2013-03 APEC - SPICE Programs for Aluminum, Ceramic, Film & Tantalum Capacitors & Ultracapacitors 03/13 (968.7K PDF)

```Advances in Capacitors and Ultracapacitors for Power Electronics ‐ Industrial Session1.3
March 2013 Almost all capacitor manufacturers are supplying models or
software to show expected performance of their devices over
frequency.
2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
for Power Electronics
SPICE programs for aluminum, ceramic,
film, and tantalum capacitors and
ultracapacitors
John D. Prymak – Director Advanced Applications
2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
1
Why SPICE ?
SPICE Benefits:
1. Design cycle time reduction (if simulations are realistic)
2. SPICE goes beyond the simple RLC model which is limited to only
The advantage of Spice is reducing design time. Every capacitor
has some parasitic resistance (ESR or Equivalent Series
Resistance) and parasitic inductance (ESL or Equivalent Series
Inductance). To model a capacitor with no ESR or ESL would
create a response that no capacitor can achieve. Replacing the
perfect, “ideal” capacitor with the simple RLC recognizes the
parasitic elements of resistance and inductance, but this model is
valid for one frequency, one temperature, and zero volts DC bias.
one frequency,
one temperature
one bias condition
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
Film and MLCC Model Example
Simple RLC Model
SPICE Model for MLCC and Film
to realistically model typical
performance with sufficient accuracy
Here is an example of replacing the simple RLC with slightly
more complex model for MLCC or Film SPICE calculations.
Additional capacitive, resistive, and inductive elements are
included.
The resistive, capacitive, and inductive elements may be factored
by frequency (F), temperature (T), and DC bias (V) for ceramics
(depending on dielectric).
Ceramic and film capacitors have minor frequency impacts on
capacitance, with slightly increased effects on X5R, X6S, X7R,
X8L, and higher K dielectrics (Z5U and Y5V).
(F)
(F)
(T,V)
(F,T,V)
(F,T,V)
(F,T,V)
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
For C0G type ceramics, the capacitance is not factored by bias,
and minimally factored by temperature. The X5R and X7R
dielectrics can lose 15% of nominal capacitance over temperature
while the higher K (Z5U and Y5V) can lose nearly 60% of the
nominal capacitance – all with no bias.
For DC bias, the C0G and most film have almost no impact, while
for the higher K dielectric ceramics (X5R, X6S, X7R, X8L, Y5V,
Z5U, etc.) the impacts can be substantial on
capacitance(reductions of 80 to 95 percent from nominal values).
This model creates the first series resonance (or self-resonance,
SRF) based on C1, R1, and L2. With R3 and C2 in parallel with
C1-R1-L2 creates the first parallel resonance, and L1 in series
with R2-C2 creates the second series resonance.
Page 1 of 8
Advances in Capacitors and Ultracapacitors for Power Electronics ‐ Industrial Session1.3
March 2013 Here is the method by which the ESR is frequency modulated in
our software. As the width factor (ROff) increases, the flatness of
the ESR response increases, and it becomes less flat or sharper as
this factor decreases.
ESR as factored by Frequency
ESR fx = ESR SRF
SRF
fx
ROff
⎫
⎧
⎛ fx ⎞
⎡
⎟ − ROff ⎬ ⎤
⎨ Log 10 ⎜
⎢
⎝ SRF ⎠
⎭⎥
⎩
× 1 + 10
⎢
⎥
⎣⎢
⎦⎥
-
self-resonant frequency
test frequency
Width factor
typically 1.0 to 1.9
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
Here is a typical impedance and ESR versus frequency plot. For
ceramic and film models there are twelve key seed values for each
part type required to facilitate this response. The key values are
manipulated to allow the calculated response to lie on top of the
measured response. There are over 9,000 part types in KEMET
Spice.
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
The ESR response of the electrolytic capacitors appears to have
two nodes where the ESR reaches minimum values. One of the
nodes appears in the lower frequency range and the other in the
higher frequency range. There may be an additional step down
from the low frequency node to the high frequency node.
Electrolytic Frequency Scan
Tantalum T491D Chip 47 uF
Impedance & ESR (Ohms)
100
Low Frequency High Frequency
Node
Node
10
1
0.10
0
0.01
100
10,000
1,000
1,000,000
100,000
10,000,000
Frequency (Hz)
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
Page 2 of 8
Advances in Capacitors and Ultracapacitors for Power Electronics ‐ Industrial Session1.3
March 2013 The measured capacitance of the electrolytics (and EDLC) appears
to decay with increasing frequency. This decay or roll-off is very
dependent on the capacitance value and the resistivity of the
cathode materials.
