Introduction Vishay Characteristics and Definitions used for Film Capacitors COMMON FILM DIELECTRICS USED IN FILM CAPACITORS PRODUCTS DIELECTRIC (1) PARAMETER UNIT KT KN KI KP Dielectric constant 1 kHz 3.3 3 3 2.2 - Dissipation factor 1 kHz 50 40 3 1 10-4 Dissipation factor 10 kHz 110 70 6 2 10-4 Dissipation factor 100 kHz 170 100 12 2 10-4 Dissipation factor 1 MHz 200 150 18 4 10-4 Volume resistivity 10+17 10+17 10+17 10+18 Ωcm Dielectric strength 400 300 250 600 V/µm Maximum application temperature 125 150 160 125 °C Power density at 10 kHz 50 40 2.5 0.6 W/cm3 Dielectric absorption 0.2 1.2 0.05 0.01 % Notes (1) According to “IEC 60062”: KT = polyethylene terephthalate (PETP) KN = polyethylene naphtalate (PEN) KI = polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) KP = polypropylene (PP) • Polyethylene terephthalate (PETP) and polyethylene naphtalate (PEN) films are generally used in general purpose capacitors for applications typically with small bias DC voltages and/or small AC voltages at low frequencies. • Polyethylene terephthalate (PETP) has as its most important property, high capacitance per volume due to its high dielectric constant and availability in thin gauges. • Polyethylene naphtalate (PEN) is used when a higher temperature resistance is required compared to PET. • Polyphenylene sulfide (KI) film can be used in applications where high temperature is needed eventually in combination with low dissipation factor. • Polypropylene (KP) films are used in high frequency or high voltage applications due to their very low dissipation factor and high dielectric strength. These films are used in AC and pulse capacitors and interference suppression capacitors for mains applications. • Typical properties as functions of temperature or frequency are illustrated in the following chapters: “Capacitance”, “Dissipation factor”, and “Insulation resistance.” www.vishay.com 2 For technical questions, contact: [email protected] Document Number: 28147 Revision: 05-Dec-08 Introduction Characteristics and Definitions used for Film Capacitors Vishay CAPACITANCE Capacitance change at 1 kHz as a function of temperature (typical curve) KT C/C (%) 1 kHz 2 KN C/C (%) 4 Capacitance change at 1 kHz as a function of frequency at room temperature (typical curve) 1 2 KP KI 0 0 KT KN KI KP KP KI KI -1 KP -2 KN -2 KN KT KT -4 - 60 - 20 20 60 -3 2 10 100 T 140 amb (°C) 10 3 4 10 f (Hz) 10 5 DISSIPATION FACTOR Dissipation factor as a function of frequency at room temperature (typical curve) 3 10 Dissipation factor (x 10-4) 20 °C Dissipation factor (x 10-4) 10 Dissipation factor as a function of temperature (typical curve) KT 10 KN 10 2 1 kHz 2 KT KN 10 1 KI KP 10 1 3 KI 10 0 KP -1 10 0 102 10 3 104 f (Hz) 10 5 10 - 60 - 20 20 60 140 100 T amb (°C) INSULATION RESISTANCE Insulation resistance as a function of temperature (typical curve) RINS (MΩ) 10 7 10 6 KP 10 5 KI KT KN 10 4 10 3 - 60 - 20 Document Number: 28147 Revision: 05-Dec-08 20 60 100 T (°C) 140 amb For technical questions, contact: [email protected] www.vishay.com 3 Introduction Vishay Characteristics and Definitions used for Film Capacitors CONSTRUCTION OF CAPACITORS CELLS Film capacitors are build up by two electrodes (the capacitor plates) with plastic dielectric material in between. The type of electrode used determines whether the capactor is a metalized film or film/foil type. In metalized types, the very thin electrode is evaporated on the plastic dielectric material. The thin metalized electrodes have a thickness of approximately 10 nm to 50 nm. The electrodes of film/foil capacitors have discrete metal foils with thicknesses of approximately 5 µm to 10 µm. Metalized capacitors have a self-healing behavior as an intrinsic characteristic. Self healing is the ability to recover after a dielectric breakdown. Due to their construction, very thick electrodes, film/foil capacitors can carry higher currents than metalized types, but are much larger in volume. These capacitors can not recover after a breakdown. Therefore In some constructions double side metalized plastic film is used as electrode to replace the foil. The plastic material has only the function of carrier: the self healing properties are maintained and the current carrying capability is increased a lot in comparison with single metalized types. Depending on the AC voltage in the application, single or series