EM4123 Data Sheet - EM Microelectronic

EM MICROELECTRONIC - MARIN SA
EM4123
Read-only UHF RFID IC
Description
The chip is used in passive UHF read-only
transponder applications. It is powered up by an RF
beam transmitted by the reader, which is received
and rectified to generate a supply voltage for the chip.
A pre-programmed code is transmitted to the reader
by varying the amount of energy that is reflected back
to the reader. It implements a robust and fast anticollision protocol. The chip is frequency independent
and can be used for RF coupled applications where
reading ranges in excess of 10 m and reading rates
of 120 tags per second at 256 kbit/s can be attained.
The chip is backscattering data using load
modulation.
Therefore the reader should be able to detect ASK
and PSK modulated carrier.
Features
 Factory programmed 64 bit ID number
 High data rate: Up to 256 kbit/s
 Frequency independent: Typically used at 869
MHz, 902 - 960 MHz (versions 001 to 099)
 On-chip oscillator
 On-chip rectifier
 Low voltage operation - down to 1.0 V at ambient
temperature
 Tag Talk Only protocol (TTO)
 Low power consumption
 Low cost
 -40° to +85° C operating temperature range
Benefits
 Anti-collision suited to flux monitoring
 Very low consumption
 High backscatter amplitude
 Designed for ease of antenna attachment
Typical Applications
The chip is ideal for applications where long range,
high-speed item identification is required:








Supply chain management
Tracking and tracing
Access control
Asset control
Licensing
Auto-tolling
Animal tagging
Sports event timing
Typical Operating Configuration
VSS
A
Fig. 1
UHF transponders can be implemented using an EM4123
chip and an open dipole antenna.
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EM4123
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Parameter
Maximum RMS current
supplied into A
Handling Procedures
Symbol
IA
Storage temperature
TSTORE
Electrostatic discharge
VESD
maximum to MIL-STD-883C
method 3015
Version 001 to 099
This device has built-in protection against high static
voltages or electric fields; however, due to the unique
properties of this device, anti-static precautions should be
taken as for any other CMOS component.
Unless
otherwise specified, proper operation can only occur when
all the terminal voltages are kept within the supply voltage
range.
Conditions
10 mA
o
-55 to +125 C
2 KV
Operating Conditions
Parameter
Operating temperature
Stresses above these listed maximum ratings may cause
permanent damage to the device. Exposure beyond
specified operating conditions may affect device reliability
or cause malfunction.
Symbol Min Typ Max Units
o
-40
+85
C
TA
RMS current supplied
into A
10
mA
Electrical Characteristics
VA - VSS = 2.0 V, TA = 25°C, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter
Oscillator frequency
Wake-up voltage
Static current consumption
Symbol
FOSC
VWU
ISTAT
Input series impedance
Zin
Test conditions
-40°C to +85°C
VA – VSS rising
VA – VSS = 1 V
PDUT = -12 dBm;
Die form
fa = 868 MHz;
fa = 915 MHz;
PDUT = -12 dBm;
SC70 3L
fa = 868 MHz;
fa = 915 MHz;
fa = 953 MHz;
Min
400
1.0
Typ
512
1.4
1
Max
600
1.8
5
Units
kHz
V
A
20-j530
20-j500
40-j590
40-j560
50-j650
50-j620





9.6-j214
10.1-j204
9.4-j195
Block Diagram
VDD
Power
Management
A
~
_
VDD
LASER
ROM
LOGIC
CS
C
VSS
VSS
OSC
VSS
Fig. 2
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EM4123
LOGIC block
After the power-on reset has disappeared, the chip boots
by reading a seed value into the random number
generator. The least significant 16 bits of the ID (the CRC)
is used as a seed.
The chip then enters its normal operating mode, which
consists of clocking a 16 bit timer counter with the bit rate
clock until it compares with the number in the random
number generator. At this point a code is transmitted. The
random number generator is clocked to generate a new
pseudo random number, and the 16 bit counter is reset to
start a new delay.