Capacitance roll-off
Tantalum T491D Chip 47 uF
Capacitance (uF)
100
10
Capacitance roll-off
achieved!
1
100
10,000
1,000,000
1,000
100,000
10,000,000
Frequency (Hz)
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
The RC-Ladder describes the roll-off effect, as the time constants
for the deeper capacitive elements (Cn on the right) are much
larger than of the shallow elements (C1 and C2 on the left). As
frequency increases, these long time constants effectively
eliminate the deepest elements, then progresses to the outside,
losing capacitance with increasing frequency.
Capacitance changes dramatically with
R1
C1
R2
R3
C2
R4
C3
Rn
C4
Cn
tc1 =
tc2=
tc3=
C1 x R1
C2 x (R1+R2)
C3 x (R1+R2+R3)
tcn=
Cn x (R1+R2+R3...+Rn)
• Device acts as RC-Ladder network.
• Capacitance decays as frequency increases.
• Calculating ESL based on capacitance and selfresonance frequency could lead to gross errors.
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
Here is an example of replacing the simple 5RC circuit with
aluminum or tantalum model display. The resistive and inductive
elements may be factored by temperature and frequency, while the
capacitive elements are factored only by temperature.
Aluminum and Tantalum (and EDLC)
Model
5RC-SPICE Model for electrolytic
to realistically model typical
performance with sufficient accuracy,
including capacitance roll-off.
Simple RLC Model
The RC-Ladder creates a capacitance roll-off versus frequency.
There are also circuits of 3, 9, and 12 RC-Ladder element pairs.
The lossier the capacitor, the deeper the chains of capacitor
elements, and the higher the number of RC ladder element pairs.
(F,T)
(F,T)
(F,T)
(F,T)
(F,T)
(F,T)
(T)
(T)
(T)
(T)
(T)
(T)
Large tantalum, and aluminum polymer capacitors with very low
ESR’s may have only 3-RC ladder element pairs, while very lossy
tantalum MnO2 or EDLC capacitors will have 12 RC-element
pairs. Some EDLC capacitors require up to 17 RC element pairs
to effectively reproduce the capacitance roll-off effects.
The RC-Ladder also has an impact on the calculated ESR.
3RC, 9RC, and 12RC models are also used
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
Page 3 of 8
Advances in Capacitors and Ultracapacitors for Power Electronics ‐ Industrial Session1.3
March 2013 Frequency Adjustment for Esr
Low Frequency
Node
(Log10(f))
Flo
High Frequency
Node
(Log10(f))
Fhi
[
ESR fx = ESR × 1 + 10 (Flo − Log ( fx ) ) + 10 ( Log ( fx ) − Fhi )
The frequency responses of ESR for the tantalum capacitors is
based on the RC-Ladder model and in the values of resistance,
inductance (based on case), and the two frequency nodes, creating
seed values for each capacitor part number.
Here is how we manipulate the ESR for those two nodes in the
frequency response. As we manipulate the lower seed value (Flo),
the ESR back at 120 Hz is monitored to give us a realistic DF at
120 Hz. We manipulate the seed value for the upper node to give
us a response close to the 10 MHz ESR measured. The base ESR
is selected to define the minimum ESR and the ESR at 100 kHz.
]
Flo and Fhi carried as seed values for each part number.
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
Impedance, ESR Example:
Tantalum
Typical T495 Impedance & ESR Frequency Response
@Bias 5Vdc, Temps of -55, -25, 25, 50, 85, 125 °C: T495D107M010ATE050
This is the impedance and ESR plot of a tantalum at -55°C, -25°C,
25°C, 50°C, 85°C, and 125°C temperatures, with 5Vdc rated
voltage applied. The cursor is at 100 kHz and the readouts above
the graph show the frequency, impedance, ESR, and ESL at 100
kHz for the selected plot (the 125°C plot).
-55
-25
-25
50
25
85
125
Ambient temperature, frequency, voltage can affect actual impedance and
ESR depending on technology and dielectric
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
Here is the model and default ASCII file output for a tantalumpolymer device to show that the complexity of the model is
dependent on the part type. There are 12 elements in this model
while there were only 7 elements for the previous MLCC
capacitor. The created ASCII files also define the temperature,
bias, and frequency where these element values are captured.
Because the model incorporates the RC-Ladder, variation of
capacitance above and below the listed frequency will be factored
by changing frequency, but the ESRs will not.