constructions are used. In a series construction two or more sections are placed internally in series in one capacitor. Single section capacitors are normally used for products with an AC rating up to 300 Vac. Series construtions are used for higher voltages. The end connection of the capacitor cell to the outside circuit is realized by metal sprayed end connections wherein lead wires or tabs are welded. Category voltage (UC) The maximum AC voltage (or DC voltage) that may be applied continuously to a capacitor at its upper category temperature. Rated AC voltage (URac) The maximum RMS voltage (in V) at specified frequency (mostly 50 Hz), that may be continuously applied to a capacitor at any operating ambient temperature below the rated temperature. Corona starting voltage (Ionization) In AC voltage applications or in rapid changing DC voltages (pulses) air can be ionized and partially break down. The corona starting voltage is defined as the AC voltage at which electrical discharges resulting from the ionization of air on the surface or between the capacitor plates can be detected . Its value is dependent upon the internal design of the capacitor element, the dielectric material, and the thickness of the film. The usage of series wound capacitors increases the corona voltage level. Where applicable the corona starting voltage is typically defined with a certain sensitivity in pC (Pico-Coulomb). Impulse voltage An impulse voltage is an a-periodic transient voltage of a defined waveform as described in IEC 60060-1 Capacitance The capacitance of a capacitor is the capacitive part of the equivalent circuit composed of capacitance, series resistance and inductance. ENCAPSULATION Finally the capacitor cells can be protected for severe environmental conditions or to withstand passive flammability. Encapsulation with epoxy materials in plastic boxes is common used for fixed outline dimensions. Epoxy dipped capacitors have a more rounded and easy to handle shape. All these encapsulations are flame retardant materials fulfilling the UL 94 classification system. Axial types are typically of the wrapped end construction. An extra wrapped film and epoxy at the end connections protects the cell. GENERAL DEFINITIONS Rated DC voltage (URdc) The maximum DC voltage (in V) which may be continuously applied to a capacitor at any operating ambient temperature below the rated temperature. www.vishay.com 4 C 144x12(halfpage) L ESR Rated capacitance The rated capacitance, normally marked on the product, is the value for which the capacitor has been designed. Capacitance tolerance The percentage of the allowed deviation of the capacitance from the rated capacitance. This is measured at a free air ambient temperature of 23 ± 1 °C and RH of 50 ± 2 %. For technical questions, contact: [email protected] Document Number: 28147 Revision: 05-Dec-08 Introduction Characteristics and Definitions used for Film Capacitors Tolerance coding in accordance with “IEC 60062” PERCENTAGE OF DEVIATION LETTER CODE ± 1.0 % F ± 2.0 % G ± 5.0 % J ± 10.0 % K ± 20.0 % M A letter “A” indicates that the tolerance is deviasting from the standard definitions in the type specification or customer detail specification. Temperature coefficient and cyclic drift of capacitance The terms characterizing these two properties apply to capacitors for which the variations of capacitance as a function of temperature are linear, or approximately linear, and can be expressed with a certain precision. Temperature coefficient of capacitance The rate of capacitance change with temperature, measured over the specified temperature range. It is normally expressed in parts per million per Kelvin (10-6/K). Temperature cyclic drift of capacitance The maximum irreversible variation of capacitance observed at room temperature during or after the completion of a number of specified temperature cycles. It is usually expressed as a percentage of the capacitance related to a reference temperature. This is normally 20 °C. Rated voltage pulse slope (dU/dt) The maximum voltage pulse slope that the capacitor can withstand with a pulse voltage equal to the rated voltage. For pulse voltages other than the rated voltage, the maximum voltage pulse slope may be multiplied by URdc and divided by the applied voltage or: Usignal x (dU/dt)signal < URdc x (dU/dt)R For complex signals with ringing it is always a must