Heat dissipation design is a precondition in order to maximize the performance of the LED. In this document, the data that is deemed necessary in the detailed heat dissipation structure of the products and the heat dissipation design of the lighting apparatus is provided as a reference for the appropriate thermal design. CONTENTS 1. Introduction P.2 2. Package structure and thermal resistance P.2 3. Thermal design outside the package P.3 4-1. Simulation ( CL-L103-C3 ) P.4 4-2. Simulation ( CL-L103-C6 ) P.5 Heat dissipation structure that can conduct heat radiated from LEDs efficiently 1. Introduction Significance of the heat dissipation structure The light-emitting diode of an LED package radiates light and heat according to the input power. However, the surface area of an LED package is quite small, and the package itself is expected to release little heat into the atmosphere. An external radiator such as a heat sink is thus required. The heat dissipation structure up to the connection portion of the external radiator uses mainly heat conduction. Regarding LED packages, to control the junction temperature of the light-emitting diode Tj is important. The Tj must be kept from exceeding the absolute maximum rating in the specifications under any conditions. As direct measurement of the junction temperature of a light-emitting diode inside a package is difficult, the temperature of a particular part on 2. the external package ( the case temperature ) Tc [°C] is normally measured. Tj [°C] is calculated using the thermal resistance between the junction and the case Rj-c [°C/W], and the emitted heat amount that is nearly equal to the input power Pd [W]. The heat generated at the light-emitting diode can be conducted to the external radiator efficiently because the package structure for the CL-L103 series minimizes the thermal resistance Rj-c. This document describes the detailed heat dissipation structure of the CL-L103 series and provides data necessary for thermal design of the lighting apparatus to maximize LED performance. Package structure and thermal resistance Understanding the junction temperature The cross-sectional structure example, where the package of the CL-L103 series is connected to an external heat sink, is shown in Figure-1 ( a ). The package has a laminated structure of an aluminum substrate, insulating layers and conductive copper foil patterns. A distinctive point is that the light-emitting diode is mounted directly on the well conductive aluminum substrate not on the insulating layer, which has low thermal conductivity. Thus, the heat generated at the light-emitting diode can be efficiently conducted to the outside of the package. The aluminum substrate side of the package outer shell is thermally connected to the heat sink via heat-dissipation grease ( or adhesive ). As described above, the heat generated in the junction section of the light-emitting diode is transferred mainly to the heat sink using heat conduction, through the light-emitting diode to the adhesive for die-mounting to the aluminum ■Figure-1 ( a ) Cross Section Cross-section diagram Aluminum Bond Heat Sink LED die Tj Rj-c Tc Rb substrate to the grease ( adhesive ). The thermal resistance between the junction section of the light-emitting diode and the aluminum substrate side of the package outer shell is Rj-c, and the specific thermal resistance value of the package. Therefore, the following formula is used Tj = Rj-c・Pd + Tc In addition, the thermal resistance of the grease ( adhesive ) outside the package is Rb [°C/W], the thermal resistance with the heat sink is Rh [°C/W], and the ambient temperature is Ta [°C]. Figure-2 ( b ) indicates the equivalent thermal resistance along the cross-sectional diagram in Figure-2 ( a ). As indicated, the thermal resistances Rj-c, Rb, and Rh ■Figure-2 ( a ) Thermal Resistance are connected in series between the Connection junction temperature Tj and the ambient temperature Ta. The thermal Tj Tj resistances outside the package Rb and Rh can be integrated into the Rj-c Rj-c Tc thermal resistance Rc-a at this point. Tc Thus, the following formula is also Rb Rc-a used: Tj = ( Rj-c + Rc-a )・Pd + Ta Rh Ta Rh Ta Ta Use the correlation between the thermal resistance and the ambient temperature for design of the external heat dissipation mechanism 3. Thermal design of the outside the package Point of the external