AUVSI study

THE ECONOMIC IMPACT
OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS INTEGRATION
IN THE UNITED STATES
MARCH 2013
1
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Table of Contents
Executive Summary........................................................ 2
Oregon Detailed Economic Impact..............................32
Total Economic Impact of UAS Integration in the
Pennsylvania Detailed Economic Impact.....................32
United States (Table 1) ..................................................... 4
Rhode Island Detailed Economic Impact.....................32
Forecast............................................................................... 5
South Carolina Detailed Economic Impact..................32
Economic Impact Analysis............................................ 10
South Dakota Detailed Economic Impact....................33
Appendix A....................................................................... 21
Tennessee Detailed Economic Impact..........................33
Appendix B....................................................................... 22
Texas Detailed Economic Impact..................................33
Alabama Detailed Economic Impact............................ 23
Utah Detailed Economic Impact...................................33
Alaska Detailed Economic Impact................................ 23
Vermont Detailed Economic Impact............................34
Arizona Detailed Economic Impact............................. 23
Virginia Detailed Economic Impact..............................34
Arkansas Detailed Economic Impact........................... 23
Washington Detailed Economic Impact....................34
California Detailed Economic Impact.......................... 24
West Virginia Detailed Economic Impact....................34
Colorado Detailed Economic Impact.......................... 24
Wisconsin Detailed Economic Impact.........................35
Connecticut Detailed Economic Impact...................... 24
Wyoming Detailed Economic Impact...........................35
Delaware Detailed Economic Impact......................... 24
References......................................................................... 36
Florida Detailed Economic Impact............................. 25
AUVSI Fast Facts.............................................................. 38
Georgia Detailed Economic Impact............................ 25
Hawaii Detailed Economic Impact............................... 25
Idaho Detailed Economic Impact................................ 25
Illinois Detailed Economic Impact............................... 26
Indiana Detailed Economic Impact.............................. 26
Iowa Detailed Economic Impact.................................. 26
Kansas Detailed Economic Impact.............................. 26
Kentucky Detailed Economic Impact......................... 27
Louisiana Detailed Economic Impact........................ 27
Maine Detailed Economic Impact.............................. 27
Maryland Detailed Economic Impact.......................... 27
Massachusetts Detailed Economic Impact..................28
Michigan Detailed Economic Impact...........................28
Minnesota Detailed Economic Impact.......................28
Mississippi Detailed Economic Impact ........................28
Missouri Detailed Economic Impact............................29
Montana Detailed Economic Impact............................29
Nebraska Detailed Economic Impact............................29
Nevada Detailed Economic Impact..............................29
New Hampshire Detailed Economic Impact.............30
New Jersey Detailed Economic Impact.........................30
New Mexico Detailed Economic Impact ......................30
New York Detailed Economic Impact..........................30
North Carolina Detailed Economic Impact.................. 31
North Dakota Detailed Economic Impact.................. 31
Ohio Detailed Economic Impact..................................31
Oklahoma Detailed Economic Impact..........................31
About the Authors
Darryl Jenkins, author of “The Handbook of Airline Economics,”
is an airline analyst with more than 30 years of experience in the aviation industry. Jenkins also served as director of the Aviation Institute
at George Washington University for more than 15 years. As an independent aviation consultant, Jenkins has worked for the majority of
the world’s top 50 airlines. In addition, he has consulted for the FAA,
DOT, NTSB and other U.S. government agencies as well as many
foreign countries. Jenkins also is the author of several aviation books
and is a regular commentator for major media including ABC, CBS,
NBC, MSNBC, CNN, FOX and major print publications. Jenkins
was a member of the Executive Committee of the White House Conference on Aviation Safety and Security.
Dr. Bijan Vasigh is professor of economics and finance in the Department of Business Administration at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical
University in Daytona Beach, Florida, and a managing director at
Aviation Consulting Group LLC. Vasigh received a Ph.D. in economics from the State University of New York in 1984, and he has written and published many articles concerning the aviation industry. The
articles have been published in numerous academic journals such as
the “Handbook of Airline Economics,” “Journal of Economics and
Finance,” “Journal of Transportation Management,” “Transportation
Quarterly,” “Airport Business,” “Journal of Business and Economics”
and “Journal of Travel Research.” He was a consultant with the International Civil Aviation Organization and provided assistance on the
evolution of aeronautical charge structure for the Brazilian Institute of
Civil Aviation. He is a member of the editorial board of “Journal of Air
Transport Management,” the “Southwest Journal of Pure and Applied
Mathematics” and “Journal of Air Transportation World Wide.” He is
currently a member of the international faculty at the IATA Learning
Center, where he is faculty leader of the Airline Finance and Accounting Management division.
Executive Summary
The purpose of this research is to document the economic benefits on prepared runways. Some argue the use of UAS in the future will
to the United States (U.S.) once Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) be a more responsible approach to certain airspace operations from
are integrated into in the National Airspace System (NAS).
an environmental, ecological and human risk perspective.
In 2012, the federal government tasked the Federal Aviation Ad- UAS are already being used in a variety of applications, and many
ministration (FAA) to determine how to integrate UAS into the NAS. more areas will benefit by their use, such as1:
In this research, we estimate the economic impact of this integration. • Wildfire mapping2;
In the event that these regulations are delayed or not enacted, this • Agricultural monitoring;
study also estimates the jobs and financial opportunity lost to the • Disaster management;
economy because of this inaction.
• Thermal infrared power line surveys;
While there are multiple uses for UAS in the NAS, this research con- • Law enforcement;
cludes that precision agriculture and public safety are the most prom- • Telecommunication;
ising commercial and civil markets. These two markets are thought • Weather monitoring;
to comprise approximately 90% of the known potential markets for • Aerial imaging/mapping;
UAS.
• Television news coverage, sporting events, moviemaking3;
We conclude the following:
• Environmental monitoring;
1. The economic impact of the integration of UAS into the NAS will • Oil and gas exploration; and
total more than $13.6 billion (Table 19) in the first three years of in- • Freight transport.
tegration and will grow sustainably for the foreseeable future, cumulating to more than $82.1 billion between 2015 and 2025 (Table 1); Applicable Markets
2. Integration into the NAS will create more than 34,000 manufac- There are a number of different markets in which UAS can be used.
turing jobs (Table 18) and more than 70,000 new jobs in the first This research is concentrated on the two markets, commercial and
three years (Table 19);
civil, with the largest potential. A third category (Other) summarizes
3. By 2025, total job creation is estimated at 103,776 (Table 1);
all other markets:
4. The manufacturing jobs created will be high paying ($40,000) and 1. Precision agriculture;
require technical baccalaureate degrees;
2. Public safety; and
5. Tax revenue to the states will total more than $482 million in the 3. Other.
first 11 years following integration (2015-2025); and
Public safety officials include police
6. Every year that integration is delayed,
officers and professional firefighters in
the United States loses more than $10
the U.S., as well as a variety of profesWhile we project more than
billion in potential economic impact.
sional and volunteer emergency medical
This translates to a loss of $27.6 million
100,000 new jobs by 2025,
service providers who protect the public
per day that UAS are not integrated
from events that pose significant danger,
states that create favorable
into the NAS.
including natural disasters, man-made
Utility of UAS
regulatory and business
environments for the industry and
the technology will likely siphon
jobs away from states that do not.
The main inhibitor of U.S. commercial and civil development of the UAS
is the lack of a regulatory structure.
Because of current airspace restrictions,
non-defense use of UAS has been extremely limited. However, the combination of greater flexibility,
lower capital and lower operating costs could allow UAS to be a
transformative technology in fields as diverse as urban infrastructure
management, farming, and oil and gas exploration to name a few.
Present-day UAS have longer operational duration and require less
maintenance than earlier models. In addition, they can be operated
remotely using more fuel efficient technologies. These aircraft can be
deployed in a number of different terrains and may be less dependent
Market Intel Group (MiG), November, 2010
Predators improve wildfire mapping: Tests under way to use unmanned
aircraft for civilian purposes, Tribune Business News, August 26, 2007
3
Honeywell International Inc 2004-2012
disasters and crimes.
Precision agriculture refers to two segments of the farm market: remote sensing and precision application. A variety of remote sensors are being used to
scan plants for health problems, record
growth rates and hydration, and locate
disease outbreaks. Such sensors can be attached to ground vehicles,
aerial vehicles and even aerospace satellites. Precision application,
a practice especially useful for crop farmers and horticulturists, utilizes effective and efficient spray techniques to more selectively cover
plants and fields. This allows farmers to provide only the needed pesticide or nutrient to each plant, reducing the total amount sprayed,
and thus saving money and reducing environmental impacts.
As listed above, a large number of other markets will also use UAS
1
2
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AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Executive Summary ... continued
once the airspace is integrated. We believe the impact of these other
markets will be at least the size of the impact from public safety use.
