datasheet

SKHI 23/12 (R) ...
power semiconductor power electronics igbt bridge rectifier diode thyristor cib rectifier ipm driver inverter converter thyristor module gleichrichter
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© by SEMIKRON
SKHI 23/17 (R) ...
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26-06-2006 MHW
© by SEMIKRON
Block diagramm SKHI 23
Fig. 1 The numbers refer to the description on page B14 – 45, section B.
Fig. 2 Dimensions (in mm) and connections of the SKHI 23
2
26-06-2006
by SEMIKRON
SEMIDRIVERTM SKHI 23/12
SEMIDRIVERTM SKHI 23/17
the 5 V level due to possible disturbances emitted by
the power side.
Medium Power Double IGBT Driver
Overview
The new intelligent double IGBT driver, SKHI 23
respectively SKHI 23/17 is a standard driver for all power
IGBTs in the market.
SKHI 23/12 drives all IGBTs with VCE up to 1200 V. SKHI
23/17 drives all IGBTs with VCE up to 1700 V. To protect
the driver against moisture and dust it is coated with
varnish. The adaption of the drivers to the application has
been improved by using pins to changing several
parameters and functions. The connections to the IGBTs
can be made by using only one MOLEX connector with
12 pins or by using 2 separate connectors with 5 pins for
each IGBT.
The high power outputs capability was designed to switch
high current double or single modules (or paralleled
IGBTs). The output buffers have been improved to make
it possible to switch up to 200 A IGBT modules at
frequencies up to 20 kHz.
A new function has been added to the short circuit
protection circuitry (Soft Turn Off), this automatically
increases the IGBT turn off time and hence reduces the
DC voltage overshoot enabling the use of higher DC-bus
voltages. This means an increase in the final output
power.
Integrated DC/DC converters with high galvanic isolation
(4 kV) ensures that the user is protected from the high
voltage (secondary side).
The power supply for the driver may be the same as used
in the control board (0/+15 V) without the requirement of
isolation. All information that is transmitted between input
and output uses ferrite transformers, resulting in high dv/
dt immunity (75 kV/µs).
The driver input stages are connected directly to the
control board output and due to different control board
operating voltages, the input circuit includes a user
voltage level selector (+15 V or +5 V). In the following only
the designation SKHI 23 is used. This is valid for both
driver versions. Any unique features will be marked as
SKHI 23/12 (VCE = 1200 V) or SKHI 23/17 (VCE = 1700 V)
respectively.
A. Features and Configuration of the Driver
a) A short description is given below. For detailed
information, please refer to section B. The following is
valid for both channels (TOP and BOTTOM) unless
specified.
b) The SKHI 23 has an INPUT LEVEL SELECTOR
circuit for two different levels. It is preset for CMOS
(15 V) level, but can be changed by the user to
HCMOS (5 V) level by solder bridging between pins J1
and K1. For long input cables, we do not recommend
© by SEMIKRON
c) An INTERLOCK circuit prevents the two IGBTs of the
half bridge to switch-on at the same time, and a
“deadtime” can be adjusted by putting additional
resistors between pins J3 and K3 (RTD1) and pins J4
and K4 (RTD2). Therefore it will be possible to reduce
the deadtimet tTD (see also table 3).
The interlocking may also be inhibit by solder bridging
between pins J5 and K5 to obtain two independent
drivers.
d) The ERROR MEMORY blocks the transmission of all
turn-on signals to the IGBT if either a short circuit or
malfunction of Vs is detected, a signal is sent to the
external control board through an open collector
transistor. It is preset to “high-logic” but can be set to
“low-logic” (ERROR).
e) The Vs MONITOR ensures that Vs actual is not below
13 V.
f) With a FERRITE TRANSFORMER the information
between primary and secondary may flow in both
directions and high levels of dv/dt and isolation are
obtained.
g) A high frequency DC/DC CONVERTER avoids the
requirement of external isolated power supplies to
obtain the necessary gate voltage. An isolated ferrite
transformer in half-bridge configuration supplies the
necessary power to the gate of the IGBT. With this
feature, we can use the same power supply used in
the external control circuit, even if we are using more
than one SKHI 23, e.g. in three-phase configurations.
