Application for 1.575 GHz GPS with UPC8211TK

Technical Note
APPLICATION FOR 1.575 GHz GPS WITH
µPC8211TK, µPC8215TU, AND µPC8226TK
Reference Design of Evaluation Board for 1.575 GHz LNA
Document No. PU10570EJ01V0TN (1st edition)
Date Published July 2005 CP(K)
 NEC Compound Semiconductor Devices, Ltd. 2005
Printed in Japan
The information in this document will be updated without notice.
This document introduces general applications of this product. The application circuits and circuit constants
in this document are examples and are not intended for use in actual mass production design. In addition,
please note that restrictions for the application circuit or standardization of the application circuit characteristics
are not intended.
In particular, characteristics of high-frequency ICs change depending on the external components and the
mounting pattern.
Therefore, the external circuit constants should be determined based on the required
characteristics on your planned system while referring to this document, and the characteristics should be
checked before using these ICs.
2
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
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• The information in this document is current as of July, 2005. The information is subject to change
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M8E 00. 4 - 0110
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
3
CONTENTS
1.
DESCRIPTION ....................................................................................................................................... 5
2.
OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................ 7
2. 1 Electrical Characteristics Overview.......................................................................................... 7
2. 2 Evaluation Circuit ....................................................................................................................... 8
3.
PRODUCT RECOMMENDATIONS AND EXTERNAL COMPONENT CONSTANT SELECTION..... 10
3. 1 µPC8211TK and µPC8226TK (for use in mobile phones) ..................................................... 10
3. 2
3. 3
4.
Noise Figure and Input-Output Return Loss at 1.575 GHz.......................................................... 10
3. 1. 2
Frequency Characteristics of Noise Figure and Input-Output Return Loss ................................. 15
3. 1. 3
Main Electrical Characteristics .................................................................................................... 20
µPC8215TU (for use in PDAs).................................................................................................. 20
3. 2. 1
Noise Figure and Input-Output Return Loss at 1.575 GHz.......................................................... 20
3. 2. 2
Frequency Characteristics of Noise Figure ................................................................................. 22
Measurement Circuit Configuration ....................................................................................... 23
3. 3. 1
NF Measurement Circuit Configuration ....................................................................................... 23
3. 3. 2
S-Parameter Measurement Circuit Configuration........................................................................ 23
BOARD ASSEMBLY & STANDARD ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS.................................. 24
4. 1 Product Information ................................................................................................................. 24
4. 2
4. 3
4. 4
4
3. 1. 1
4. 1. 1
Ordering Information ................................................................................................................... 24
4. 1. 2
Pin Connections .......................................................................................................................... 25
4. 1. 3
Internal Block Diagram ................................................................................................................ 26
Evaluation Board for a 1.575 GHz GPS LNA with µPC8211TK............................................. 27
4. 2. 1
Evaluation Board Pattern Layout................................................................................................. 27
4. 2. 2
Standard Electrical Characteristics ............................................................................................. 29
Evaluation Board for a 1.575 GHz GPS LNA with µPC8226TK............................................. 34
4. 3. 1
Evaluation Board Pattern Layout................................................................................................. 34
4. 3. 2
Standard Electrical Characteristics ............................................................................................. 36
Evaluation Board for a 1.575 GHz GPS LNA with µPC8215TU............................................. 41
4. 4. 1
Evaluation Board Pattern Layout................................................................................................. 41
4. 4. 2
Standard Electrical Characteristics ............................................................................................. 43
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
1.
DESCRIPTION
The µPC8211TK, µPC8215TU, and µPC8226TK are silicon germanium (SiGe) microwave monolithic integrated
circuits (MMIC) designed as low noise, high-gain amplifiers for GPS and mobile communications.
These ICs are manufactured using our 50 GHz fmax UHS2 (Ultra High Speed Process) SiGe bipolar process.
The use of these three devices in evaluation boards implementing LNAs (Low Noise Amplifiers) at 1.575 GHz GPS
is described in this document.
Applications for 1.575 GHz GPS are wide-ranging, including mobile phones, car navigation systems, and PDAs,
among others. Each application has unique characteristics, and due to the variety of demands on the LNA block that
configures the GPS, it is important to select the best-suited device and implement the best-suited application circuit
design for the target specification.
For the LNA on the 1st stage of the GPS RF front-end, a low noise high-gain device is required, so as to achieve
high sensitivity.
For systems in antenna module configurations such as car navigation systems, a discrete device such as
GaAsFET is required in the LNA block. This is due to the need for the lowest amount of noise possible, so as to avoid
loss in the wiring between the module and the RF front-end. Multi-stage configurations are also a necessity in
achieving the target gain.
However, for LNAs in systems in which the parts after the antenna are fully integrated, the aforementioned losses
do not arise. As such, the LNA’s demands on the NF can be kept in check, as compared with systems that include
antenna modules. In systems to be used in mobile phones, demands for smaller size have escalated. Further,
demand up to present has sought after simple yet low noise and high-gain designs.
Thus, expectations for monolithic ICs in LNAs have been particularly high, since the integrated circuit simplifies the
circuit design, and the circuit can be made very small due to the small size of the external components.
The high frequency characteristics of MMIC have recently been improved through adoption of the SiGe bipolar
process. NEC Compound Semiconductor Devices has produced several SiGe monolithic ICs whose designs have
been optimized for use in mobile communications.
At present, the use of such SiGe MMICs is becoming prevalent with respect to mobile phones and PDAs in which
the parts after the antenna are fully integrated.
The µPC8211TK and µPC8226TK, for use in mobile phones (GP = 18 dB), and the µPC8215TU, for use in PDAs
(GP = 28 dB), feature power gain and low noise (NF = 1.1 dB) characteristics ideally suited for these respective
applications. The µPC8211TK and µPC8226TK also have a built-in power-saving function.
Table 1-1 shows the SiGe/MMIC product line-up for LNAs at 1.575 GHz.
Figure 1-1 shows a system block example for a GPS application.