With sensible regulations in place, we foresee few limitations to
rapid growth in these industries. These products use off-the-shelf
technology and thus impose few problems to rapidly ramping up production. The inputs (i.e., parts) to the UAS can be purchased from
more than 100 different suppliers; therefore, prices will be stable and
competitive. The inputs to the UAS can all be purchased within the
U.S., although these products can be imported from any number of
foreign countries without the need of an import license. UAS have a
durable life span of approximately 11 years and are relatively easy to
maintain. The manufacture of these products requires technical skills
equivalent to a baccalaureate degree. Therefore, there will always be
a plentiful market of job applicants willing to enter this market. In
summary, there are no production problems on the horizon that will
impact the manufacturing and output of this product. Most of the
barriers of potential usage are governmental and regulatory. For this
study, we assume necessary airspace integration in 2015, on par with
current legislation.
Covering and justifying the cost of UAS is straightforward. In the
precision agriculture market, the average price of the UAS is a fraction of the cost of a manned aircraft, such as a helicopter or crop
duster, without any of the safety hazards. For public safety, the
price of the product is approximately the price of a police squad car
equipped with standard gear. It is also operated at a fraction of the
cost of a manned aircraft, such as a helicopter, reducing the strain on
agency budgets as well as the risk of bodily harm to the users in many
difficult and dangerous situations. Therefore, the cost-benefit ratios
of using UAS can be easily understood.
Economic Benefit
The economic benefits to the country are enormous and were estimated as follows. First, we forecast the number of sales in the three
market categories. Next, we forecast the supplies needed to manufacture these products. Using estimated costs for labor, we forecast the
number of direct jobs created. Using these factors, we forecast the tax
revenue to the states.
In addition to direct jobs created by the manufacturing process,
there is an additional economic benefit. The new jobs created and
the income generated will be spread to local communities. As new
jobs are created, additional money is spent at the local level, creating additional demand for local services which, in turn, creates even
more jobs (i.e., grocery clerks, barbers, school teachers, home builders, etc.). These indirect and induced jobs are forecast and included
in the total jobs created.
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AUVSI Economic Report 2013
3
The economic benefits to individual states will not be evenly distributed. The following 10 states are predicted to see the most gains
in terms of job creation and additional revenue as production of UAS
increase, totaling more than $82 billion in economic impact from
2015-2025 (Table 1).
In rank order they are:
1) California
2) Washington
3) Texas
4) Florida
5) Arizona
6) Connecticut
7) Kansas
8) Virginia
9) New York
10) Pennsylvania
It is important to note that the projections contained in this report
are based on the current airspace activity and infrastructure in a given
state. As a result, states with an already thriving aerospace industry
are projected to reap the most economic gains. However, a variety
of factors—state laws, tax incentives, regulations, the establishment
of test sites and the adoption of UAS technology by end users—will
ultimately determine where jobs flow.
By 2025, we estimate more than 100,000 new jobs will be created
nationally. For the purposes of this report, we base the 2025 state
economic projections on the current aerospace employment in the
states. We also presume that none of the states have enacted restrictive legislation or regulations that would limit the expansion of the
technology. These landscapes will likely shift, however, as states work
to attract UAS jobs in the years following integration. Future state
laws and regulations could also cause some states to lose jobs while
others stand to gain jobs. In conclusion, while we project more than
100,000 new jobs by 2025, states that create favorable regulatory and
business environments for the industry and the technology will likely
siphon jobs away from states that do not.
The trend in total spending, total economic impact and total employment impact was investigated for 2015 through 2025. The total spending in UAS development and total economic and employment impacts are expected to increase significantly in the next five
years. This study demonstrates the significant contribution of UAS
development and integration in the nation’s airspace to the economic
growth and job creation in the aerospace industry and to the social
and economic progress of the citizens in the U.S. See Table 1 for the
results of the total impact of UAS integration in the United States.
http://www.auvsi.org/econreport
Table 1: Total Economic Impact of UAS Integration in the United States
2015 - 2017
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Total
Economic Impact
$(M)
2015-2025
Taxes ($M) Jobs Created
Economic Impact
($M)
Taxes ($M) Jobs Created
$294
$19
$561
$80
$2,390
$232
$538
$17
$632
$379
$32
$29
$204
$208
$159
$489
$89
$213
$107
$335
$386
$188
$142
$162
$260
$14
$25
$38
$85
$263
$101
$443
$153
$14
$359
$106
$81
$393
$42
$99
$9
$112
$1,087
$143
$36
$463
$1,312
$47
$88
$5
$2.43
$0.00
$2.59
$0.94
$13.64
$1.79
$4.32
$0.16
$0.00
$3.72
$0.39
$0.36
$1.71
$1.18
$0.92
$4.84
$0.90
$1.44
$1.26
$2.64
$3.36
$1.37
$1.68
$1.10
$1.73
$0.15
$0.22
$0.00
$0.00
$3.24
$0.73
$4.66
$1.79
$0.07
$2.43
$0.93
$0.41
$2.02
$0.38
$1.16
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$1.21
$0.47
$4.47
$0.00
$0.47
$0.96
$0.00
1,510
95
2,883
411
12,292
1,191
2,764
88
3,251
1,949
166
149
1,049
1,067
817
2,515
459
1,097
548
1,725
1,985
965
730
832
1,338
74
128
196
439
1,353
518
2,276
785
71
1,844
545
416
2,021
217
507
48
578
5,588
735
184
2,380
6,746
240
450
24
$1,765
$112
$3,371
$481
$14,372
$1,392
$3,232
$103
$3,801
$2,279
$194
$174
$1,226
$1,248
$956
$2,941
$537
$1,282
$641
$2,017
$2,321
$1,128
$853
$973
$1,565
$86
$149
$229
$514
$1,582
$606
$2,661
$918
$83
$2,156
$637
$486
$2,363
$253
$593
$56
$675
$6,533
$859
$215
$2,783
$7,888
$280
$527
$28
$14.60
$0.00
$15.55
$5.63
$82.03
$10.76
$25.97
$0.97
$0.00
$22.34
$2.35
$2.16
$10.30
$7.12
$5.53
$29.13
$5.41
$8.67
$7.56
$15.85
$20.22
$8.26
$10.08
$6.60
$10.37
$0.91
$1.30
$0.00
$0.00
$19.50
$4.41
$28.05
$10.75
$0.40
$14.60
$5.61
$2.47
$12.12
$2.28
$6.99
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$7.26
$2.81
$26.86
$0.00
$2.83
$5.76
$0.00
2,231
141
4,260
608
18,161
1,760
4,084
131
4,803
2,880
245
220
1,549
1,577
1,208
3,716
678
1,620
810
2,549
2,933
1,426
1,078
1,230
1,978
109
189
290
649
1,999
765
3,363
1,160
105
2,725
805
614
2,986
320
749
71
853
8,256
1,085
271
3,517
9,967
354
665
36
$13,657
$80.22
70,240
$82,124
$482.39
103,776
4
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Forecast
In this chapter, we describe the methodology for the forecasts we
used as inputs to the economic benefits section. In accomplishing
this task, we were fortunate to obtain and use comparable product
sales from other countries. In making the forecasts, we relied on four
different methods:
1) Comparable sales from other countries;
2) Survey results;
3) Land ratios; and
4) A literature search on rates of adoption of new technology.
The four different methodologies yielded similar results and provide confidence in our final results.
Throughout this study, we use the following terms. When we use
the term output, we are referring to the UAS. The inputs to the UAS
are the parts and labor that go into making these products. In turn,
the parts that go into the inputs we refer to as derived demand.
As part of this section, we provide a detailed discussion of the factors that may make our forecasts inaccurate and their potential impact. Our forecasts are for an 11-year period. That unit of measurement was chosen as that is the expected life of a UAS. We did not
include maintenance, training or other revenue streams, which makes
our overall estimates conservative. In addition, there are multiple options on sales including leasing the equipment and having third-party
providers as an outsourced service, all of which add to our conservative estimates.
Sales in Foreign Countries
Other countries have already adopted UAS technology from a zero
base (i.e., first year of adoption). By now, these technologies have
been operational for more than two decades. The growth curve is
found to be logistic with a rapid beginning and then a leveling off of
the market (Figure 1). The issue is not whether these products will
be adopted once the airspace is integrated, but at what rate(s). The
experience in Japan started out at rates of growth in excess of 20%
annually. This was from no unmanned vehicles in 1990 (i.e., the zero
base), where neither the companies nor the consumers had previous
experience with this technology (see Appendix A for detailed data).
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
5
As is readily apparent, the growth rates in the early years in Japan
were very high. The question of interest is: How fast will growth
occur in the U.S.? We chose a short time period for growth in the
U.S. (doubling the first year, 50% growth the next year and thereafter a 5% growth rate). Our justification is as follows. First, there is
considerable experience with these products. American farmers are
not starting out from a zero-knowledge base as did Japan. Second,
UAS are not sold in the U.S. domestic market only because FAA
regulations prohibit them in the nation’s airspace. It is noted that the
dampening of the Japanese growth curve happened within six years.
The literature review found higher initial rates of product acceptance
than the previous Japanese experience and lower leveling off of rates.
Adoption Rates of New Technology
There are many factors that influence the rate at which new technologies are adopted and diffused into a society. We found considerable literature on this topic. The conclusion from the brief search we
conducted is that new technologies are either accepted or rejected
quickly. There is already a trade association that is doing outreach
to the primary targets and showing products in their trade show(s).
