures the trip point voltage (VTRIPF) for the higher VDD
operating range.
10.3.1 Polled LVI Operation
In applications that can operate at VDD levels below the VTRIPF level, software can monitor VDD by polling
the LVIOUT bit. In the configuration register, LVIPWRD must be cleared to enable the LVI module, and
LVIRSTD must be set to disable LVI resets.
10.3.2 Forced Reset Operation
In applications that require VDD to remain above the VTRIPF level, enabling LVI resets allows the LVI
module to reset the MCU when VDD falls below the VTRIPF level. In the configuration register, LVIPWRD
and LVIRSTD must be cleared to enable the LVI module and to enable LVI resets.
10.3.3 LVI Hysteresis
The LVI has hysteresis to maintain a stable operating condition. After the LVI has triggered (by having
VDD fall below VTRIPF), the MCU will remain in reset until VDD rises above the rising trip point voltage,
VTRIPR. This prevents a condition in which the MCU is continually entering and exiting reset if VDD is
approximately equal to VTRIPF. VTRIPR is greater than VTRIPF by the typical hysteresis voltage, VHYS.
10.3.4 LVI Trip Selection
LVITRIP in the configuration register selects the LVI protection range. The default setting out of reset is
for the low voltage range. Because LVITRIP is in a write-once configuration register, the protection range
cannot be changed after initialization.
NOTE
The MCU is guaranteed to operate at a minimum supply voltage. The trip
point (VTRIPF) may be lower than this. See the Electrical Characteristics
section for the actual trip point voltages.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
90
Freescale Semiconductor
LVI Interrupts
10.4 LVI Interrupts
The LVI module does not generate interrupt requests.
10.5 Low-Power Modes
The STOP and WAIT instructions put the MCU in low power-consumption standby modes.
10.5.1 Wait Mode
If enabled, the LVI module remains active in wait mode. If enabled to generate resets, the LVI module can
generate a reset and bring the MCU out of wait mode.
10.5.2 Stop Mode
If the LVIPWRD bit in the configuration register is cleared and the LVISTOP bit in the configuration
register is set, the LVI module remains active. If enabled to generate resets, the LVI module can generate
a reset and bring the MCU out of stop mode.
10.6 Registers
The LVI status register (LVISR) contains a status bit that is useful when the LVI is enabled and LVI reset
is disabled.
Read:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
LVIOUT
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
= Reserved
Write:
Reset:
= Unimplemented
Figure 10-2. LVI Status Register (LVISR)
LVIOUT — LVI Output Bit
This read-only flag becomes set when the VDD voltage falls below the VTRIPF trip voltage and is cleared
when VDD voltage rises above VTRIPR. (See Table 10-1).
Table 10-1. LVIOUT Bit Indication
VDD
LVIOUT
VDD > VTRIPR
0
VDD < VTRIPF
1
VTRIPF < VDD < VTRIPR
Previous value
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
91
Low-Voltage Inhibit (LVI)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
92
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 11
Oscillator (OSC) Module
11.1 Introduction
The oscillator (OSC) module is used to provide a stable clock source for the MCU system and bus.
The OSC shares its pins with general-purpose input/output (I/O) port pins. See Figure 11-1 for port
location of these shared pins. The OSC2EN bit is located in the port A pull enable register (PTAPUEN)
on this MCU. See Chapter 12 Input/Output Ports (PORTS) for information on PTAPUEN register.
11.2 Features
The bus clock frequency is one fourth of any of these clock source options:
1. Internal oscillator: An internally generated, fixed frequency clock, trimmable to ± 0.4%. There are
three choices for the internal oscillator,12.8 MHz, 8 MHz, or 4 MHz. The 12.8-MHz internal
oscillator is the default option out of reset.
2. External oscillator: An external clock that can be driven directly into OSC1.
3. External RC: A built-in oscillator module (RC oscillator) that requires an external R connection only.
The capacitor is internal to the chip.
4. External crystal: A built-in XTAL oscillator that requires an external crystal or ceramic-resonator.
There are three crystal frequency ranges supported, 8–32 MHz, 1–8 MHz, and 32–100 kHz.
11.3 Functional Description
The oscillator contains these major subsystems:
• Internal oscillator circuit
• Internal or external clock switch control
• External clock circuit
• External crystal circuit
• External RC clock circuit
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
93
Oscillator (OSC) Module
PTA0/TCH0/AD0/KBI0
CLOCK
GENERATOR
PTA3/RST/KBI3
PTA
PTA2/IRQ/KBI2/TCLK
DDRA
PTA1/TCH1/AD1/KBI1
KEYBOARD INTERRUPT
MODULE
PTA4/OSC2/AD2/KBI4
PTA5/OSC1/AD3/KBI5
SINGLE INTERRUPT
MODULE
AUTO WAKEUP
MODULE
DDRB
PTB0/AD4
PTB1/AD5
PTB2
PTB3
PTB4
PTB5
PTB6
PTB7
PTB
M68HC08 CPU
LOW-VOLTAGE
INHIBIT
2-CHANNEL 16-BIT
TIMER MODULE
MC68HC908QY4A
MC68HC908QY4A
128 BYTES
4096 BYTES
USER RAM
USER FLASH
COP
MODULE
6-CHANNEL
10-BIT ADC
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
VDD
POWER SUPPLY
MONITOR ROM
BREAK MODULE
VSS
RST, IRQ: Pins have internal pull up device
All port pins have programmable pull up device
PTA[0:5]: Higher current sink and source capability
PTB[0:7]: Not available on 8-pin devices
Figure 11-1. Block Diagram Highlighting OSC Block and Pins
11.3.1 Internal Signal Definitions
The following signals and clocks are used in the functional description and figures of the OSC module.
11.3.1.1 Oscillator Enable Signal (SIMOSCEN)
The SIMOSCEN signal comes from the system integration module (SIM) and disables the XTAL oscillator
circuit, the RC oscillator, or the internal oscillator in stop mode. OSCENINSTOP in the configuration
register can be used to override this signal.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
94
Freescale Semiconductor
Functional Description
11.3.1.2 XTAL Oscillator Clock (XTALCLK)
XTALCLK is the XTAL oscillator output signal. It runs at the full speed of the crystal (fXCLK) and comes
directly from the crystal oscillator circuit. Figure 11-2 shows only the logical relation of XTALCLK to OSC1
and OSC2 and may not represent the actual circuitry. The duty cycle of XTALCLK is unknown and may
depend on the crystal and other external factors. The frequency of XTALCLK can be unstable at start up.
11.3.1.3 RC Oscillator Clock (RCCLK)
RCCLK is the RC oscillator output signal. Its frequency is directly proportional to the time constant of the
external R (REXT) and internal C. Figure 11-3 shows only the logical relation of RCCLK to OSC1 and may
not represent the actual circuitry.
11.3.1.4 Internal Oscillator Clock (INTCLK)
INTCLK is the internal oscillator output signal. INTCLK is software selectable to be nominally 12.8 MHz,
8.0 MHz, or 4.0 MHz. INTCLK can be digitally adjusted using the oscillator trimming feature of the
OSCTRIM register (see 11.3.2.1 Internal Oscillator Trimming).
11.3.1.5 Bus Clock Times 4 (BUSCLKX4)
BUSCLKX4 is the same frequency as the input clock (XTALCLK, RCCLK, or INTCLK). This signal is
driven to the SIM module and is used during recovery from reset and stop and is the clock source for the
COP module.
11.3.1.6 Bus Clock Times 2 (BUSCLKX2)
The frequency of this signal is equal to half of the BUSCLKX4. This signal is driven to the SIM for
generation of the bus clocks used by the CPU and other modules on the MCU. BUSCLKX2 will be divided
by two in the SIM. The internal bus frequency is one fourth of the XTALCLK, RCCLK, or INTCLK
frequency.
11.3.2 Internal Oscillator
The internal oscillator circuit is designed for use with no external components to provide a clock source
with a tolerance of less than ±25% untrimmed. An 8-bit register (OSCTRIM) allows the digital adjustment
to a tolerance of ACCINT. See the oscillator characteristics in the Electrical section of this data sheet.
The internal oscillator is capable of generating clocks of 12.8 MHz, 8.0 MHz, or 4.0 MHz (INTCLK)
resulting in a bus frequency (INTCLK divided by 4) of 3.2 MHz, 2.0 MHz, or 1.0 MHz respectively. The
bus clock is software selectable and defaults to the 3.2-MHz bus out of reset. Users can increase the bus
frequency based on the voltage range of their application.
Figure 11-3 shows how BUSCLKX4 is derived from INTCLK and OSC2 can output BUSCLKX4 by setting
OSC2EN.
11.3.2.1 Internal Oscillator Trimming
OSCTRIM allows a clock period adjustment of +127 and –128 steps. Increasing the OSCTRIM value
increases the clock period, which decreases the clock frequency. Trimming allows the internal clock
frequency to be fine tuned to the target frequency.
All devices are factory programmed with trim values that are stored in FLASH memory at locations $FFC0
and $FFC1. The trim value is not automatically loaded into the OSCTRIM register. User software must
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
95
Oscillator (OSC) Module
copy the trim value from $FFC0 or $FFC1 into OSCTRIM if needed. The factory trim value provides the
accuracy required for communication using forced monitor mode. Some production programmers erase
the factory trim values, so confirm with your programmer vendor that the trim values at $FFC0 and $FFC1
are preserved, or are re-trimmed. Trimming the device in the user application board will provide the most
accurate trim value.
11.3.2.2 Internal to External Clock Switching
When external clock source (external OSC, RC, or XTAL) is desired, the user must perform the following
steps:
1. For external crystal circuits only, configure OSCOPT[1:0] to external crystal. To help precharge an
external crystal oscillator, momentarily configure OSC2 as an output and drive it high for several
cycles. This can help the crystal circuit start more robustly.
2. Configure OSCOPT[1:0] and ECFS[1:0] according to 11.8.1 Oscillator Status and Control Register.
The oscillator module control logic will then enable OSC1 as an external clock input and, if the
external crystal option is selected, OSC2 will also be enabled as the clock output. If RC oscillator
option is selected, enabling the OSC2 output may change the bus frequency.
3. Create a software delay to provide the stabilization time required for the selected clock source
(crystal, resonator, RC). A good rule of thumb for crystal oscillators is to wait 4096 cycles of the
crystal frequency; i.e., for a 4-MHz crystal, wait approximately 1 ms.
4. After the stabilization delay has elapsed, set ECGON.
After ECGON set is detected, the OSC module checks for oscillator activity by waiting two external clock
rising edges. The OSC module then switches to the external clock. Logic provides a coherent transition.
The OSC module first sets ECGST and then stops the internal oscillator.
11.3.2.3 External to Internal Clock Switching
After following the procedures to switch to an external clock source, it is possible to go back to the internal
source. By clearing the OSCOPT[1:0] bits and clearing the ECGON bit, the external circuit will be
disengaged. The bus clock will be derived from the selected internal clock source based on the ICFS[1:0]
bits.
11.3.3 External Oscillator
The external oscillator option is designed for use when a clock signal is available in the application to
provide a clock source to the MCU. The OSC1 pin is enabled as an input by the oscillator module. The
clock signal is used directly to create BUSCLKX4 and also divided by two to create BUSCLKX2.
In this configuration, the OSC2 pin cannot output BUSCLKX4. The OSC2EN bit will be forced clear to
enable alternative functions on the pin.
11.3.4 XTAL Oscillator
The XTAL oscillator circuit is designed for use with an external crystal or ceramic resonator to provide an
accurate clock source. In this configuration, the OSC2 pin is dedicated to the external crystal circuit. The
OSC2EN bit has no effect when this clock mode is selected.
In its typical configuration, the XTAL oscillator is connected in a Pierce oscillator configuration, as shown
in Figure 11-2. This figure shows only the logical representation of the internal components and may not
represent actual circuitry.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
96
Freescale Semiconductor
Functional Description
The oscillator configuration uses five components:
• Crystal, X1
• Fixed capacitor, C1
• Tuning capacitor, C2 (can also be a fixed capacitor)
• Feedback resistor, RB
• Series resistor, RS (optional)
NOTE
The series resistor (RS) is included in the diagram to follow strict Pierce
oscillator guidelines and may not be required for all ranges of operation,
especially with high frequency crystals. Refer to the oscillator
characteristics table in the Electricals section for more information.
SIMOSCEN (INTERNAL SIGNAL) OR
OSCENINSTOP (BIT LOCATED IN
CONFIGURATION REGISTER)
BUSCLKX4
XTALCLK
BUSCLKX2
÷2
MCU
OSC1
OSC2
RB
RS
X1
C1
C2
See the electrical section for details.
Figure 11-2. XTAL Oscillator External Connections
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
97
Oscillator (OSC) Module
11.3.5 RC Oscillator
The RC oscillator circuit is designed for use with an external resistor (REXT) to provide a clock source with
a tolerance within 25% of the expected frequency. See Figure 11-3.
The capacitor (C) for the RC oscillator is internal to the MCU. The REXT value must have a tolerance of
1% or less to minimize its effect on the frequency.
In this configuration, the OSC2 pin can be used as general-purpose input/output (I/O) port pins or other
alternative pin function. The OSC2EN bit can be set to enable the OSC2 output function on the pin.
Enabling the OSC2 output can affect the external RC oscillator frequency, fRCCLK.
SIMOSCEN (INTERNAL SIGNAL) OR
OSCENINSTOP (BIT LOCATED IN
CONFIGURATION REGISTER)
OSCOPT = EXTERNAL RC SELECTED
INTCLK
BUSCLKX2
BUSCLKX4
0
1
EXTERNAL RC
OSCILLATOR
EN
RCCLK
÷2
1
0
ALTERNATIVE
PIN FUNTION
OSC2EN
MCU
OSC1
VDD
OSC2 — AVAILABLE FOR ALTERNATIVE PIN FUNCTION
REXT
See the electricals section for component value.
Figure 11-3. RC Oscillator External Connections
11.4 Interrupts
There are no interrupts associated with the OSC module.
11.5 Low-Power Modes
The WAIT and STOP instructions put the MCU in low power-consumption standby modes.
11.5.1 Wait Mode
The OSC module remains active in wait mode.
11.5.2 Stop Mode
The OSC module can be configured to remain active in stop mode by setting OSCENINSTOP located in
a configuration register.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
98
Freescale Semiconductor
OSC During Break Interrupts
11.6 OSC During Break Interrupts
There are no status flags associated with the OSC module.
The system integration module (SIM) controls whether status bits in other modules can be cleared during
the break state. The BCFE bit in the break flag control register (BFCR) enables software to clear status
bits during the break state. See BFCR in the SIM section of this data sheet.
To allow software to clear status bits during a break interrupt, write a 1 to BCFE. If a status bit is cleared
during the break state, it remains cleared when the MCU exits the break state.
To protect status bits during the break state, write a 0 to BCFE. With BCFE cleared (its default state),
software can read and write registers during the break state without affecting status bits. Some status bits
have a two-step read/write clearing procedure. If software does the first step on such a bit before the
break, the bit cannot change during the break state as long as BCFE is cleared. After the break, doing the
second step clears the status bit.
11.7 I/O Signals
The OSC shares its pins with general-purpose input/output (I/O) port pins. See Figure 11-1 for port
location of these shared pins.
11.7.1 Oscillator Input Pin (OSC1)
The OSC1 pin is an input to the crystal oscillator amplifier, an input to the RC oscillator circuit, or an input
from an external clock source.
When the OSC is configured for internal oscillator, the OSC1 pin can be used as a general-purpose
input/output (I/O) port pin or other alternative pin function.
11.7.2 Oscillator Output Pin (OSC2)
For the XTAL oscillator option, the OSC2 pin is the output of the crystal oscillator amplifier.
When the OSC is configured for internal oscillator, external clock, or RC, the OSC2 pin can be used as a
general-purpose I/O port pin or other alternative pin function. When the oscillator is configured for internal
or RC, the OSC2 pin can be used to output BUSCLKX4.
Table 11-1. OSC2 Pin Function
Option
OSC2 Pin Function
XTAL oscillator
Inverting OSC1
External clock
General-purpose I/O or alternative pin function
Internal oscillator
or
RC oscillator
Controlled by OSC2EN bit
OSC2EN = 0: General-purpose I/O or alternative pin function
OSC2EN = 1: BUSCLKX4 output
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
99
Oscillator (OSC) Module
11.8 Registers
The oscillator module contains two registers:
• Oscillator status and control register (OSCSC)
• Oscillator trim register (OSCTRIM)
11.8.1 Oscillator Status and Control Register
The oscillator status and control register (OSCSC) contains the bits for switching between internal and
external clock sources. If the application uses an external crystal, bits in this register are used to select
the crystal oscillator amplifier necessary for the desired crystal. While running off the internal clock source,
the user can use bits in this register to select the internal clock source frequency.
Read:
Write:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
OSCOPT1
OSCOPT0
ICFS1
ICFS0
ECFS1
ECFS0
ECGON
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
Reset:
Bit 0
ECGST
0
= Unimplemented
Figure 11-4. Oscillator Status and Control Register (OSCSC)
OSCOPT1:OSCOPT0 — OSC Option Bits
These read/write bits allow the user to change the clock source for the MCU. The default reset
condition has the bus clock being derived from the internal oscillator. See 11.3.2.2 Internal to External
Clock Switching for information on changing clock sources.
OSCOPT1
OSCOPT0
Oscillator Modes
0
0
Internal oscillator (frequency selected using ICFSx bits)
0
1
External oscillator clock
1
0
External RC
1
1
External crystal (range selected using ECFSx bits)
ICFS1:ICFS0 — Internal Clock Frequency Select Bits
These read/write bits enable the frequency to be increased for applications requiring a faster bus clock
when running off the internal oscillator. The WAIT instruction has no effect on the oscillator logic.
BUSCLKX2 and BUSCLKX4 continue to drive to the SIM module.
ICFS1
ICFS0
Internal Clock Frequency
0
0
4.0 MHz
0
1
8.0 MHz
1
0
12.8 MHz — default reset condition
1
1
Reserved
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
100
Freescale Semiconductor
Registers
ECFS1:ECFS0 — External Crystal Frequency Select Bits
These read/write bits enable the specific amplifier for the crystal frequency range. Refer to oscillator
characteristics table in the Electricals section for information on maximum external clock frequency
versus supply voltage.
ECFS1
ECFS0
External Crystal Frequency
0
0
8 MHz – 32 MHz
0
1
1 MHz – 8 MHz
1
0
32 kHz – 100 kHz
1
1
Reserved
ECGON — External Clock Generator On Bit
This read/write bit enables the OSC1 pin as the clock input to the MCU, so that the switching process
can be initiated. This bit is cleared by reset. This bit is ignored in monitor mode with the internal
oscillator bypassed.