Table 1-1. SiGe/MMIC Product Line-up for LNAs at 1.575 GHz
Part Number
VCC
ICC
NF
GP
PO (1 dB)
IIP3
(V)
(mA)
(dB)
(dB)
(dBm)
(dBm)
3.7
1.1
18.8
−3.8
−13.0
6G
3.1
1.1
17.7
−5.5
−12.0
6H
12.0
1.1
28.5
+7.6
−15.5
8215
µPC8211TK
µPC8226TK
µPC8215TU
3.0
Marking
Remark See Table 2-1 for the measurement conditions. The above data is for reference.
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
5
Figure 1-1. System Block Example for GPS Application
Antenna
RF Front-end Block
Base-band Block
LNA
RF Front-end LSI
µ PC8211TK
µ PC8215TU
µ PC8226TK
6
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
Base-band LSI
2.
OVERVIEW
2. 1
Electrical Characteristics Overview
Table 2-1 shows the electrical characteristics overview for the µPC8211TK, µPC8215TU, and µPC8226TK when
applied in a product implementing a 1.575 GHz GPS LNA. These are the standard characteristics of the evaluation
board.
Table 2-1. Electrical Characteristics Overview for Evaluation Board for LNA of 1.575 GHz GPS
(TA = +25°C, VCC = 3.0 V, fin = 1 575 MHz, unless otherwise specified)
Parameter
Symbol
Condition
Value
µPC8211TK
Circuit Current
ICC
Noise Figure
NF
Power Gain
GP
Gain 1 dB Compression
Output Power
No Signal
Pin = −30 dBm
PO (1 dB)
Pin = −10 dBm
Note
µPC8226TK
Unit
Note
µPC8215TU
3.7
3.1
12
mA
1.07
1.14
1.08
dB
18.8
17.7
28.5
dB
−3.8
−5.5
+7.6
dBm
+2.5
+1.2
Output Power
PO
dBm
Input 3rd Order Distortion
IIP3
−13.0
−12.0
−15.5
dBm
OIP3
+6.0
+6.0
+13.0
dBm
Intercept Point
Output 3rd Order Distortion
Intercept Point
Input Return Loss
RLin
Pin = −30 dBm
7.0
7.0
6.8
dB
Output Return Loss
RLout
Pin = −10 dBm
17.4
14.1
17.2
dB
ISL
Pin = −10 dBm
33.4
37.5
45.6
dB
Isolation
Note VPS = 3.0 V
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
7
2. 2
Evaluation Circuit
Figure 2-1 shows an evaluation circuit for a 1.575 GHz GPS LNA, using the µPC8211TK and the µPC8226TK,
where the configuration of the external components is identical for each case. The internal circuits for each LSI differ,
and thus the external component constant is optimized for each product.
Photo 2-1 is a photo of the evaluation board, including the components, with the µPC8211TK. The evaluation
board is the same for the µPC8226TK.
Figure 2-2 is an evaluation circuit for a 1.575 GHz GPS LNA, with the µPC8215TU, and Photo 2-2 is a photo of the
evaluation board, including the components.
Figure 2-1. Evaluation Circuit for 1.575 GHz GPS LNA
(µPC8211TK and µPC8226TK)
L1
C1
C5
1
IN
VCC
6
C2
2
5
R1
L2
Bias
VPS
3
4
C4
OUT
L3
C3
Photo 2-1. Evaluation Board Including Components (µPC8211TK)
8
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
Figure 2-2. Evaluation Circuit for 1.575 GHz GPS LNA (µPC8215TU)
C1
INPUT
1
8
2
7
3
6
4
5
L1
C3
OUTPUT
VCC
C5
Photo 2-2. Evaluation Board Including Components (µPC8215TU)
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
9
3.
PRODUCT RECOMMENDATIONS AND EXTERNAL COMPONENT CONSTANT SELECTION
The RF characteristics required of the LNA differ depending on the antenna gain of the target GPS set, as well as
the design of elements such as the front-end and base-band circuits.
This section describes 1.575 GHz LNA usage examples for each product, as ideally suited for use in mobile
phones.
µPC8211TK and µPC8226TK (for use in mobile phones)
The µPC8211TK and µPC8226TK have power gain (GP = 18 dB) and low noise (NF = 1.1 dB) characteristics that
are ideal for use in mobile phones, and also include a built-in power-saving function. Further, the µPC8226TK has a
3. 1
built-in protective diode, and has improved ESD resistance.
The evaluation circuit for a 1.575 GHz GPS LNA with these products is shown in Figure 2-1 in the preceding
section.
3. 1. 1
Noise Figure and Input-Output Return Loss at 1.575 GHz
(1) Selection of Input Parallel Capacitor
Figure 3-1 (µPC8211TK) and Figure 3-2 (µPC8226TK) show the characteristics for the input parallel capacitor
(C2), the noise figure (NF), and the input-output return loss (RLin and RLout) at 1.575 GHz.
The NF characteristics required of the LNA are closely related to element such as the error correction circuit design
in the base-band circuit. However, when the C2 value is selected when the NF characteristics take priority, the RLin
characteristics decrease a great deal, due to the fact that the NF characteristics and the RLin characteristics stand in a
trade-off relation. Thus, the C2 value is selected while considering the RLin characteristics. Using the µPC8211TK
(Figure 3-1), an exceptional NF of 1.0 dB or less can be achieved when C2 is approximately 1.0 pF or less, although
the RLin obtained is only a few dB. Therefore, the balance between the required NF and RLin characteristics must be
considered when selecting C2. The same issue applies for the µPC8226TK (Figure 3-2).