Each part type can generate its
associated model as a file
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
Page 4 of 8
Advances in Capacitors and Ultracapacitors for Power Electronics ‐ Industrial Session1.3
March 2013 Here is the 5RC model where we calculated a frequency response
based on the set model created at 100 kHz versus the actual
response for varying frequencies
5RC Model @ 100 kHz
T495V477M006ATE040
10000%
Error Compared to Actual
Z Error
C Error
R Error
1000%
In the lower frequency range (100 kHz down to 100 Hz), the
maximum Impedance error is only 3%. In the upper frequency
range (from 100 kHz up to 100 MHz), the maximum error is less
than 13%.
The Capacitance error in the lower frequency range is less than
1%. In the upper frequency range the maximum error remains
below 20%, with half of that rage being less than 2%.
100%
10%
1%
1.E+02
1.E+03
1.E+04
1.E+05
1.E+06
1.E+07
1.E+08
The ESR is acceptable (less than 20%) from 2 kHz through 2
MHz, but gets excessive (>20% error) outside that range. Without
some adjustment for ESR, the only ESR change occurs as the
capacitance decays.
Frequency (Hz)
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
Software allows user to create
models for all part types
KEMET creates models for the
following EDA formats:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ansoft
Ansys
Mentor
Multisim
NetList
NetList Libraries
Simplex
Sigrity
The KMET Spice software allows the user to generate any of the
listed EDA model type for all or a limited number of part types.
Specific EDA tolls include:
• Ansoft
• Ansys
• Mentor
• Multisim
• NetList
• NetList Libraries
• Simplex
• Sigrity
Plus:
• Linear
• Touchstone Impedance
• S-Parameter
Plus:
• Linear
• S-Parameter Files
• Touchstone Impedance Files
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
Similar to the NetList format are the Ansoft, Mentor, Sigrity, and
Simplis models. The Ansoft, Sigrity, and Simplis are “.CKT” file
types while the Mentor is a “.SP” file type. The Mentor requires
the file name be prefixed by the component manufacturer, and the
second line, or first comment line in the Simplis file defines the
part as a capacitor, and polar if necessary. All the element values
are the same.
Many Formats are similar to NetList
Ansoft
Sigrity
Mentor
Simplis
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
Page 5 of 8
Advances in Capacitors and Ultracapacitors for Power Electronics ‐ Industrial Session1.3
March 2013 We have not added the EDLC to the software at this time, but we
have completed preliminary work using MathCAD software. For
this 100-Farad electrochemical double-layer capacitor, we not
only created the 9RC ladder element, but also added a five pair
RC network. The 5RC parallel network allows a frequency
dependent ESR without any additional manipulation.
16
63.322 F
0.25 mOhm
0.20 mOhm
8.556 F
23.257 F
0.18 mOhm
0.15 mOhm
3.148 F
1.158 F
0.12 mOhm
426 mF
0.12 mOhm
0.20 mOhm
157 mF
3000 F
100 mOhm
0.22 mOhm
10000 F
30 mOhm
58 mF
800 F
200 mOhm
21 mF
500 F
5.0 mOhm
0.28 mOhm
100 F
1.0 mOhm
“Low-loss” 100F EDLC
2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
These are the measured and calculated responses of impedance
and Esr for the EDLC. The correlation is excellent.
Fast Response – Z/ESR
1.E+01
Z (Meas)
ESR (Meas)
Modeled Z
Z/ESR (Ohms)
1.E+00
Modeled ESR
1.E-01
1.E-02
1.E-03
1.E-04
1.E‐03
1.E‐02
1.E‐01
1.E+00
1.E+01
1.E+02
1.E+03
Frequency (Hz)
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
This plot shows the measured and calculated model response of
capacitance and phase for the ECLC. Again, the correlation is
excellent.
Fast Response – Cap/Phase
1.00E+03
0
-10
-20
-30
Cap (Meas)
-40
Modeled C
1.00E+01
Phase (Meas)
-50
Modeled Ph
Phase Angle (°)
Capacitance (F)
1.00E+02
-60
1.00E+00
-70
-80
1.00E-01
1.E‐03
-90
1.E‐02
1.E‐01
1.E+00
1.E+01
1.E+02
1.E+03
Frequency (Hz)
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
Page 6 of 8
Advances in Capacitors and Ultracapacitors for Power Electronics ‐ Industrial Session1.3
March 2013 Most capacitor manufacturers offer Spice
Select
Version 3.9.66
Available 19-Oct-2012
category of “SPICE & FIT Modeling” selection, “KEMET
Software” page shows latest offering.