1 = External clock enabled
0 = External clock disabled
ECGST — External Clock Status Bit
This read-only bit indicates whether an external clock source is engaged to drive the system clock.
1 = An external clock source engaged
0 = An external clock source disengaged
11.8.2 Oscillator Trim Register (OSCTRIM)
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
TRIM7
TRIM6
TRIM5
TRIM4
TRIM3
TRIM2
TRIM1
TRIM0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 11-5. Oscillator Trim Register (OSCTRIM)
TRIM7–TRIM0 — Internal Oscillator Trim Factor Bits
These read/write bits change the internal capacitance used by the internal oscillator. By measuring the
period of the internal clock and adjusting this factor accordingly, the frequency of the internal clock can
be fine tuned. Increasing (decreasing) this factor by one increases (decreases) the period by
approximately 0.2% of the untrimmed oscillator period. The oscillator period is based on the oscillator
frequency selected by the ICFS bits in OSCSC.
Applications using the internal oscillator should copy the internal oscillator trim value at location $FFC0
or $FFC1 into this register to trim the clock source.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
101
Oscillator (OSC) Module
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
102
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 12
Input/Output Ports (PORTS)
12.1 Introduction
The MC68HC08QY1A, MC68HC08QY2A and MC68HC08QY4A have thirteen bidirectional input-output
(I/O) pins and one input only pin. The MC68HC08QT1A, MC68HC08QT2A and MC68HC08QT4A has five
bidirectional I/O pins and one input only pin. All I/O pins are programmable as inputs or outputs.
12.2 Unused Pin Termination
Input pins and I/O port pins that are not used in the application must be terminated. This prevents excess
current caused by floating inputs, and enhances immunity during noise or transient events. Termination
methods include:
1. Configuring unused pins as outputs and driving high or low;
2. Configuring unused pins as inputs and enabling internal pull-ups;
3. Configuring unused pins as inputs and using external pull-up or pull-down resistors.
Never connect unused pins directly to VDD or VSS.
Since some general-purpose I/O pins are not available on all packages, these pins must be terminated
as well. Either method 1 or 2 above are appropriate.
12.3 Port A
Port A is an 6-bit special function port that shares its pins with the keyboard interrupt (KBI) module
(see Chapter 9 Keyboard Interrupt Module (KBI), the 2-channel timer interface module (TIM) (see Chapter
14 Timer Interface Module (TIM)), the 10-bit ADC (see Chapter 3 Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC10)
Module), the external interrupt (IRQ) pin (see Chapter 8 External Interrupt (IRQ)), the reset (RST) pin
enabled using a configuration register (see Chapter 5 Configuration Register (CONFIG)) and the
oscillator pins (see Chapter 11 Oscillator (OSC) Module).
Each port A pin also has a software configurable pullup device if the corresponding port pin is configured
as an input port.
NOTE
PTA2 is input only.
When the IRQ function is enabled in the configuration register 2
(CONFIG2), bit 2 of the port A data register (PTA) will always read a logic 0.
In this case, the BIH and BIL instructions can be used to read the logic level
on the PTA2 pin. When the IRQ function is disabled, these instructions will
behave as if the PTA2 pin is a logic 1. However, reading bit 2 of PTA will
read the actual logic level on the pin.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
103
Input/Output Ports (PORTS)
12.3.1 Port A Data Register
The port A data register (PTA) contains a data latch for each of the six port A pins.
Bit 7
Read:
Write:
R
6
AWUL
5
4
3
PTA5
PTA4
PTA3
Reset:
2
PTA2
1
Bit 0
PTA1
PTA0
Unaffected by reset
= Unimplemented
Figure 12-1. Port A Data Register (PTA)
PTA[5:0] — Port A Data Bits
These read/write bits are software programmable. Data direction of each port A pin is under the control
of the corresponding bit in data direction register A. Reset has no effect on port A data.
AWUL — Auto Wakeup Latch Data Bit
This is a read-only bit which has the value of the auto wakeup interrupt request latch. The wakeup
request signal is generated internally (see Chapter 4 Auto Wakeup Module (AWU)). There is no PTA6
port nor any of the associated bits such as PTA6 data register, pullup enable or direction.
12.3.2 Data Direction Register A
Data direction register A (DDRA) determines whether each port A pin is an input or an output. Writing a 1
to a DDRA bit enables the output buffer for the corresponding port A pin; a 0 disables the output buffer.
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
R
R
DDRA5
DDRA4
DDRA3
0
0
0
0
R
= Reserved
0
2
0
1
Bit 0
DDRA1
DDRA0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented
Figure 12-2. Data Direction Register A (DDRA)
DDRA[5:0] — Data Direction Register A Bits
These read/write bits control port A data direction. Reset clears DDRA[5:0], configuring all port A pins
as inputs.
1 = Corresponding port A pin configured as output
0 = Corresponding port A pin configured as input
NOTE
Avoid glitches on port A pins by writing to the port A data register before
changing data direction register A bits from 0 to 1.
Figure 12-3 shows the port A I/O logic.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
104
Freescale Semiconductor
Port A
READ DDRA
PTAPUEx
INTERNAL DATA BUS
WRITE DDRA
DDRAx
RESET
WRITE PTA
PULLUP
PTAx
PTAx
READ PTA
Figure 12-3. Port A I/O Circuit
NOTE
Figure 12-3 does not apply to PTA2
When DDRAx is a 1, reading PTA reads the PTAx data latch. When DDRAx is a 0, reading PTA reads
the logic level on the PTAx pin. The data latch can always be written, regardless of the state of its data
direction bit.
12.3.3 Port A Input Pullup Enable Register
The port A input pullup enable register (PTAPUE) contains a software configurable pullup device for each
of the port A pins. Each bit is individually configurable and requires the corresponding data direction
register, DDRAx, to be configured as input. Each pullup device is automatically and dynamically disabled
when its corresponding DDRAx bit is configured as output.
Bit 7
Read:
Write:
6
OSC2EN
Reset:
0
0
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PTAPUE5
PTAPUE4
PTAPUE3
PTAPUE2
PTAPUE1
PTAPUE0
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented
Figure 12-4. Port A Input Pullup Enable Register (PTAPUE)
OSC2EN — Enable PTA4 on OSC2 Pin
This read/write bit configures the OSC2 pin function when internal oscillator or RC oscillator option is
selected. This bit has no effect for the XTAL or external oscillator options.
1 = OSC2 pin outputs the internal or RC oscillator clock (BUSCLKX4)
0 = OSC2 pin configured for PTA4 I/O, having all the interrupt and pullup functions
PTAPUE[5:0] — Port A Input Pullup Enable Bits
These read/write bits are software programmable to enable pullup devices on port A pins.
1 = Corresponding port A pin configured to have internal pullup if its DDRA bit is set to 0
0 = Pullup device is disconnected on the corresponding port A pin regardless of the state of its
DDRA bit
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
105
Input/Output Ports (PORTS)
12.3.4 Port A Summary Table
The following table summarizes the operation of the port A pins when used as a general-purpose
input/output pins.
Table 12-1. Port A Pin Functions
PTAPUE
Bit
DDRA
Bit
PTA
Bit
I/O Pin
Mode
Accesses to DDRA
Accesses to PTA
Read/Write
Read
Write
1
0
X(1)
Input, VDD(2)
DDRA5–DDRA0
Pin
PTA5–PTA0(3)
0
0
X
Input, Hi-Z(4)
DDRA5–DDRA0
Pin
PTA5–PTA0(3)
X
1
X
Output
DDRA5–DDRA0
PTA5–PTA0
PTA5–PTA0(5)
1. X = don’t care
2. I/O pin pulled to VDD by internal pullup.
3. Writing affects data register, but does not affect input.
4. Hi-Z = high impedance
5. Output does not apply to PTA2
12.4 Port B
Port B is an 8-bit special function port that shares two of its pins with the 10-bit ADC (see Chapter 3
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC10) Module).
Each port B pin also has a software configurable pullup device if the corresponding port pin is configured
as an input port.
12.4.1 Port B Data Register
The port B data register (PTB) contains a data latch for each of the port B pins.
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PTB7
PTB6
PTB5
PTB4
PTB3
PTB2
PTB1
PTB0
Unaffected by reset
Figure 12-5. Port B Data Register (PTB)
PTB[7:0] — Port B Data Bits
These read/write bits are software programmable. Data direction of each port B pin is under the control
of the corresponding bit in data direction register B. Reset has no effect on port B data.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
106
Freescale Semiconductor
Port B
12.4.2 Data Direction Register B
Data direction register B (DDRB) determines whether each port B pin is an input or an output. Writing a 1
to a DDRB bit enables the output buffer for the corresponding port B pin; a 0 disables the output buffer.
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
DDRB7
DDRB6
DDRB5
DDRB4
DDRB3
DDRB2
DDRB1
DDRB0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 12-6. Data Direction Register B (DDRB)
DDRB[7:0] — Data Direction Register B Bits
These read/write bits control port B data direction. Reset clears DDRB[7:0], configuring all port B pins
as inputs.
1 = Corresponding port B pin configured as output
0 = Corresponding port B pin configured as input
NOTE
Avoid glitches on port B pins by writing to the port B data register before
changing data direction register B bits from 0 to 1. Figure 12-7 shows the
port B I/O logic.
READ DDRB
PTBPUEx
INTERNAL DATA BUS
WRITE DDRB
RESET
WRITE PTB
DDRBx
PULLUP
PTBx
PTBx
READ PTB
Figure 12-7. Port B I/O Circuit
When DDRBx is a 1, reading PTB reads the PTBx data latch. When DDRBx is a 0, reading PTB reads
the logic level on the PTBx pin. The data latch can always be written, regardless of the state of its data
direction bit.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
107
Input/Output Ports (PORTS)
12.4.3 Port B Input Pullup Enable Register
The port B input pullup enable register (PTBPUE) contains a software configurable pullup device for each
of the eight port B pins. Each bit is individually configurable and requires the corresponding data direction
register, DDRBx, be configured as input. Each pullup device is automatically and dynamically disabled
when its corresponding DDRBx bit is configured as output.
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
PTBPUE7
PTBPUE6
PTBPUE5
PTBPUE4
PTBPUE3
PTBPUE2
PTBPUE2
PTBPUE0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 12-8. Port B Input Pullup Enable Register (PTBPUE)
PTBPUE[7:0] — Port B Input Pullup Enable Bits
These read/write bits are software programmable to enable pullup devices on port B pins
1 = Corresponding port B pin configured to have internal pull if its DDRB bit is set to 0
0 = Pullup device is disconnected on the corresponding port B pin regardless of the state of its
DDRB bit.
12.4.4 Port B Summary Table
Table 12-2 summarizes the operation of the port A pins when used as a general-purpose input/output
pins.
Table 12-2. Port B Pin Functions
DDRB
Bit
PTB
Bit
I/O Pin
Mode
Accesses to DDRB
Accesses to PTB
Read/Write
Read
Write
0
X(1)
Input, Hi-Z(2)
DDRB7–DDRB0
Pin
PTB7–PTB0(3)
1
X
Output
DDRB7–DDRB0
Pin
PTB7–PTB0
1. X = don’t care
2. Hi-Z = high impedance
3. Writing affects data register, but does not affect the input.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
108
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 13
System Integration Module (SIM)
13.1 Introduction
This section describes the system integration module (SIM), which supports up to 24 external and/or
internal interrupts. Together with the central processor unit (CPU), the SIM controls all microcontroller unit
(MCU) activities. A block diagram of the SIM is shown in Figure 13-1. The SIM is a system state controller
that coordinates CPU and exception timing.
The SIM is responsible for:
• Bus clock generation and control for CPU and peripherals
– Stop/wait/reset/break entry and recovery
– Internal clock control
• Master reset control, including power-on reset (POR) and computer operating properly (COP)
timeout
• Interrupt control:
– Acknowledge timing
– Arbitration control timing
– Vector address generation
• CPU enable/disable timing
Table 13-1. Signal Name Conventions
Signal Name
Description
BUSCLKX4
Buffered clock from the internal, RC or XTAL oscillator circuit.
BUSCLKX2
The BUSCLKX4 frequency divided by two. This signal is again
divided by two in the SIM to generate the internal bus clocks
(bus clock = BUSCLKX4 ÷ 4).
Address bus
Internal address bus
Data bus
Internal data bus
PORRST
Signal from the power-on reset module to the SIM
IRST
Internal reset signal
R/W
Read/write signal
13.2 RST and IRQ Pins Initialization
RST and IRQ pins come out of reset as PTA3 and PTA2 respectively. RST and IRQ functions can be
activated by programing CONFIG2 accordingly. Refer to Chapter 5 Configuration Register (CONFIG).
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
109
System Integration Module (SIM)
MODULE STOP
MODULE WAIT
CPU STOP (FROM CPU)
CPU WAIT (FROM CPU)
STOP/WAIT
CONTROL
SIMOSCEN (TO OSCILLATOR)
SIM
COUNTER
COP CLOCK
BUSCLKX4 (FROM OSCILLATOR)
BUSCLKX2 (FROM OSCILLATOR)
÷2
VDD
INTERNAL
PULL-UP
RESET
PIN LOGIC
CLOCK
CONTROL
INTERNAL CLOCKS
CLOCK GENERATORS
POR CONTROL
ILLEGAL OPCODE (FROM CPU)
ILLEGAL ADDRESS (FROM ADDRESS
MAP DECODERS)
COP TIMEOUT (FROM COP MODULE)
MASTER
RESET
CONTROL
RESET PIN CONTROL
LVI RESET (FROM LVI MODULE)
SIM RESET STATUS REGISTER
FORCED MON MODE ENTRY (FROM MENRST MODULE)
RESET
INTERRUPT SOURCES
INTERRUPT CONTROL
AND PRIORITY DECODE
CPU INTERFACE
Figure 13-1. SIM Block Diagram
13.3 SIM Bus Clock Control and Generation
The bus clock generator provides system clock signals for the CPU and peripherals on the MCU. The
system clocks are generated from an incoming clock, BUSCLKX2, as shown in Figure 13-2.
FROM
OSCILLATOR
BUSCLKX4
FROM
OSCILLATOR
BUSCLKX2
SIM COUNTER
BUS CLOCK
GENERATORS
÷2
SIM
Figure 13-2. SIM Clock Signals
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
110
Freescale Semiconductor
Reset and System Initialization
13.3.1 Bus Timing
In user mode, the internal bus frequency is the oscillator frequency (BUSCLKX4) divided by four.
13.3.2 Clock Start-Up from POR
When the power-on reset module generates a reset, the clocks to the CPU and peripherals are inactive
and held in an inactive phase until after the 4096 BUSCLKX4 cycle POR time out has completed. The
IBUS clocks start upon completion of the time out.
13.3.3 Clocks in Stop Mode and Wait Mode
Upon exit from stop mode by an interrupt or reset, the SIM allows BUSCLKX4 to clock the SIM counter.
The CPU and peripheral clocks do not become active until after the stop delay time out. This time out is
selectable as 4096 or 32 BUSCLKX4 cycles. See 13.7.2 Stop Mode.
In wait mode, the CPU clocks are inactive. The SIM also produces two sets of clocks for other modules.
Refer to the wait mode subsection of each module to see if the module is active or inactive in wait mode.
Some modules can be programmed to be active in wait mode.
13.4 Reset and System Initialization
The MCU has these reset sources:
• Power-on reset module (POR)
• External reset pin (RST)
• Computer operating properly module (COP)
• Low-voltage inhibit module (LVI)
• Illegal opcode
• Illegal address
All of these resets produce the vector $FFFE–FFFF ($FEFE–FEFF in monitor mode) and assert the
internal reset signal (IRST). IRST causes all registers to be returned to their default values and all
modules to be returned to their reset states.
An internal reset clears the SIM counter (see 13.5 SIM Counter), but an external reset does not. Each of
the resets sets a corresponding bit in the SIM reset status register (SRSR). See 13.8 SIM Registers.
13.4.1 External Pin Reset
The RST pin circuits include an internal pullup device. Pulling the asynchronous RST pin low halts all
processing. The PIN bit of the SIM reset status register (SRSR) is set as long as RST is held low for at
least the minimum tRL time. Figure 13-3 shows the relative timing. The RST pin function is only available
if the RSTEN bit is set in the CONFIG2 register.
BUSCLKX2
RST
ADDRESS BUS
PC
VECT H
VECT L
Figure 13-3. External Reset Timing
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
111
System Integration Module (SIM)
13.4.2 Active Resets from Internal Sources
The RST pin is initially setup as a general-purpose input after a POR. Setting the RSTEN bit in the
CONFIG2 register enables the pin for the reset function. This section assumes the RSTEN bit is set when
describing activity on the RST pin.
NOTE
For POR and LVI resets, the SIM cycles through 4096 BUSCLKX4 cycles.
The internal reset signal then follows the sequence from the falling edge of
RST shown in Figure 13-4.
The COP reset is asynchronous to the bus clock.
The active reset feature allows the part to issue a reset to peripherals and other chips within a system
built around the MCU.
All internal reset sources actively pull the RST pin low for 32 BUSCLKX4 cycles to allow resetting of
external peripherals. The internal reset signal IRST continues to be asserted for an additional 32 cycles
(see Figure 13-4). An internal reset can be caused by an illegal address, illegal opcode, COP time out,
LVI, or POR (see Figure 13-5).
IRST
RST
RST PULLED LOW BY MCU
32 CYCLES
32 CYCLES
BUSCLKX4
ADDRESS
BUS
VECTOR HIGH
Figure 13-4. Internal Reset Timing
ILLEGAL ADDRESS RST
ILLEGAL OPCODE RST
COPRST
POR
LVI
INTERNAL RESET
Figure 13-5. Sources of Internal Reset
Table 13-2. Reset Recovery Timing
Reset Recovery Type
Actual Number of Cycles
POR/LVI
4163 (4096 + 64 + 3)
All others
67 (64 + 3)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
112
Freescale Semiconductor
Reset and System Initialization
13.4.2.1 Power-On Reset
When power is first applied to the MCU, the power-on reset module (POR) generates a pulse to indicate
that power on has occurred. The SIM counter counts out 4096 BUSCLKX4 cycles. Sixty-four BUSCLKX4
cycles later, the CPU and memories are released from reset to allow the reset vector sequence to occur.
At power on, the following events occur:
• A POR pulse is generated.
• The internal reset signal is asserted.
• The SIM enables the oscillator to drive BUSCLKX4.