Because there is previous experience in this field, we reject the notion
that these products will not be adopted. However, it is suggested that
a follow up to this study be conducted on adoption of new technology. There is considerable literature on this topic, which needs to be
investigated, and will help develop further adoption strategies.
Methodology
We performed three separate forecasts for this study:
1) The estimated number of sales by state;
2) The estimated sales by state for the inputs to the final product; and
3) The estimated sales by state for the derived demand for the final
products.
To complete these forecasts, we developed a telephone survey and
pilot-tested it on five participants to refine our survey questions. We
next conducted 30 telephone interviews with industry experts. An
industry expert was defined as a person with more than three years
of practical and relevant experience. Each interview lasted about 30
minutes. The participants were guaranteed confidentiality so we cannot divulge the individual results. However, we were able to obtain
a reasonable estimate on what the group as a whole felt was the size
of the market and the cost structure. Because there was considerable
variance in these estimates, we ignored the outliers and calculated
the average cost structure. We estimate that approximately 60% of
the overall cost of a UAS is parts with an average annual labor cost
of $37,000. In this report, we use $40,000 and hold it at a constant cost, as we do with the parts numbers. Thus the results can
be interpreted as constant dollars over the entire term, as we are not
forecasting the inflation rate. As for profitability, we consider this a
competitive industry with a normal rate of return.
We found that almost all respondents considered agriculture to be
far and above the largest market given that the public safety market
is limited by the number of first-response teams. We next looked
at some simple ratios between UAS sales in Japan and the amount
of arable farmland and imputed these ratios to the United States.
The survey results indicated an agricultural market of approximately
150,000 unit sales per year at maturity (i.e., 2020), and the Japanese
land ratio indicated a market size of 165,000 unit sales per year. For
the purposes of this forecast, we used 100,000 unit sales per year as
a conservative benchmark. See Figure 2 for total expected sales for
2015-2025. Actual sales could be a multiple of this estimate.
As to the public safety market, the consensus was that the agriculture market will be at least 10 times the public safety market. Our
follow-up task to the questionnaire was to find the number of firstresponse domestic teams and survey a small number of this group.
We found their purchase issues to be minimal. They simply have a
budget given to them by the local governmental unit that oversees
them, and they work within it. Purchases of this size are not uncommon and public safety officials have all of the appearances of
being early adopters, especially when safety is involved.
During the survey interviews, we discovered that there were unlimited uses of UAS. For example, many respondents discussed the
potential uses of UAS for real estate purposes or for examining oil
pipelines. In the case of oil pipelines, the consensus of the experts
was that the total annual sale was approximately 1,000 units. For
real estate personnel, there was not a consensus. From the surveys
and follow-up calls with other professionals, we estimate that the
aggregate size for other sales was approximately 10% of the total.
In reality, this figure is a lower boundary and should be interpreted
as at least 10% of the total. Depending on the promotions to this
segment, the final price and, most importantly, the federal regulations, this segment could be significantly larger. We estimate the
lower boundary at 10% to be conservative.
In making the first round of forecasts, we tried several different
methods but ultimately used a ratio of the number of direct aerospace
and defense (A&D) industry employees in each state4 to the total
number of direct A&D industry employees in the U.S. For example,
Alabama has an estimated 23,090 direct A&D industry employees
out of a total of 1,040,796 direct A&D employees in the U.S., or
2.22% of the total. So we took the total forecast of agriculture sales
and multiplied by 2.22% for Alabama. See Table 2 for a complete list
of states and their estimated manufacturing distribution.
For the inputs, we find no constraints. There are plenty of manuTable 2: Estimated Manufacturing Distribution
State
Manufacturing
Distribution
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
2.22%
0.15%
4.10%
0.61%
15.58%
1.77%
3.95%
0.13%
4.74%
2.83%
0.25%
0.22%
1.56%
1.59%
1.24%
3.54%
0.69%
1.65%
0.82%
2.53%
2.90%
1.44%
1.09%
1.25%
1.97%
State
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Manufacturing
Distribution
0.11%
0.19%
0.30%
0.67%
1.99%
0.78%
3.30%
1.17%
0.11%
2.71%
0.81%
0.63%
3.00%
0.32%
0.76%
0.07%
0.81%
8.43%
1.10%
0.27%
3.55%
9.02%
0.36%
0.67%
0.04%
facturers of these parts; they are off-the-shelf and require little lead
time. If one supply line goes down, there are multiple sources as
backups. For the input forecast, we relied on the size of the aerospace labor force in each state as the metric. These numbers were
obtained from a Deloitte report, commissioned by the Aerospace
Industries Association, titled “The Aerospace and Defense Industry
in the U.S.: A Financial and Economic Impact Study”5. In this
forecast, we also looked at employment and taxes. Using the estimated labor dollar amount, we simply divided by 40,000 to find
the number of jobs. Subtracting adjacent years yields the number of new jobs created. We used marginal state tax rates for the
$40,000 income range, the assumption being that states will hold
this rate constant over time.
4Deloitte, The Aerospace and Defense Industry in the U.S., A financial and economic impact study, March, 2012
5http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_US/us/Industries/Aerospace-Defense-Manufacturing/
b4c8ae98118f5310VgnVCM3000001c56f00aRCRD.htm
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AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Forecast ... continued
Necessary Conditions for the Forecasts
We now turn our attention to the conditions that must happen to
validate this forecast:
1) The FAA must develop new regulations integrating UAS into the
nation’s airspace;
2) Job growth distribution will mimic current aerospace manufacturing employment;
3) Creative destruction of existing jobs will have a net-zero impact;
4) There must be sufficient capital available to smaller manufacturing
companies;
5) There must be financing available to UAS purchasers;
6) There must be insurance to cover liabilities;
7) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) needs to grow at least 3% annually over the designated time period;
8) The adoption rate(s) of this product in the U.S. will mimic Japan;
and
9) Other unforeseen factors.
The FAA Must Develop New Regulations
Integrating UAS into the Nation’s Airspace
Perhaps the single most important aspect of this forecast is that the
FAA develops new guidelines allowing the integration of UAS in the
nation’s airspace. In the absence of these guidelines, this report is
simply the opportunity cost to the economy (new jobs, tax revenue,
etc.) of a good idea that was hindered due to government interference
or inaction. The FAA regulatory process, like all government entities,
is slow and unpredictable.
Job Growth Distribution Will Mimic
Current Aerospace Manufacturing Employment
The employment growth described in this report is all new employment, that is, jobs that do not currently exist. To project the
statewide distribution of this employment, we used current aerospace
manufacturing employment. However, there are many external factors that will affect this distribution that are impossible to predict in
this report. These include, among other things, tax incentives, test
sites and where new product development will actually occur.
Creative Destruction of Existing Jobs
Will Have a Net Zero Impact
As UAS are introduced, some uses will replace existing capabilities,
because there are efficiencies to be gained by using a UAS versus a
traditional capability. As such, there is likely to be some job destruction from UAS. However, UAS will still need many similar capabilities to manned systems including training, maintenance and pilots.
Any jobs that will be made immaterial by UAS will be transitioned
to regular UAS operations. Because of the efficient use of UAS, there
will be job creation in other areas. For instance, a farmer that saves
money because he or she can use less pesticide since UAS can provide
precision application will spend less money on pesticides and less on
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
7
taxes due to pesticide use. That money back into the farmer’s pocket
will provide economic impact to the U.S. that is not calculated in this
report. To simplify, we generalize that there will be a net-zero impact
of job creation in the application of these systems. A detailed analysis
of this potential job creation is recommended for further research.
There Must be Sufficient Capital
Available to Smaller Manufacturing Companies
One of the biggest problems with growing companies is their access to capital. As companies grow, their need for capital to buy new
equipment, hire additional personnel, rent extra space and all of the
other requirements are seldom met from working capital. The need
for short-term working capital to accommodate growth can stymie
any otherwise well thought out business plan.
There Must be Financing Available to UAS Purchasers
While the costs of these purchases are not the same as other farm
equipment, they are seldom made as a cash purchase. Farm implements, such as tractors, are usually bought with company financing as
they do not have serial numbers like cars. Banks may finance a tractor, but usually at a higher interest rate with the credit worthiness of
the person as the collateral. This means that the industry or consortia
of companies will need to be created for these purchases. There is
probably less of a need for these arrangements for public safety, but
they are only a shadow market compared to the agriculture market.
It is clear that offering financing from a small company standpoint,
outside of normal banking realms, is impossible and impractical at
this time. This may be one of the most important factors outside of
regulation reform to move this industry forward.
Insurance to Cover Liabilities Must be Supplied
One of the many great unknowns about the infant commercial
UAS industry is its product liability exposure. Suppose a UAS used
by a public safety agency malfunctions and crashes into a building.
The assumption is that this event is covered by the local government’s
umbrella insurance policy. What if this happens elsewhere? Perhaps
the thrust of this argument is that the industry as a whole needs to
start collecting relevant data in this realm. A Google search on this
topic turned up little information, as governments use UAS mainly
for wartime purposes. However, anything mechanical can malfunction, and a UAS is no exception. There will be issues of proper maintenance and liability, as there always are with aircraft of any type, in
addition to workmen’s compensation and other potential problems.
The long-term issue is the need for industry-wide data collection.