15-Sep-2012 Rev 3.9.6x (date of last major revision)
• Calculation method and seed for Film SMD changed.
Ripple Vrms displayed and tracked in Temperature Rise versus
Ripple Current plot.
• Ripple Vrms displayed and tracked in Temperature Rise versus
Combined Multiple Ripple Current plots.
• ESR and Flo seed values adjusted in T491 & T494 to reflect last
year’s collected data for DF and ESR from production data.
• Corrected ESR seed values missing for T520A 47, 68, and 100
µF pieces.
• Expanded offerings, added T513, T540, T541, and T543.
Select
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
In this plot of capacitance and inductance (ESL) versus frequency,
we have a ceramic chip (C1206C107M9PAC) and a standard
commercial tantalum with MnO2, and a tantalum polymer. They
are all of 100 uF at 120 Hz, and 25°C, with 0Vcd bias, but
comparing these pieces at -55°C with 5Vdc bias at 100 kHz
reveals that they can be very different. The commercial tantalum
at -55°C has a substantial drop in capacitance such that it now
measures only 14.8 µF, the ceramic is affected by temperature and
voltage such that its capacitance now measures only 21.8 µF, and
the tantalum polymer best retains its capacitance at 90.8 µF.
Software also allows Run Comparative
Analysis Across Capacitor Types
T520B107M006ATE015
C1206C107M9PAC
T491B107M006
All Pieces are 100 µF at 25°C, 120 Hz, and 0Vdc,
But at -55°C, 100 kHz, and 5 Vdc Bias:
Ceramic 1206 X5R = 21.8 µF
Tantalum (MnO2) = 14.8 µF
Tantalum-Poly = 90.8 µF
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
Ripple Capability versus Frequency
Example: Ceramic
Typical Ceramic Ripple Current and Voltage Capability
@Ambient 25°C, with 0, 12, and 21 Vdc, and +20°C Temp Rise of C1210C475K3RAC
Cursor at 100 kHz
Ambient + ripple temperature rise must remain within capacitor
specification, i.e. +125°C for X7R
21
This is the plot of Irms and Vrms values versus frequency. Every
capacitor has a specified power dissipation limit depending on
case size and ESR. Power (I²×ESR) causes internal heating and
thus a rise in core and case temperature.
Note that ripple capability that achieves a +20°C temperature rise
is not the limitation of the part, but rather an industry standard
used for catalog entries.
Most ceramic and tantalum devices can run reliably with a 50°C
temperature rise.
This becomes a limiting factor, as larger temperature rises will
create large thermal gradients in capacitor structure.
Film capacitors have allowable rises (hot spot temperature) that
vary with ambient.
Allowable temperature rise magnitude is suppressed as ambient
temperature approaches maximum temperature.
2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
Page 7 of 8
Advances in Capacitors and Ultracapacitors for Power Electronics ‐ Industrial Session1.3
March 2013 The calculation method for this plot of temperature rise versus
applied ripple current is calculated differently from the previous
plot. In this plot, incremental temperature rises are set, and the
ESR at that elevated temperature is used to calculate the power.
In the previous plot, the ESR at the ambient temperature is used,
ignoring any ESR change created by the new internal temperature.
Temperature rise and Irms for up to 10 discrete frequency levels
are available. Compared to the previous slide, this plot will result
in higher current capability for devices, with negative TCRs
throughout temperature rise. It will also result in lower current
capability for devices showing any positive TCR in delta
temperature range.
Multiple Frequency Ripple Capability
Example: Ceramic
Ceramic Temperature Rise at Multiple Freq. Capability
@Ambient 25°C, with 0 Vdc, and Temp Rise of C1210C475K3RAC
Cursor at 100 kHz
Ambient + ripple temperature rise must remain within capacitor
specification, i.e. +125°C for X7R
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
The combined effects of several specific frequencies with
associated ripple currents can be monitored with user selected
temperature rise other than the default +20°C.
Example: DC-Link C4AE box series 50uF / 450Vdc with 10
ripple current frequencies allowing +10°C hot spot temperature.
The maximum temperature rise would be 30°C as shown by the
un-shaded bottom portion of the plot.
Temperature Rise @ Specific Frequencies and
Currents, Example: Power Film
Typical Polypropylene Box Film
@Ambient 20°C, 10°C Temp Rise of C4AEGBW5500A3LJ
Cursor at +10° Temp Rise
Ambient + ripple temperature rise must remain within capacitor
specification, i.e. ambient 20°C + 10°C hotspot delta = 30°C internal
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
Thank You!
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2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference
Page 8 of 8
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