• Internal clocks to the CPU and modules are held inactive for 4096 BUSCLKX4 cycles to allow
stabilization of the oscillator.
• The POR bit of the SIM reset status register (SRSR) is set.
See Figure 13-6.
OSC1
PORRST
4096
CYCLES
32
CYCLES
32
CYCLES
BUSCLKX4
BUSCLKX2
(RST PIN IS A GENERAL-PURPOSE INPUT AFTER A POR)
RST
ADDRESS BUS
$FFFE
$FFFF
Figure 13-6. POR Recovery
13.4.2.2 Computer Operating Properly (COP) Reset
An input to the SIM is reserved for the COP reset signal. The overflow of the COP counter causes an
internal reset and sets the COP bit in the SIM reset status register (SRSR). The SIM actively pulls down
the RST pin for all internal reset sources.
To prevent a COP module time out, write any value to location $FFFF. Writing to location $FFFF clears
the COP counter and stages 12–5 of the SIM counter. The SIM counter output, which occurs at least
every 4080 BUSCLKX4 cycles, drives the COP counter. The COP should be serviced as soon as possible
out of reset to guarantee the maximum amount of time before the first time out.
The COP module is disabled during a break interrupt with monitor mode when BDCOP bit is set in break
auxiliary register (BRKAR).
13.4.2.3 Illegal Opcode Reset
The SIM decodes signals from the CPU to detect illegal instructions. An illegal instruction sets the ILOP
bit in the SIM reset status register (SRSR) and causes a reset.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
113
System Integration Module (SIM)
If the stop enable bit, STOP, in the mask option register is 0, the SIM treats the STOP instruction as an
illegal opcode and causes an illegal opcode reset. The SIM actively pulls down the RST pin for all internal
reset sources.
13.4.2.4 Illegal Address Reset
An opcode fetch from an unmapped address generates an illegal address reset. The SIM verifies that the
CPU is fetching an opcode prior to asserting the ILAD bit in the SIM reset status register (SRSR) and
resetting the MCU. A data fetch from an unmapped address does not generate a reset. The SIM actively
pulls down the RST pin for all internal reset sources. See Figure 2-1. Memory Map for memory ranges.
13.4.2.5 Low-Voltage Inhibit (LVI) Reset
The LVI asserts its output to the SIM when the VDD voltage falls to the LVI trip voltage VTRIPF. The LVI
bit in the SIM reset status register (SRSR) is set, and the external reset pin (RST) is held low while the
SIM counter counts out 4096 BUSCLKX4 cycles after VDD rises above VTRIPR. Sixty-four BUSCLKX4
cycles later, the CPU and memories are released from reset to allow the reset vector sequence to occur.
The SIM actively pulls down the (RST) pin for all internal reset sources.
13.5 SIM Counter
The SIM counter is used by the power-on reset module (POR) and in stop mode recovery to allow the
oscillator time to stabilize before enabling the internal bus (IBUS) clocks. The SIM counter also serves as
a prescaler for the computer operating properly module (COP). The SIM counter uses 12 stages for
counting, followed by a 13th stage that triggers a reset of SIM counters and supplies the clock for the COP
module. The SIM counter is clocked by the falling edge of BUSCLKX4.
13.5.1 SIM Counter During Power-On Reset
The power-on reset module (POR) detects power applied to the MCU. At power-on, the POR circuit
asserts the signal PORRST. Once the SIM is initialized, it enables the oscillator to drive the bus clock
state machine.
13.5.2 SIM Counter During Stop Mode Recovery
The SIM counter also is used for stop mode recovery. The STOP instruction clears the SIM counter. After
an interrupt, break, or reset, the SIM senses the state of the short stop recovery bit, SSREC, in the
configuration register 1 (CONFIG1). If the SSREC bit is a 1, then the stop recovery is reduced from the
normal delay of 4096 BUSCLKX4 cycles down to 32 BUSCLKX4 cycles. This is ideal for applications
using canned oscillators that do not require long start-up times from stop mode. External crystal
applications should use the full stop recovery time, that is, with SSREC cleared in the configuration
register 1 (CONFIG1).
13.5.3 SIM Counter and Reset States
External reset has no effect on the SIM counter (see 13.7.2 Stop Mode for details.) The SIM counter is
free-running after all reset states. See 13.4.2 Active Resets from Internal Sources for counter control and
internal reset recovery sequences.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
114
Freescale Semiconductor
Exception Control
13.6 Exception Control
Normal sequential program execution can be changed in three different ways:
1. Interrupts
a. Maskable hardware CPU interrupts
b. Non-maskable software interrupt instruction (SWI)
2. Reset
3. Break interrupts
13.6.1 Interrupts
An interrupt temporarily changes the sequence of program execution to respond to a particular event.
Figure 13-7 flow charts the handling of system interrupts.
Interrupts are latched, and arbitration is performed in the SIM at the start of interrupt processing. The
arbitration result is a constant that the CPU uses to determine which vector to fetch. Once an interrupt is
latched by the SIM, no other interrupt can take precedence, regardless of priority, until the latched
interrupt is serviced (or the I bit is cleared).
At the beginning of an interrupt, the CPU saves the CPU register contents on the stack and sets the
interrupt mask (I bit) to prevent additional interrupts. At the end of an interrupt, the RTI instruction recovers
the CPU register contents from the stack so that normal processing can resume. Figure 13-8 shows
interrupt entry timing. Figure 13-9 shows interrupt recovery timing.
13.6.1.1 Hardware Interrupts
A hardware interrupt does not stop the current instruction. Processing of a hardware interrupt begins after
completion of the current instruction. When the current instruction is complete, the SIM checks all pending
hardware interrupts. If interrupts are not masked (I bit clear in the condition code register), and if the
corresponding interrupt enable bit is set, the SIM proceeds with interrupt processing; otherwise, the next
instruction is fetched and executed.
If more than one interrupt is pending at the end of an instruction execution, the highest priority interrupt is
serviced first. Figure 13-10 demonstrates what happens when two interrupts are pending. If an interrupt
is pending upon exit from the original interrupt service routine, the pending interrupt is serviced before the
LDA instruction is executed.
The LDA opcode is prefetched by both the INT1 and INT2 return-from-interrupt (RTI) instructions.
However, in the case of the INT1 RTI prefetch, this is a redundant operation.
NOTE
To maintain compatibility with the M6805 Family, the H register is not
pushed on the stack during interrupt entry. If the interrupt service routine
modifies the H register or uses the indexed addressing mode, software
should save the H register and then restore it prior to exiting the routine.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
115
System Integration Module (SIM)
FROM RESET
BREAK
INTERRUPT?
I BIT
SET?
YES
NO
YES
I BIT SET?
NO
IRQ
INTERRUPT?
YES
NO
TIMER
INTERRUPT?
YES
NO
STACK CPU REGISTERS
SET I BIT
LOAD PC WITH INTERRUPT VECTOR
(AS MANY INTERRUPTS AS EXIST ON CHIP)
FETCH NEXT
INSTRUCTION
SWI
INSTRUCTION?
YES
NO
RTI
INSTRUCTION?
YES
UNSTACK CPU REGISTERS
NO
EXECUTE INSTRUCTION
Figure 13-7. Interrupt Processing
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
116
Freescale Semiconductor
Exception Control
MODULE
INTERRUPT
I BIT
ADDRESS BUS
DUMMY
DATA BUS
SP
DUMMY
SP – 1
SP – 2
PC – 1[7:0] PC – 1[15:8]
SP – 3
X
SP – 4
A
VECT H
CCR
VECT L
V DATA H
START ADDR
V DATA L
OPCODE
R/W
Figure 13-8. Interrupt Entry
MODULE
INTERRUPT
I BIT
ADDRESS BUS
SP – 4
DATA BUS
SP – 3
CCR
SP – 2
A
SP – 1
X
SP
PC
PC + 1
PC – 1[7:0] PC – 1[15:8] OPCODE
OPERAND
R/W
Figure 13-9. Interrupt Recovery
CLI
LDA #$FF
INT1
BACKGROUND ROUTINE
PSHH
INT1 INTERRUPT SERVICE ROUTINE
PULH
RTI
INT2
PSHH
INT2 INTERRUPT SERVICE ROUTINE
PULH
RTI
Figure 13-10. Interrupt Recognition Example
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
117
System Integration Module (SIM)
13.6.1.2 SWI Instruction
The SWI instruction is a non-maskable instruction that causes an interrupt regardless of the state of the
interrupt mask (I bit) in the condition code register.
NOTE
A software interrupt pushes PC onto the stack. A software interrupt does
not push PC – 1, as a hardware interrupt does.
13.6.2 Interrupt Status Registers
The flags in the interrupt status registers identify maskable interrupt sources. Table 13-3 summarizes the
interrupt sources and the interrupt status register flags that they set. The interrupt status registers can be
useful for debugging.
Table 13-3. Interrupt Sources
Flag
Mask(1)
INT
Register
Flag
Vector
Address
Reset
—
—
—
$FFFE–$FFFF
SWI instruction
—
—
—
$FFFC–$FFFD
IRQ pin
IRQF
IMASK
IF1
$FFFA–$FFFB
Timer channel 0 interrupt
CH0F
CH0IE
IF3
$FFF6–$FFF7
Timer channel 1 interrupt
CH1F
CH1IE
IF4
$FFF4–$FFF5
TOF
TOIE
IF5
$FFF2–$FFF3
Keyboard interrupt
KEYF
IMASKK
IF14
$FFE0–$FFE1
ADC conversion complete interrupt
COCO
AIEN
IF15
$FFDE–$FFDF
Priority
Highest
Source
Timer overflow interrupt
Lowest
1. The I bit in the condition code register is a global mask for all interrupt sources except the SWI instruction.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
118
Freescale Semiconductor
Exception Control
13.6.2.1 Interrupt Status Register 1
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Read:
IF6
IF5
IF4
IF3
IF2
IF1
0
0
Write:
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Reset:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
= Reserved
Figure 13-11. Interrupt Status Register 1 (INT1)
IF1–IF6 — Interrupt Flags
These flags indicate the presence of interrupt requests from the sources shown in Table 13-3.
1 = Interrupt request present
0 = No interrupt request present
Bit 0, 1 — Always read 0
13.6.2.2 Interrupt Status Register 2
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Read:
IF14
IF13
IF12
IF11
IF10
IF9
IF8
IF7
Write:
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
= Reserved
Reset:
Figure 13-12. Interrupt Status Register 2 (INT2)
IF7–IF14 — Interrupt Flags
This flag indicates the presence of interrupt requests from the sources shown in Table 13-3.
1 = Interrupt request present
0 = No interrupt request present
13.6.2.3 Interrupt Status Register 3
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Read:
IF22
IF21
IF20
IF19
IF18
IF17
IF16
IF15
Write:
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Reset:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
= Reserved
Figure 13-13. Interrupt Status Register 3 (INT3)
IF15–IF22 — Interrupt Flags
These flags indicate the presence of interrupt requests from the sources shown in Table 13-3.
1 = Interrupt request present
0 = No interrupt request present
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
119
System Integration Module (SIM)
13.6.3 Reset
All reset sources always have equal and highest priority and cannot be arbitrated.
13.6.4 Break Interrupts
The break module can stop normal program flow at a software programmable break point by asserting its
break interrupt output. (See Chapter 15 Development Support.) The SIM puts the CPU into the break
state by forcing it to the SWI vector location. Refer to the break interrupt subsection of each module to
see how each module is affected by the break state.
13.6.5 Status Flag Protection in Break Mode
The SIM controls whether status flags contained in other modules can be cleared during break mode. The
user can select whether flags are protected from being cleared by properly initializing the break clear flag
enable bit (BCFE) in the break flag control register (BFCR).
Protecting flags in break mode ensures that set flags will not be cleared while in break mode. This
protection allows registers to be freely read and written during break mode without losing status flag
information.
Setting the BCFE bit enables the clearing mechanisms. Once cleared in break mode, a flag remains
cleared even when break mode is exited. Status flags with a two-step clearing mechanism — for example,
a read of one register followed by the read or write of another — are protected, even when the first step
is accomplished prior to entering break mode. Upon leaving break mode, execution of the second step
will clear the flag as normal.
13.7 Low-Power Modes
Executing the WAIT or STOP instruction puts the MCU in a low power- consumption mode for standby
situations. The SIM holds the CPU in a non-clocked state. The operation of each of these modes is
described below. Both STOP and WAIT clear the interrupt mask (I) in the condition code register, allowing
interrupts to occur.
13.7.1 Wait Mode
In wait mode, the CPU clocks are inactive while the peripheral clocks continue to run. Figure 13-14 shows
the timing for wait mode entry.
ADDRESS BUS
DATA BUS
WAIT ADDR
WAIT ADDR + 1
PREVIOUS DATA
NEXT OPCODE
SAME
SAME
SAME
SAME
R/W
NOTE: Previous data can be operand data or the WAIT opcode, depending on the last instruction.
Figure 13-14. Wait Mode Entry Timing
A module that is active during wait mode can wake up the CPU with an interrupt if the interrupt is enabled.
Stacking for the interrupt begins one cycle after the WAIT instruction during which the interrupt occurred.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
120
Freescale Semiconductor
Low-Power Modes
In wait mode, the CPU clocks are inactive. Refer to the wait mode subsection of each module to see if the
module is active or inactive in wait mode. Some modules can be programmed to be active in wait mode.
Wait mode can also be exited by a reset (or break in emulation mode). A break interrupt during wait mode
sets the SIM break stop/wait bit, SBSW, in the break status register (BSR). If the COP disable bit, COPD,
in the configuration register is 0, then the computer operating properly module (COP) is enabled and
remains active in wait mode.
Figure 13-15 and Figure 13-16 show the timing for wait recovery.
ADDRESS BUS
DATA BUS
$6E0B
$A6
$A6
$6E0C
$A6
$00FF
$01
$0B
$00FE
$00FD
$00FC
$6E
EXITSTOPWAIT
NOTE: EXITSTOPWAIT = RST pin OR CPU interrupt
Figure 13-15. Wait Recovery from Interrupt
32
CYCLES
ADDRESS BUS
DATA BUS
32
CYCLES
$6E0B
$A6
$A6
RSTVCT H
RSTVCT L
$A6
RST(1)
BUSCLKX4
1. RST is only available if the RSTEN bit in the CONFIG1 register is set.
Figure 13-16. Wait Recovery from Internal Reset
13.7.2 Stop Mode
In stop mode, the SIM counter is reset and the system clocks are disabled. An interrupt request from a
module can cause an exit from stop mode. Stacking for interrupts begins after the selected stop recovery
time has elapsed. Reset or break also causes an exit from stop mode.
The SIM disables the oscillator signals (BUSCLKX2 and BUSCLKX4) in stop mode, stopping the CPU
and peripherals. If OSCENINSTOP is set, BUSCLKX2 will remain running in STOP and can be used to
run the AWU. Stop recovery time is selectable using the SSREC bit in the configuration register 1
(CONFIG1). If SSREC is set, stop recovery is reduced from the normal delay of 4096 BUSCLKX4 cycles
down to 32. This is ideal for the internal oscillator, RC oscillator, and external oscillator options which do
not require long start-up times from stop mode.
NOTE
External crystal applications should use the full stop recovery time by
clearing the SSREC bit.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
121
System Integration Module (SIM)
The SIM counter is held in reset from the execution of the STOP instruction until the beginning of stop
recovery. It is then used to time the recovery period. Figure 13-17 shows stop mode entry timing and
Figure 13-18 shows the stop mode recovery time from interrupt or break
NOTE
To minimize stop current, all pins configured as inputs should be driven to
a logic 1 or logic 0.
CPUSTOP
ADDRESS BUS
STOP ADDR + 1
STOP ADDR
DATA BUS
PREVIOUS DATA
SAME
SAME
NEXT OPCODE
SAME
SAME
R/W
NOTE: Previous data can be operand data or the STOP opcode, depending on the last instruction.
Figure 13-17. Stop Mode Entry Timing
STOP RECOVERY PERIOD
BUSCLKX4
INTERRUPT
ADDRESS BUS
STOP + 2
STOP +1
STOP + 2
SP
SP – 1
SP – 2
SP – 3
Figure 13-18. Stop Mode Recovery from Interrupt
13.8 SIM Registers
The SIM has two memory mapped registers.
13.8.1 SIM Reset Status Register
The SRSR register contains flags that show the source of the last reset. The status register will
automatically clear after reading SRSR. A power-on reset sets the POR bit and clears all other bits in the
register. All other reset sources set the individual flag bits but do not clear the register. More than one
reset source can be flagged at any time depending on the conditions at the time of the internal or external
reset. For example, the POR and LVI bit can both be set if the power supply has a slow rise time.
Read:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
POR
PIN
COP
ILOP
ILAD
MODRST
LVI
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Write:
POR:
= Unimplemented
Figure 13-19. SIM Reset Status Register (SRSR)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
122
Freescale Semiconductor
SIM Registers
POR — Power-On Reset Bit
1 = Last reset caused by POR circuit
0 = Read of SRSR
PIN — External Reset Bit
1 = Last reset caused by external reset pin (RST)
0 = POR or read of SRSR
COP — Computer Operating Properly Reset Bit
1 = Last reset caused by COP counter
0 = POR or read of SRSR
ILOP — Illegal Opcode Reset Bit
1 = Last reset caused by an illegal opcode
0 = POR or read of SRSR
ILAD — Illegal Address Reset Bit (illegal attempt to fetch an opcode from an unimplemented
address)
1 = Last reset caused by an opcode fetch from an illegal address
0 = POR or read of SRSR
MODRST — Monitor Mode Entry Module Reset bit
1 = Last reset caused by monitor mode entry when vector locations $FFFE and $FFFF are $FF after
POR while IRQ ≠ VTST
0 = POR or read of SRSR
LVI — Low Voltage Inhibit Reset bit
1 = Last reset caused by LVI circuit
0 = POR or read of SRSR
13.8.2 Break Flag Control Register
The break control register (BFCR) contains a bit that enables software to clear status bits while the MCU
is in a break state.
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
BCFE
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
R
= Reserved
Figure 13-20. Break Flag Control Register (BFCR)
BCFE — Break Clear Flag Enable Bit
This read/write bit enables software to clear status bits by accessing status registers while the MCU is
in a break state. To clear status bits during the break state, the BCFE bit must be set.
1 = Status bits clearable during break
0 = Status bits not clearable during break
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
123
System Integration Module (SIM)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
124
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 14
Timer Interface Module (TIM)
14.1 Introduction
This section describes the timer interface module (TIM). The TIM module is a 2-channel timer that
provides a timing reference with input capture, output compare, and pulse-width-modulation functions.