h) Short circuit protection is provided by measuring the
collector-emitter voltage with a VCE MONITORING
circuit. An additional circuit detects the short circuit
after a delay (adjusted with RCE (this value can only be
reduced) and CCE (this value can only be increased)
and decreases the turn off speed (adjusted by Rgoff-SC)
of the IGBT. SOFT TURN-OFF under fault conditions
is necessary as it reduces the voltage overshoot and
allows for a faster turn off during normal operation.
i) The OUTPUT BUFFER is responsible for providing the
correct current to the gate of the IGBT. If these signals
do not have sufficient power, the IGBT will not switch
properly, and additional losses or even the destruction
of the IGBT may occur. According to the application
(switching frequency and gate charge of the IGBT) the
equivalent value of Rgon and the Rgoff must be matched
to the optimum value. This can be done by putting
additional parallel resistors Rgon, Rgoff with those
already on the board. If only one IGBT is to be used,
(instead of paralleled IGBTs) only one cable could be
connected between driver and gate by solder bridging
between the pins J12 and K12 (TOP) as well as
between J19 and K19 (Bottom).
j) Fig. 1 shows a simplified block diagram of the SKHI 23
driver. Some preliminary remarks will help the
understanding:
26-06-2006
3
• Stabilised +15 V must be present between pins X1.8,9
(Vs) and X1.10,11 (⊥); an input signal (ON or OFF
command to the IGBTs) from the control system is
supplied to pins X1.2 and X1.4 (Vin) where HIGH=ON
and LOW=OFF. The pin X1.1 can be used as a shield
for the input signals.
• Pin X2.5 on TOP (and X3.5 on BOT) at secondary side
is normally connected to the collector of the IGBTs to
monitor VCE, but for initial tests without connecting the
IGBT it must be connected to pin X2.1 on TOP (and
X3.1 on BOT) to avoid ERROR signal and enable the
output signals to be measured.
The following overview is showing the input treshold
voltages
VIT+ (High)
min
typ
max
15 V
9,5 V
11,0 V
12,5 V
5V
1,8 V
2,0 V
2,4 V
VIT- (Low)
min
typ
max
15 V
3,6 V
4,2 V
4,8 V
5V
1,8 V
0,65 V
0,8 V
• The RESET is performed when both input Vin signals
are zero (TOP = BOT = LOW).
• To monitor the ERROR signal in “high-logic”, a pull-up
resistor must be provided between pin X1.3 and Vs.
• Table 1 (see page B 14–46) shows the factory
adjustment and the different possible adjustments of
the pins.
B. Description of the Circuit Block Diagram (Fig. 1)
The circuit in Fig. 1 shows the input on the left and output
on the right (primary/secondary).
Fig. 4a Connecting the SKHI 23 with short cables
1. Input level circuit
This circuit was designed to accept two different CMOS
logic voltage levels. The standard level is +15 V (factory
adjusted) intended for noisy environments or when long
connections (I > 50 cm) between the external control
circuit and SKHI 23 are used, where noise immunity must
be considerate. For lower power, and short connections
between control and driver, the TTL-HCMOS level (+5 V)
can be selected by solder bridging between J1 and K1,
specially useful for signals coming from uP based
controllers.
Fig. 4b Connecting the SKHI 23 with long cables
2. Input buffer
This circuit enables and improves the input signal Vin to
be transferred to the pulse transformer and also prevents
spurious signals being transmitted to the secondary side.
Fig.3 Selecting J1, K1 for 5 V level (TTL-HCMOS)
3. Error memory and RESET signal
When connecting the SKHI 23 to a control board using
short connections no special attention needs to be taken
(Fig. 4a).
The ERROR memory is triggered only by following
events:
Otherwise, if the length is 50 cm or more (we suggest to
limit the cable length to about 1 meter), some care must
be taken. The TTL level should be avoided and CMOS/
15 V is to be used instead; flat cable must have the pairs
of conductors twisted or be shielded to reduce EMI/RFI
susceptibility (Fig. 4b). If a shielded cable is used, it can
be connected to pinX1.1 and coupled to 0 V through a
capacitor, resistor or by solder bridging between pins J20
and K20.
As the input impedance of the INPUT LEVEL SELECTOR
circuit is very high, an internal pull-down resistor keeps
the IGBT in OFF state in case the Vin connection is
interrupted or left non connected.