2.5
25
2.0
20
RLout
15
1.5
10
1.0
NF
0.5
5
RLin
0
0.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Input Parallel Capacitor C2 (pF)
10
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
3.0
Input-Output Return Loss RLin/RLout (dB)
Noise Figure NF (dB)
Figure 3-1. Input Parallel Capacitor vs. Noise Figure and Input-Output Return Loss for µPC8211TK
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
f = 1.575 GHz
C1 = 47 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 4.7 nH
L2 = 22 nH
L3 = 10 nH
2.5
25
2.0
20
RLout
15
1.5
1.0
NF
10
0.5
RLin
5
0
0.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Input-Output Return Loss RLin/RLout (dB)
Noise Figure NF (dB)
Figure 3-2. Input Parallel Capacitor vs. Noise Figure and Input-Output Return Loss for µPC8226TK
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
f = 1.575 GHz
C1 = 47 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 5.6 nH
L2 = 22 nH
L3 = 8.2 nH
3.0
Input Parallel Capacitor C2 (pF)
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
11
(2) Selection of Input Series Capacitor
The input series capacitor (C1) is a DC cut capacitor.
Figure 3-3 (µPC8211TK) and Figure 3-4 (µPC8226TK) show the relations between C1 and the noise figure (NF),
the input return loss (RLin), and the output return loss (RLout), at 1.575 GHz.
For both products, the NF decreases when the value of C1 is approximately 40 pF or less, but when the value of
C1 is approximately 40 pF or more, RLin and RLout remain constant. Thus, the value of C1 should be selected as
approximately 40 pF or more (47 pF).
Figure 3-3. Input Series Capacitor vs. Noise Figure and Input-Output Return Loss for µPC8211TK
Noise Figure NF (dB)
1.3
20
RLout
15
1.2
NF
C1 = 47 pF
10
1.1
RLin
1.0
5
0
0.9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Input-Output Return Loss RLin/RLout (dB)
25
1.4
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
f = 1.575 GHz
C2 = 1.3 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 4.7 nH
L2 = 22 nH
L3 = 10 nH
110
Input Series Capacitor C1 (pF)
25
1.4
C1 = 47 pF
20
Noise Figure NF (dB)
1.3
RLout
1.2
15
1.1
NF
10
1.0
RLin
5
0
0.9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Input Series Capacitor C1 (pF)
12
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
110
Input-Output Return Loss RLin/RLout (dB)
Figure 3-4. Input Series Capacitor vs. Noise Figure and Input-Output Return Loss for µPC8226TK
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
f = 1.575 GHz
C2 = 0.5 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 5.6 nH
L2 = 22 nH
L3 = 8.2 nH
(3) Selection of Output Parallel Inductor
Figure 3-5 (µPC8211TK) and Figure 3-6 (µPC8226TK) show the relations between the output parallel inductor (L2)
and the noise figure (NF), the input return loss (RLin), and the output return loss (RLout), at 1.575 GHz.
For both products, L2 is closely related to the output return loss (RLout), and when L2 is approximately 20 nH or
less, RLout decreases drastically. Moreover, the frequency response that is discussed later (Figure 3-15 (µPC8211TK)
and Figure 3-16 (µPC8226TK)) should also be considered. Thus, L2 should be selected as 20 nH or greater (22 nH)
for both the µPC8211TK and the µPC8226TK.
25
1.4
L2 = 22 nH
20
Noise Figure NF (dB)
1.3
RLout
15
1.2
NF
10
1.1
RLin
5
1.0
0
0.9
15
20
25
30
Input-Output Return Loss RLin/RLout (dB)
Figure 3-5. Output Parallel Inductor vs. Noise Figure and Input-Output Return Loss for µPC8211TK
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
f = 1.575 GHz
C1 = 47 pF
C2 = 1.3 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 4.7 nH
L3 = 10 nH
35
Output Parallel Inductor L2 (nH)
25
1.4
L2 = 22 nH
20
Noise Figure NF (dB)
1.3
RLout
15
1.2
NF
1.1
10
RLin
1.0
5
0.9
0
15
20
25
30
Input-Output Return Loss RLin/RLout (dB)
Figure 3-6. Output Parallel Inductor vs. Noise Figure and Input-Output Return Loss for µPC8226TK
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
f = 1.575 GHz
C1 = 47 pF
C2 = 0.5 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 5.6 nH
L3 = 8.2 nH
35
Output Parallel Inductor L2 (nH)
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
13
(4) Selection of Output Series Inductor
Figure 3-7 (µPC8211TK) and Figure 3-8 (µPC8226TK) show the relations between the output series inductor (L3)
and the noise figure (NF), the input return loss (RLin), and the output return loss (RLout), at 1.575 GHz.
L3 is closely related to RLout, and the frequency response that is discussed later (Figure 3-17 (µPC8211TK) and
Figure 3-18 (µPC8226TK)) should also be considered. Thus, L3 should be selected as 10 nH for the µPC8211TK, or
as 8.2 nH for the µPC8226TK.
50
1.4
Noise Figure NF (dB)
L3 = 10 nH
40
1.3
30
1.2
NF
1.1
20
RLout
1.0
10
RLin
Input-Output Return Loss RLin/RLout (dB)
Figure 3-7. Output Series Inductor vs. Noise Figure and Input-Output Return Loss for µPC8211TK
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
f = 1.575 GHz
C1 = 47 pF
C2 = 1.3 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 4.7 nH
L2 = 22 nH
0
0.9
6
7
8
9
10
11
Output Series Inductor L3 (nH)
Figure 3-8. Output Series Inductor vs. Noise Figure and Input-Output Return Loss for µPC8226TK
50
Noise Figure NF (dB)
L3 = 8.2 nH
RLout
1.3
40
1.2
30
NF
1.1
20
1.0
10
RLin
0.9
0
6
7
8
9
10
Output Series Inductor L3 (nH)
14
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
11
Input-Output Return Loss RLin/RLout (dB)
1.4
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
f = 1.575 GHz
C1 = 47 pF
C2 = 0.5 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 5.6 nH
L2 = 22 nH
3. 1. 2
Frequency Characteristics of Noise Figure and Input-Output Return Loss
(1) Frequency Characteristics of Noise Figure
Figure 3-9 (µPC8211TK) and Figure 3-10 (µPC8226TK) show the frequency characteristics of the noise figure (NF)
and the NF associated gain (Ga). The NF associated gain is tuned to 1.575 GHz.