The width of the comparison between the 16 bit random
number and the 16 bit delay count determines the
maximum possible delay between transmissions (reading
rate). Any one of four maximum delay settings can be preprogrammed.
Functional Description
Shunt regulator
The shunt regulator has two functions. It limits the voltage
across the logic and protects the Schottky rectifier diodes.
Oscillator
The on-chip RC oscillator has a center frequency of
512 kHz. It supplies a clock to the logic and defines the
data rate.
Wake-up voltage
The reset signal keeps the logic in reset when the supply
voltage is lower than the threshold voltage. This prevents
incorrect operation and spurious transmissions when the
supply voltage is too low for the oscillator and logic to work
properly. It also ensures that transistor Q2 is off and
transistor Q1 is on during power-up to ensure that the chip
starts up.
Data encoding method
The transmitted code consists of an 11 bit preamble
followed by the 64 code bits. The preamble consists of 8
start bits (ZEROES), followed by a SYNCH. The SYNCH
consists of a LOW for two bit periods followed by a ONE.
A ONE is represented by a HIGH in the first quarter of the
bit period, while a ZERO is represented by a HIGH in the
third quarter of the bit period.
Modulation transistor
The N channel transistor Q2 is used to modulate the
transponder antenna. When it is turned on it loads the
antenna, thereby changing the load seen by the reader
antenna, and effectively changing the RCS of the tag and
the amount of energy that is reflected to the reader.
Q2 is active for Data Out = "1".
Antenna adaptation
The antenna attached to the pads A and VSS should have
an impedance at the operating frequency equal to the
conjugate math of the chip's impedance. This adaptation
is required for best energy transfer and maximum of
reflection coefficient.
Timing characteristics

Data clock: 2 x data rate

Data out modulation duration (TMod) =
1
4 x Data rate
Charge preservation transistor
The P channel transistor Q1 is turned off whenever the
modulation transistor Q2 is turned on to prevent Q2 from
discharging the power storage capacitor (CS). This is
done in a break-before-make manner, i.e. Q1 is first turned
off before Q2 is turned on, and Q2 is turned off before Q1
is turned on.
Down link data encoding
Data clock
ROM data
TMod
Data out
Preamble
ROM bit encoding 10011
Fig. 3
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EM4123
ROM programming
The EM4123 contains two laser fuse ROM blocks that are
pre-programmed by the foundry. The ROM blocks are split
in two parts: the Code ID ROM and the Control ROM.
CONTROL ROM
The operational modes of the EM4123 are preprogrammed into the CONTROL ROM. Five standard
versions are available as described in table 1.
CODE ID ROM
This ROM contains the 64 bit ID code which is
programmed by the foundry. A 32 bit UID along with a 10
bit customer code are provided to ensure a unique chip
identifier (Refer to figure 4). A 16 bit CRC is provided to
ensure the data integrity of the ID code (Refer to figures 4
and 5). Bit 63 is the most significant bit of the ID code and
bit 0 is the least significant bit. The ID code is transmitted
most significant bit first.
ID Code Structure
EXT
MAN
CUST
Bit 63-62 Bit 61-58
Bit 57-48
UID
CRC
Bit 15-0
Bit 47-16
UID:
Programmed ‘00’ to indicate 64 bit Read-Only capability
4 bit IC manufacturer’s code (0001 for EM)
capability
10 bit customer code. Standard 011 000 0000
EM)
32 bit unique ID
CRC:
16 bit CRC
EXT:
MAN:
CUST:
Fig. 4
CRC Block Diagram
15
14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Data Input
1 0
MSB
LSB
X15
X2
X0
Feedback before shift
Exclusive OR
X
Shift Register
CRC-16 Generating polynomial = X16 + X15 + X2 + 1. The CRC is seeded with FFFF. Transmit MSB first.
Fig. 5
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EM4123
Application Overview
The EM4123 chip implements a fast and reliable anticollision protocol. The chip is typically used in passive
transponder applications, i.e. it does not require a battery
power source. Instead, it is powered up by an RF beam
transmitted by the reader, which is received and rectified to
generate a supply voltage for the chip. A pre-programmed
code is transmitted to the reader by varying the amount of
energy that is reflected back to the reader. This is done by
modulating an antenna, thereby effectively varying the
radar cross section (RCS) seen by the reader.