to use following formula: The voltage pulse slope multiplied by the capacitance gives T 2xƒ 0 ( ) dU dt 2 x dt < URdc x ( ) dU dt rated the peak current for the capacitor. Dissipation factor and equivalent series resistance The dissipation factor or tangent of loss angle (tan δ) is the power loss of the capacitor divided by the reactive power of Document Number: 28147 Revision: 05-Dec-08 Vishay the capacitor at a sinusoidal voltage of specified frequency. The equivalent series resistance (ESR) is the resistive part of the equivalent circuit composed of capacitance, series resistance and inductance. The tan δ reflects the polarization losses of the dielectric film and the losses caused by the internal contact resistances (terminal, metal spray, electrodes) of the capacitor. Parallel losses cam in general be neglected at frequencies higher than 1 kHz, due to the high insulation resistance. The tan δ is temperature and frequency dependant. The reciprocal value of tan δ is also known as Q-factor. Q = 1/tan δ Insulation resistance and time constant The insulation resistance (Rins) is defined by the applied DC voltage divided by the leakage current after a well defined minimum time. The time constant is the product (in s) of the nominal capacitance and the insulation resistance between the leads. Equivalent self inductance The equivalent self inductance resonance frequency, is calculated as the: defined at 1/4 x π x fres2 x C Resonance frequency The lowest frequency at which the impedance the capacitor is a minimum when applying sinusoidal voltage. of a Ambient free air temperature The ambient free air temperature is the temperature of the air surrounding the component. Climatic category The climatic category code (e.g. 50/100/56) indicates to which climatic category a film capacitor type belongs. The category is indicated by a series of three sets of digits separated by oblique strokes corresponding to the minimum ambient temperature of operation, the maximum temperature of operation, and the number of days of exposure to damp heat (steady state-test Ca) respectively that they will withstand. Category temperature range The range of ambient temperatures for which the capacitor has been designed to operate continuously. This is defined by the temperature limits of the appropriate category. Upper category temperature The maximum ambient temperature for which a capacitor has been designed to operate continuously at category voltage. For technical questions, contact: [email protected] www.vishay.com 5 Introduction Vishay Characteristics and Definitions used for Film Capacitors Lower category temperature The minimum ambient temperature for which a capacitor has been designed to operate continuously. Rated temperature The maximum ambient temperature at rated voltage may be applied continuously. which the Given that for film capacitors tan δ = ω2 x C x ESR « 0.1 the formula can be simplified to: Uesr2 = ESR2 x ω2 x C2 x U2 or with ESR = tan δ/ωC Maximum application temperature The equivalent of the upper category temperature. the formula becomes: P = ω x C x tan δ x U2 Self-healing The process by which the electrical properties of a metalized capacitor, after a local breakdown, are rapidly and essentially restored to the values before the breakdown. P = tan δ x I2 ωxC Temperature characteristic of capacitance The term characterizing this property applies mainly to capacitors for which the variations of capacitance as a function of temperature, linear or non-linear, cannot be expressed with precision and certainty. The temperature characteristic of capacitance is the maximum reversible variation of capacitance, produced over a given temperature range within the category temperature range. It is expressed normally as a percentage of the capacitance related to a reference temperature of 20 °C. Storage temperature The temperature range with relative humidity RH of maximum 80 % without condensation at which the initial characteristics can be guaranteed for at least 2 years. Maximum power dissipation The power dissipated by a capacitor is a function of the voltage (Uesr) across or the current (I) through the equivalent series resistance ESR and is expressed by: For the tan δ we take the typical value found in the specification, C is in farads and ω = 2 π f. U or I are assumed to be known. In applications where sinewaves occur, we have