Figure 3-9. Noise Figure and NF Associated Gain vs. Frequency for µPC8211TK
20
1.4
18
f = 1 575 MHz
16
1.2
1.1
NF
12
1.0
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
C1 = 47 pF
C2 = 1.3 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 4.7 nH
L2 = 22 nH
L3 = 10 nH
10
0.9
1540
14
NF Associated Gain Ga (dB)
Noise Figure NF (dB)
Ga
1.3
1550
1560
1570
1580
1590
1600
1610
Frequency f (MHz)
Figure 3-10. Noise Figure and NF Associated Gain vs. Frequency for µPC8226TK
1.4
20
Noise Figure NF (dB)
1.3
Ga
1.2
18
16
NF
1.1
14
1.0
12
0.9
1540
NF Associated Gain Ga (dB)
f = 1 575 MHz
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
C1 = 47 pF
C2 = 0.5 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 5.6 nH
L2 = 22 nH
L3 = 8.2 nH
10
1550
1560
1570
1580
1590
1600
1610
Frequency f (MHz)
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
15
(2) Frequency Characteristics of Input Return Loss
Figure 3-11 (µPC8211TK) and Figure 3-12 (µPC8226TK) show the frequency characteristics of the input return
loss (RLin).
The amount of loss for RLin changes drastically as a result of selecting the input parallel capacitor (C2).
Also, as shown in Figure 3-1 (µPC8211TK) and Figure 3-2 (µPC8226TK), RLin and the noise figure (NF) stand in a
trade-off relation.
Figure 3-11. Input Return Loss vs. Frequency for µPC8211TK
Input Return Loss RLin (dB)
20
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
C1 = 47 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 4.7 nH
L2 = 22 nH
L3 = 10 nH
C2 = 2.5 pF
10
C2 = 1.3 pF
C2 = 0.5 pF
0
0.475
1.575
2.475
Frequency f (GHz)
Figure 3-12. Input Return Loss vs. Frequency for µPC8226TK
Input Return Loss RLin (dB)
20
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
C1 = 47 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 5.6 nH
L2 = 22 nH
L3 = 8.2 nH
C2 = 2.2 pF
C2 = 0.5 pF
10
C2 = 0.3 pF
0
0.475
1.575
Frequency f (GHz)
2.475
The input series inductor (L1) should be selected as the value where the resonance frequency matches the
approximate required frequency (1.575 GHz).
Although it would be ideal for the value of the resonance center frequency to precisely match the required
frequency of 1.575 GHz, due to limits imposed by the commercially available line-up of products (for example, the
next value after 4.7 nH being 5.6 nH), the best value out of those available should be selected. In this case, 4.7 nH
should be selected for the µPC8211TK, and 5.6 nH should be selected for the µPC8226TK.
Figure 3-13 shows the transition of the resonance center frequency in accordance with the value of L1, and Figure
3-14 shows the frequency characteristics of RLin when 4.7 nH is selected as the value of L1. Since the resonance
16
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
center frequency deviates a great deal from the target frequency (1.575 GHz) when the value of L1 is 4.7 nH,
adequate loss cannot be obtained for RLin even if C2 is changed.
Figure 3-13. Input Return Loss with Input Series Inductor vs. Frequency for µPC8226TK
Input Return Loss RLin (dB)
20
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
C1 = 47 pF
C2 = 2.2 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L2 = 22 nH
L3 = 8.2 nH
L1 = 4.7 nH
10
L1 = 5.6 nH
0
0.475
1.575
2.475
Frequency f (GHz)
Figure 3-14. Input Return Loss at L1 = 4.7 nH vs. Frequency for µPC8226TK
Input Return Loss RLin (dB)
20
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
C1 = 47 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 4.7 nH
L2 = 22 nH
L3 = 8.2 nH
C2 = 2.2 pF
10
C2 = 0.3 pF
0
0.475
1.575
2.475
Frequency f (GHz)
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
17
(3) Frequency Characteristics of Output Return Loss
Figure 3-15 (µPC8211TK) and Figure 3-16 (µPC8226TK) show the frequency characteristics of the output return
loss (RLout) in accordance with changes in the value of the output parallel inductor (L2), while Figure 3-17
(µPC8211TK) and Figure 3-18 (µPC8226TK) show the frequency characteristics of the output return loss (RLout) in
accordance with changes in the value of the output series inductor (L3).
The resonance center frequency is tuned to closely match the target frequency of 1.575 GHz through optimization
of the input series inductor (Figures 3-11 through 3-14). Thus, for L2 and L3, a value should be selected such that 10
dB or more can be obtained for RLout. Also, contribution to the noise figure (NF) should also be considered when
making a selection for L2 and L3 (Figures 3-5 through 3-8).
For L2, due to limits imposed by the commercially available line-up of inductors (for example, the next value after
18 nH being 22 nH), the best value out of those available should be selected. In this case, 22 nH should be selected
for both the µPC8211TK and the µPC8226TK. Similarly, for L3, due to limits imposed by the commercially available
line-up of inductors (for example, the next value after 8.2 nH being 10 nH), 10 nH should be selected for the
µPC8211TK, and 8.2 nH should be selected for the µPC8226TK.