4
•
•
short circuit of IGBTs
Vs-undervoltage
In case of short circuit, the VCE monitor sends a trigger
signal (fault signal) through the pulse transformer to a
FLIP-FLOP on the primary side giving the information to
an open-collector transistor (pin X1.3), which may be
connected to the external control circuit as ERROR
message in “high-logic” (or “low-logic” if pins J2 and K2
are bridged). If Vs power supply falls below 13 V for more
than 0,5 ms, the FLIP-FLOP is set and pin X1.3 is
activated. For “high-logic” (factory preset), an external RC
must be connected, preferably in the control main board.
In this way the connection between main board and driver
is also monitored.
26-06-2006
by SEMIKRON
Function
pin description
input level selector
J1 / K1
adjustment by factory
possibilities of functions
not bridged
soldering bridged
⇒5V HCMOS
soldering bridged
⇒LOW-aktiv
adjustment according
table 3
soldering bridged
⇒no interlock
adjustment according
tab. 4a/b
⇒15V CMOS
error - logic
J2 / K2
not bridged
⇒HIGH-aktiv
interlock time
interlock of TOP
and BOTTOM
RCE TOP
CCE TOP
Rgon TOP
Rgoff TOP
J3 / K3 (TOP RTD1)
J4 / K4 (BOT RTD2)
J5 / K5
J6 / K6
⇒
J7 / K7
RCE= 36 kΩ
SKHI 23/17
not equiped
⇒
⇒
J8 / K8
CCE= 330 pF
SKHI 23/12
not equiped
CCE= 470 pF
SKHI 23/17
not equiped
⇒
⇒
J9 / K9
Rgon= 22 Ω
SKHI 23/12
not equiped
Rgon= 22 Ω
SKHI 23/17
not equiped
⇒
⇒
J11 / K11
TOP: one IGBT/
paralleled IGBTs
RCE BOT
J12 / K12
J13 / K13
Rgoff= 22 Ω
Rgoff= 22 Ω
equiped with
IRgoff= 0 Ω
equiped with
⇒RgoffSC= 22 Ω
not bridged
⇒2 cables to gates
SKHI 23/12
SKHI 23/17
not equiped
not equiped
⇒
⇒
J14 / K14
RCE= 18 kΩ
SKHI 23/12
not equiped
RCE= 36 kΩ
SKHI 23/17
not equiped
⇒
⇒
J15 / K15
CCE= 330 pF
SKHI 23/12
not equiped
CCE= 470 pF
SKHI 23/17
not equiped
⇒
⇒
J16 / K16
Rgon= 22 Ω
SKHI 23/12
not equiped
Rgon= 22 Ω
SKHI 23/17
not equiped
⇒
⇒
IRgoff BOT
J17 / K17
RgoffSC BOT
J18 / K18
BOT: one IGBT/
paralleled IGBTs
shield
J19 / K19
© by SEMIKRON
SKHI 23/17
not equiped
⇒
RgoffSC TOP
Rgoff BOT
SKHI 23/12
not equiped
RCE= 18 kΩ
SKHI 23/12
not equiped
J10 / K10
Rgon BOT
not bridged
⇒interlock activ
IRgoff TOP
CCE BOT
not equiped
⇒max. tTD = 10 µs
J20 / K20
Rgoff= 22 Ω
Rgoff= 22 Ω
equiped with
IRgoff= 0 Ω
equiped with
⇒RgoffSC= 22 Ω
not bridged
⇒2 cables to gates
not bridged
⇒no screening
26-06-2006
adjustment according
tab. 4a/b
adjustment according
tab. 4a/b
adjustment according
tab. 4a/b
adjustment according
tab. 4a/b
soldering bridged
⇒1 cable to gate
adjustment according
tab. 4a/b
adjustment according
tab. 4a/b
adjustment according
tab. 4a/b
adjustment according
tab. 4a/b
adjustment according tab. 4a/b
soldering bridged
⇒1 cable to gate
soldering bridged
⇒screening to GND
5
7. Output buffer
Fig. 5 Driver status information ERROR, and RESET
If “low-logic” version ERROR is used (pins J2 and K2 are
bridged), an internal pull-up resistor (internally connected
to VS) is provided, and the ERROR signal from more
SKHI23s can be connected together to perform an
wired-or-circuit.