GDP Needs to Grow at Least 3% Annually
Over the Designated Time Period
All studies of this nature require GDP assumptions. The typical
scenario is that over a longer time period, the economy will grow at
3% per year. This is our assumption as well. Our forecast is that with
new and improved products, they will grow at a slightly higher rate.
There may be several problems with this assumption. First, the current economic stagnation may persist. If so, this may favor sunken
capital over new capital. Thus, we may see growth, but at a much
later date, and significantly slower growth thereafter. If this happens,
it has the potential to make our forecast inaccurate.
The Adoption Rate(s) of this Product
in the U.S. Will Mimic Japan
Consumers in different counties or even different segments of the
same country can react differently to the same product offering. Our
assumption is that consumers in both countries will react similarly.
Discussion of Forecast Results
In this section, we will discuss the forecast results for the year
2015, which is the first forecast year. Table 3 shows the rank ordering of UAS manufacturing by state for agriculture uses in 2015, and
Table 4 shows it for public safety. Other markets besides agriculture
and public safety are estimated to have the same total economic
impact as the public safety market, so in the following we only show
the agriculture and public safety markets. Final economic impact
calculations include agriculture, public safety and other markets
(i.e., the public safety total economic impact multiplied by two to
account for “other markets”).
Other Unforeseen Factors
Any researcher knows that economic analysis and forecasts may not
include hundreds of unforeseen events that impact economic estimates that were not taken into account. Any of these may materially
affect our forecast.
Table 3: 2015 Total UAS Agriculture Sales Inputs
State
California
Washington
Texas
Florida
Arizona
Connecticut
Virginia
Kansas
New York
Pennsylvania
Massachusetts
Georgia
Ohio
Maryland
Alabama
New Jersey
Missouri
Colorado
Louisiana
Indiana
Illinois
Michigan
Mississippi
Iowa
North Carolina
Utah
Minnesota
Maine
Oklahoma
Tennessee
New Mexico
South Carolina
Kentucky
Wisconsin
New Hampshire
Oregon
Arkansas
West Virginia
Rhode Island
Nevada
Vermont
Hawaii
Idaho
Nebraska
Alaska
Delaware
Montana
North Dakota
South Dakota
Wyoming
Labor
$ 65,438,414
$ 37,902,240
$ 35,422,907
$ 19,927,882
$ 17,225,796
$ 16,575,698
$ 14,907,071
$ 14,873,981
$ 13,878,051
$ 12,598,434
$ 12,175,124
$ 11,882,156
$ 11,362,400
$ 10,645,314
$ 9,317,676
$ 8,353,625
$ 8,276,550
$ 7,416,208
$ 6,918,647
$ 6,686,613
$ 6,571,201
$ 6,060,323
$ 5,268,583
$ 5,193,121
$ 4,898,943
$ 4,636,240
$ 4,561,989
$ 3,444,594
$ 3,410,294
$ 3,390,117
$ 3,271,880
$ 3,185,523
$ 2,877,624
$ 2,825,568
$ 2,817,497
$ 2,632,274
$ 2,565,690
$ 1,504,791
$ 1,364,360
$ 1,255,001
$ 1,150,888
$ 1,041,126
$ 932,978
$ 807,478
$ 611,763
$ 557,285
$ 462,857
$ 453,576
$ 305,881
$ 155,765
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Parts
98,157,622
56,853,360
53,134,361
29,891,823
25,838,695
24,863,547
22,360,607
22,310,972
20,817,077
18,897,651
18,262,685
17,823,233
17,043,599
15,967,971
13,976,514
12,530,438
12,414,825
11,124,313
10,377,970
10,029,919
9,856,802
9,090,485
7,902,874
7,789,682
7,348,414
6,954,360
6,842,984
5,166,891
5,115,440
5,085,175
4,907,821
4,778,285
4,316,437
4,238,352
4,226,246
3,948,411
3,848,535
2,257,186
2,046,539
1,882,501
1,726,333
1,561,689
1,399,467
1,211,217
917,644
835,928
694,286
680,364
458,822
233,648
Taxes
Employment
$ 2,094,029
1,636
$
948
$
886
$
498
$ 396,882
431
$ 663,028
414
$ 685,725
373
$ 743,699
372
$ 716,107
347
$ 309,418
315
$ 516,225
304
$ 570,343
297
$ 372,687
284
$ 404,522
266
$ 372,707
233
$ 497,876
209
$ 264,850
207
$ 274,696
185
$ 221,397
173
$ 181,876
167
$ 262,848
164
$ 210,899
152
$ 168,595
132
$ 141,253
130
$ 274,341
122
$ 185,450
116
$ 257,296
114
$ 192,897
86
$ 143,232
85
$
85
$ 112,553
82
$ 178,389
80
$ 138,126
72
$ 146,930
71
$
70
$ 63,175
66
$ 143,679
64
$ 72,230
38
$ 58,326
34
$
31
$ 71,815
29
$ 59,969
26
$ 55,232
23
$ 33,074
20
$
15
$ 24,743
14
$ 23,328
12
$ 10,233
11
$
8
$
4
Table 4: 2015 Total UAS Public Safety Sales Inputs
State
California
Washington
Texas
Florida
Arizona
Connecticut
Virginia
Kansas
New York
Pennsylvania
Massachusetts
Georgia
Ohio
Maryland
Alabama
New Jersey
Missouri
Colorado
Louisiana
Indiana
Illinois
Michigan
Mississippi
Iowa
North Carolina
Utah
Minnesota
Maine
Oklahoma
Tennessee
New Mexico
South Carolina
Kentucky
Wisconsin
New Hampshire
Oregon
Arkansas
West Virginia
Rhode Island
Nevada
Vermont
Hawaii
Idaho
Nebraska
Alaska
Delaware
Montana
North Dakota
South Dakota
Wyoming
Labor
$ 2,804,503 $
$ 1,624,382 $
$ 1,518,125 $
$ 854,052 $
$ 738,248 $
$ 710,387 $
$ 638,874 $
$ 637,456 $
$ 594,774 $
$ 539,933 $
$ 521,791 $
$ 509,235 $
$ 486,960 $
$ 456,228 $
$ 399,329 $
$ 358,013 $
$ 354,709 $
$ 317,838 $
$ 296,513 $
$ 286,569 $
$ 281,623 $
$ 259,728 $
$ 225,796 $
$ 222,562 $
$ 209,955 $
$ 198,696 $
$ 195,514 $
$ 147,625 $
$ 146,155 $
$ 145,291 $
$ 140,223 $
$ 136,522 $
$ 123,327 $
$ 121,096 $
$ 120,750 $
$ 112,812 $
$ 109,958 $
$
64,491 $
$
58,473 $
$
53,786 $
$
49,324 $
$
44,620 $
$
39,985 $
$
34,606 $
$
26,218 $
$
23,884 $
$
19,837 $
$
19,439 $
$
13,109 $
$
6,676 $
8
Parts
4,206,755
2,436,573
2,277,187
1,281,078
1,107,373
1,065,581
958,312
956,184
892,160
809,899
782,687
763,853
730,440
684,342
598,993
537,019
532,064
476,756
444,770
429,854
422,434
389,592
338,695
333,844
314,932
298,044
293,271
221,438
219,233
217,936
210,335
204,784
184,990
181,644
181,125
169,218
164,937
96,737
87,709
80,679
73,986
66,930
59,977
51,909
39,328
35,825
29,755
29,158
19,664
10,013
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Taxes
Employment
89,744
70
41
38
21
17,009
18
28,415
18
29,388
16
31,873
16
30,690
15
13,261
13
22,124
13
24,443
13
15,972
12
17,337
11
15,973
10
21,338
9
11,351
9
11,773
8
9,488
7
7,795
7
11,265
7
9,039
6
7,225
6
6,054
6
11,757
5
7,948
5
11,027
5
8,267
4
6,139
4
4
4,824
4
7,645
3
5,920
3
6,297
3
3
2,707
3
6,158
3
3,096
2
2,500
1
1
3,078
1
2,570
1
2,367
1
1,417
1
1
1,060
1
1,000
0
439
0
0
0
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Forecast ... continued
The next series of tables we refer to as derived demand. The products that are used as inputs are manufactured by other companies,
and the platform manufacturer must buy inputs for their finished
goods. Table 5 shows the results for the derived demand for inputs
for agriculture and Table 6 for public safety.