Figure 3-15. Output Return Loss with Output Parallel Inductor vs. Frequency for µPC8211TK
Output Return Loss RLout (dB)
40
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
C1 = 47 pF
C2 = 1.3 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 4.7 nH
L3 = 10 nH
L2 = 22 nH
20
L2 = 33 nH
L2 = 18 nH
0
0.475
1.575
Frequency f (GHz)
2.475
Figure 3-16. Output Return Loss with Output Parallel Inductor vs. Frequency for µPC8226TK
Output Return Loss RLout (dB)
40
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
C1 = 47 pF
C2 = 0.5 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 5.6 nH
L3 = 8.2 nH
L2 = 18 nH
L2 = 22 nH
20
L2 = 27 nH
0
0.475
1.575
Frequency f (GHz)
18
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
2.475
Figure 3-17. Output Return Loss with Output Series Inductor vs. Frequency for µPC8211TK
Output Return Loss RLout (dB)
50
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
C1 = 47 pF
C2 = 1.3 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 4.7 nH
L2 = 22 nH
L3 = 10 nH
L3 = 8.2 nH
25
L3 = 6.8 nH
0
0.475
1.575
2.475
Frequency f (GHz)
Figure 3-18. Output Return Loss with Output Series Inductor vs. Frequency for µPC8226TK
Output Return Loss RLout (dB)
50
VCC = VPS = 3.0 V
C1 = 47 pF
C2 = 0.5 pF
C3 = 82 pF
L1 = 5.6 nH
L2 = 22 nH
L3 = 10 nH
25
L3 = 8.2 nH
0
0.475
1.575
2.475
Frequency f (GHz)
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
19
3. 1. 3
Main Electrical Characteristics
Table 3-1 shows the main related electrical characteristics for the µPC8211TK and µPC8226TK.
The output series capacitor (C3) is a DC cut capacitor. When applied with a frequency in the vicinity of 1.575 GHz,
if a value of approximately 100 pF is selected, then the effect on the main high-frequency characteristics is negligible.
Also, the value for the parallel resistor (R1) is tuned to match the internal circuit constant of the MMIC.
Table 3-1. Main Electrical Characteristics for µPC8211TK and µPC8226TK
(TA = +25°C, VCC = 3.0 V, fin = 1 575 MHz, VPS = 3.0 V, unless otherwise specified)
Parameter
Symbol
Circuit Current
ICC
Noise Figure
NF
Power Gain
GP
Gain 1 dB Compression
Output Power
Conditions
No Signal
Pin = −30 dBm
Unit
Value
µPC8211TK
µPC8226TK
3.7
3.1
mA
0.90
1.07
1.69
1.12
1.14
1.73
dB
18.0
18.8
19.4
17.5
17.7
18.5
dB
PO (1 dB)
Pin = −10 dBm
−3.8
−5.5
dBm
+2.5
+1.2
dBm
Output Power
PO
Input 3rd Order Distortion
Intercept Point
IIP3
−13.0
−12.0
dBm
Output 3rd Order Distortion
Intercept Point
OIP3
+6.0
+6.0
dBm
Input Return Loss
RLin
Pin = −30 dBm
5.1
7.0
15.0
6.4
7.0
15.3
dB
Output Return Loss
RLout
Pin = −10 dBm
16.7
17.4
18.5
15.0
14.1
13.7
dB
ISL
Pin = −10 dBm
34.1
33.4
32.6
37.7
37.5
36.7
dB
Isolation
Main Components
C1
47
C2
0.5
1.3
47
2.5
0.3
0.5
pF
2.2
pF
C3
82
82
pF
L1
4.7
5.6
nH
L2
22
22
nH
L3
10
8.2
nH
R1
750
750
Ω
µPC8215TU (for use in PDAs)
The µPC8215TU has a gain best suited for use in PDAs (GP = 28 dB), and also has low noise characteristics (NF =
3. 2
1.1 dB).
This section describes a usage example wherein the µPC8215TU is applied in a product implementing a 1.575
GHz GPS LNA.
An evaluation circuit for a 1.575 GHz GPS LNA that includes the µPC8215TU was shown previously in Figure 2-2.
3. 2. 1
Noise Figure and Input-Output Return Loss at 1.575 GHz
Figure 3-19 shows the characteristics for the input series capacitor (C1) and the noise figure (NF), and the inputoutput return loss (RLin and RLout), at 1.575 GHz.
Figure 3-20 shows the characteristics for the input series inductor (L1) and the noise figure (NF), and the inputoutput return loss (RLin and RLout), at 1.575 GHz.
20
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
C1 serves as a DC cut capacitor, but is also closely tied to the noise figure (NF).
In Figure 3-19, it can be seen that NF worsens when the value of C1 is approximately 40 pF or less, but when the
value of C1 is approximately 40 pF or more, NF, RLin and RLout maintain constant values. Thus, 47 pF should be
selected as the value of C1.
The output series capacitor (C3) is also a DC cut capacitor. When applied with a frequency in the vicinity of 1.575
GHz, if a value of approximately 100 pF is selected, then the effect on the main electrical characteristics is negligible.
The input series inductor (L1) is closely tied to NF. As shown in Figure 3-20, 2.7 nH should be selected in order to
optimize NF.
Table 2-1, shown previously, describes the main electrical characteristics of the µPC8215TU.
C1 = 47 pF
20
NF (dB)
1.3
RLout
15
Noise Figure
1.2
NF
10
1.1
RLin
5
1.0
0
0.9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Input Series Capacitor
80
90
100
Input-Output Return Loss
25
1.4
RLin/RLout (dB)
Figure 3-19. Input Series Capacitor vs. Noise Figure and Input-Output Return Loss for µPC8215TU
VCC = 3.0 V
f = 1.575 GHz
C3 = 100 pF
L1 = 2.7 nH
110
C1 (pF)
Figure 3-20. Input Series Inductor vs. Noise Figure and Input-Output Return Loss for µPC8215TU
25
L1 = 2.7 nH
Noise Figure
NF (dB)
1.3
20
RLout
1.2
15
NF
1.1
10
RLin
1.0
5
0.9
0
1.5
2
2.5
3
Input Series Inductor
3.5
4
Input-Output Return Loss RLin/RLout (dB)
1.4
VCC = 3.0 V
f = 1.575 GHz
C1 = 47 pF
C3 = 100 pF
4.5
L1 (nH)
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
21
3. 2. 2
Frequency Characteristics of Noise Figure
Figure 3-21 shows the frequency characteristics of the noise figure (NF) and the NF associated gain (Ga).