The TIM module shares its pins with general-purpose input/output (I/O) port pins. See Figure 14-1 for port
location of these shared pins.
14.2 Features
Features include the following:
• Two input capture/output compare channels
– Rising-edge, falling-edge, or any-edge input capture trigger
– Set, clear, or toggle output compare action
• Buffered and unbuffered output compare pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal generation
• Programmable clock input
– 7-frequency internal bus clock prescaler selection
– External clock input pin if available, See Figure 14-1
• Free-running or modulo up-count operation
• Toggle any channel pin on overflow
• Counter stop and reset bits
14.3 Functional Description
Figure 14-2 shows the structure of the TIM. The central component of the TIM is the 16-bit counter that
can operate as a free-running counter or a modulo up-counter. The counter provides the timing reference
for the input capture and output compare functions. The counter modulo registers, TMODH:TMODL,
control the modulo value of the counter. Software can read the counter value, TCNTH:TCNTL, at any time
without affecting the counting sequence.
The two TIM channels are programmable independently as input capture or output compare channels.
14.3.1 TIM Counter Prescaler
The TIM clock source is one of the seven prescaler outputs or the external clock input pin, TCLK if
available. The prescaler generates seven clock rates from the internal bus clock. The prescaler select
bits, PS[2:0], in the TIM status and control register (TSC) select the clock source.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
125
Timer Interface Module (TIM)
PTA0/TCH0/AD0/KBI0
CLOCK
GENERATOR
PTA3/RST/KBI3
PTA
PTA2/IRQ/KBI2/TCLK
DDRA
PTA1/TCH1/AD1/KBI1
KEYBOARD INTERRUPT
MODULE
PTA4/OSC2/AD2/KBI4
PTA5/OSC1/AD3/KBI5
SINGLE INTERRUPT
MODULE
AUTO WAKEUP
MODULE
DDRB
PTB0/AD4
PTB1/AD5
PTB2
PTB3
PTB4
PTB5
PTB6
PTB7
PTB
M68HC08 CPU
LOW-VOLTAGE
INHIBIT
2-CHANNEL 16-BIT
TIMER MODULE
MC68HC908QY4A
MC68HC908QY4A
128 BYTES
4096 BYTES
USER RAM
USER FLASH
COP
MODULE
6-CHANNEL
10-BIT ADC
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
MONITOR ROM
BREAK MODULE
VDD
POWER SUPPLY
VSS
RST, IRQ: Pins have internal pull up device
All port pins have programmable pull up device
PTA[0:5]: Higher current sink and source capability
PTB[0:7]: Not available on 8-pin devices
Figure 14-1. Block Diagram Highlighting TIM Block and Pins
14.3.2 Input Capture
With the input capture function, the TIM can capture the time at which an external event occurs. When an
active edge occurs on the pin of an input capture channel, the TIM latches the contents of the counter into
the TIM channel registers, TCHxH:TCHxL. The polarity of the active edge is programmable. Input
captures can be enabled to generate interrupt requests.
14.3.3 Output Compare
With the output compare function, the TIM can generate a periodic pulse with a programmable polarity,
duration, and frequency. When the counter reaches the value in the registers of an output compare
channel, the TIM can set, clear, or toggle the channel pin. Output compares can be enabled to generate
interrupt requests.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
126
Freescale Semiconductor
Functional Description
TCLK
TCLK
(IF AVAILABLE)
PRESCALER SELECT
INTERNAL
BUS CLOCK
PRESCALER
TSTOP
PS2
TRST
PS1
PS0
16-BIT COUNTER
TOF
TCNTH:TCNTL
TOIE
INTERRUPT
LOGIC
16-BIT COMPARATOR
TMODH:TMODL
CHANNEL 0
TOV0
ELS0B
ELS0A
CH0MAX
16-BIT COMPARATOR
TCH0H:TCH0L
PORT
LOGIC
TCH0
CH0F
16-BIT LATCH
CH0IE
MS0A
INTERRUPT
LOGIC
MS0B
INTERNAL BUS
TOV1
CHANNEL 1
ELS1B
ELS1A
CH1MAX
16-BIT COMPARATOR
TCH1H:TCH1L
PORT
LOGIC
TCH1
CH1F
16-BIT LATCH
MS1A
CH1IE
INTERRUPT
LOGIC
Figure 14-2. TIM Block Diagram
14.3.3.1 Unbuffered Output Compare
Any output compare channel can generate unbuffered output compare pulses as described in 14.3.3
Output Compare. The pulses are unbuffered because changing the output compare value requires writing
the new value over the old value currently in the TIM channel registers.
An unsynchronized write to the TIM channel registers to change an output compare value could cause
incorrect operation for up to two counter overflow periods. For example, writing a new value before the
counter reaches the old value but after the counter reaches the new value prevents any compare during
that counter overflow period. Also, using a TIM overflow interrupt routine to write a new, smaller output
compare value may cause the compare to be missed. The TIM may pass the new value before it is written.
Use the following methods to synchronize unbuffered changes in the output compare value on channel x:
• When changing to a smaller value, enable channel x output compare interrupts and write the new
value in the output compare interrupt routine. The output compare interrupt occurs at the end of
the current output compare pulse. The interrupt routine has until the end of the counter overflow
period to write the new value.
• When changing to a larger output compare value, enable TIM overflow interrupts and write the new
value in the TIM overflow interrupt routine. The TIM overflow interrupt occurs at the end of the
current counter overflow period. Writing a larger value in an output compare interrupt routine (at
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
127
Timer Interface Module (TIM)
the end of the current pulse) could cause two output compares to occur in the same counter
overflow period.
14.3.3.2 Buffered Output Compare
Channels 0 and 1 can be linked to form a buffered output compare channel whose output appears on the
TCH0 pin. The TIM channel registers of the linked pair alternately control the output.
Setting the MS0B bit in TIM channel 0 status and control register (TSC0) links channel 0 and channel 1.
The output compare value in the TIM channel 0 registers initially controls the output on the TCH0 pin.
Writing to the TIM channel 1 registers enables the TIM channel 1 registers to synchronously control the
output after the TIM overflows. At each subsequent overflow, the TIM channel registers (0 or 1) that
control the output are the ones written to last. TSC0 controls and monitors the buffered output compare
function, and TIM channel 1 status and control register (TSC1) is unused. While the MS0B bit is set, the
channel 1 pin, TCH1, is available as a general-purpose I/O pin.
NOTE
In buffered output compare operation, do not write new output compare
values to the currently active channel registers. User software should track
the currently active channel to prevent writing a new value to the active
channel. Writing to the active channel registers is the same as generating
unbuffered output compares.
14.3.4 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
By using the toggle-on-overflow feature with an output compare channel, the TIM can generate a PWM
signal. The value in the TIM counter modulo registers determines the period of the PWM signal. The
channel pin toggles when the counter reaches the value in the TIM counter modulo registers. The time
between overflows is the period of the PWM signal.
As Figure 14-3 shows, the output compare value in the TIM channel registers determines the pulse width
of the PWM signal. The time between overflow and output compare is the pulse width. Program the TIM
to clear the channel pin on output compare if the polarity of the PWM pulse is 1 (ELSxA = 0). Program the
TIM to set the pin if the polarity of the PWM pulse is 0 (ELSxA = 1).
OVERFLOW
OVERFLOW
OVERFLOW
PERIOD
POLARITY = 1
T1CHx
(ELSxA = 0)
PULSE
WIDTH
POLARITY = 0
T1CHx
(ELSxA = 1)
OUTPUT
COMPARE
OUTPUT
COMPARE
OUTPUT
COMPARE
Figure 14-3. PWM Period and Pulse Width
The value in the TIM counter modulo registers and the selected prescaler output determines the
frequency of the PWM output The frequency of an 8-bit PWM signal is variable in 256 increments. Writing
$00FF (255) to the TIM counter modulo registers produces a PWM period of 256 times the internal bus
clock period if the prescaler select value is 000. See 14.8.1 TIM Status and Control Register.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
128
Freescale Semiconductor
Functional Description
The value in the TIM channel registers determines the pulse width of the PWM output. The pulse width of
an 8-bit PWM signal is variable in 256 increments. Writing $0080 (128) to the TIM channel registers
produces a duty cycle of 128/256 or 50%.
14.3.4.1 Unbuffered PWM Signal Generation
Any output compare channel can generate unbuffered PWM pulses as described in 14.3.4 Pulse Width
Modulation (PWM). The pulses are unbuffered because changing the pulse width requires writing the new
pulse width value over the old value currently in the TIM channel registers.
An unsynchronized write to the TIM channel registers to change a pulse width value could cause incorrect
operation for up to two PWM periods. For example, writing a new value before the counter reaches the
old value but after the counter reaches the new value prevents any compare during that PWM period.
Also, using a TIM overflow interrupt routine to write a new, smaller pulse width value may cause the
compare to be missed. The TIM may pass the new value before it is written to the timer channel
(TCHxH:TCHxL).
Use the following methods to synchronize unbuffered changes in the PWM pulse width on channel x:
• When changing to a shorter pulse width, enable channel x output compare interrupts and write the
new value in the output compare interrupt routine. The output compare interrupt occurs at the end
of the current pulse. The interrupt routine has until the end of the PWM period to write the new
value.
• When changing to a longer pulse width, enable TIM overflow interrupts and write the new value in
the TIM overflow interrupt routine. The TIM overflow interrupt occurs at the end of the current PWM
period. Writing a larger value in an output compare interrupt routine (at the end of the current pulse)
could cause two output compares to occur in the same PWM period.
NOTE
In PWM signal generation, do not program the PWM channel to toggle on
output compare. Toggling on output compare prevents reliable 0% duty
cycle generation and removes the ability of the channel to self-correct in the
event of software error or noise. Toggling on output compare also can
cause incorrect PWM signal generation when changing the PWM pulse
width to a new, much larger value.
14.3.4.2 Buffered PWM Signal Generation
Channels 0 and 1 can be linked to form a buffered PWM channel whose output appears on the TCH0 pin.
The TIM channel registers of the linked pair alternately control the output.
Setting the MS0B bit in TIM channel 0 status and control register (TSC0) links channel 0 and channel 1.
The TIM channel 0 registers initially control the pulse width on the TCH0 pin. Writing to the TIM channel
1 registers enables the TIM channel 1 registers to synchronously control the pulse width at the beginning
of the next PWM period. At each subsequent overflow, the TIM channel registers (0 or 1) that control the
pulse width are the ones written to last. TSC0 controls and monitors the buffered PWM function, and TIM
channel 1 status and control register (TSC1) is unused. While the MS0B bit is set, the channel 1 pin,
TCH1, is available as a general-purpose I/O pin.
NOTE
In buffered PWM signal generation, do not write new pulse width values to
the currently active channel registers. User software should track the
currently active channel to prevent writing a new value to the active
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
129
Timer Interface Module (TIM)
channel. Writing to the active channel registers is the same as generating
unbuffered PWM signals.
14.3.4.3 PWM Initialization
To ensure correct operation when generating unbuffered or buffered PWM signals, use the following
initialization procedure:
1. In the TIM status and control register (TSC):
a. Stop the counter by setting the TIM stop bit, TSTOP.
b. Reset the counter and prescaler by setting the TIM reset bit, TRST.
2. In the TIM counter modulo registers (TMODH:TMODL), write the value for the required PWM
period.
3. In the TIM channel x registers (TCHxH:TCHxL), write the value for the required pulse width.
4. In TIM channel x status and control register (TSCx):
a. Write 0:1 (for unbuffered output compare or PWM signals) or 1:0 (for buffered output compare
or PWM signals) to the mode select bits, MSxB:MSxA. See Table 14-2.
b. Write 1 to the toggle-on-overflow bit, TOVx.
c. Write 1:0 (polarity 1 — to clear output on compare) or 1:1 (polarity 0 — to set output on
compare) to the edge/level select bits, ELSxB:ELSxA. The output action on compare must
force the output to the complement of the pulse width level. See Table 14-2.
NOTE
In PWM signal generation, do not program the PWM channel to toggle on
output compare. Toggling on output compare prevents reliable 0% duty
cycle generation and removes the ability of the channel to self-correct in the
event of software error or noise. Toggling on output compare can also
cause incorrect PWM signal generation when changing the PWM pulse
width to a new, much larger value.
5. In the TIM status control register (TSC), clear the TIM stop bit, TSTOP.
Setting MS0B links channels 0 and 1 and configures them for buffered PWM operation. The TIM
channel 0 registers (TCH0H:TCH0L) initially control the buffered PWM output. TIM status control register
0 (TSCR0) controls and monitors the PWM signal from the linked channels. MS0B takes priority over
MS0A.
Clearing the toggle-on-overflow bit, TOVx, inhibits output toggles on TIM overflows. Subsequent output
compares try to force the output to a state it is already in and have no effect. The result is a 0% duty cycle
output.
Setting the channel x maximum duty cycle bit (CHxMAX) and setting the TOVx bit generates a 100% duty
cycle output. See 14.8.1 TIM Status and Control Register.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
130
Freescale Semiconductor
Interrupts
14.4 Interrupts
The following TIM sources can generate interrupt requests:
• TIM overflow flag (TOF) — The TOF bit is set when the counter reaches the modulo value
programmed in the TIM counter modulo registers. The TIM overflow interrupt enable bit, TOIE,
enables TIM overflow interrupt requests. TOF and TOIE are in the TSC register.
• TIM channel flags (CH1F:CH0F) — The CHxF bit is set when an input capture or output compare
occurs on channel x. Channel x TIM interrupt requests are controlled by the channel x interrupt
enable bit, CHxIE. Channel x TIM interrupt requests are enabled when CHxIE =1. CHxF and
CHxIE are in the TSCx register.
14.5 Low-Power Modes
The WAIT and STOP instructions put the MCU in low power-consumption standby modes.
14.5.1 Wait Mode
The TIM remains active after the execution of a WAIT instruction. In wait mode the TIM registers are not
accessible by the CPU. Any enabled interrupt request from the TIM can bring the MCU out of wait mode.
If TIM functions are not required during wait mode, reduce power consumption by stopping the TIM before
executing the WAIT instruction.
14.5.2 Stop Mode
The TIM module is inactive after the execution of a STOP instruction. The STOP instruction does not
affect register conditions. TIM operation resumes after an external interrupt. If stop mode is exited by
reset, the TIM is reset.
14.6 TIM During Break Interrupts
A break interrupt stops the counter.
The system integration module (SIM) controls whether status bits in other modules can be cleared during
the break state. The BCFE bit in the break flag control register (BFCR) enables software to clear status
bits during the break state. See BFCR in the SIM section of this data sheet.
To allow software to clear status bits during a break interrupt, write a 1 to BCFE. If a status bit is cleared
during the break state, it remains cleared when the MCU exits the break state.
To protect status bits during the break state, write a 0 to BCFE. With BCFE cleared (its default state),
software can read and write registers during the break state without affecting status bits. Some status bits
have a two-step read/write clearing procedure. If software does the first step on such a bit before the
break, the bit cannot change during the break state as long as BCFE is cleared. After the break, doing the
second step clears the status bit.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
131
Timer Interface Module (TIM)
14.7 I/O Signals
The TIM module can share its pins with the general-purpose I/O pins. See Figure 14-1 for the port pins
that are shared.
14.7.1 TIM Channel I/O Pins (TCH1:TCH0)
Each channel I/O pin is programmable independently as an input capture pin or an output compare pin.
TCH0 can be configured as buffered output compare or buffered PWM pin.
14.7.2 TIM Clock Pin (TCLK)
TCLK is an external clock input that can be the clock source for the counter instead of the prescaled
internal bus clock. Select the TCLK input by writing 1s to the three prescaler select bits, PS[2:0]. 14.8.1
TIM Status and Control Register The minimum TCLK pulse width is specified in the Timer Interface
Module Characteristics table in the Electricals section. The maximum TCLK frequency is the least of
4 MHz or bus frequency ÷ 2.
14.8 Registers
The following registers control and monitor operation of the TIM:
• TIM status and control register (TSC)
• TIM control registers (TCNTH:TCNTL)
• TIM counter modulo registers (TMODH:TMODL)
• TIM channel status and control registers (TSC0 and TSC1)
• TIM channel registers (TCH0H:TCH0L and TCH1H:TCH1L)
14.8.1 TIM Status and Control Register
The TIM status and control register (TSC) does the following:
• Enables TIM overflow interrupts
• Flags TIM overflows
• Stops the counter
• Resets the counter
• Prescales the counter clock
Bit 7
Read:
TOF
Write:
0
Reset:
0
6
5
TOIE
TSTOP
0
1
4
3
0
0
TRST
0
0
2
1
Bit 0
PS2
PS1
PS0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented
Figure 14-4. TIM Status and Control Register (TSC)
TOF — TIM Overflow Flag Bit
This read/write flag is set when the counter reaches the modulo value programmed in the TIM counter
modulo registers. Clear TOF by reading the TSC register when TOF is set and then writing a 0 to TOF.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
132
Freescale Semiconductor
Registers
If another TIM overflow occurs before the clearing sequence is complete, then writing 0 to TOF has no
effect. Therefore, a TOF interrupt request cannot be lost due to inadvertent clearing of TOF. Writing a
1 to TOF has no effect.
1 = Counter has reached modulo value
0 = Counter has not reached modulo value
TOIE — TIM Overflow Interrupt Enable Bit
This read/write bit enables TIM overflow interrupts when the TOF bit becomes set.
1 = TIM overflow interrupts enabled
0 = TIM overflow interrupts disabled
TSTOP — TIM Stop Bit
This read/write bit stops the counter. Counting resumes when TSTOP is cleared. Reset sets the
TSTOP bit, stopping the counter until software clears the TSTOP bit.
1 = Counter stopped
0 = Counter active
NOTE
Do not set the TSTOP bit before entering wait mode if the TIM is required
to exit wait mode. Also, when the TSTOP bit is set and the timer is
configured for input capture operation, input captures are inhibited until the
TSTOP bit is cleared.
TRST — TIM Reset Bit
Setting this write-only bit resets the counter and the TIM prescaler. Setting TRST has no effect on any
other timer registers. Counting resumes from $0000. TRST is cleared automatically after the counter
is reset and always reads as 0.
1 = Prescaler and counter cleared
0 = No effect
NOTE
Setting the TSTOP and TRST bits simultaneously stops the counter at a
value of $0000.PS[2:0] — Prescaler Select Bits
These read/write bits select one of the seven prescaler outputs as the input to the counter as
Table 14-1 shows.