Table 5: 2015 Total UAS Agriculture Derived Demand
Table 6: 2015 Total UAS Public Safety Derived Demand
State
California
Washington
Texas
Florida
Arizona
Connecticut
Virginia
Kansas
New York
Pennsylvania
Massachusetts
Georgia
Ohio
Maryland
Alabama
New Jersey
Missouri
Colorado
Louisiana
Indiana
Illinois
Michigan
Mississippi
Iowa
North Carolina
Utah
Minnesota
Maine
Oklahoma
Tennessee
New Mexico
South Carolina
Kentucky
Wisconsin
New Hampshire
Oregon
Arkansas
West Virginia
Rhode Island
Nevada
Vermont
Hawaii
Idaho
Nebraska
Alaska
Delaware
Montana
North Dakota
South Dakota
Wyoming
Labor
$ 39,263,049
$ 22,741,344
$ 21,253,744
$ 11,956,729
$ 10,335,478
$ 9,945,419
$ 8,944,243
$ 8,924,389
$ 8,326,831
$ 7,559,061
$ 7,305,074
$ 7,129,293
$ 6,817,440
$ 6,387,188
$ 5,590,606
$ 5,012,175
$ 4,965,930
$ 4,449,725
$ 4,151,188
$ 4,011,968
$ 3,942,721
$ 3,636,194
$ 3,161,150
$ 3,115,873
$ 2,939,366
$ 2,781,744
$ 2,737,193
$ 2,066,757
$ 2,046,176
$ 2,034,070
$ 1,963,128
$ 1,911,314
$ 1,726,575
$ 1,695,341
$ 1,690,498
$ 1,579,364
$ 1,539,414
$ 902,874
$ 818,616
$ 753,001
$ 690,533
$ 624,676
$ 559,787
$ 484,487
$ 367,058
$ 334,371
$ 277,714
$ 272,146
$ 183,529
$
93,459
Parts
$ 58,894,573
$ 34,112,016
$ 31,880,616
$ 17,935,094
$ 15,503,217
$ 14,918,128
$ 13,416,364
$ 13,386,583
$ 12,490,246
$ 11,338,591
$ 10,957,611
$ 10,693,940
$ 10,226,160
$ 9,580,782
$ 8,385,908
$ 7,518,263
$ 7,448,895
$ 6,674,588
$ 6,226,782
$ 6,017,952
$ 5,914,081
$ 5,454,291
$ 4,741,725
$ 4,673,809
$ 4,409,048
$ 4,172,616
$ 4,105,790
$ 3,100,135
$ 3,069,264
$ 3,051,105
$ 2,944,692
$ 2,866,971
$ 2,589,862
$ 2,543,011
$ 2,535,748
$ 2,369,046
$ 2,309,121
$ 1,354,312
$ 1,227,924
$ 1,129,501
$ 1,035,800
$ 937,014
$ 839,680
$ 726,730
$ 550,586
$ 501,557
$ 416,572
$ 408,218
$ 275,293
$ 140,189
Taxes
Employment
$ 1,256,418
982
$
569
$
531
$
299
$ 238,129
258
$ 397,817
249
$ 411,435
224
$ 446,219
223
$ 429,664
208
$ 185,651
189
$ 309,735
183
$ 342,206
178
$ 223,612
170
$ 242,713
160
$ 223,624
140
$ 298,726
125
$ 158,910
124
$ 164,818
111
$ 132,838
104
$ 109,126
100
$ 157,709
99
$ 126,540
91
$ 101,157
79
$ 84,752
78
$ 164,604
73
$ 111,270
70
$ 154,378
68
$ 115,738
52
$ 85,939
51
$
51
$ 67,532
49
$ 107,034
48
$ 82,876
43
$ 88,158
42
$
42
$ 37,905
39
$ 86,207
38
$ 43,338
23
$ 34,996
20
$
19
$ 43,089
17
$ 35,981
16
$ 33,139
14
$ 19,845
12
$
9
$ 14,846
8
$ 13,997
7
$
6,140
7
$
5
$
2
State
California
Washington
Texas
Florida
Arizona
Connecticut
Virginia
Kansas
New York
Pennsylvania
Massachusetts
Georgia
Ohio
Maryland
Alabama
New Jersey
Missouri
Colorado
Louisiana
Indiana
Illinois
Michigan
Mississippi
Iowa
North Carolina
Utah
Minnesota
Maine
Oklahoma
Tennessee
New Mexico
South Carolina
Kentucky
Wisconsin
New Hampshire
Oregon
Arkansas
West Virginia
Rhode Island
Nevada
Vermont
Hawaii
Idaho
Nebraska
Alaska
Delaware
Montana
North Dakota
South Dakota
Wyoming
Labor
Parts
Taxes Employment
$ 1,682,702 $ 2,524,053 $ 53,846
42
$ 974,629 $ 1,461,944 $ 24
$ 910,875 $ 1,366,312 $ 23
$ 512,431 $ 768,647 $ 13
$ 442,949 $ 664,424 $ 10,206
11
$ 426,232 $ 639,348 $ 17,049
11
$ 383,325 $ 574,987 $ 17,633
10
$ 382,474 $ 573,711 $ 19,124
10
$ 356,864 $ 535,296 $ 18,414
9
$ 323,960 $ 485,940 $ 7,956
8
$ 313,075 $ 469,612 $ 13,274
8
$ 305,541 $ 458,312 $ 14,666
8
$ 292,176 $ 438,264 $ 9,583
7
$ 273,737 $ 410,605 $ 10,402
7
$ 239,597 $ 359,396 $ 9,584
6
$ 214,808 $ 322,211 $ 12,803
5
$ 212,826 $ 319,238 $ 6,810
5
$ 190,703 $ 286,054 $ 7,064
5
$ 177,908 $ 266,862 $ 5,693
4
$ 171,941 $ 257,912 $ 4,677
4
$ 168,974 $ 253,461 $ 6,759
4
$ 155,837 $ 233,755 $ 5,423
4
$ 135,478 $ 203,217 $ 4,335
3
$ 133,537 $ 200,306 $ 3,632
3
$ 125,973 $ 188,959 $ 7,054
3
$ 119,218 $ 178,826 $ 4,769
3
$ 117,308 $ 175,962 $ 6,616
3
$
88,575 $ 132,863 $ 4,960
2
$
87,693 $ 131,540 $ 3,683
2
$
87,174 $ 130,762 $ 2
$
84,134 $ 126,201 $ 2,894
2
$
81,913 $ 122,870 $ 4,587
2
$
73,996 $ 110,994 $ 3,552
2
$
72,657 $ 108,986 $ 3,778
2
$
72,450 $ 108,675 $ 2
$
67,687 $ 101,531 $ 1,624
2
$
65,975 $ 98,962 $ 3,695
2
$
38,695 $ 58,042 $ 1,857
1
$
35,084 $ 52,625 $ 1,500
1
$
32,271 $ 48,407 $ 1
$
29,594 $ 44,391 $ 1,847
1
$
26,772 $ 40,158 $ 1,542
1
$
23,991 $ 35,986 $ 1,420
1
$
20,764 $ 31,146 $ 850
1
$
15,731 $ 23,597 $ 0
$
14,330 $ 21,495 $ 636
0
$
11,902 $ 17,853 $ 600
0
$
11,663 $ 17,495 $ 263
0
$
7,866 $ 11,798 $ 0
$
4,005 $
6,008 $ 0
Forecast Conclusion
In this section, we outline the assumptions and methodology used
in making our forecasts. We drew on experience in Japan for comparable sales. Japan and the U.S. are both countries that readily adapt
new technologies. We conclude the following:
1) If the FAA adopts new rules allowing for commercial use of UAS
in the nation’s airspace, these products will be received rapidly into
the marketplace;
2) The doubling rate can take place over either a three-year or six-year
period. With the known rates of change in newer technologies, it
is likely to be a three-year scenario given the fact that the potential
marketplace is well aware of the product(s) unlike the introduction
in Japan; and
3) The commercial agriculture market is by far the largest segment,
dwarfing all others.
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
9
Agriculture is an important product group. It has the potential for
bringing a more reliable, cost-effective and safe method to domestic
farmers for a variety of uses. In the event that a new set of regulations is not enacted and UAS are not integrated in the U.S. National
Airspace System (NAS), this study estimates the lost jobs, lost tax
revenue, and total economic loss to the states and nation. In addition, a delay in airspace integration will impact the U.S. in terms of
a lag in technology development, manufacturing, job development
and economic stimulus. With U.S. integration of UAS, more than
103,000 good paying jobs with benefits will be created.
While this section shows the huge potential available to the nation,
the exact calculations of these benefits are laid out in the next section,
where we estimate the total economic impact of NAS integration.
Economic Impact Analysis
Economic impact is based on the theory that a dollar flowing
into a local economy from the outside is a benefit to the regional
economy. The financial return for residents is in the form of new
jobs, more earnings and new tax revenues that follow because of the
initial development of a new business organization, and through
new spending, in the municipality due to the operation of such a
business or industry. These earnings, for instance, are generated for
residents who are not directly associated with the business but who
are the beneficiaries of the positive externalities that the business or
industry can provide to communities.
External benefits, or positive externalities, are those returns that
are generated by a business but that are not captured by the business
or local region. When the employees of a company spend money
at local businesses, such as restaurants, gas stations and retail stores,
their spending will benefit the owners and employees of those establishments, thereby creating a positive incremental impact.
According to Davis (1990) an impact analysis is purposely designed to produce quantitative results of the effects that a certain
segment of an industry has in the local economy. From an industry’s standpoint, these impact studies are based on the grounds of
aggregate economic growth that may be derived from additional
spending by the business. The range of the impact can be limited
to the city, county, state or national levels.
There are various methodologies that aid the economic valuation
of specific organizations in their local economies. From the literature review, we concluded that Economic Impact Analysis (EIA)
mostly relies on input-output economic models. Economists evaluate the impact that one sector has on another in terms of indirect
and induced effects. The total economic impact is then the sum of
the direct, indirect and induced effects.