A UHF tag can be implemented using an EM4123 chip and
an antenna (typically printed). High reading distances (> 10
m) and high data rates (up to 256 kbit/s) can be achieved.
The basis of the anti-collision protocol is that tags transmit
their own codes at random times to a reader. By just
listening and recording unique codes when they are
received, the reader can eventually detect every tag. The
reader typically detects collisions by checking a CRC. Its
main advantage is that the reader design is simple, and
the spectrum requirement is low – a very narrow band is
required.
Max timing delay for ID transmit
All communication packets consist of 64 bit ID bits
plus 11 header bits = 75 bits.
Calculation for the EM4123V2, i.e. data rate is 64 kbps,
maximum random delay is 16 kbits.
Max random delay is 16 kbits / 64 kbps = 256 ms.
The random delay is 8 times faster on the first
transmissions.
So the Max initial random delay is 32 ms.
The first transmission will occur between 16 bit clocks and
the max random delay:
power-up +256s and power-up +32 ms.
The mean value is 16 ms for the first transmission.
Max. time to read full ID:
Max. initial Rnd delay + 75 bits @ 64 kbps
Min. delay
(s)
Figure 6 shows a sequence of three transponders. The
reader starts to read transponder 3 but during its data
transmission, transponder 1 starts to transmit. In this case,
due to the CRC check, the collision is detected and the
transmission discarded. Next both transponders 2 and 3
are detected successfully and eventually transponder 1 as
well. A transponder is registered only if it transmits a
complete ID without any errors.
256
256
64
64
64
Max. Rnd delay (ms)
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
Initial
after 6
transmissions
8
32
2
8
32
64
256
16
64
256
Message
(ms)
1.2
1.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
Example Transmission Sequence
Transponder 1
Transponder 2
Transponder 3
Data stream in collision
Data stream detected
Fig. 6
Protocol Saturation
As the number of tags in a reader beam is increased, the
number of collisions between transmissions increases
and it takes longer to read all the tags. This process is
not linear. To read twice as many tags could take more
than twice as long. This effect is called protocol
saturation.
The EM4123 implements a patented
technique for reducing the effects of saturation.
Copyright  2014, EM Microelectronic-Marin SA
4123-DS.doc, Version 6.0, 17-Nov-14
It is also possible to optimize the protocol for various
applications (few fast moving tags vs. large numbers of
slow moving tags) by setting the maximum random delay
between transmissions.
Four different settings are
available from 1 kbits to 64 kbits. A higher setting
means it will take longer to read a small number of tags,
but it will take a larger number of tags to saturate the
channel.
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EM4123
Figure 7 shows average reading times for the standard versions. Maximum reading time (3) for a given number of tags can be
up to double the average reading time . With both V4 and V5 a minimum of 60 tags can be read in one second.
Average static reading times
3
V1
2
Time (s)
V2
V3
V4
1
V5
0
0
50
100
150
200
Number of Tags
Fig. 7
Figure 8 shows average reading rate for the standard versions. V4 and V5 achieve maximum reading rates of nearly 200 tags
per second.
Average reading rate
400
Tags/s
350
300
V1
250
V2
200
V3
150
V4
100
V5
50
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
Number of Tags
Fig. 8
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EM4123
Figure 9 shows maximum speeds that can be achieved with a reader that conforms to European power levels (approximately 2
meter reading range and beam width). These speeds can be more than doubled for applications in the USA.
Maximum speeds (500mW ERP reader)
50
45
Speed (m/s)
40
V1
35
30
V2
25
V3
20
V4
15
V5
10
5
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
Number of Tags
Fig. 9
V4 tags are suitable for most SCM applications. V5 tags
should be used where more than 100 tags will be read
simultaneously. V3 tags should be used for high-speed
applications.