Figure 3-21. Noise Figure and NF Associated Gain vs. Frequency for µPC8215TU
1.4
35
30
Ga
25
1.2
1.1
20
NF
1.0
15
0.9
10
1540
1550
1560
1570
Frequency
22
1580
1590
f (MHz)
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
1600
1610
NF Associated Gain
Noise Figure
NF (dB)
1.3
Ga (dB)
f = 1.575 MHz
VCC = 3.0 V
C1 = 47 pF
C3 = 100 pF
L1 = 2.7 nH
3. 3
3. 3. 1
Measurement Circuit Configuration
NF Measurement Circuit Configuration
Figure 3-22 shows the NF measurement circuit configuration.
Figure 3-22. NF Measurement Circuit
HP8970B
HP346C (APC3.5connector type)
NF
Measurement
Circuit
Noise Source
RF-IN
DC Voltage Current Source:
Advantest TR6143
3. 3. 2
EC-µPC8211TK
or
EC-µPC8226TK
or
EC-µPC8215TU
RF-OUT
S-Parameter Measurement Circuit Configuration
Figure 3-23 shows the S-parameter measurement circuit configuration.
Figure 3-23. S-Parameter Measurement Circuit
HP8719D
Network
Analyzer
RF-IN
DC Voltage Current Source:
Advantest TR6143
EC-µPC8211TK
or
EC-µPC8226TK
or
EC-µPC8215TU
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
RF-OUT
23
4.
BOARD ASSEMBLY & STANDARD ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
This section describes boards and components used to build evaluation boards using the µPC8211TK,
µPC8226TK, and the µPC8215TU for the LNAs of GPS systems at 1.575 GHz.
Information on component
implementation examples is also provided. The standard electrical characteristics for each evaluation board are also
given.
4. 1
4. 1. 1
Product Information
Ordering Information
Table 4-1. Ordering Information
Part Number
µPC8211TK-E2
Order Number
µPC8211TK-E2-A
µPC8226TK-E2
µPC8226TK-E2-A
µPC8215TU-E2
µPC8215TU-E2-A
Package
Marking
6-pin lead-less minimold
(1511 PKG) (Pb-Free)
6G
Note
(Pb-Free)
Note
• Embossed tape, 8 mm wide
• Pins 1, 6 face the perforation side of the tape
6H
8-pin lead-less minimold
Supplying Form
8215
• Qty 5 kpcs/reel
• Embossed tape, 8 mm wide
• Pins 5, 6, 7, 8 indicate pull-out direction of tape
• Qty 5 kpcs/reel
Note With regards to terminal solder (the solder contains lead) plated products (conventionally plated), contact
your nearby sales office.
24
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
4. 1. 2
Pin Connections
The µPC8211TK and the µPC8226TK are implemented in a 6-pin lead-less minimold package, and the pin
connections are the same for both. However, the markings differ for the two. The µPC8211TK has a marking that
reads “6G”, while the µPC8226TK has a marking that reads “6H”.
The µPC8215TU is implemented in an 8-pin lead-less minimold package, and has a marking that reads “8215”.
Figure 4-1. µPC8211TK
(Top View)
2
6G
1
3
Pin No.
Pin Name
1
INPUT
2
GND
3
PS
4
OUTPUT
5
GND
6
VCC
Pin No.
Pin Name
1
INPUT
2
GND
3
PS
4
OUTPUT
5
GND
6
VCC
Pin No.
Pin Name
1
GND
2
INPUT
(Bottom View)
6
6
1
5
5
2
4
4
3
Figure 4-2. µPC8226TK
(Top View)
2
6H
1
3
(Bottom View)
6
6
1
5
5
2
4
4
3
Figure 4-3. µPC8215TU
(Top View)
1
3
4
8215
2
(Bottom View)
8
8
1
3
GND
7
7
2
4
GND
6
6
3
5
VCC
5
5
6
GND
4
7
OUTPUT
8
GND
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
25
4. 1. 3
Internal Block Diagram
Figure 4-4. Internal Block Diagram
(1)
µPC8211TK and µPC8226TK
Includes a power-save function.
INPUT 1
µPC8215TU
Configured as a 2-stage amplifier.
GND 1
6 VCC
5 GND
GND 2
(2)
INPUT 2
8 GND
7 OUTPUT
Bias
PS 3
26
4 OUTPUT
GND 3
6 GND
GND 4
5 VCC
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
4. 2
4. 2. 1
Evaluation Board for a 1.575 GHz GPS LNA with µPC8211TK
Evaluation Board Pattern Layout
Photo 4-1. Board Pattern Layout for µPC8211TK
Magnified
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
27
Figure 4-5. Pattern Layout
SIZE
16.36 mm × 21.46 mm
MATERIAL
FR4 (ELC4756UV/Sumitomo), double side copper-clad,
t = 0.2 mm (total: t = 1.0 mm), εr = 4.6, Au flash plated on pattern
PC TERMINAL
A2-2PA-2.54DSA (HIROSE)
RF CONNECTOR
WK72475 (WAKA)
THROUGH HOLES
Table 4-2. Components of Test Circuit for Measuring Electrical Characteristics
Symbol
28
Form
Rating
Part Number
Maker
C1
Chip Capacitor
47 pF
GRM1552C1H470JZ01
Murata
C2
Chip Capacitor
1.3 pF
GRM1554C1H1R3CZ01
Murata
C3
Chip Capacitor
82 pF
GRM1552C1H820JZ01
Murata
C4, C5
Chip Capacitor
1 000 pF
GRM1552C1H102JA01
Murata
R1
Chip Resistor
750 Ω
RR-0510P-751D
Susumu
L1
Chip Inductor
4.7 nH
AML1005H4N7ST
FDK
L2
Chip Inductor
22 nH
AML1005H22NST
FDK
L3
Chip Inductor
10 nH
AML1005H10NST