Direct Impacts
Direct impacts are consequences of economic activities carried
out by a company or organization in the economy. For example,
institutions (public or private) have a direct impact on the local
economy because of the activities conducted by the institution,
management, employees, visitors and other related events. Employing labor, purchasing locally produced goods and services, and
contracting for construction and capital improvements are all examples of activities that generate direct impacts. Some direct impacts, such as UAS, occur on site. Others, such as local production
of goods and services for use at the institution, may occur off site.
Expenditures by management, owners and visitors also generate direct impacts, but only those expenditures that lead to local
business activity are relevant for a regional economic assessment.
For this reason, it is important to distinguish between (a) the local value-added component of expenditures and (b) the regional
import component. Thus, the manufacturers of UAS expenditures
on utilities, supplies, professional services, meals and entertainment
generate significant economic benefits to the local and national
economy. In most parts of the country, only the former component
is relevant for the analysis. The following is a list of local value-added
components:
• Direct Spending Effects:
Construction, maintenance, operations
• Direct Business Cost Savings:
Value of user benefits
• Other Business Cost Savings:
Logistics/inventory/ processing, scale economies
• Regional Business Markets:
Tourism, business relocation effects
• Personal Cost Savings:
Effect on disposable income
The distinguishing feature of a direct impact is that it is an immediate consequence of the manufacturers of UAS’ economic activity.
Indirect Impacts
In addition to the direct effect of an economic activity, there are
also indirect effects and induced effects. Indirect impacts derive
from off-site economic activities that are attributable to the business
activities of the manufacturers of UAS’ presence. For example, if
we are looking at the job impacts of a new UAS being manufactured
in Arizona, the direct effect is the number of new jobs created by
the company itself. The indirect effect is the number of new jobs
created at those firms that supply ancillary services for individuals who are employed at the UAS manufacturing facility and for
customers of the firm. These can include, but are not limited to,
hotels, restaurants and other businesses that may expand because
of the presence of the UAS manufacturing facility. These suppliers and clients employ labor, purchase locally produced goods and
services, and invest in capital expansion and improvements. Indirect
impacts differ from direct impacts in that they originate entirely off
site.
Examples of indirect impacts would be:
• Ancillary business expansion due to the UAS firm; • New capital investment in response to the UAS firm; and
• Supplies and equipment that may be purchased because of the new
business opportunities created by the UAS manufacturing facility.
Induced Impacts
Induced impacts are the result of spending of the wages and salaries of the direct and indirect employees on items such as food,
housing, transportation and medical services. In other words, induced effects are the multiplier effects caused by successive rounds
of spending throughout the economy as a result of the direct and
indirect effects discussed above.
For example, most of the take-home income earned by the manu10
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Economic Impact ... continued
facturers of UAS employees is spent locally. Some of this spending
becomes income to local businesses and their employees that provide
services to the firm’s employees. Then part of these second-round
incomes are also spent locally and thus become income to another
set of individuals. As successive rounds of spending occur, additional income is created. Although some of the induced impacts
occur locally, some are felt outside the region because of the regional import components of the goods and services purchased. More
economically self-sufficient regions have higher multipliers than do
regions that are more dependent on regional imports, because more
of the spending and respending is accomplished in the area. Similarly, two or more counties considered together as one economic
region would have a higher multiplier than would each individual
county.
Total Impact
The total impact is the sum of direct impacts, indirect impacts and
induced impacts. Total impact is expressed in economic output,
earnings or jobs.
Economic Impact Overview
Business Operations
Direct Spendings
Amin. Expenses
Other Direct Spendings
Customers Spending in the area
Direct
Impacts
Direct Impacts
Capital Programs
Indirect
Impacts
Induced
Impacts
Lodging
Meals
Recreation
Car rentals
Other
Re-spending of Earnings
by Employees and
Business
Total
Impacts
Economists sometimes say that the direct economic impacts are
“multiplied” through their indirect economic impacts. The ratio of
the total (direct + indirect) economic impacts to the direct economic impacts is frequently referred to as the economic multiplier. The
employment multiplier is the ratio of total employment to direct
employment. The income multiplier is the ratio of total income to
direct income created.
Multipliers are not directly observed; rather, they are inferred
from an economic model. The direct measure is generally the most
accurate since it can be measured more easily, but it only represents
a part of the impact, so other multipliers are added to get the total.
However, it should be emphasized that the sum of the multipliers
is very important since these are virtually the only tools available
to researchers attempting to identify the overall impact of activity
within a regional economy.
Although a variety of methods can be used to generate economic
multipliers, input-output (I-O) models are the most popular tool
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
11
for such analysis and will be our focus. IMPLAN is a standard
economic impact software package used to generate indirect, induced employment and sales
indirect impacts
estimates. IMPLAN utilizes
Multiplier =
user-supplied estimates of
direct impacts
the direct sales and/or employment and provides associated indirect and induced effects estimates. Direct effects are the changes in the industries to which a
final demand change was made; indirect effects are the changes in
interindustry purchases as the response to demand of the directly
affected industry; and induced effects generally reflect changes in
household spending resulting from activity generated by the direct
and indirect effects (MIG, p.102).
Previous Economic Impact Studies
Conducting an economic impact study is important, because it
is a useful tool to evaluate the economic impact of a business in a
community in terms of jobs, income and tax revenue. Ten studies
were selected from the literature to illustrate the different facets of
economic impact and approaches used to assess impact. The purpose
is to illustrate the range of values that may be achieved by different
economic entities. The 10 examples are listed below:
• Marshall County Hospital Impact in Marshall County, Kentucky;
• Port of Baltimore impact in Maryland;
• University of Florida in Florida;
• Intel impact in Washington County;
• Intel impact in Oregon;
• Intel impact in Portland, Oregon Metro;
• Boeing impact in Arizona;
• All Acute Care Hospital Systems impact in New Hampshire;
• National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) impact in
Florida; and
• Nike impact in Oregon.
Methodology
The aircraft industry, undoubtedly, provides significant economic
and social benefits for the regional, state and national economies.
Most economic impact analyses utilize input-output models to provide detailed descriptions on how money invested in an economy
travels and, through multiplier effects, creates additional employment and income. The basis of these input-output models is a summation of expenditures of the manufacturer (operations, capital and
payroll) and the application of the multipliers to account for the
interdependency of economic activity in a local economy (Siegfried
et al., 2007). There are two well-known input-output programs:
Regional Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS II) and the more
advanced Impact Analysis for Planning (IMPLAN) software.
To more effectively use the multipliers for impact analysis, users
must provide geographically and industrially detailed information
on the initial changes in output, earnings or employment that are
associated with the project or program under study.
RIMS II was developed by the Bureau of Economic Analysis
(BEA) and is based on an accounting framework called an I-O
table, which shows the industrial distribution of inputs purchased
and outputs sold for each industry (BEA, 2010). There are two
sources for the I-O table: BEA’s national I-O table, which shows
the input and output structure of nearly 500 U.S. industries, and
BEA’s regional economic accounts, which are used to adjust the national I-O table to show a region’s industrial structure and trading
patterns. RIMS II has several advantages:
• Multipliers can be estimated for any region and for any industry;
• Low-cost estimates of regional multipliers because of data source
accessibility are available; and
• Expensive surveys and RIMS II-based estimates are similar in
magnitude.
IMPLAN is a more specialized software; it captures the actual dollar amounts of all business transactions taking place in a regional
economy by utilizing Social Accounting Matrices (SAMs) accounts
(IMPLAN, 2011). IMPLAN’s advantages are:
• SAMs are a better measure of economic flow as they include
“nonmarket” transactions (i.e., taxes and unemployment benefits);
• Multiplier Models are built directly from the region-specific SAMs,
which reflect the region’s unique structure;
• Trade Flows Method tracks regional purchases by estimating trade
flows, allowing for more accurate capturing of indirect effects; and
• Data accessibility is cost effective and efficient.
For this study, we have utilized IMPLAN’s input-output software
to estimate the direct, indirect and induced effects of UAS integration in the NAS upon the local economy. The estimated economic
impacts of this integration for each of the 50 states are provided in
Appendix B.
Data
Results
For this study, we used IMPLAN’s input-output software to estimate the direct, indirect, induced and total effects of UAS integration
on the economy of the state of Arizona. Because of the unique nature
of manufacturing UAS and the specialized type of workers required,
specific project payroll, parts, and taxes for agriculture and public
safety were provided. Using the parts manufacturing distribution
data in Table 7, we subtracted 4.10% (Arizona) from all values to get
a distribution relative to Arizona. We then used this to modify the
existing IMPLAN model for the rest of the states. Table 7 shows the
adjustment factors to modify the multipliers for all states based on
the Arizona multipliers that were derived from the IMPLAN’s input
output software.