The ERROR signal may be disabled either by delivering
zero to both signal inputs (RESET = active = Vin-TOP =
Vin-BOT = 0) or by switching the power supply (VS) off.
The “RESET” signal width must be more than 5 µs long
(see Fig. 5).
1)
FAULT
RESET
ERROR1)
switching on
of IGBT
no
no active
0
possible
no
active
0
not possible
yes
no active
1
not possible
yes
active
0
not possible
default logic (HIGH); for LOW logic the signals are
complementary
Table 2 ERROR signal truth table
The open-collector transistor (pin X1.3) may be
connected through a pull-up resistor to an extemal
(internal VS for the “low-logic” version) voltage supply
+5 V...+24 V, limiting the current to lsink 6 mA.
4. Power supply (Vs) monitor
The supply voltage VS is monitored. If it falls below 13 V
an ERROR signal is generated and the turn-on pulses for
the IGBTs gate are blocked.
5. Pulse transformer
It transmits the turn-on and turn-off signals to the driver’s
secondary side. In the reverse direction the ERROR
signal from the VCE monitoring is transmitted via the same
transformer. The isolation is 4 kVAC.
The output buffer is supplied by the +15V/- 8V from the
DC/DC converter and amplifies the control signal
received from the pulse transformer. If the operation
proceeds normally (no fault), the signal is transmitted to
the gate of an IGBT through Rgon and Rgoff. The output
stage has a MOSFET pair which is able to source/sink up
to 8 A peak current to/from the gate improving the
turn-on/off time of the IGBT. Additionally, we can select
IRgoff (see Fig. 2) either to discharge the gate capacitance
with a voltage source (standard) or with a current source,
specially design for the 1700 V IGBT series (it speeds up
the turn-off time of the IGBT). The present factory setting
is voltage source (IRgoff = 0Ω). and to change to current
source IRgoff, must be adjusted, while Rgoff = 0.
8. Soft turn-off
In case of short-circuit, a further circuit (SOFT
TURN-OFF) increases the resistance in series with Rgoff
and turns-off the IGBT at a lower speed. This produces a
smaller voltage spike (due LSTRAY ’ di/dt) above the DC
link by reducing the di/dt value. Because in short-circuit
conditions the Homogeneous IGBT’s peak current
increases up to 8 times the nominal current (up to 10
times with Epitaxial IGBT structures), and some stray
inductance is ever present in power circuits, it must fall to
zero in a longer time than at normal operation. This “soft
turn-off time” can be reduced by connecting a parallel
resistor Rgoff-SC (see Fig. 2) with those already on the
printed circuit board.
9. VCE monitoring
This circuit is responsible for short-circuit sensing. Due to
the direct measurement of VCEstat on the IGBT’s collector,
it blocks the output buffer (through the soft turn-off circuit)
in case of short-circuit and sends a signal to the ERROR
memory on the primary side. The recognition of which
VCE level must be considered as a short circuit event, is
adjusted by RCE and CCE (see Fig. 2), and it depends of
the IGBT used. For the drivers SKHI23/12 typical values
RCE =18 kΩ and CCE =330 pF for SKHI 10 are delivered
from factory (Fig. 6, curve 2). Using SKHI 10/17 the driver
will be delivered with RCE = 36 kΩ and CCE = 470 pF from
factory.
The VCEref is not static but a dynamic reference which has
an exponential shape starting at about 15 V and
decreases to VCEstat (determinated by RCE), with a time
constant τ (controlled by CCE).
6. DC/DC converter
In the primary side of the converter, a half-bridge inverter
transfers the necessary energy from VS to the secondary
of a ferrite transformer. In the secondary side, a full bridge
and filters convert the high frequency signal coming from
the primary to DC levels (+15V/- 8V) that are stabilised by
a voltage regulator circuit.