FDK
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
4. 2. 2
Standard Electrical Characteristics
Main Standard Electrical Characteristics for Reference
(TA = +25°C, VCC = 3.0 V, VPS = 3.0 V, fin = 1 575 MHz, unless otherwise specified)
ICC:
3.7 mA
IIP3:
−13 dBm
NF:
1.07 dB
RLin:
7.0 dB
GP:
18.8 dB
RLout:
17.4 dB
PO (1 dB):
−3.8 dBm
ISL:
33.4 dB
PO:
+2.5 dBm @Pin = −10 dBm
Figure 4-6. Evaluation Circuit
C1
47 pF
L1
4.7 nH
C5
1 000 pF
1
6
2
5
3
C4
1 000 pF
4
IN
C2
1.3 pF
R1
750 Ω
VCC
L2
22 nH
VPS
High: ON
Low: OFF (Power-Save)
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
OUT
L3
10 nH
C3
82 pF
29
Isolation ISL (dB)
Power Gain GP (dB)
Figure 4-7. Gain and Isolation
Frequency f (GHz)
30
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
Output Return Loss RLout (dB)
Input Return Loss RLin (dB)
Figure 4-8. Input and Output Return Loss
Frequency f (GHz)
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
31
Figure 4-9. S-Parameter
S11
Start 0.1 GHz
Stop 3.0 GHz
(measured at
connector on
application
board)
S22
Start 0.1 GHz
Stop 3.0 GHz
(measured at
connector on
application
board)
32
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
Figure 4-10. Input 3rd Order Distortion Intercept Point
OUTPUT POWER vs. INPUT POWER
2tone P out vs. P in (EC-µ PC8211TK_0.2FR4)
10
IIP3 = −13 dBm
0
Pout _RF
-20
HP8562A
fRF1 = 1 575.5 MHz
fRF2 = 1 575.6 MHz
fIM 3L = 1 575.4 MHz
fIM 3H = 1 575.7 MHz
Span 1 MHz
ATT auto
RBW 30 KHz
VBW 10 KHz
SWP 50 mS
Ref level 0 dBm
-30
-40
Pout _IM 3
-50
-60
-70
-80
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
Input P
Power/Tone
Pin (dBm)
in /tone (dBm)
Figure 4-11. Gain 1 dB Compression Output Power
OUTPUT POWER vs. INPUT POWER
P out vs. P in (EC-µ PC8211TK_0.2FR4)
10
PO
(1 dB)
Pout
PO = + 2.5 dBm @Pin = − 10 dBm
0
Pout (dBm)
Pout (dBm)
5
Output Power
Output P
Power/Tone
Pout (dBm)
out /tone (dBm)
-10
-5
PO (1
dB)
= − 3.8 dBm
-10
VCC = 3.0 V
ICC = 3.6 mA
Frequency 1 575 MHz
HP483A POWER METER
HP8665A GENERATOR
-15
-20
-25
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
Pin (dBm)
Input Power Pin (dBm)
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
33
4. 3
4. 3. 1
Evaluation Board for a 1.575 GHz GPS LNA with µPC8226TK
Evaluation Board Pattern Layout
Photo 4-2. Board Pattern Layout for µPC8226TK
Magnified
34
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
Figure 4-12. Pattern Layout
SIZE
16.36 mm × 21.46 mm
MATERIAL
FR4 (ELC4756UV/Sumitomo), double side copper-clad,
t = 0.2 mm (total: t = 1.0 mm), εr = 4.6, Au flash plated on pattern
PC TERMINAL
A2-2PA-2.54DSA (HIROSE)
RF CONNECTOR
WK72475 (WAKA)
THROUGH HOLES
Table 4-3. Components of Test Circuit for Measuring Electrical Characteristics
Symbol
Form
Rating
Part Number
Maker
C1
Chip Capacitor
47 pF
GRM1552C1H470JZ01
Murata
C2
Chip Capacitor
0.5 pF
GRM1554C1H0R5CZ01
Murata
C3
Chip Capacitor
82 pF
GRM1552C1H820JZ01
Murata
C4, C5
Chip Capacitor
1 000 pF
GRM1552C1H102JA01
Murata
R1
Chip Resistor
750 Ω
RR-0510P-751D
Susumu
L1
Chip Inductor
5.6 nH
AML1005H5N6ST
FDK
L2
Chip Inductor
22 nH
AML1005H22NST
FDK
L3
Chip Inductor
8.2 nH
AML1005H8N2ST
FDK
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
35
4. 3. 2
Standard Electrical Characteristics
Main Standard Electrical Characteristics for Reference
(TA = +25°C, VCC = 3.0 V, VPS = 3.0 V, fin = 1 575 MHz, unless otherwise specified)
ICC:
3.1 mA
IIP3:
−12 dBm
NF:
1.14 dB
RLin:
7.0 dB
GP:
17.7 dB
RLout:
14.1 dB
PO (1 dB):
−5.5 dBm
ISL:
37.5 dB
PO:
+1.2 dBm @Pin = −10 dBm
Figure 4-13. Evaluation Circuit
C1
47 pF
L1
5.6 nH
C5
1 000 pF
1
6
2
5
3
C4
1 000 pF
4
IN
C2
0.5 pF
R1
750 Ω
VCC
L2
22 nH
VPS
High: ON
Low: OFF (Power-Save)
36
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
OUT
L3
C3
8.2 nH 82 pF
Isolation ISL (dB)
Power Gain GP (dB)
Figure 4-14. Gain and Isolation
Frequency f (GHz)
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
37
Output Return Loss RLout (dB)
Input Return Loss RLin (dB)
Figure 4-15. Input and Output Return Loss
Frequency f (GHz)
38
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
Figure 4-16. S-Parameter
S11
Start 0.1 GHz
Stop 3.0 GHz
(measured at
connector on
application
board)
S22
Start 0.1 GHz
Stop 3.0 GHz
(measured at
connector on
application
board)
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
39
Figure 4-17. Input 3rd Order Distortion Intercept Point
OUTPUT POWER vs. INPUT POWER