Table 14-1. Prescaler Selection
PS2
PS1
PS0
TIM Clock Source
0
0
0
Internal bus clock ÷ 1
0
0
1
Internal bus clock ÷ 2
0
1
0
Internal bus clock ÷ 4
0
1
1
Internal bus clock ÷ 8
1
0
0
Internal bus clock ÷ 16
1
0
1
Internal bus clock ÷ 32
1
1
0
Internal bus clock ÷ 64
1
1
1
TCLK (if available)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
133
Timer Interface Module (TIM)
14.8.2 TIM Counter Registers
The two read-only TIM counter registers contain the high and low bytes of the value in the counter.
Reading the high byte (TCNTH) latches the contents of the low byte (TCNTL) into a buffer. Subsequent
reads of TCNTH do not affect the latched TCNTL value until TCNTL is read. Reset clears the TIM counter
registers. Setting the TIM reset bit (TRST) also clears the TIM counter registers.
NOTE
If you read TCNTH during a break interrupt, be sure to unlatch TCNTL by
reading TCNTL before exiting the break interrupt. Otherwise, TCNTL
retains the value latched during the break.
Read:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 15
Bit 14
Bit 13
Bit 12
Bit 11
Bit 10
Bit 9
Bit 8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Write:
Reset:
= Unimplemented
Figure 14-5. TIM Counter High Register (TCNTH)
Read:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Write:
Reset:
= Unimplemented
Figure 14-6. TIM Counter Low Register (TCNTL)
14.8.3 TIM Counter Modulo Registers
The read/write TIM modulo registers contain the modulo value for the counter. When the counter reaches
the modulo value, the overflow flag (TOF) becomes set, and the counter resumes counting from $0000
at the next timer clock. Writing to the high byte (TMODH) inhibits the TOF bit and overflow interrupts until
the low byte (TMODL) is written. Reset sets the TIM counter modulo registers.
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit15
Bit14
Bit13
Bit12
Bit11
Bit10
Bit9
Bit8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Figure 14-7. TIM Counter Modulo High Register (TMODH)
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit7
Bit6
Bit5
Bit4
Bit3
Bit2
Bit1
Bit0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Figure 14-8. TIM Counter Modulo Low Register (TMODL)
NOTE
Reset the counter before writing to the TIM counter modulo registers.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
134
Freescale Semiconductor
Registers
14.8.4 TIM Channel Status and Control Registers
Each of the TIM channel status and control registers does the following:
• Flags input captures and output compares
• Enables input capture and output compare interrupts
• Selects input capture, output compare, or PWM operation
• Selects high, low, or toggling output on output compare
• Selects rising edge, falling edge, or any edge as the active input capture trigger
• Selects output toggling on TIM overflow
• Selects 0% and 100% PWM duty cycle
• Selects buffered or unbuffered output compare/PWM operation
Bit 7
Read:
CH0F
Write:
0
Reset:
0
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
CH0IE
MS0B
MS0A
ELS0B
ELS0A
TOV0
CH0MAX
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 14-9. TIM Channel 0 Status and Control Register (TSC0)
Bit 7
Read:
CH1F
Write:
0
Reset:
0
6
CH1IE
0
5
0
0
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
MS1A
ELS1B
ELS1A
TOV1
CH1MAX
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented
Figure 14-10. TIM Channel 1 Status and Control Register (TSC1)
CHxF — Channel x Flag Bit
When channel x is an input capture channel, this read/write bit is set when an active edge occurs on
the channel x pin. When channel x is an output compare channel, CHxF is set when the value in the
counter registers matches the value in the TIM channel x registers.
Clear CHxF by reading the TSCx register with CHxF set and then writing a 0 to CHxF. If another
interrupt request occurs before the clearing sequence is complete, then writing 0 to CHxF has no
effect. Therefore, an interrupt request cannot be lost due to inadvertent clearing of CHxF.
Writing a 1 to CHxF has no effect.
1 = Input capture or output compare on channel x
0 = No input capture or output compare on channel x
CHxIE — Channel x Interrupt Enable Bit
This read/write bit enables TIM interrupt service requests on channel x.
1 = Channel x interrupt requests enabled
0 = Channel x interrupt requests disabled
MSxB — Mode Select Bit B
This read/write bit selects buffered output compare/PWM operation. MSxB exists only in the TSC0.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
135
Timer Interface Module (TIM)
Setting MS0B causes the contents of TSC1 to be ignored by the TIM and reverts TCH1 to
general-purpose I/O.
1 = Buffered output compare/PWM operation enabled
0 = Buffered output compare/PWM operation disabled
MSxA — Mode Select Bit A
When ELSxB:A ≠ 00, this read/write bit selects either input capture operation or unbuffered output
compare/PWM operation. See Table 14-2.
1 = Unbuffered output compare/PWM operation
0 = Input capture operation
When ELSxB:A = 00, this read/write bit selects the initial output level of the TCHx pin (see
Table 14-2).
1 = Initial output level low
0 = Initial output level high
NOTE
Before changing a channel function by writing to the MSxB or MSxA bit, set
the TSTOP and TRST bits in the TIM status and control register (TSC).
ELSxB and ELSxA — Edge/Level Select Bits
When channel x is an input capture channel, these read/write bits control the active edge-sensing logic
on channel x.
When channel x is an output compare channel, ELSxB and ELSxA control the channel x output
behavior when an output compare occurs.
When ELSxB and ELSxA are both clear, channel x is not connected to an I/O port, and pin TCHx is
available as a general-purpose I/O pin. Table 14-2 shows how ELSxB and ELSxA work.
Table 14-2. Mode, Edge, and Level Selection
MSxB
MSxA
ELSxB
ELSxA
X
0
0
0
X
1
0
0
Mode
Output preset
Configuration
Pin under port control; initial output level high
Pin under port control; initial output level low
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
Capture on rising or falling edge
0
1
0
0
Software compare only
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
X
0
1
1
X
1
0
1
X
1
1
Capture on rising edge only
Input capture
Output compare
or PWM
Capture on falling edge only
Toggle output on compare
Clear output on compare
Set output on compare
Buffered output
compare or
buffered PWM
Toggle output on compare
Clear output on compare
Set output on compare
NOTE
After initially enabling a TIM channel register for input capture operation
and selecting the edge sensitivity, clear CHxF to ignore any erroneous
edge detection flags.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
136
Freescale Semiconductor
Registers
TOVx — Toggle-On-Overflow Bit
When channel x is an output compare channel, this read/write bit controls the behavior of the channel
x output when the counter overflows. When channel x is an input capture channel, TOVx has no effect.
1 = Channel x pin toggles on TIM counter overflow.
0 = Channel x pin does not toggle on TIM counter overflow.
NOTE
When TOVx is set, a counter overflow takes precedence over a channel x
output compare if both occur at the same time.
CHxMAX — Channel x Maximum Duty Cycle Bit
When the TOVx bit is at 1, setting the CHxMAX bit forces the duty cycle of buffered and unbuffered
PWM signals to 100%. As Figure 14-11 shows, the CHxMAX bit takes effect in the cycle after it is set
or cleared. The output stays at the 100% duty cycle level until the cycle after CHxMAX is cleared.
OVERFLOW
OVERFLOW
OVERFLOW
OVERFLOW
OVERFLOW
PERIOD
T1CHx
OUTPUT
COMPARE
OUTPUT
COMPARE
OUTPUT
COMPARE
OUTPUT
COMPARE
CHxMAX
Figure 14-11. CHxMAX Latency
14.8.5 TIM Channel Registers
These read/write registers contain the captured counter value of the input capture function or the output
compare value of the output compare function. The state of the TIM channel registers after reset is
unknown.
In input capture mode (MSxB:MSxA = 0:0), reading the high byte of the TIM channel x registers (TCHxH)
inhibits input captures until the low byte (TCHxL) is read.
In output compare mode (MSxB:MSxA ≠ 0:0), writing to the high byte of the TIM channel x registers
(TCHxH) inhibits output compares until the low byte (TCHxL) is written.
Read:
Write:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 15
Bit 14
Bit 13
Bit 12
Bit 11
Bit 10
Bit 9
Bit 8
Reset:
Indeterminate after reset
Figure 14-12. TIM Channel x Register High (TCHxH)
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Indeterminate after reset
Figure 14-13. TIM Channel Register Low (TCHxL)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
137
Timer Interface Module (TIM)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
138
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 15
Development Support
15.1 Introduction
This section describes the break module, the monitor module (MON), and the monitor mode entry
methods.
15.2 Break Module (BRK)
The break module can generate a break interrupt that stops normal program flow at a defined address to
enter a background program.
Features include:
• Accessible input/output (I/O) registers during the break Interrupt
• Central processor unit (CPU) generated break interrupts
• Software-generated break interrupts
• Computer operating properly (COP) disabling during break interrupts
15.2.1 Functional Description
When the internal address bus matches the value written in the break address registers, the break module
issues a breakpoint signal (BKPT) to the system integration module (SIM). The SIM then causes the CPU
to load the instruction register with a software interrupt instruction (SWI). The program counter vectors to
$FFFC and $FFFD ($FEFC and $FEFD in monitor mode).
The following events can cause a break interrupt to occur:
• A CPU generated address (the address in the program counter) matches the contents of the break
address registers.
• Software writes a 1 to the BRKA bit in the break status and control register.
When a CPU generated address matches the contents of the break address registers, the break interrupt
is generated. A return-from-interrupt instruction (RTI) in the break routine ends the break interrupt and
returns the microcontroller unit (MCU) to normal operation.
Figure 15-2 shows the structure of the break module.
When the internal address bus matches the value written in the break address registers or when software
writes a 1 to the BRKA bit in the break status and control register, the CPU starts a break interrupt by:
• Loading the instruction register with the SWI instruction
• Loading the program counter with $FFFC and $FFFD ($FEFC and $FEFD in monitor mode)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
139
Development Support
PTA0/TCH0/AD0/KBI0
CLOCK
GENERATOR
PTA3/RST/KBI3
PTA
PTA2/IRQ/KBI2/TCLK
DDRA
PTA1/TCH1/AD1/KBI1
KEYBOARD INTERRUPT
MODULE
PTA4/OSC2/AD2/KBI4
PTA5/OSC1/AD3/KBI5
SINGLE INTERRUPT
MODULE
AUTO WAKEUP
MODULE
DDRB
PTB0/AD4
PTB1/AD5
PTB2
PTB3
PTB4
PTB5
PTB6
PTB7
PTB
M68HC08 CPU
LOW-VOLTAGE
INHIBIT
2-CHANNEL 16-BIT
TIMER MODULE
MC68HC908QY4A
MC68HC908QY4A
128 BYTES
4096 BYTES
USER RAM
USER FLASH
COP
MODULE
6-CHANNEL
10-BIT ADC
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
MONITOR ROM
BREAK MODULE
VDD
POWER SUPPLY
VSS
RST, IRQ: Pins have internal pull up device
All port pins have programmable pull up device
PTA[0:5]: Higher current sink and source capability
PTB[0:7]: Not available on 8-pin devices
Figure 15-1. Block Diagram Highlighting BRK and MON Blocks
ADDRESS BUS[15:8]
BREAK ADDRESS REGISTER HIGH
ADDRESS BUS[15:0]
8-BIT COMPARATOR
CONTROL
8-BIT COMPARATOR
BKPT
(TO SIM)
BREAK ADDRESS REGISTER LOW
ADDRESS BUS[7:0]
Figure 15-2. Break Module Block Diagram
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
140
Freescale Semiconductor
Break Module (BRK)
The break interrupt timing is:
• When a break address is placed at the address of the instruction opcode, the instruction is not
executed until after completion of the break interrupt routine.
• When a break address is placed at an address of an instruction operand, the instruction is executed
before the break interrupt.
• When software writes a 1 to the BRKA bit, the break interrupt occurs just before the next instruction
is executed.
By updating a break address and clearing the BRKA bit in a break interrupt routine, a break interrupt can
be generated continuously.
CAUTION
A break address should be placed at the address of the instruction opcode.
When software does not change the break address and clears the BRKA
bit in the first break interrupt routine, the next break interrupt will not be
generated after exiting the interrupt routine even when the internal address
bus matches the value written in the break address registers.
15.2.1.1 Flag Protection During Break Interrupts
The system integration module (SIM) controls whether or not module status bits can be cleared during
the break state. The BCFE bit in the break flag control register (BFCR) enables software to clear status
bits during the break state. See 13.8.2 Break Flag Control Register and the Break Interrupts subsection
for each module.
15.2.1.2 TIM During Break Interrupts
A break interrupt stops the timer counter.
15.2.1.3 COP During Break Interrupts
The COP is disabled during a break interrupt with monitor mode when BDCOP bit is set in break auxiliary
register (BRKAR).
15.2.2 Break Module Registers
These registers control and monitor operation of the break module:
• Break status and control register (BRKSCR)
• Break address register high (BRKH)
• Break address register low (BRKL)
• Break status register (BSR)
• Break flag control register (BFCR)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
141
Development Support
15.2.2.1 Break Status and Control Register
The break status and control register (BRKSCR) contains break module enable and status bits.
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
BRKE
BRKA
0
0
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented
Figure 15-3. Break Status and Control Register (BRKSCR)
BRKE — Break Enable Bit
This read/write bit enables breaks on break address register matches. Clear BRKE by writing a 0 to
bit 7. Reset clears the BRKE bit.
1 = Breaks enabled on 16-bit address match
0 = Breaks disabled
BRKA — Break Active Bit
This read/write status and control bit is set when a break address match occurs. Writing a 1 to BRKA
generates a break interrupt. Clear BRKA by writing a 0 to it before exiting the break routine. Reset
clears the BRKA bit.
1 = Break address match
0 = No break address match
15.2.2.2 Break Address Registers
The break address registers (BRKH and BRKL) contain the high and low bytes of the desired breakpoint
address. Reset clears the break address registers.
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 15
Bit 14
Bit 13
Bit 12
Bit 11
Bit 10
Bit 9
Bit 8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 15-4. Break Address Register High (BRKH)
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 15-5. Break Address Register Low (BRKL)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
142
Freescale Semiconductor
Break Module (BRK)
15.2.2.3 Break Auxiliary Register
The break auxiliary register (BRKAR) contains a bit that enables software to disable the COP while the
MCU is in a state of break interrupt with monitor mode.
Read:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Write:
Reset:
Bit 0
BDCOP
0
= Unimplemented
Figure 15-6. Break Auxiliary Register (BRKAR)
BDCOP — Break Disable COP Bit
This read/write bit disables the COP during a break interrupt. Reset clears the BDCOP bit.
1 = COP disabled during break interrupt
0 = COP enabled during break interrupt
15.2.2.4 Break Status Register
The break status register (BSR) contains a flag to indicate that a break caused an exit from wait mode.
This register is only used in emulation mode.
Read:
Write:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
R
R
R
R
R
R
Reset:
1
SBSW
Note(1)
Bit 0
R
0
R
= Reserved
1. Writing a 0 clears SBSW.
Figure 15-7. Break Status Register (BSR)
SBSW — SIM Break Stop/Wait
SBSW can be read within the break state SWI routine. The user can modify the return address on the
stack by subtracting one from it.
1 = Wait mode was exited by break interrupt
0 = Wait mode was not exited by break interrupt
15.2.2.5 Break Flag Control Register
The break control register (BFCR) contains a bit that enables software to clear status bits while the MCU
is in a break state.
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
BCFE
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
R
= Reserved
Figure 15-8. Break Flag Control Register (BFCR)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
143
Development Support
BCFE — Break Clear Flag Enable Bit
This read/write bit enables software to clear status bits by accessing status registers while the MCU is
in a break state. To clear status bits during the break state, the BCFE bit must be set.
1 = Status bits clearable during break
0 = Status bits not clearable during break
15.2.3 Low-Power Modes
The WAIT and STOP instructions put the MCU in low power-consumption standby modes. If enabled, the
break module will remain enabled in wait and stop modes. However, since the internal address bus does
not increment in these modes, a break interrupt will never be triggered.
15.3 Monitor Module (MON)
The monitor module allows debugging and programming of the microcontroller unit (MCU) through a
single-wire interface with a host computer. Monitor mode entry can be achieved without use of the higher
test voltage, VTST, as long as vector addresses $FFFE and $FFFF are blank, thus reducing the hardware
requirements for in-circuit programming.
Features include:
• Normal user-mode pin functionality
• One pin dedicated to serial communication between MCU and host computer
• Standard non-return-to-zero (NRZ) communication with host computer
• Standard communication baud rate (7200 @ 2-MHz bus frequency)
• Execution of code in random-access memory (RAM) or FLASH
• FLASH memory security feature(1)
• FLASH memory programming interface
• Use of external 9.8304 MHz oscillator to generate internal frequency of 2.4576 MHz
• Simple internal oscillator mode of operation (no external clock or high voltage)
• Monitor mode entry without high voltage, VTST, if reset vector is blank ($FFFE and $FFFF contain
$FF)
• Normal monitor mode entry if VTST is applied to IRQ
15.3.1 Functional Description
Figure 15-9 shows a simplified diagram of monitor mode entry.
The monitor module receives and executes commands from a host computer. Figure 15-10,
Figure 15-11, and Figure 15-12 show example circuits used to enter monitor mode and communicate with
a host computer via a standard RS-232 interface.
Simple monitor commands can access any memory address. In monitor mode, the MCU can execute
code downloaded into RAM by a host computer while most MCU pins retain normal operating mode
functions. All communication between the host computer and the MCU is through the PTA0 pin. A
level-shifting and multiplexing interface is required between PTA0 and the host computer. PTA0 is used
in a wired-OR configuration and requires a pullup resistor.
1. No security feature is absolutely secure. However, Freescale’s strategy is to make reading or copying the FLASH difficult for
unauthorized users.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
144
Freescale Semiconductor
Monitor Module (MON)
POR RESET
NO
CONDITIONS
FROM Table 15-1
PTA0 = 1,
RESET VECTOR
BLANK?
IRQ = VTST?
YES
PTA0 = 1,
PTA1 = 1, AND
PTA4 = 0?
NO
NO
YES
YES
FORCED
MONITOR MODE
NORMAL
USER MODE
NORMAL
MONITOR MODE
INVALID
USER MODE
HOST SENDS
8 SECURITY BYTES
IS RESET
POR?
YES
NO
YES
ARE ALL
SECURITY BYTES
CORRECT?
ENABLE FLASH
NO
DISABLE FLASH
MONITOR MODE ENTRY
DEBUGGING
AND FLASH
PROGRAMMING
(IF FLASH
IS ENABLED)
EXECUTE
MONITOR CODE
YES
DOES RESET
OCCUR?