6
Fig. 6 VCEref waveform with parameters RCE, CCE
26-06-2006
by SEMIKRON
Adjustements for SKHI 23/12
Fig. 7b tmin as function of RCE and CCE
Fig. 7a VCEstat as function of RCE
Adjustements for SKHI 23/17
Fig. 7c VCEstat as function of RCE
Fig. 7d tmin as function of RCE and CCE
The VCEstat must be adjusted to remain above VCEsat in
normal operation (the IGBT is already in full saturation).
resistance is difficult to predict, because it depends on
many parameters, as follows:
To avoid a false failure indication when the IGBT just
starts to conduct (VCEsat value is still too high) some
decay time must be provided for the VCEref. As the VCE
signal is internally limited at 10 V, the decay time of VCEref
must reach this level after VCE or a failure indication will
occur (see Fig.6, curve 1). A tmin is defined as function of
VCEstat and τ to find out the best choice for RCE and VCE
(see Fig.6, curve 2). The time the IGBT come to the 10 V
(represented by a “” in Fig. 6) depends on the IGBT
itself and Rgon used.
The RCE and CCE values can be found from Fig. 7a and
7b for SKHI 23/12 and from Fig. 7c and 7d for SKHI 23/17
by taking the VCEstat and tmin as input values with following
remarks:
• RCE > 10KΩ
• CCE < 2,7nF
Attention!: If this function is not used, for example during
the experimental phase, the VCE MONITORING must be
connected with the EMITTER output to avoid possible
fault indication and consequent gate signal blocking.
10. Rgon, Rgoff
These two resistors are responsible for the switching
speed of each IGBT. As an IGBT has input capacitance
(varying during the switching time) which must be
charged and discharged, both resistors will dictate what
time must be taken to do this. The final value of
© by SEMIKRON
•
•
•
•
DC-link voltage
stray inductance of the circuit
switching frequency
type of IGBT
The driver is delivered with two Rg resistors (22 Ω) on the
board. This value can be reduced to use the driver with
bigger modules or higher frequencies, by putting
additional resistors in parallel.
The outputs Gon and Goff were previewed to connect the
driver with more than one IGBT (paralleling). In that case
we need both signals ON/OFF separately to connect
additional extremal resistors Rgon and Rgoff for each IGBT.
If only one IGBT is to be used, we suggest connecting
both outputs together by solder bridging between pins
J12 and K12 and respectiveley pins J19 and K19 to save
on external connection. We also suggest using two
restistors for Rgon and two resistors for Rgoff when using
low values of resistance, due the high current peak (up to
8 A) which could damage a single resistor.
11. Interlock
The interlock circuit prevents the IGBT turning on before
the gate charge of the other IGBT is completely
discharged. It should be set to delay time longer than the
turn-off time of the IGBT. From the factory: tTD = 10 µs. By
putting additional resistors onto the pins J3/K3 (RTD TOP)
and onto the pins J4/K4 (RTD BOT) the interlock time tTD
can be reduced (see table 3).
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7
RTD1 = RTD2
interlock time tTD
10 kΩ
0,9 µs
22 kΩ
1,8 µs
33 kΩ
SK-IGBT-Module
RGon
Ω
RGoff
Ω
CCE
pF
RCE
kW
Irgoff
Ω
SKM 75GB123D
15
15
470
36
0
2,5 µs
SKM 100GB123D
12
12
470
36
0
47 kΩ
3,2 µs
SKM 150GB123D
10
10
470
36
0
68 kΩ
4,0 µs
SKM 200GB123D
8,2
8,2
470
36
0
100 kΩ
5,0 µs
6,8
6,8
470
36
0
7,7 µs
SKM 300GB123D
330 kΩ
not equiped
(adjustement by factory)
10 µs
Table 4b 1700V IGBT@ DC-link< 1000V
*) Only starting values, for final optimization.
The adjustment of RgoffSC (factory adjusted RgoffSC = 22 Ω)
should be done observing the overvoltages at the module
in case of short circuit. When having a low inductive
DC-link the module can be switched off faster.
It have to be considered: RTD1 = RTD2 10 kΩ
Table 3 adjustement of interlock time
The shown values should be considered as standard
values for a mechanical/electrical assembly, with
acceptable stray inductance level, using only one
IGBT per SKHI 23 driver. The final optimised value
can be found only by measuring.
Fig. 8
Interlock function time diagram
C. Operating Procedure
1. One dual IGBT connection
To realize the correct switching
monitoring of one IGBT-module
components must be used (Fig. 9).