2tone P o ut vs. P in (EC-µ PC8226TK_0.2FR4)
10
IIP3 = − 12 dBm
0
Pout _RF
Output Power/Tone Pout (dBm)
Pout /tone (dBm)
-10
-20
HP8562A
fRF1 = 1 575.5 MHz
fRF2 = 1 575.6 MHz
fIM 3 L = 1 575.4 MHz
fIM 3 H = 1 575.7 MHz
Span 1 MHz
ATT auto
RBW 30 KHz
VBW 10 KHz
SWP 50 mS
Ref level 0 dBm
-30
-40
-50
Pout _IM 3
-60
-70
-80
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Pin /tone (dBm)
Input Power/Tone Pin (dBm)
Figure 4-18. Gain 1 dB Compression Output Power
OUTPUT POWER vs. INPUT POWER
10
PO ( 1 dB)
Output Power
Pout (dBm)
5
Pout
PO = +1.2 [email protected] = − 10 dBm
0
-5
PO ( 1 dB) = − 5.5 dBm
-10
VCC = 3.0 V
ICC = 3.1 mA
Frequency 1 575 MHz
HP483A POWER METER
HP8665A GENERATOR
-15
-20
-25
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
Input Power
40
-15
Pin (dBm)
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
-10
-5
0
5
4. 4
4. 4. 1
Evaluation Board for a 1.575 GHz GPS LNA with µPC8215TU
Evaluation Board Pattern Layout
Photo 4-3. Board Pattern Layout for µPC8215TU
Magnified
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
41
Figure 4-19. Pattern Layout
SIZE
18.7 mm × 28 mm
MATERIAL
FR4 (ELC4756UV/Sumitomo), double side copper-clad,
t = 0.4 mm, εr = 4.6, Au flash plated on pattern
PC TERMINAL
A2-2PA-2.54DSA (HIROSE)
RF CONNECTOR
WK72475 (WAKA)
THROUGH HOLES
Table 4-4. Components of Test Circuit for Measuring Electrical Characteristics
Symbol
42
Form
Rating
Part Number
Maker
C1
Chip Capacitor
47 pF
GRM1552C1H470JZ01
Murata
C3
Chip Capacitor
100 pF
GRM1552C1H101JZ01
Murata
C5
Chip Capacitor
1 000 pF
GRM1552C1H102JA01
Murata
L1
Chip Inductor
2.7 nH
AML1005H2N7ST
FDK
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
4. 4. 2
Standard Electrical Characteristics
Main Standard Electrical Characteristics for Reference
(TA = +25°C, VCC = 3.0 V, fin = 1 575 MHz, unless otherwise specified)
ICC:
12.0 mA
OIP3:
+13 dBm
NF:
1.08 dB
RLin:
6.8 dB
GP:
28.5 dB
RLout:
17.2 dB
PO (1 dB):
+7.6 dBm
ISL:
45.6 dB
Figure 4-20. Evaluation Circuit
INPUT
C1
L1
47 pF
2.7 nH
1
8
C3
100 pF
2
7
3
6
4
5
OUTPUT
VCC
C5
1 000 pF
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
43
Isolation ISL (dB)
Power Gain GP (dB)
Figure 4-21. Gain and Isolation
Frequency f (GHz)
44
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
Output Return Loss RLout (dB)
Input Return Loss RLin (dB)
Figure 4-22. Input and Output Return Loss
Frequency f (GHz)
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
45
Figure 4-23. S-Parameter
S11
Start 0.1 GHz
Stop 3.0 GHz
(measured at
connector on
application
board)
S22
Start 0.1 GHz
Stop 3.0 GHz
(measured at
connector on
application
board)
46
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
Figure 4-24. Output 3rd Order Distortion Intercept Point
vs. INPUT POWER
2tone OUTPUT
P o ut vs. P inPOWER
(EC-µ PC8215TU_0.2FR4)
20
OIP3 3==+13
13 dBm
OIP
dBm
Output Power/Tone Pout (dBm)
Pout /tone (dBm)
10
0
Pout _RF
-10
HP8562A
fRF1 = 1 575.5 MHz
fRF2 = 1 575.6 MHz
fIM 3 L = 1 575.4 MHz
fIM 3 H = 1 575.7 MHz
Span 1 MHz
ATT auto
RBW 10 KHz
VBW 10 KHz
SWP 50 mS
Ref level 0 dBm
-20
-30
-40
Pout _IM 3
-50
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Pin /tone (dBm)
Input Power/Tone Pin (dBm)
Figure 4-25. Gain 1 dB Compression Output Power
OUTPUT
INPUT POWER
µ PC8215TU_0.2FR4)
P out vs.POWER
P in (EC-vs.
10
PO (1
Output Power Pout (dBm)
Pout (dBm)
5
dB)
= +7.6 dBm
Pout
0
PO (1
dB)
-5
-10
VCC = 3.0 V
ICC = 12.0 mA
Frequency 1 575 MHz
HP483A POWER METER
HP8665A GENERATOR
-15
-20
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
Pin (dBm)
Input Power Pin (dBm)
Technical Note PU10570EJ01V0TN
-15
-10
-5
0
47
For further information, please contact
NEC Compound Semiconductor Devices, Ltd.
http://www.ncsd.necel.com/
E-mail: [email protected] (sales and general)
[email protected] (technical)
Sales Division TEL: +81-44-435-1573 FAX: +81-44-435-1579
NEC Compound Semiconductor Devices Hong Kong Limited
E-mail: [email protected] (sales, technical and general)
FAX: +852-3107-7309
TEL: +852-3107-7303
Hong Kong Head Office
TEL: +886-2-8712-0478 FAX: +886-2-2545-3859
Taipei Branch Office
FAX: +82-2-558-5209
TEL: +82-2-558-2120
Korea Branch Office
NEC Electronics (Europe) GmbH
http://www.ee.nec.de/
TEL: +49-211-6503-0 FAX: +49-211-6503-1327
California Eastern Laboratories, Inc.
http://www.cel.com/
TEL: +1-408-988-3500 FAX: +1-408-988-0279
0504