to take for U the RMS-voltage or for I the RMS-current of the sinewave. In applications where periodic signals occur, the signal has to be expressed in Fourier terms: ∞ Σ Uk x sin (kωt + Φk) k=1 U = U0 + ∞ I = Σ Ik x sin (kωt + Φk) k=1 with U0 the DC voltage, Uk and Ik (the voltage and current of the k-th harmonic respectively) the formula for the dissipated power becomes: ∞ P=Σ k=1 Uesr2 P= ESR tan δk x Ik2 2xkxωxC ∞ P = Σ k x ω x C x tan δk x k=1 P = ESR x I2 Uk2 2 and tan δk is the tan δ at the k-th harmonic. I 144x12(halfpage) ESR Uesr C U Uesr2 = ESR2 x U2 ESR2 + 1/ω2C2 www.vishay.com 6 For technical questions, contact: [email protected] Document Number: 28147 Revision: 05-Dec-08 Introduction Characteristics and Definitions used for Film Capacitors TEST INFORMATION Robustness of leads Tensile strength of leads (Ua) (load in lead axis direction) Lead diameter 0.5 mm, 0.6 mm and 0.8 mm: load 10 N, 10 s. Bending (Ub) Lead diameter 0.5 mm, 0.6 mm and 0.8 mm: load 5 N, 4 x 90°. Lead diameter 1.0 mm: load 10 N, 4 x 90°. Torsion (Uc) (for axial capacitors only) Severity 1: three rotations of 360°. Severity 2: two rotations of 180°. Rapid change of temperature (Na) The rapid change of temperature test is intended to determine the effect on capacitors of a succession of temperature changes and consists of 5 cycles of 30 min at lower category temperature and 30 min at higher category temperature. Dry heat (Ba) This test determines the ability of the capacitors to be used or stored at high temperature. The standard test is 16 h at upper category temperature. 90 % to 95 % for the number of days specified by the third set of digits of the climatic category code. Soldering conditions and recommended wave soldering profile With regard to the resistance to soldering heat and the solderability, our products comply with “IEC 60384-1” and the additional type specifications. For precision capacitors where capacitance stability is important, we refer to the paragraph “Soldering Conditions” in the type specification. Recommended wave soldering profile for our leaded components: Temperature (°C) Damp heat steady state (Ca) This test determines the suitability of capacitors for use and storage under conditions of high humidity. The test is primarily intended to permit observation of the effects of high humidity at constant temperature over a specified period. The capacitors are exposed to a damp heat environment, which is maintained at a temperature of 40 °C and an RH of Total contact time < 5 s Maximum temperature Recommended temperature 280 260 Tpreheat (1) Damp heat cyclic (Db) This test determines the suitability of capacitors for use and storage under conditions of high humidity when combined with cyclic temperature changes and, in general, producing condensation on the surface of the capacitor. One cycle consists of 24 h exposure to 55 °C and 95 % to 100 % relative humidity (RH). Cold (Aa) This test determines the ability of the capacitors to be used or stored at low temperature. The standard test is 2 h at the lower category temperature. Vishay 0 < 100 Time (s) Note (1) The preheating temperature must be restricted to the maximum application temperature of the component Solvent resistance of components Soldered capacitors may be cleaned using appropriate cleansing agents, such as alcohol, fluorhydro-carbons or their mixtures. Solvents or cleansing agents based on chlorohydrocarbons or ketones should not to be used, as they may attack the capacitor or the encapsulation. After cleaning it is always recommended to dry the components carefully. Passive flamability The ability of a capacitor to burn with a flame as a consequence of the application of an external source of heat according to IEC 60384-1 and IEC 60695-2-2. Severities flame exposure time (s) for capacitor volume (V) (mm3) Category of flammability A B C V = 250 15 10 5 250 < V = 500 500 = < V = 1750 20 60 20 30 10 20 V = 1750 120 60 30 Maximum permitted burning time (s) 3 10 30 Additional requiremented Burning droplets or glowing parts falling down shall not ignite the tissue paper Active flammability The ability of the capacitor to burn with a flame as a consequence of electrical loading (self heating effect). Document Number: 28147 Revision: 05-Dec-08 For technical questions, contact: [email protected] www.vishay.com 7

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