NO
Figure 15-9. Simplified Monitor Mode Entry Flowchart
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
145
Development Support
VDD
VDD
10 kΩ*
VDD
RST (PTA3)
MAX232
1
1 μF
+
3
4
1 μF
+
VDD
16
C1+
+
1 kΩ
9.1 V
1 μF
10 kΩ
+
74HC125
3
2
9
8
PTA4
74HC125
5
6
10
10 kΩ*
PTA0
4
VSS
1
5
10 kΩ*
IRQ (PTA2)
VDD
V– 6
7
VDD
PTA1
DB9
3
1 μF
V+ 2
C2+
OSC1 (PTA5)
1 μF
15
C1–
0.1 μF
VTST
+
5 C2–
2
9.8304 MHz CLOCK
* Value not critical
Figure 15-10. Monitor Mode Circuit (External Clock, with High Voltage)
VDD
N.C.
1
1 μF
3
4
1 μF
+
C1+
C1–
C2+
5 C2–
VDD
16
+
9.8304 MHz CLOCK
1 μF
15
+
10 kΩ*
VDD
V– 6
1 μF
2
7
10
3
8
9
10 kΩ
74HC125
5
6
+
2
OSC1 (PTA5)
1 μF
V+ 2
DB9
5
VDD
0.1 μF
MAX232
+
RST (PTA3)
74HC125
3
IRQ (PTA2)
PTA1
N.C.
PTA4
N.C.
PTA0
4
VSS
1
* Value not critical
Figure 15-11. Monitor Mode Circuit (External Clock, No High Voltage)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
146
Freescale Semiconductor
Monitor Module (MON)
VDD
N.C.
RST (PTA3)
VDD
0.1 μF
MAX232
1
1 μF
+
3
4
1 μF
+
C1+
C1–
C2+
5 C2–
VDD
+
3
1 μF
15
+
OSC1 (PTA5)
IRQ (PTA2)
1 μF
VDD
V– 6
1 μF
7
10
8
9
10 kΩ
74HC125
5
6
+
74HC125
3
2
PTA1
N.C.
PTA4
N.C.
10 kΩ*
V+ 2
DB9
2
N.C.
16
PTA0
VSS
4
1
5
* Value not critical
Figure 15-12. Monitor Mode Circuit (Internal Clock, No High Voltage)
The monitor code has been updated from previous versions of the monitor code to allow enabling the
internal oscillator to generate the internal clock. This addition, which is enabled when IRQ is held low out
of reset, is intended to support serial communication/programming at 9600 baud in monitor mode by using
the internal oscillator, and the internal oscillator user trim value OSCTRIM (FLASH location $FFC0, if
programmed) to generate the desired internal frequency (3.2 MHz). Since this feature is enabled only
when IRQ is held low out of reset, it cannot be used when the reset vector is programmed (i.e., the value
is not $FFFF) because entry into monitor mode in this case requires VTST on IRQ. The IRQ pin must
remain low during this monitor session in order to maintain communication.
Table 15-1 shows the pin conditions for entering monitor mode. As specified in the table, monitor mode
may be entered after a power-on reset (POR) and will allow communication at 9600 baud provided one
of the following sets of conditions is met:
• If $FFFE and $FFFF do not contain $FF (programmed state):
– The external clock is 9.8304 MHz
– IRQ = VTST
• If $FFFE and $FFFF contain $FF (erased state):
– The external clock is 9.8304 MHz
– IRQ = VDD (this can be implemented through the internal IRQ pullup)
• If $FFFE and $FFFF contain $FF (erased state):
– IRQ = VSS (internal oscillator is selected, no external clock required)
The rising edge of the internal RST signal latches the monitor mode. Once monitor mode is latched, the
values on PTA1 and PTA4 pins can be changed.
Once out of reset, the MCU waits for the host to send eight security bytes (see 15.3.2 Security). After the
security bytes, the MCU sends a break signal (10 consecutive 0s) to the host, indicating that it is ready to
receive a command.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
147
Development Support
Table 15-1. Monitor Mode Signal Requirements and Options
Mode
Serial
Mode
CommuniSelection
RST
Reset
IRQ
cation
(PTA2) (PTA3) Vector
PTA0
PTA1 PTA4
Communication
Speed
COP
External
Bus
Clock
Frequency
Comments
Baud
Rate
VTST
VDD
X
1
1
0
Disabled
9.8304
MHz
2.4576
MHz
9600
Provide external
clock at OSC1.
VDD
X
$FFFF
(blank)
1
X
X
Disabled
9.8304
MHz
2.4576
MHz
9600
Provide external
clock at OSC1.
VSS
X
$FFFF
(blank)
1
X
X
Disabled
X
3.2 MHz
(Trimmed)
9600
Internal clock is
active.
User
X
X
Not
$FFFF
X
X
X
Enabled
X
X
X
MON08
Function
[Pin No.]
VTST
[6]
RST
[4]
—
COM
[8]
—
OSC1
[13]
—
—
Normal
Monitor
Forced
Monitor
MOD0 MOD1
[12]
[10]
1. PTA0 must have a pullup resistor to VDD in monitor mode.
2. Communication speed in the table is an example to obtain a baud rate of 9600. Baud rate using external oscillator is bus
frequency / 256 and baud rate using internal oscillator is bus frequency / 335.
3. External clock is a 9.8304 MHz oscillator on OSC1.
4. Lowering VTST once monitor mode is entered allows the clock source to be controlled by the OSCSC register.
5. X = don’t care
6. MON08 pin refers to P&E Microcomputer Systems’ MON08-Cyclone 2 by 8-pin connector.
NC
1
2
GND
NC
3
4
RST
NC
5
6
IRQ
NC
7
8
PTA0
NC
9
10
PTA4
NC
11
12
PTA1
OSC1
13
14
NC
VDD
15
16
NC
15.3.1.1 Normal Monitor Mode
RST and OSC1 functions will be active on the PTA3 and PTA5 pins respectively as long as VTST is
applied to the IRQ pin. If the IRQ pin is lowered (no longer VTST) then the chip will still be operating in
monitor mode, but the pin functions will be determined by the settings in the configuration registers (see
Chapter 5 Configuration Register (CONFIG)) when VTST was lowered. With VTST lowered, the BIH and
BIL instructions will read the IRQ pin state only if IRQEN is set in the CONFIG2 register.
If monitor mode was entered with VTST on IRQ, then the COP is disabled as long as VTST is applied to
IRQ.
15.3.1.2 Forced Monitor Mode
If entering monitor mode without high voltage on IRQ, then startup port pin requirements and conditions,
(PTA1/PTA4) are not in effect. This is to reduce circuit requirements when performing in-circuit
programming.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
148
Freescale Semiconductor
Monitor Module (MON)
NOTE
If the reset vector is blank and monitor mode is entered, the chip will see an
additional reset cycle after the initial power-on reset (POR). Once the reset
vector has been programmed, the traditional method of applying a voltage,
VTST, to IRQ must be used to enter monitor mode.
If monitor mode was entered as a result of the reset vector being blank, the COP is always disabled
regardless of the state of IRQ.
If the voltage applied to the IRQ is less than VTST, the MCU will come out of reset in user mode. Internal
circuitry monitors the reset vector fetches and will assert an internal reset if it detects that the reset vectors
are erased ($FF). When the MCU comes out of reset, it is forced into monitor mode without requiring high
voltage on the IRQ pin. Once out of reset, the monitor code is initially executing with the internal clock at
its default frequency.
If IRQ is held high, all pins will default to regular input port functions except for PTA0 and PTA5 which will
operate as a serial communication port and OSC1 input respectively (refer to Figure 15-11). That will
allow the clock to be driven from an external source through OSC1 pin.
If IRQ is held low, all pins will default to regular input port function except for PTA0 which will operate as
serial communication port. Refer to Figure 15-12.
Regardless of the state of the IRQ pin, it will not function as a port input pin in monitor mode. Bit 2 of the
Port A data register will always read 0. The BIH and BIL instructions will behave as if the IRQ pin is
enabled, regardless of the settings in the configuration register. See Chapter 5 Configuration Register
(CONFIG).
The COP module is disabled in forced monitor mode. Any reset other than a power-on reset (POR) will
automatically force the MCU to come back to the forced monitor mode.
15.3.1.3 Monitor Vectors
In monitor mode, the MCU uses different vectors for reset, SWI (software interrupt), and break interrupt
than those for user mode. The alternate vectors are in the $FE page instead of the $FF page and allow
code execution from the internal monitor firmware instead of user code.
NOTE
Exiting monitor mode after it has been initiated by having a blank reset
vector requires a power-on reset (POR). Pulling RST (when RST pin
available) low will not exit monitor mode in this situation.
Table 15-2 summarizes the differences between user mode and monitor mode regarding vectors.
Table 15-2. Mode Difference
Functions
Modes
Reset
Vector High
Reset
Vector Low
Break
Vector High
Break
Vector Low
SWI
Vector High
SWI
Vector Low
User
$FFFE
$FFFF
$FFFC
$FFFD
$FFFC
$FFFD
Monitor
$FEFE
$FEFF
$FEFC
$FEFD
$FEFC
$FEFD
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
149
Development Support
15.3.1.4 Data Format
Communication with the monitor ROM is in standard non-return-to-zero (NRZ) mark/space data format.
Transmit and receive baud rates must be identical.
START
BIT
BIT 0
BIT 1
BIT 2
BIT 3
BIT 4
BIT 5
BIT 6
BIT 7
STOP
BIT
NEXT
START
BIT
Figure 15-13. Monitor Data Format
15.3.1.5 Break Signal
A start bit (logic 0) followed by nine logic 0 bits is a break signal. When the monitor receives a break signal,
it drives the PTA0 pin high for the duration of two bits and then echoes back the break signal.
MISSING STOP BIT
2-STOP BIT DELAY BEFORE ZERO ECHO
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Figure 15-14. Break Transaction
15.3.1.6 Baud Rate
The monitor communication baud rate is controlled by the frequency of the external or internal oscillator
and the state of the appropriate pins as shown in Table 15-1.
Table 15-1 also lists the bus frequencies to achieve standard baud rates. The effective baud rate is the
bus frequency divided by 256 when using an external oscillator. When using the internal oscillator in
forced monitor mode, the effective baud rate is the bus frequency divided by 335.
15.3.1.7 Commands
The monitor ROM firmware uses these commands:
• READ (read memory)
• WRITE (write memory)
• IREAD (indexed read)
• IWRITE (indexed write)
• READSP (read stack pointer)
• RUN (run user program)
The monitor ROM firmware echoes each received byte back to the PTA0 pin for error checking. An 11-bit
delay at the end of each command allows the host to send a break character to cancel the command. A
delay of two bit times occurs before each echo and before READ, IREAD, or READSP data is returned.
The data returned by a read command appears after the echo of the last byte of the command.
NOTE
Wait one bit time after each echo before sending the next byte.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
150
Freescale Semiconductor
Monitor Module (MON)
FROM
HOST
4
ADDRESS
HIGH
READ
READ
4
1
ADDRESS
HIGH
1
ADDRESS
LOW
4
ECHO
Notes:
1 = Echo delay, approximately 2 bit times
2 = Data return delay, approximately 2 bit times
ADDRESS
LOW
DATA
1
3, 2
4
RETURN
3 = Cancel command delay, 11 bit times
4 = Wait 1 bit time before sending next byte.
Figure 15-15. Read Transaction
FROM
HOST
3
ADDRESS
HIGH
WRITE
WRITE
3
1
ADDRESS
HIGH
1
ADDRESS
LOW
3
ADDRESS
LOW
1
DATA
DATA
3
1
2, 3
ECHO
Notes:
1 = Echo delay, approximately 2 bit times
2 = Cancel command delay, 11 bit times
3 = Wait 1 bit time before sending next byte.
Figure 15-16. Write Transaction
A brief description of each monitor mode command is given in Table 15-3 through Table 15-8.
Table 15-3. READ (Read Memory) Command
Description
Read byte from memory
Operand
2-byte address in high-byte:low-byte order
Data Returned
Returns contents of specified address
Opcode
$4A
Command Sequence
SENT TO MONITOR
READ
READ
ADDRESS ADDRESS ADDRESS
HIGH
HIGH
LOW
ADDRESS
LOW
ECHO
DATA
RETURN
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
151
Development Support
Table 15-4. WRITE (Write Memory) Command
Description
Operand
Data Returned
Opcode
Write byte to memory
2-byte address in high-byte:low-byte order; low byte followed by data byte
None
$49
Command Sequence
FROM HOST
WRITE
WRITE
ADDRESS
HIGH
ADDRESS
HIGH
ADDRESS
LOW
ADDRESS
LOW
DATA
DATA
ECHO
Table 15-5. IREAD (Indexed Read) Command
Description
Operand
Data Returned
Opcode
Read next 2 bytes in memory from last address accessed
None
Returns contents of next two addresses
$1A
Command Sequence
FROM HOST
IREAD
IREAD
DATA
ECHO
DATA
RETURN
Table 15-6. IWRITE (Indexed Write) Command
Description
Operand
Data Returned
Opcode
Write to last address accessed + 1
Single data byte
None
$19
Command Sequence
FROM HOST
IWRITE
IWRITE
DATA
DATA
ECHO
A sequence of IREAD or IWRITE commands can access a block of memory sequentially over the full
64-Kbyte memory map.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
152
Freescale Semiconductor
Monitor Module (MON)
Table 15-7. READSP (Read Stack Pointer) Command
Description
Operand
Data Returned
Opcode
Reads stack pointer
None
Returns incremented stack pointer value (SP + 1) in high-byte:low-byte
order
$0C
Command Sequence
FROM HOST
READSP
SP
HIGH
READSP
SP
LOW
ECHO
RETURN
Table 15-8. RUN (Run User Program) Command
Description
Executes PULH and RTI instructions
Operand
None
Data Returned
None
Opcode
$28
Command Sequence
FROM HOST
RUN
RUN
ECHO
The MCU executes the SWI and PSHH instructions when it enters monitor mode. The RUN command
tells the MCU to execute the PULH and RTI instructions. Before sending the RUN command, the host can
modify the stacked CPU registers to prepare to run the host program. The READSP command returns
the incremented stack pointer value, SP + 1. The high and low bytes of the program counter are at
addresses SP + 5 and SP + 6.
SP
HIGH BYTE OF INDEX REGISTER
SP + 1
CONDITION CODE REGISTER
SP + 2
ACCUMULATOR
SP + 3
LOW BYTE OF INDEX REGISTER
SP + 4
HIGH BYTE OF PROGRAM COUNTER
SP + 5
LOW BYTE OF PROGRAM COUNTER
SP + 6
SP + 7
Figure 15-17. Stack Pointer at Monitor Mode Entry
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
153
Development Support
15.3.2 Security
A security feature discourages unauthorized reading of FLASH locations while in monitor mode. The host
can bypass the security feature at monitor mode entry by sending eight security bytes that match the
bytes at locations $FFF6–$FFFD. Locations $FFF6–$FFFD contain user-defined data.
NOTE
Do not leave locations $FFF6–$FFFD blank. For security reasons, program
locations $FFF6–$FFFD even if they are not used for vectors.
During monitor mode entry, the MCU waits after the power-on reset for the host to send the eight security
bytes on pin PTA0. If the received bytes match those at locations $FFF6–$FFFD, the host bypasses the
security feature and can read all FLASH locations and execute code from FLASH. Security remains
bypassed until a power-on reset occurs. If the reset was not a power-on reset, security remains bypassed
and security code entry is not required. See Figure 15-18.
Upon power-on reset, if the received bytes of the security code do not match the data at locations
$FFF6–$FFFD, the host fails to bypass the security feature. The MCU remains in monitor mode, but
reading a FLASH location returns an invalid value and trying to execute code from FLASH causes an
illegal address reset. After receiving the eight security bytes from the host, the MCU transmits a break
character, signifying that it is ready to receive a command.
NOTE
The MCU does not transmit a break character until after the host sends the
eight security bytes.
VDD
4096 + 32 BUSCLKX4 CYCLES
COMMAND
BYTE 8
BYTE 2
FROM HOST
BYTE 1
RST
PA0
3
BREAK
2
1
COMMAND ECHO
1
BYTE 8 ECHO
Notes:
1 = Echo delay, approximately 2 bit times
2 = Data return delay, approximately 2 bit times
3 = Wait 1 bit time before sending next byte
4 = Wait until clock is stable and monitor runs
1
BYTE 2 ECHO
FROM MCU
3
1
BYTE 1 ECHO
4
Figure 15-18. Monitor Mode Entry Timing
To determine whether the security code entered is correct, check to see if bit 6 of RAM address $80 is
set. If it is, then the correct security code has been entered and FLASH can be accessed.
If the security sequence fails, the device should be reset by a power-on reset and brought up in monitor
mode to attempt another entry. After failing the security sequence, the FLASH module can also be mass
erased by executing an erase routine that was downloaded into internal RAM. The mass erase operation
clears the security code locations so that all eight security bytes become $FF (blank).
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
154
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 16
Electrical Specifications
16.1 Introduction
This section contains electrical and timing specifications.
16.2 Absolute Maximum Ratings
Maximum ratings are the extreme limits to which the microcontroller unit (MCU) can be exposed without
permanently damaging it.
NOTE
This device is not guaranteed to operate properly at the maximum ratings.
Refer to 16.5 5-V DC Electrical Characteristics and 16.8 3-V DC Electrical
Characteristics for guaranteed operating conditions.