Fig. 9 Preferred dual IGBT-module standard circuit
and short-circuit
some additional
Typical component values: *)
SK-IGBT-Module
RGon
Ω
RGoff
Ω
CCE
pF
RCE
kW
Irgoff
Ω
SKM 75GB123D
22
22
330
18
0
SKM 100GB123D
15
15
330
18
0
SKM 145GB123D
12
12
330
18
0
SKM 150GB123D
12
12
330
18
0
SKM 200GB123D
10
10
330
18
0
SKM 300GB123D
8,2
8,2
330
18
0
Table 4a 1200V IGBT@ DC-link< 700V
8
2. Paralleling IGBTs
The parallel connection is recommended only by using
IGBTs with homogeneous structure (IGHT), that have a
positive temperature coefficient resulting in a perfect
current sharing without any external auxiliary element.
Care must be considered to reach an optimized circuit
and to obtain the total performance of the IGBT (Fig. 10).
The IGBTs must have independent values of Rgon and
Rgoff, and an auxiliary emitter resistor Re as well as an
auxiliary collector resistor Rc must also be used. The
external resistors Rgonx, Rgoffx, Rex and Rcx should be
mounted on an additional circuit board near the paralleled
modules, and the Rgon/Rgoff should be changed to zero
ohms.
The Rex has a value of 0,5 Ω and its function is to avoid
the main current to circulate by the auxiliary ermitter what
could make the ermitter voltage against ground
unbalanced.
26-06-2006
© by SEMIKRON
The Rcx assumes a value of 47 Ω and its function is to
create an average of VCEsat in case of short circuit for
VCE-monitoring.
The mechanical assembly of the power circuit must be
symmetrical and low inductive.
The maximum recommended gate charge is 4,8 µC.
Fig. 12 Output voltage VGE and output current (IG)
Fig. 10 Preferred circuit for paralleld dual IGBT-modules
D. Signal Waveforms
The following signal waveforms were measured under the
conditions below:
• VS = 15 V
Fig.13 Short circuit and ERROR propagation time
worste case (VIN with SC already present)
• Tamb = 25 °C
• load = SKM75GB120D
• RCE = 18 kΩ
• CCE = 330 pF
• UDC = 600 V
• IC = 100 A
All results are typical values if not otherwise specified.
Fig.14 Effect of Rgoff-SC in short - circuit
Fig. 11 Input and output voltage propagation time
© by SEMIKRON
Fig. 15 Maximum operating frequency x gate charge
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9
The limit frequency of SKHI 23 depends on the gate
charge connected in its output pins.
If small IGBT modules are used, the frequency could
theoretically reach 100 kHz. For bigger modules or even
paralleled modules, the maximum frequency must be
determinate (Fig. 15). QG is the total equivalent gate
charge connected to the output of the driver. The
maximum allowed value is limited (about 4,8 µC).
E. Application / Handling
1. The CMOS inputs of the driver are extremely sensitive
to overvoltage. Voltages higher than (VS + 0,3 V) or under
- 0,3 V may destroy these inputs.
Therefore the following safety requirements are to be
observed:
• To make sure that the control signals do not see
overvoltages exceeding the above values.
• Protection against static discharges during handling.
As long as the hybrid driver is not completely
assembled the input terminals must be short circuited.
Persons working with CMOS devices should wear a
grounded bracelet. Any floor coverings must not be
chargeable. For transportation the input terminals must
be short circuited using, for example, conductive
rubber. Places of work must be grounded. The same
safety requirements apply to the IGBTs.
2. The connecting leads between the driver and the
power module must be as short as possible, and should
be twisted.
3. Any parasitic inductance should be minimized.
Overvoltages may be damped by C or RCD snubber
networks between the main terminals [3] = C1 (+) and [2]
= E2 (-) of the power module.
4. When first operating a newly developed circuit, low
collector voltage and load current should be used in the
beginning. These values should be increased gradually,
observing the turn-off behavior of the free-wheeling
diodes and the turn-off voltage spikes across the IGBT by
means of an oscilloscope. Also the case temperature of
the power module should be monitored. When the circuit
works correctly, short circuit tests can be made, starting
again with low collector voltage.
5. It is important to feed any ERROR back to the control
circuit to switch the equipment off immediately in such
events. Repeated turn-on of the IGBT into a short circuit,
with a frequency of several kHz, may destroy the device.
For further details ask SEMIKRON
10
26-06-2006
© by SEMIKRON