Operational mode definition
The operational modes are pre-programmed into the 5 bit
CONTROL ROM. This operational mode is defined as the
version number of the chip, as described in the table
hereunder.
Version selection
The version number is a 3 digit description.
The first digit is the frequency selection;
The 2 following digits are the operational mode selection.
Version
Vx01
Vx02
Vx03
Vx04
Vx05
Vxyz
x : frequency selection
yz : operational mode
Tx Data rate
64kbps
64kbps
256kbps
256kbps
256kbps
Max interval
4k
16k
4k
16k
64k
Operating frequency selection
The operating frequency selection is done when ordering
the chip.
In the version number, the first digit stands for the
operating frequency for which the chip is optimized:
Version
V0yz
Operating frequency
800 MHz – 1 GHz
V0yz is often called the UHF range, or 900 MHz range
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EM4123
Die form information
Pad location diagram
80
80
2
486
EM4123
235.45
400
1
125
125
Y
650
X
Pad 1 size : Ø 68
Pad 2 size : 68 X 68
All dimensions in m
Fig. 10
Pad description
Pad
1
2
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4123-DS.doc, Version 6.0, 17-Nov-14
Name
Ant +
Vss
Description
Antenna + terminal
Antenna - terminal
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EM4123
Packaging information:
EM4123 is available in SC70 3L package on request. Please contact EM sales support for more information.
[email protected]
Fig.11
Packaging pin-out – SC70 3L
Fig.12
Note:


Pad # 2 connected to Antenna terminal
Pad #3 connected to VSS terminal
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EM4123
Ordering Information
The following charts show the general offering. For detailed Part Number to order, please see the table “Standard Versions”
below.
DIE FORM:
EM4123 V001 WS 11
Version:
V002 = data rate:64k, interval:16k, 900MHz
V003 = data rate:256k, interval:4k, 900MHz
V004 = data rate:256k, interval:16k, 900MHz
V005 = data rate:256k, interval:64k, 900MHz
Bumping:
" " (blank) = no bumps
E = with Gold Bumps
Thickness:
7 = 7 mils (178um)
11 = 11 mils (280um)
Die form:
WW = Wafer
WS = Sawn Wafer/Frame
Remarks:
For ordering, please, use table of “Standard Version” table below.
For specifications of Delivery Form, including gold bumps, tape and bulk, as well as possible other delivery form or
packages, please, contact EM Microelectronic-Marin S.A.
Standard Versions:
The versions below are considered standards and should be readily available. For the other delivery form, please contact EM
Microelectronic-Marin S.A.
Part Number
EM4123V002WW11
EM4123V002WS7E
EM4123V004WW11
EM4123V004WS7E
EM4123V005WS11E
Version Number
V002
V002
V004
V004
V005
Die Form
Unsawn wafer
Sawn wafer
Unsawn wafer
Sawn wafer
Sawn wafer
Delivery form/Bumping
No bumps
Gold bumps
No bumps
Gold bumps
Gold bumps
Product Support
Check our web site under Product/RF Identification & Security section. Questions can be sent to [email protected]
EM Microelectronic-Marin SA (“EM”) makes no warranties for the use of EM products, other than those expressly contained in EM's applicable
General Terms of Sale, located at http://www.emmicroelectronic.com. EM assumes no responsibility for any errors which may have crept into
this document, reserves the right to change devices or specifications detailed herein at any time without notice, and does not make any
commitment to update the information contained herein.
No licenses to patents or other intellectual property rights of EM are granted in connection with the sale of EM products, neither expressly nor
implicitly.
In respect of the intended use of EM products by customer, customer is solely responsible for observing existing patents and other intellectual
property rights of third parties and for obtaining, as the case may be, the necessary licenses.
Important note: The use of EM products as components in medical devices and/or medical applications, including but not limited to,
safety and life supporting systems, where malfunction of such EM products might result in damage to and/or injury or death of
persons is expressly prohibited, as EM products are neither destined nor qualified for use as components in such medical devices
and/or medical applications. The prohibited use of EM products in such medical devices and/or medical applications is exclusively at
the risk of the customer
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