Table 7: State Multiplier Adjustment Factors Based on State of Arizona's Multiplier
Adjustment
Adjustment
State
Abbreviation
State
Abbreviation
Factors
Factors
Alabama
AL
-1.88%
Montana
MT
-3.99%
Alaska
AK
-3.96%
Nebraska
NE
-3.91%
Arizona
AZ
0.00%
Nevada
NV
-3.80%
Arkansas
AR
-3.49%
New Hampshire
NH
-3.43%
California
CA
11.48% New Jersey
NJ
-2.11%
Colorado
CO
-2.34%
New Mexico
NM
-3.32%
Connecticut
CT
-0.15%
New York
NY
-0.80%
Delaware
DE
-3.97%
North Carolina
NC
-2.93%
Florida
FL
0.64%
North Dakota
ND
-3.99%
Georgia
GA
-1.27%
Ohio
OH
-1.40%
Hawaii
HI
-3.85%
Oklahoma
OK
-3.29%
Idaho
ID
-3.88%
Oregon
OR
-3.47%
Illinois
IL
-2.54%
Pennsylvania
PA
-1.10%
Indiana
IN
-2.51%
Rhode Island
RI
-3.78%
Iowa
IA
-2.86%
South Carolina
SC
-3.34%
Kansas
KS
-0.56%
South Dakota
SD
-4.03%
Kentucky
KY
-3.42%
Tennessee
TN
-3.29%
Louisiana
LA
-2.45%
Texas
TX
4.33%
Maine
ME
-3.28%
Utah
UT
-3.00%
Maryland
MD
-1.57%
Vermont
VT
-3.83%
Massachusetts
MA
-1.20%
Virginia
VA
-0.55%
Michigan
MI
-2.66%
Washington
WA
4.92%
Minnesota
MN
-3.02%
West Virginia
WV
-3.74%
Mississippi
MS
-2.85%
Wisconsin
WI
-3.43%
Missouri
MO
-2.13%
Wyoming
WY
-4.06%
The most common economic measures used in economic impact
analysis are:
• Employment [broken down to include full-time equivalents
(FTEs)];
• Annual labor income;
• Taxes; and
• Total output or revenue.
This analysis is based on the following data provided by our own
forecasts for the 50 states from 2015 through 2025:
1) Total spending by agriculture and public safety in payroll, parts,
and taxes;
2) Total direct employment by agriculture and public safety; and
3) State adjustment factors.
12
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Economic Impact ... Total Impacts
Total Economic and Employment Impacts
of Agriculture Spending
Total Economic and Employment Impacts
of Public Safety and Other Spending
Table 8 presents the estimated total economic and employment
impacts of agriculture spending in all 50 states in 2015. The total
economic impact in all 50 states is $2,096.5 million with total job
creation of 21,565. The state with the largest economic and employment impacts is California with a total economic impact of about
$366.9 million and creation of 3,774 new jobs. Following California
are Washington, Texas, Florida and Arizona. The state with the least
economic and employment impacts is Wyoming with an estimated
$723,647 and creation of seven new jobs.
The average economic and employment impacts of agriculture
spending per state are $41,929,742 and creation of 431 new jobs.
The standard deviation of economic and employment impacts of agriculture spending are $61,565,404 and 633 new jobs. The large
standard deviation indicates the wide variability (spread) of economic
and employment impacts among states.
Table 9 presents the estimated total economic and employment impacts in 2015 of public safety spending in all 50 states. Since the total
spending for “other markets” is considered equivalent to the public
safety estimates, these data are not repeated. The total economic impact of the public safety market in all 50 states is approximately $89.8
million with creation of 924 new jobs. As with agriculture spending, the state with the largest economic and employment impacts is
California with a total of more than $15.7 million and creation of
162 new jobs. This is followed in descending order by the states of
Washington, Texas, Florida and Arizona. The state of Wyoming has
the least economic and employment impacts with $31,013 and no
new jobs created.
The average economic and employment impacts of public safety
spending per state are $1,796,989 and creation of 18 new jobs. The
standard deviation of economic and employment impacts of public
safety spending is $2,638,517 and creation of 27 new jobs. The large
standard deviation again indicates the wide variability among states.
Table 8: 2015 Total Economic & Employment Impacts of Agriculture Spending
Table 9: 2015 Total Economic & Employment Impacts of Public Safety Spending
Direct Spending
State
Payroll
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaw are
Florida
Georgia
Haw aii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iow a
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
Parts
Taxes
Total
Wyoming
$9,317,676
$611,763
$17,225,796
$2,565,690
$65,438,414
$7,416,208
$16,575,698
$557,285
$19,927,882
$11,882,156
$1,041,126
$932,978
$6,571,201
$6,686,613
$5,193,121
$14,873,981
$2,877,624
$6,918,647
$3,444,594
$10,645,314
$12,175,124
$6,060,323
$4,561,989
$5,268,583
$8,276,550
$462,857
$807,478
$1,255,001
$2,817,497
$8,353,625
$3,271,880
$13,878,051
$4,898,943
$453,576
$11,362,400
$3,410,294
$2,632,274
$12,598,434
$1,364,360
$3,185,523
$305,881
$3,390,117
$35,422,907
$4,636,240
$1,150,888
$14,907,071
$37,902,240
$1,504,791
$2,825,568
$155,765
$13,976,514
$917,644
$25,838,695
$3,848,535
$98,157,622
$11,124,313
$24,863,547
$835,928
$29,891,823
$17,823,233
$1,561,689
$1,399,467
$9,856,802
$10,029,919
$7,789,682
$22,310,972
$4,316,437
$10,377,970
$5,166,891
$15,967,971
$18,262,685
$9,090,485
$6,842,984
$7,902,874
$12,414,825
$694,286
$1,211,217
$1,882,501
$4,226,246
$12,530,438
$4,907,821
$20,817,077
$7,348,414
$680,364
$17,043,599
$5,115,440
$3,948,411
$18,897,651
$2,046,539
$4,778,285
$458,822
$5,085,175
$53,134,361
$6,954,360
$1,726,333
$22,360,607
$56,853,360
$2,257,186
$4,238,352
$233,648
$372,707
$0
$396,882
$143,679
$2,094,029
$274,696
$663,028
$24,743
$0
$570,343
$59,969
$55,232
$262,848
$181,876
$141,253
$743,699
$138,126
$221,397
$192,897
$404,522
$516,225
$210,899
$257,296
$168,595
$264,850
$23,328
$33,074
$0
$0
$497,876
$112,553
$716,107
$274,341
$10,233
$372,687
$143,232
$63,175
$309,418
$58,326
$178,389
$0
$0
$0
$185,450
$71,815
$685,725
$0
$72,230
$146,930
$0
$23,666,897
$1,529,406
$43,461,373
$6,557,904
$165,690,065
$18,815,217
$42,102,272
$1,417,956
$49,819,705
$30,275,732
$2,662,784
$2,387,678
$16,690,851
$16,898,408
$13,124,056
$37,928,652
$7,332,187
$17,518,014
$8,804,383
$27,017,806
$30,954,034
$15,361,707
$11,662,269
$13,340,052
$20,956,224
$1,180,471
$2,051,770
$3,137,502
$7,043,743
$21,381,940
$8,292,254
$35,411,235
$12,521,698
$1,144,172
$28,778,686
$8,668,966
$6,643,859
$31,805,503
$3,469,225
$8,142,198
$764,703
$8,475,292
$88,557,268
$11,776,049
$2,949,036
$37,953,403
$94,755,601
$3,834,206
$7,210,850
$389,413
TOTAL
$420,000,000
$630,000,000
$12,314,681
$1,062,314,681
Ne w Ha mps hire
Ne w J e rs e y
Ne w Me xic o
Ne w Y ork
North C a rolina
North Da kota
O hio
O kla homa
O re g on
P e nns ylva nia
R hode Is la nd
S outh C a rolina
S outh Da kota
T e nne s s e e
T e xa s
Uta h
V e rmont
V irg inia
Wa s hing ton
We s t V irg inia
Wis c ons in
State Total
Multipliers
1.9043
1.8623
1.9800
1.8718
2.2143
1.8893
1.9598
1.8594
1.9477
1.9216
1.8604
1.8602
1.8750
1.8850
1.8589
1.9792
1.8681
1.8684
1.8584
1.9061
1.9142
1.8748
1.8677
1.8621
1.9064
1.8589
1.8600
1.8666
1.8612
1.8883
1.8642
1.9184
1.8711
1.8585
1.9129
1.8753
1.8685
1.8964
1.8638
1.8585
1.8673
2.0342
1.8834
1.8619
1.8578
1.8720
2.1250
1.8662
1.8642
1.8583
Total Economic
Impact
$45,068,872
$2,848,213
$86,053,519
$12,275,085
$366,887,512
$35,547,590
$82,512,034
$2,636,547
$97,033,840
$58,177,847
$4,953,844
$4,441,558
$31,295,346
$31,853,499
$24,396,309
$75,068,387
$13,697,259
$32,730,657
$16,362,066
$51,498,641
$59,252,213
$28,800,128
$21,781,620
$24,840,511
$39,950,946