Characteristic(1)
Symbol
Value
Unit
Supply voltage
VDD
–0.3 to +6.0
V
Input voltage
VIN
VSS –0.3 to VDD +0.3
V
VTST
VSS –0.3 to +9.1
V
I
±15
mA
IPTA0—IPTA5
±25
mA
Storage temperature
TSTG
–55 to +150
°C
Maximum current out of VSS
IMVSS
100
mA
Maximum current into VDD
IMVDD
100
mA
Mode entry voltage, IRQ pin
Maximum current per pin excluding
PTA0–PTA5, VDD, and VSS
Maximum current for pins PTA0–PTA5
1. Voltages references to VSS.
NOTE
This device contains circuitry to protect the inputs against damage due to
high static voltages or electric fields; however, it is advised that normal
precautions be taken to avoid application of any voltage higher than
maximum-rated voltages to this high-impedance circuit. For proper
operation, it is recommended that VIN and VOUT be constrained to the
range VSS ≤ (VIN or VOUT) ≤ VDD. Reliability of operation is enhanced if
unused inputs are connected to an appropriate logic voltage level (for
example, either VSS or VDD.)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
155
Electrical Specifications
16.3 Functional Operating Range
Characteristic
Operating temperature range
Operating voltage range
Symbol
Value
Unit
Temperature
Code
TA
(TL to TH)
– 40 to +125
– 40 to +105
– 40 to +85
°C
M
V
C
VDD
2.7 to 5.5
V
—
16.4 Thermal Characteristics
Characteristic
Symbol
Value
Unit
Thermal resistance
8-pin PDIP
8-pin SOIC
16-pin PDIP
16-pin SOIC
16-pin TSSOP
θJA
I/O pin power dissipation
PI/O
User determined
W
Power dissipation(1)
PD
PD = (IDD x VDD)
+ PI/O = K/(TJ + 273°C)
W
Constant(2)
K
Average junction temperature
Maximum junction temperature
105
142
76
90
133
°C/W
PD x (TA + 273°C)
+ PD2 x θJA
W/°C
TJ
TA + (PD x θJA)
°C
TJM
150
°C
1. Power dissipation is a function of temperature.
2. K constant unique to the device. K can be determined for a known TA and measured PD. With this value of K, PD and TJ
can be determined for any value of TA.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
156
Freescale Semiconductor
5-V DC Electrical Characteristics
16.5 5-V DC Electrical Characteristics
Characteristic(1)
Symbol
Min
Typ(2)
Max
VDD –0.4
VDD –1.5
VDD –0.8
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
50
—
—
—
—
—
—
0.4
1.5
0.8
Unit
Output high voltage
ILoad = –2.0 mA, all I/O pins
ILoad = –10.0 mA, all I/O pins
ILoad = –15.0 mA, PTA0, PTA1, PTA3–PTA5 only
VOH
Maximum combined IOH (all I/O pins)
IOHT
Output low voltage
ILoad = 1.6 mA, all I/O pins
ILoad = 10.0 mA, all I/O pins
ILoad = 15.0 mA, PTA0, PTA1, PTA3–PTA5 only
VOL
Maximum combined IOL (all I/O pins)
IOHL
—
—
50
mA
Input high voltage
PTA0–PTA5, PTB0–PTB7
VIH
0.7 x VDD
—
VDD
V
Input low voltage
PTA0–PTA5, PTB0–PTB7
VIL
VSS
—
0.3 x VDD
V
VHYS
0.06 x VDD
—
—
V
IINJ
–2
—
+2
mA
IINJTOT
–25
—
+25
mA
Ports Hi-Z leakage current
IIL
–1
±0.1
+1
μA
Capacitance
Ports (as input)(3)
CIN
—
—
8
pF
POR rearm voltage
VPOR
750
—
—
mV
RPOR
0.035
—
—
V/ms
Monitor mode entry voltage (3)
VTST
VDD + 2.5
—
9.1
V
Pullup resistors(6)
PTA0–PTA5, PTB0–PTB7
RPU
16
26
36
kΩ
Pulldown resistors(7)
PTA0–PTA5
RPD
16
26
36
kΩ
Low-voltage inhibit reset, trip falling voltage
VTRIPF
3.90
4.20
4.50
V
Low-voltage inhibit reset, trip rising voltage
VTRIPR
4.00
4.30
4.60
V
Low-voltage inhibit reset/recover hysteresis
VHYS
—
100
—
mV
Input hysteresis(3)
DC injection current, all ports(4)
(4)
Total dc current injection (sum of all I/O)
POR rise time ramp
rate(3)(5)
V
mA
V
1. VDD = 4.5 to 5.5 Vdc, VSS = 0 Vdc, TA = TL to TH, unless otherwise noted.
2. Typical values reflect average measurements at midpoint of voltage range, 25•C only.
3. Values are based on characterization results, not tested in production.
4. Guaranteed by design, not tested in production.
5. If minimum VDD is not reached before the internal POR reset is released, the LVI will hold the part in reset until minimum
VDD is reached.
6. RPU is measured at VDD = 5.0 V.
7. RPD is measured at VDD = 5.0 V, Pulldown resistors only available when KBIx is enabled with KBIxPOL =1.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
157
Electrical Specifications
16.6 Typical 5-V Output Drive Characteristics
1.6
1.4
VDD-VOH (V)
1.2
1.0
5V PTA
0.8
5V PTB
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
IOH (mA)
Figure 16-1. Typical 5-Volt Output High Voltage
versus Output High Current (25°C)
1.6
1.4
1.2
VOL (V)
1.0
5V PTA
0.8
5V PTB
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
IOL (mA)
Figure 16-2. Typical 5-Volt Output Low Voltage
versus Output Low Current (25°C)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
158
Freescale Semiconductor
5-V Control Timing
16.7 5-V Control Timing
Characteristic(1)
Symbol
Min
Max
Unit
Internal operating frequency
fOP
(fBUS)
—
8
MHz
Internal clock period (1/fOP)
tcyc
125
—
ns
RST input pulse width low(2)
tRL
100
—
ns
IRQ interrupt pulse width low (edge-triggered)(2)
tILIH
100
—
ns
—
tcyc
(2)
tILIL
IRQ interrupt pulse period
(3)
Note
1. VDD = 4.5 to 5.5 Vdc, VSS = 0 Vdc, TA = TL to TH; timing shown with respect to 20% VDD and 70% VSS, unless otherwise
noted.
2. Values are based on characterization results, not tested in production.
3. The minimum period is the number of cycles it takes to execute the interrupt service routine plus 1 tcyc.
tRL
RST
tILIL
tILIH
IRQ
Figure 16-3. RST and IRQ Timing
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
159
Electrical Specifications
16.8 3-V DC Electrical Characteristics
Characteristic(1)
Symbol
Min
Typ(2)
Max
VDD –0.3
VDD –1.0
VDD –0.8
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
50
—
—
—
—
—
—
0.3
1.0
0.8
Unit
Output high voltage
ILoad = –0.6 mA, all I/O pins
ILoad = –4.0 mA, all I/O pins
ILoad = –10.0 mA, PTA0, PTA1, PTA3–PTA5 only
VOH
Maximum combined IOH (all I/O pins)
IOHT
Output low voltage
ILoad = 0.5 mA, all I/O pins
ILoad = 6.0 mA, all I/O pins
ILoad = 10.0 mA, PTA0, PTA1, PTA3–PTA5 only
VOL
Maximum combined IOL (all I/O pins)
IOHL
—
—
50
mA
Input high voltage
PTA0–PTA5, PTB0–PTB7
VIH
0.7 x VDD
—
VDD
V
Input low voltage
PTA0–PTA5, PTB0–PTB7
VIL
VSS
—
0.3 x VDD
V
VHYS
0.06 x VDD
—
—
V
IINJ
–2
—
+2
mA
IINJTOT
–25
—
+25
mA
Ports Hi-Z leakage current
IIL
–1
±0.1
+1
μA
Capacitance
Ports (as input)(3)
CIN
—
—
8
pF
POR rearm voltage
VPOR
750
—
—
mV
POR rise time ramp rate(3)(5)
RPOR
0.035
—
—
V/ms
Monitor mode entry voltage (3)
VTST
VDD + 2.5
—
VDD + 4.0
V
Pullup resistors(6)
PTA0–PTA5, PTB0–PTB7
RPU
16
26
36
kΩ
Pulldown resistors(7)
PTA0–PTA5
RPD
16
26
36
kΩ
Low-voltage inhibit reset, trip falling voltage
VTRIPF
2.40
2.55
2.70
V
Low-voltage inhibit reset, trip rising voltage(6)
VTRIPR
2.475
2.625
2.775
V
Low-voltage inhibit reset/recover hysteresis
VHYS
—
75
—
mV
Input hysteresis(3)
DC injection current, all ports(4)
Total dc current injection (sum of all I/O)(4)
V
mA
V
1. VDD = 2.7 to 3.3 Vdc, VSS = 0 Vdc, TA = TL to TH, unless otherwise noted.
2. Typical values reflect average measurements at midpoint of voltage range, 25•C only.
3. Values are based on characterization results, not tested in production.
4. Guaranteed by design, not tested in production.
5. If minimum VDD is not reached before the internal POR reset is released, the LVI will hold the part in reset until minimum
VDD is reached.
6. RPU is measured at VDD = 3.0 V
7. RPD is measured at VDD = 3.0 V, Pulldown resistors only available when KBIx is enabled with KBIxPOL =1.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
160
Freescale Semiconductor
Typical 3-V Output Drive Characteristics
16.9 Typical 3-V Output Drive Characteristics
1.2
1.0
VDD-VOH (V)
0.8
3V PTA
0.6
3V PTB
0.4
0.2
0.0
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
IOH (mA)
Figure 16-4. Typical 3-Volt Output High Voltage
versus Output High Current (25°C)
1.2
1.0
0.8
VOL (V)
3V PTA
0.6
3V PTB
0.4
0.2
0.0
0
5
10
15
20
25
IOL (mA)
Figure 16-5. Typical 3-Volt Output Low Voltage
versus Output Low Current (25°C)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
161
Electrical Specifications
16.10 3-V Control Timing
Characteristic(1)
Symbol
Min
Max
Unit
Internal operating frequency
fOP (fBus)
—
4
MHz
Internal clock period (1/fOP)
tcyc
250
—
ns
tRL
200
—
ns
IRQ interrupt pulse width low (edge-triggered)(2)
tILIH
200
—
ns
IRQ interrupt pulse period(2)
tILIL
Note(3)
—
tcyc
RST input pulse width low
(2)
1. VDD = 2.7 to 3.3 Vdc, VSS = 0 Vdc, TA = TL to TH; timing shown with respect to 20% VDD and 70% VDD, unless otherwise
noted.
2. Values are based on characterization results, not tested in production.
3. The minimum period is the number of cycles it takes to execute the interrupt service routine plus 1 tcyc.
tRL
RST
tILIL
tILIH
IRQ
Figure 16-6. RST and IRQ Timing
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
162
Freescale Semiconductor
Oscillator Characteristics
16.11 Oscillator Characteristics
Characteristic
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
—
—
—
4
8
12.8
—
—
—
Unit
(1)
Internal oscillator frequency
ICFS1:ICFS0 = 00
ICFS1:ICFS0 = 01
ICFS1:ICFS0 = 10 (not allowed if VDD <2.7V)
fINTCLK
MHz
Trim accuracy(2)(3)
ΔTRIM_ACC
—
± 0.4
—
%
Deviation from trimmed Internal oscillator(3)(4)
4, 8, 12.8MHz, VDD ± 10%, 0 to 70°C
4, 8, 12.8MHz, VDD ± 10%, –40 to 125°C
ΔINT_TRIM
—
—
±2
—
—
±5
%
External RC oscillator frequency, RCCLK (1)(3)
fRCCLK
2
—
10
MHz
fOSCXCLK
dc
dc
—
32
16
MHz
External clock reference frequencyy(1)(5)(6)
VDD ≥ 4.5V
VDD < 4.5V
RC oscillator external resistor(3)
VDD = 5 V
VDD = 3 V
REXT
Crystal frequency, XTALCLK(1)(7)(8)
ECFS1:ECFS0 = 00 ( VDD ≥ 4.5 V)
ECFS1:ECFS0 = 00
ECFS1:ECFS0 = 01
ECFS1:ECFS0 = 10
fOSCXCLK
ECFS1:ECFS0 = 00 (9)
Feedback bias resistor
Crystal load capacitance(10)
Crystal capacitors(10)
RB
CL
C1,C2
See Figure 16-7
See Figure 16-8
8
8
1
30
—
—
32
16
8
100
MHz
MHz
MHz
kHz
—
—
—
1
20
(2 x CL) – 5pF
—
—
—
MΩ
pF
pF
20
10
0
5
18
(2 x CL) –10 pF
—
—
—
—
—
—
kΩ
kΩ
kΩ
MΩ
pF
pF
32
—
kHz
ECFS1:ECFS0 = 01(9)
Crystal series damping resistor
fOSCXCLK = 1 MHz
fOSCXCLK = 4 MHz
fOSCXCLK = 8 MHz
Feedback bias resistor
Crystal load capacitance(10)
Crystal capacitors(10)
RB
CL
C1,C2
—
—
—
—
—
—
AWU module internal RC oscillator frequency
fINTRC
—
RS
1. Bus frequency, fOP, is oscillator frequency divided by 4.
2. Factory trimmed to provided 12.8MHz accuracy requirement (± 5%, @25•C) for forced monitor mode communication. User
should trim in-circuit to obtain the most accurate internal oscillator frequency for the application.
3. Values are based on characterization results, not tested in production.
4. Deviation values assumes trimming in target application @25•C and midpoint of voltage range, for example 5.0 V for 5 V
± 10% operation.
5. No more than 10% duty cycle deviation from 50%.
6. When external oscillator clock is greater than 1MHz, ECFS1:ECFS0 must be 00 or 01
7. Use fundamental mode only, do not use overtone crystals or overtone ceramic resonators
8. Due to variations in electrical properties of external components such as, ESR and Load Capacitance, operation above
16 MHz is not guaranteed for all crystals or ceramic resonators. Operation above 16 MHz requires that a Negative Resistance Margin (NRM) characterization and component optimization be performed by the crystal or ceramic resonator vendor
for every different type of crystal or ceramic resonator which will be used. This characterization and optimization must be
performed at the extremes of voltage and temperature which will be applied to the microcontroller in the application. The
NRM must meet or exceed 10x the maximum ESR of the crystal or ceramic resonator for acceptable performance.
9. Do not use damping resistor when ECFS1:ECFS0 = 00 or 10
10. Consult crystal vendor data sheet.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
163
Electrical Specifications
12
5V 25 oC
RC FREQUENCY,RCCLK
f
(MHz)
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Rext (k ohms)
Figure 16-7. RC versus Frequency (5 Volts @ 25°C)
12
3V 25 oC
RC FREQUENCY,RCCLK
f
(MHz)
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Rext (k ohms)
Figure 16-8. RC versus Frequency (3 Volts @ 25°C)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
164
Freescale Semiconductor
Supply Current Characteristics
16.12 Supply Current Characteristics
Voltage
Bus
Frequency
(MHz)
Symbol
Typ(2)
Max
Unit
Run mode VDD supply current(3)
5.0
3.0
3.2
3.2
RIDD
6.0
3.1
7.0
3.8
mA
Wait mode VDD supply current(4)
5.0
3.0
3.2
3.2
WIDD
1.8
1.1
2.5
1.75
mA
0.5
—
—
20
150
1.2
2.0
5.0
—
—
0.36
—
—
4
130
1.0
1.2
4.0
—
—
Characteristic(1)
Stop mode VDD supply current(5)
–40 to 85°C
–40 to 105°C(6)
–40 to 125°C
25°C with auto wake-up enabled
Incremental current with LVI enabled at 25°C
Stop mode VDD supply current(4)
–40 to 85°C
–40 to 105°C(6)
–40 to 125°C
25°C with auto wake-up enabled
Incremental current with LVI enabled at 25°C
5.0
μA
SIDD
3.0
μA
1. VSS = 0 Vdc, TA = TL to TH, unless otherwise noted.
2. Typical values reflect average measurement at 25°C only.
3. Run (operating) IDD measured using trimmed internal oscillator, ADC off, all modules enabled. All pins configured as inputs
and tied to 0.2 V from rail.
4. Wait IDD measured using trimmed internal oscillator, ADC off, all modules enabled. All pins configured as inputs and tied
to 0.2 V from rail.
5. Stop IDD measured with all pins configured as inputs and tied to 0.2 V from rail. On the 8-pin versions, port B is configured
as inputs with pullups enabled.
6. For automotive applications only.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
165
Electrical Specifications
12
11
10
9
Internal OSC (No A/D, ESCI, SPI)
8
Internal OSC all Modules enabled
IDD
7
6
External Reference No A/D
5
External Reference All modules
enabled
4
3
2
1
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
FREQUENCY
6
7
8
9
Figure 16-9. Typical 5-Volt Run Current
versus Bus Frequency (25•C)
3
2.5
2
Internal OSC (No A/D, ESCI, SPI)
Idd(mA)
Internal OSC all Modules enabled
External OSC (No A/D)
1.5
External OSC all Modules Enabled
1
0.5
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
BUS FREQUENCY (MHz)
Figure 16-10. Typical 3-Volt Run Current
versus Bus Frequency (25•C)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
166
Freescale Semiconductor
ADC10 Characteristics
16.13 ADC10 Characteristics
Characteristic
Conditions
Supply voltage
Absolute
Supply Current
ADLPC = 1
ADLSMP = 1
ADCO = 1
VDD < 3.3 V (3.0 V Typ)
Supply current
ADLPC = 1
ADLSMP = 0
ADCO = 1
VDD < 3.3 V (3.0 V Typ)
Supply current
ADLPC = 0
ADLSMP = 1
ADCO = 1
VDD < 3.3 V (3.0 V Typ)
Supply current
ADLPC = 0
ADLSMP = 0
ADCO = 1
VDD < 3.3 V (3.0 V Typ)
VDD < 5.5 V (5.0 V Typ)
VDD < 5.5 V (5.0 V Typ)
Symbol
Min
Typ(1)
Max
Unit
VDD
2.7
—
5.5
V
—
55
—
—
75
—
—
120
—
—
175
—
—
140
—
—
180
—
—
340
—
—
440
615
0.40(3)
—
2.00
0.40(3)
—
1.00
19
19
21
39
39
41
16
16
18
36
36
38
4
4
4
24
24
24
tADCK
cycles
IDD
(2)
IDD
(2)
IDD(2)
VDD < 5.5 V (5.0 V Typ)
IDD
VDD < 5.5 V (5.0 V Typ)
fADCK
Low power (ADLPC = 1)
Conversion time (4)
10-bit Mode
Conversion time (4)
8-bit Mode
Short sample (ADLSMP = 0)
Long sample (ADLSMP = 1)
Short sample (ADLSMP = 0)
Long sample (ADLSMP = 1)
Short sample (ADLSMP = 0)
Sample time
Long sample (ADLSMP = 1)
μA
μA
μA
μA
(2)
High speed (ADLPC = 0)
ADC internal clock
tADC
tADC
tADS
Comment
MHz
tADCK = 1/fADCK
tADCK
cycles
tADCK
cycles
Input voltage
VADIN
VSS
—
VDD
V
Input capacitance
CADIN
—
7
10
pF
Not tested
Input impedance
RADIN
—
5
15
kΩ
Not tested
RAS
—
—
10
kΩ
External to
MCU
1.758
5
5.371
mV
7.031
20
21.48
VREFH/2N
0
±1.5
±2.5
LSB
Includes
quantization
Analog source impedance
10-bit mode
Ideal resolution (1 LSB)
RES
8-bit mode
10-bit mode
Total unadjusted error
8-bit mode
ETUE
10-bit mode
0
±0.7
±1.0
0
±0.5
—
0
±0.3
—
DNL
Differential non-linearity
8-bit mode
LSB
Monotonicity and no-missing-codes guaranteed
— Continued on next page
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
167
Electrical Specifications
Characteristic
Conditions
Symbol
10-bit mode
Integral non-linearity
Typ(1)
Max
0
±0.5
—
0
±0.3
—
0
±0.5
—
0
±0.3
—
0
±0.5
—
0
±0.3
—
—
—
±0.5
—
—
±0.5
0
±0.2
±5
INL
8-bit mode
10-bit mode
Zero-scale error
8-bit mode
10-bit mode
Full-scale error
8-bit mode
10-bit mode
Quantization error
8-bit mode
10-bit mode
Input leakage error
8-bit mode
Bandgap voltage input(6)
Min
EZS
EFS
EQ
EIL
VBG
Unit
Comment
LSB
0
±0.1
±1.2
1.17
1.245
1.32
LSB
VADIN = VSS
LSB
VADIN = VDD
LSB
8-bit mode is
not truncated
LSB
Pad leakage(5)
* RAS
V
1. Typical values assume VDD = 5.0 V, temperature = 25•C, fADCK = 1.0 MHz unless otherwise stated. Typical values are for
reference only and are not tested in production.