heat dissipation mechanism The thermal resistance outside the package Rc-a [°C/W], which is the combination of the heatdissipation grease ( adhesive ) and the heat sink, is limited by the input power Pd [W], the ambient temperature Ta [°C], and the thermal resistance of the package Rj-c [°C/W], i.e., maximum rating value in the specifications for the CL-L103-C3 package. The higher the ambient temperature Ta and the larger the driving current, the smaller the allowable thermal resistance outside the package Rc-a = Rb + Rh. In brief, the grease ( adhesive ) and the heat sink, with smaller thermal resistance ( this means better heat dissipation ) , are required in order to keep Tj from exceeding 120°C, the absolute maximum rating in the specifications, if the ambient temperature becomes higher and/or the driving current is larger. Therefore, use Figure-2 as a guide when selecting the external heat dissipation parts, and ultimately conduct thermal verification on actual devices. In addition, the equivalent chart in the case of the CL-L103-C6 package is indicated in Figure-3 for reference. Tj = ( Rj-c + Rc-a )・Pd + Ta Rc-a = ( Tj - Ta ) / Pd - Rj-c Tj function converted from the above formula is Rc-a = -Ta / Pd + Tj / Pd - Rj-c and it is a straight line with the slope of -1 / Pd and the intercept of Tj / Pd - Rj-c. Figure-2 is the chart showing the relationship between the ambient temperature Ta and the thermal resistance outside the package Rc-a indicated by driving current, where Tj is assumed to be 120°C - the absolute ■Figure-2 Ta-Rc-a ( CL-103-C3 ) ■Figure-3 Ta-Rc-a ( CL-103-C6 ) （ ℃/W ） Rj-c=6.4（ ℃/W ） 100 80 150mA 30 350mA 240mA 25 480mA 700mA 20 420mA Rc-a Rc-a Rj-c=5.0（ ℃/W ） 35 350mA 60 40 840mA 15 10 20 0 （ ℃/W ） 5 0 20 40 60 Ta 80 100 （℃） 0 0 20 40 60 Ta 80 100 （℃） 4-1. Simulation ( CL-L103-C3 Series ) For efficient thermal design A simulation is an effective procedure with regard to Structure figure of analytical model the thermal design. Simulation results from when the package of CL-L103-C3 was connected to the heat sink Thermal conductive grease with a heat conductive sheet are shown in Fig.4 ( a ), ( b ). CL-L103-C3 Boundary conditions Ambient temperature : Ta = 25°C Heat conductivity : 5W/m.K Heat dissipation coefficient of the heat sink : 0.2 Contact resistance : Not taken into consideration L W ( Variable ) Model conditions H Heat conductivity of the heat conductive sheet : 4.5W/m.K Thickness of the heat conductive sheet : t=0.12mm Heat sink material : Aluminum ( Number of the fin=6 ) Dimensions : W : 64mm x H : 40mm x L : ( variable ) ■図4（b） Characteristic of input power - junction temperature Tj （ Ŋ）70 80 （ Ŋ） Input Power : 3.255W ( Rated input ) 65 Junction temperature Tj Junction temperature Tj ■図4（a）Characteristic of heat sink surface area - junction temperature Tj 60 55 50 45 0 50000 100000 150000 Surface area of the heatsink 200000 250000 70 S=26,613m m 2 60 50 40 30 20 0 （ mm ） 2 * Above data represents simulation values and is not guaranteed to represent actual measurement values. Evaluation and verification shall be conducted under the conditions of actual use. 1 2 Pd 3 4 （ W） 4-2. Simulation ( CL-L103-C6 Series ) Structure figure of analytical model In addition, results from a simulation where the package of CL-L103-C6 is connected to the heat sink with Thermal conductive grease the heat conductive sheet are indicated in Fig.5 ( a ),( b ). CL-L103-C6 Boundary conditions Ambient temperature : Ta = 25°C Heat conductivity : 5W/m.K Heat dissipation coefficient of the heat sink : 0.2 Contact resistance : Not taken into consideration L W ( Variable ) Model conditions Heat conductivity of the heat conductive sheet : 4.5W/m.K H Thickness of the heat conductive sheet : t=0.12mm Heat sink material : Aluminum ( Number of the fin=6 ) Dimensions : W : 64mm x H : 40mm x L : ( variable ) ■図5（a）Characteristic of heat sink surface area - junction temperature Tj （ Ŋ）95 （ Ŋ）130 120 85 Junction Temperature Tj Junction temperature Tj 90 Input Power : 6.51W ( Rated input ) 80 75 70 65 60 ■図5（b）Characteristic of input power - junction temperature Tj 110 100 90 80 70 S = 26,613mm2 60 50 40 30 0 50000 100000 150000 Surface area of the heatsink. 200000 250000 20 0 （ mm2 ） * Above data represents simulation values and is not guaranteed to represent actual measurement values. 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