2. Incremental IDD added to MCU mode current.
3. Values are based on characterization results, not tested in production.
4. Reference the ADC module specification for more information on calculating conversion times.
5. Based on typical input pad leakage current.
6. LVI must be enabled, (LVIPWRD = 0, in CONFIG1). Voltage input to ADCH4:0 = $1A, an ADC conversion on this channel
allows user to determine supply voltage.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
168
Freescale Semiconductor
Timer Interface Module Characteristics
16.14 Timer Interface Module Characteristics
Characteristic
Symbol
Min
Max
Unit
tTH, tTL
2
—
tcyc
tTLTL
Note(2)
—
tcyc
tTCL, tTCH
tcyc + 5
—
ns
Timer input capture pulse width(1)
Timer input capture period
Timer input clock pulse width(1)
1. Values are based on characterization results, not tested in production.
2. The minimum period is the number of cycles it takes to execute the interrupt service routine plus 1 tcyc.
tTLTL
tTH
INPUT CAPTURE
RISING EDGE
tTLTL
tTL
INPUT CAPTURE
FALLING EDGE
tTLTL
tTH
tTL
INPUT CAPTURE
BOTH EDGES
tTCH
TCLK
tTCL
Figure 16-11. Timer Input Timing
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
169
Electrical Specifications
16.15 Memory Characteristics
Characteristic
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
VRDR
1.3
—
—
V
—
1
—
—
MHz
VPGM/ERASE
2.7
—
5.5
V
fRead(2)
0
—
8M
Hz
FLASH page erase time
<1 K cycles
>1 K cycles
tErase
0.9
3.6
1
4
1.1
5.5
ms
FLASH mass erase time
tMErase
4
—
—
ms
FLASH PGM/ERASE to HVEN setup time
tNVS
10
—
—
μs
FLASH high-voltage hold time
tNVH
5
—
—
μs
FLASH high-voltage hold time (mass erase)
tNVHL
100
—
—
μs
FLASH program hold time
tPGS
5
—
—
μs
FLASH program time
tPROG
30
—
40
μs
FLASH return to read time
tRCV(3)
1
—
—
μs
FLASH cumulative program hv period
tHV(4)
—
—
4
ms
FLASH endurance(5)
—
10 k
100 k
—
Cycles
FLASH data retention time(6)
—
15
100
—
Years
RAM data retention voltage (1)
FLASH program bus clock frequency
FLASH PGM/ERASE supply voltage (VDD)
FLASH read bus clock frequency
1. Values are based on characterization results, not tested in production.
2. fRead is defined as the frequency range for which the FLASH memory can be read.
3. tRCV is defined as the time it needs before the FLASH can be read after turning off the high voltage charge pump, by clearing HVEN to 0.
4. tHV is defined as the cumulative high voltage programming time to the same row before next erase.
tHV must satisfy this condition: tNVS + tNVH + tPGS + (tPROG x 32) ≤ tHV maximum.
5. Typical endurance was evaluated for this product family. For additional information on how Freescale Semiconductor
defines Typical Endurance, please refer to Engineering Bulletin EB619.
6. Typical data retention values are based on intrinsic capability of the technology measured at high temperature and de-rated
to 25•C using the Arrhenius equation. For additional information on how Freescale Semiconductor defines Typical Data
Retention, please refer to Engineering Bulletin EB618.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
170
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 17
Ordering Information and Mechanical Specifications
17.1 Introduction
This section contains order numbers for the MC68HC908QY1A, MC68HC908QY2A, MC68HC908QY4A,
MC68HC908QT1A, MC68HC908QT2A, and MC69HC908QT4A. Dimensions are given for:
• 8-pin plastic dual in-line package (PDIP)
• 8-pin small outline integrated circuit (SOIC) package
• 8-pin dual flat no lead (DFN) package
• 16-pin PDIP
• 16-pin SOIC
• 16-pin thin shrink small outline package (TSSOP)
17.2 Ordering Information
Table 17-1. Consumer and Industrial Device Numbering System
Device Number
ADC
FLASH Memory
Packages(1)
MC908QT1A
—
1536 bytes
MC908QT2A
Yes
1536 bytes
MC908QT4A
Yes
4096 bytes
8-pins
PDIP, SOIC,
and DFN
MC908QY1A
—
1536 bytes
MC908QY2A
Yes
1536 bytes
MC908QY4A
Yes
4096 bytes
16-pins
PDIP, SOIC,
and TSSOP
1. See Table 17-3 for package information.
Table 17-2. Automotive Device Numbering System
Device Number
ADC
FLASH Memory
Packages(1)
S908QY2A
Yes
1536 bytes
S908QY4A
Yes
4096 bytes
16-pins
TSSOP and SOIC
1. See Table 17-3 for package information.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
171
Ordering Information and Mechanical Specifications
17.3 Orderable Part Numbering System
17.3.1 Consumer and Industrial Orderable Part Numbering System
MC 9 08 QY2A C XX E
STATUS (MC = CONSUMER AND
INDUSTRIAL FULLY QUALIFIED)
Pb FREE INDICATOR
PACKAGE DESIGNATOR
FQ = 8-PIN DFN
DW = 8-PIN SOIC
P = 8-PIN DIP
DT = 16-PIN TSSOP
DW = 16 PIN SOIC
P = 16-PIN DIP
MEMORY
(9 = FLASH BASED)
CORE
FAMILY
TEMPERATURE RANGE
C = –40°C to +85°C
M = –40°C to +125°C
17.3.2 Automotive Orderable Part Number System
S 9 08 QY2A D 1 C XX E
STATUS (S = AUTOMOTIVE
FULLY QUALIFIED)
RoHS COMPLIANCE DESIGNATOR (E = YES)
PACKAGE DESIGNATOR
DT = 16-PIN TSSOP
DW = 16-PIN SOIC
MEMORY
(9 = FLASH BASED)
CORE
TEMPERATURE RANGE
C = –40°C to +85°C
V = –40°C to +105°C
M = –40°C to +125°C
FAMILY
MASK REVISION
WAFER FAB
17.4 Mechanical Drawings
The following pages contain mechanical specifications for MC68HC908QY4/QTA series package
options. See Table 17-3 for the document numbers that correspond to each package type.
Table 17-3. Package Information
Pin Count
Type
Designator
Document No.
8
PDIP
P
98ASB42420B
8
SOIC
DW
98ASH70107A
8
DFN
FQ
98ARL10557D
16
PDIP
P
98ASB42431B
16
SOIC
DW
98ASB42567B
16
TSSOP
DT
98ASH70247A
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
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Appendix A
908QTA/QYxA Conversion Guidelines
A.1 Introduction
This engineering bulletin describes the 908QTA/QYxA. The 908QTA/QYxA is an enhanced device
intended to replace the 908QT/QYx series of devices (referred to as the QY Classic in this document).
Customer requests have led to the advanced design of the QYxA that has added adaptability, new
features, and contains lead-free packaging.
This document:
•
Provides information needed to convert from QY Classic to the enhanced QYxA
•
Highlights the benefits of making this change
Sections:
•
A.2 Benefits of the Enhanced QYxA
•
A.3 Conversion Considerations
•
A.4 Code Changes Checklist
•
A.5 Development Tools
•
A.6 Differences in Packaging
A.2 Benefits of the Enhanced QYxA
The QYxA contains new and enhanced modules that add more flexibility and new features to the QY
Classic. These benefits can improve the operation of an application or lead to new features for an
application. For more information regarding these features refer to the QYxA data sheet (Freescale
document order number MC68HC908QYxA).
A.2.1 New Analog-to-Digital Converter Module (ADC)
The QYxA contains a 10-bit ADC which replaces the 8-bit ADC on the QY Classic. This module allows
both 10-bit and 8-bit conversion modes. The increased precision for ADC readings can be very useful in
many applications.
Features of the ADC new 10-bit module include:
•
There are two new ADC channels that have been placed on PTB0 and PTB1 allowing added
flexibility especially when debugging in Monitor Mode.
– A limitation of QY Classic debugging is that access to the ADC channels is limited because
many of the QY Classic pins are multiplexed. Having extra ADC channels on the PTB pins
resolves this limitation.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
191
•
The ADC that is on the QYxA can operate while the MCU is in stop mode allowing lower power
operation. This also adds a lower noise environment for precise ADC results.
•
Enabling an ADC channel no longer overrides the digital I/O function of the associated pin. To
prevent the digital I/O from interfering with the ADC read of the pin, the data direction bit associated
with the port pin must be set as input.
•
Finally, the new ADC can be configured to select two different reference clock sources:
– The internal bus x 4
– An internal asynchronous source
The internal asynchronous clock source allows the ADC to be clocked for operation in stop mode.
A.2.1.1 Registers Affected
Bit 7
Read:
COCO
Write:
Reset:
0
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
AIEN
ADCO
ADCH4
ADCH3
ADCH2
ADCH1
ADCH0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
= Unimplemented
Figure A-1. ADC10 Status and Control Register (ADSCR)
The ADCHx bits can be used to select additional ADC channels or bandgap measurement.
Read:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
AD9
AD8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Write:
Reset:
= Unimplemented
Figure A-2. ADC10 Data Register High (ADRH), 10-Bit Mode
10-bit ADC uses the new ADRH register for the upper 2 bits.
Read:
Write:
Reset:
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
ADLPC
ADIV1
ADIV0
ADICLK
MODE1
MODE0
ADLSMP
ACLKEN
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure A-3. ADC10 Clock Register (ADCLK)
A long sample time option has been added to conserve power at the expense of longer conversion times.
This option is selected using the new ADLSMP bit in the ADCLK register. (The bit location was previously
reserved.)
The ADC will now run in stop mode if the ACLKEN bit is set to enable the asynchronous clock inside the
ADC module. Utilizing stop mode for an ADC conversion gives the quietest operating mode to get
extremely accurate ADC readings. (This bit location now used by ACLKEN was reserved — it always read
as a 0 and writes to that location had no affect.)
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
192
Freescale Semiconductor
A.2.2 Enhanced Oscillator Module (OSC)
The QYxA contains a much enhanced oscillator module that allows more options than the QYx Classic.
•
The ICFS bits in the Oscillator Status and Control Register (OSCSC) allow the Internal Oscillator
to be configured for 1-, 2-, or 3.2-MHz operation. Also, the ECFS bits in the same register allow a
low, medium, or high crystal frequency range to be selected for the source of the system clock.
With this option you can choose to use a 32-kHz (low range) or a 16-MHz (high range) crystal.
•
Another improvement to the Oscillator Module design is that you can switch between internal
oscillator and external oscillator options at any time. For example, if you wanted the low power
advantage of running from a 32-kHz crystal but still needed some processing power to perform
math calculations you could switch back and forth between internal and external clock. The same
is true for switching between 1-, 2-, and 3.2-MHz internal oscillator options.
A.2.2.1 Registers Affected
Bit 7
Read:
Write:
6
OSCOPT1 OSCOPT0
Reset:
0
0
5
4
3
2
1
ICFS1
ICFS0
ECFS1
ECFS0
ECGON
1
0
0
0
0
Bit 0
ECGST
0
= Unimplemented
Figure A-4. Oscillator Status and Control Register (OSCSC)
The OSCOPT bits are no longer in the CONFIG2 register and now reside in the OSCSC register. Also,
the ICFSx and ECFSx bits now reside in this register.
The IFS bits are used to select different Internal Oscillator speeds.
The ECFS bits are used to select the range of crystal that should be used to provide the reference clock.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
193
A.2.3 Improved Auto Wakeup Module (AWU)
The QYxA contains an AWU that has improved accuracy across voltage and temperature for typical
testing.
•
A new feature provides ability to run the AWU from an alternate source (internal oscillator or
external crystal). This is an advantage for an application that needs more accurate AWU operation.
•
On the QYxA AWU approximate time out will be 16 ms for short time out and 512 ms for long time
out when running from the internal 32-kHz RC source.
•
Finally, at lower voltages typical measurements have shown lower power consumption by the
QYxA AWU.
A.2.3.1 Registers Affected
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
IRQPUD
IRQEN
R
R
R
R
OSCENINSTOP
RSTEN
Reset:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
U
POR:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
= Reserved
Read:
Write:
U = Unaffected
Figure A-5. Configuration Register 2 (CONFIG2)
Setting the OSCENINSTOP bit forces the AWU to use BUSCLKX2 as the source to this timeout.
A.2.4 New Power-on Reset Module (POR)
The QYxA POR re-arm voltage will have a minimum specification of 0.7 V while the QYx Classic POR
re-arm was 0.1 V. The higher POR re-arm voltage provides added protection against brown out
conditions.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
194
Freescale Semiconductor
A.2.5 Keyboard Interface Module (KBI) Functionality
The KBI module for the QYxA has the added capability of:
•
Triggering a KBI interrupt on the rising or falling edge of an input while the QYx Classic has the
capability of triggering on falling edges only.
– A new register (Keyboard Interrupt Polarity Register) determines the polarity of KBI and the
default state of this register configures the QYxA for triggering on falling edges to be compatible
with QYx Classic.
– The QYxA now has pull down resistors for the input pins that are configured for rising edge
operation.
A.2.5.1 Registers Affected
Read:
Bit 7
6
0
0
0
0
Write:
Reset:
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
KBIP5
KBIP4
KBIP3
KBIP2
KBIP1
KBIP0
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented
Figure A-6. Keyboard Interrupt Polarity Register (KBIPR)
The KBIPR allows the selection of polarity, if any of these bits are set the corresponding interrupt pin will
be configured for rising edge and a pulldown resistor will be added to the pin.
A.2.6 On-Chip Routine Enhancements
Enhancements have been made to the on-chip routines that are used for FLASH as EEPROM. Refer to
AN2346 for information about using FLASH as EEPROM.
•
A new mass erase routine requires a valid FLASH address loaded into the H:X register to perform
an erase. This added step helps ensure that the erase routine is not inadvertently used to cause
an unwanted erase. Also, on-chip FLASH programming routine ERARNGE variable CTRLBYT
requires $00 for page erase and $40 for mass erase. The entire control byte must be set for proper
operation.
•
Separate routines will allow easy access to perform software SCI (Serial Communications
Interface). For information on how to use on-chip FLASH programming routines refer to AN2635.
•
Finally, there is improved security and robustness. The latest Monitor ROM implements updated
security checks to make the program memory more secure.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
195
A.3 Conversion Considerations
Enhancements lead to slight differences in operation from QYx Classic to the QYxA. There are a few
points that should be considered in the conversion process.
•
The Monitor ROM changed from 2 K to 1 K in size. This has led to the limitation that programming
across page boundaries is no longer supported by the on-chip program range routine. Also, in very
rare cases, ROM code improvements could cause customers to have to modify a few instructions
in their application code. For example, when performing a mass erase, a valid address is required
instead of an unspecified address.
•
The QYxA contains new modules like the 10-bit ADC and OSC. In rare cases, new modules could
cause customers to have to modify a few instructions in their application code. For example, if ADC
code was written so that entire registers are configured without respect to reserve bits, then the
ADC code will need to be revised to work correctly on the QYxA.
•
The Reference Clock for ADC conversions has changed from the bus clock to the system clock
(Bus Clock * 4). A change to the divide register may be necessary to set the reference clock to a
specified value.
A.4 Code Changes Checklist
Below is a checklist that should be reviewed in the conversion process. This checklist will point out all the
issues that should be addressed as your code is ported.
1. Does the original software use Auxiliary ROM routines (for example, Getbyte, Putbyte, delnus)?
If so, the software will have to be changed to handle new Auxiliary ROM routines, addresses of
these routines have changed in QYxA. Code will have to be changed to use the proper addresses.
2. Does the software use FLASH as EEPROM?
If so, there are several possible issues for the page erase and mass erase routine. Software will
have to be checked to ensure that proper procedure is used and the CTRLBYT is set with a MOV
instruction not a BSET. Also, on-chip FLASH programming routines can no longer program across
row boundaries
3. Does the code use the auto wake up timer and does the application depend on the typical auto
wake time out?
Since the timeout has been improved for QYxA it may be necessary to modify software to
compensate for the change in timeout.
4. Bits changed in the OSCSC, CONFIG2, and ADC registers?
Any code that writes to these registers should be reviewed to ensure that the writes are not
affecting the changed bits
5. Does the code use external OSC, crystal, or RC?
If so, since the OSCOPT bits have changed locations code will have to be updated to update these
bits in their proper locations.
6. Does the code use the ADC?
If so, because on QYxA the ADC clock is driven from 4XBUSCLK instead of BUSCLK changes to
the ADC clock divider bits may be needed to maintain proper operation.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
196
Freescale Semiconductor
A.5 Development Tools
Development hardware used for QYx can be used with QYxA. The QYxA is pin-for-pin compatible with
QY Classic and can be placed on existing QY4 Classic hardware. Existing Cyclone/Multilink tools and any
programming or evaluation boards will work for the QYxA. Emulation can be done using the
EML08QCBLTYE.
A.6 Differences in Packaging
All QYxA packages will be lead free. All packages that the QYx classic supported will be supported by the
QYxA.
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
Freescale Semiconductor
197
MC68HC908QYA/QTA Family Data Sheet, Rev. 3
198
Freescale Semiconductor
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Rev. 3, 03/2010
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