$2,194,378
$3,816,291
$5,856,462
$13,109,815
$40,375,517
$15,458,419
$67,932,913
$23,429,348
$2,126,445
$55,050,748
$16,256,913
$12,414,050
$60,315,956
$6,465,942
$15,132,275
$1,427,930
$17,240,439
$166,788,758
$21,925,827
$5,478,720
$71,048,771
$201,355,651
$7,155,396
$13,442,466
$723,647
$2,096,487,120
Total
Employment
Impact
464
29
885
126
3,774
366
849
27
998
598
51
46
322
328
251
772
141
337
168
530
609
296
224
256
411
23
39
60
135
415
159
699
241
22
566
167
128
620
67
156
15
177
1,716
226
56
731
2,071
74
138
7
21,565
A ve ra g e
$41,929,742
431
S TD
$61,565,404
633
Payroll
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaw are
Florida
Georgia
Haw aii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iow a
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
TOTAL
13
Parts
Taxes
Total
$399,329
$26,218
$738,248
$109,958
$2,804,503
$317,838
$710,387
$23,884
$854,052
$509,235
$44,620
$39,985
$281,623
$286,569
$222,562
$637,456
$123,327
$296,513
$147,625
$456,228
$521,791
$259,728
$195,514
$225,796
$354,709
$19,837
$34,606
$53,786
$120,750
$358,013
$140,223
$594,774
$209,955
$19,439
$486,960
$146,155
$112,812
$539,933
$58,473
$136,522
$13,109
$145,291
$1,518,125
$198,696
$49,324
$638,874
$1,624,382
$64,491
$121,096
$6,676
$598,993
$39,328
$1,107,373
$164,937
$4,206,755
$476,756
$1,065,581
$35,825
$1,281,078
$763,853
$66,930
$59,977
$422,434
$429,854
$333,844
$956,184
$184,990
$444,770
$221,438
$684,342
$782,687
$389,592
$293,271
$338,695
$532,064
$29,755
$51,909
$80,679
$181,125
$537,019
$210,335
$892,160
$314,932
$29,158
$730,440
$219,233
$169,218
$809,899
$87,709
$204,784
$19,664
$217,936
$2,277,187
$298,044
$73,986
$958,312
$2,436,573
$96,737
$181,644
$10,013
$15,973
$0
$17,009
$6,158
$89,744
$11,773
$28,415
$1,060
$0
$24,443
$2,570
$2,367
$11,265
$7,795
$6,054
$31,873
$5,920
$9,488
$8,267
$17,337
$22,124
$9,039
$11,027
$7,225
$11,351
$1,000
$1,417
$0
$0
$21,338
$4,824
$30,690
$11,757
$439
$15,972
$6,139
$2,707
$13,261
$2,500
$7,645
$0
$0
$0
$7,948
$3,078
$29,388
$0
$3,096
$6,297
$0
$1,014,296
$65,546
$1,862,630
$281,053
$7,101,003
$806,366
$1,804,383
$60,770
$2,135,130
$1,297,531
$114,119
$102,329
$715,322
$724,217
$562,460
$1,625,514
$314,237
$750,772
$377,331
$1,157,906
$1,326,601
$658,359
$499,812
$571,717
$898,124
$50,592
$87,933
$134,464
$301,875
$916,369
$355,382
$1,517,624
$536,644
$49,036
$1,233,372
$371,527
$284,737
$1,363,093
$148,681
$348,951
$32,773
$363,227
$3,795,311
$504,688
$126,387
$1,626,574
$4,060,954
$164,323
$309,036
$16,689
$18,000,000
$27,000,000
$527,772
$45,527,772
State Total
Multipliers
Total
Economic
Impact
1.9043
1.8623
1.9800
1.8718
2.2143
1.8893
1.9598
1.8594
1.9477
1.9216
1.8604
1.8602
1.8750
1.8850
1.8589
1.9792
1.8681
1.8684
1.8584
1.9061
1.9142
1.8748
1.8677
1.8621
1.9064
1.8589
1.8600
1.8666
1.8612
1.8883
1.8642
1.9184
1.8711
1.8585
1.9129
1.8753
1.8685
1.8964
1.8638
1.8585
1.8673
2.0342
1.8834
1.8619
1.8578
1.8720
2.1250
1.8662
1.8642
1.8583
$1,931,523
$122,066
$3,688,008
$526,075
$15,723,751
$1,523,468
$3,536,230
$112,995
$4,158,593
$2,493,336
$212,308
$190,353
$1,341,229
$1,365,150
$1,045,556
$3,217,217
$587,025
$1,402,742
$701,231
$2,207,085
$2,539,381
$1,234,291
$933,498
$1,064,593
$1,712,183
$94,045
$163,555
$250,991
$561,849
$1,730,379
$662,504
$2,911,411
$1,004,115
$91,133
$2,359,318
$696,725
$532,031
$2,584,970
$277,112
$648,526
$61,197
$738,876
$7,148,090
$939,678
$234,802
$3,044,947
$8,629,528
$306,660
$576,106
$31,013
$89,849,448
Total
Employment
Impact
20
1
38
5
162
16
36
1
43
26
2
2
14
14
11
33
6
14
7
23
26
13
10
11
18
1
2
3
6
18
7
30
10
1
24
7
5
27
3
7
1
8
74
10
2
31
89
3
6
0
924
A ve ra g e
$1,796,989
S TD
$2,638,517
27
MA X
$15,723,751
162
MIN
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Direct Spending
State
$31,013
18
0
Total Economic and Employment Impacts of
Agriculture, Public Safety and Other Spending
Table 10 presents the estimated total economic and employment
impacts of agriculture, public safety and other spending in 2015 all
50 states. The total economic impact of these markets in all 50 states
is more than $2,276 million with total job creation of 23,413. The
state with the largest economic and employment impact is California
with a total of more than $398.3 million and creation of 4,097 new
jobs. Following California in descending rank order are Washington,
Texas, Florida and Arizona. In addition, the order of job creation was
similar to estimated total economic impact. Wyoming has the least
economic and employment impacts with $785,674 and eight new
jobs created.
The average economic and employment impacts of agriculture,
public safety and other spending per state are approximately $45.5
million and creation of 468 new jobs. The standard deviation of economic and employment impacts is approximately $66.8 million and
688 new jobs created. As with agriculture, public safety and other
state estimates, there is a wide variability of economic and employment impacts and job creation among states.
Table 10: 2015 Total Economic & Employment Impacts of Agriculture, Public Safety and Other
Spending
Direct Spending
State
Payroll
Alabama
$10,116,334
Alaska
$664,199
Arizona
$18,702,293
Arkansas
$2,785,606
California
$71,047,421
Colorado
$8,051,883
Connecticut
$17,996,472
Delaw are
$605,052
Florida
$21,635,986
Georgia
$12,900,626
Haw aii
$1,130,366
Idaho
$1,012,948
Illinois
$7,134,447
Indiana
$7,259,751
Iow a
$5,638,246
Kansas
$16,148,894
Kentucky
$3,124,278
Louisiana
$7,511,674
Maine
$3,739,845
Maryland
$11,557,769
Massachusetts $13,218,706
Michigan
$6,579,779
Minnesota
$4,953,017
Mississippi
$5,720,176
Missouri
$8,985,968
Montana
$502,531
Nebraska
$876,691
Nevada
$1,362,572
New Hampshire
$3,058,997
New Jersey
$9,069,651
New Mexico
$3,552,327
New York
$15,067,598
North Carolina
$5,318,852
North Dakota
$492,454
Ohio
$12,336,320
Oklahoma
$3,702,605
Oregon
$2,857,897
Pennsylvania
$13,678,300
Rhode Island
$1,481,305
South Carolina
$3,458,568
South Dakota
$332,100
Tennessee
$3,680,698
Texas
$38,459,156
Utah
$5,033,632
Vermont
$1,249,536
Virginia
$16,184,820
Washington
$41,151,004
West Virginia
$1,633,773
Wisconsin
$3,067,760
Wyoming
$169,117
TOTAL
$456,000,000
Average
STD
MAX
MIN
Parts
$15,174,501
$996,299
$28,053,440
$4,178,410
$106,571,132
$12,077,825
$26,994,708
$907,578
$32,453,979
$19,350,939
$1,695,548
$1,519,422
$10,701,671
$10,889,627
$8,457,369
$24,223,341
$4,686,417
$11,267,511
$5,609,768
$17,336,654
$19,828,059
$9,869,669
$7,429,525
$8,580,264
$13,478,953
$753,796
$1,315,036
$2,043,859
$4,588,496
$13,604,476
$5,328,491
$22,601,397
$7,978,278
$738,681
$18,504,479
$5,553,907
$4,286,846
$20,517,450
$2,221,957
$5,187,852
$498,149
$5,521,047
$57,688,734
$7,550,448
$1,874,304
$24,277,230
$61,726,505
$2,450,659
$4,601,640
$253,675
$684,000,000
Taxes
Total
$404,653
$25,695,488
$0
$1,660,498
$430,901
$47,186,634
$155,994
$7,120,010
$2,273,517
$179,892,071
$298,242
$20,427,950
$719,859
$45,711,039
$26,864
$1,539,495
$0
$54,089,966
$619,230
$32,870,795
$65,109
$2,891,023
$59,967
$2,592,336
$285,378
$18,121,496
$197,465
$18,346,843
$153,360
$14,248,976
$807,445
$41,179,679
$149,965
$7,960,660
$240,374
$19,019,558
$209,431
$9,559,045
$439,195
$29,333,618
$560,473
$33,607,237
$228,976
$16,678,425
$279,350
$12,661,892
$183,046
$14,483,485
$287,551
$22,752,472
$25,328
$1,281,654
$35,909
$2,227,636
$0
$3,406,431
$0
$7,647,493
$540,551
$23,214,678
$122,200
$9,003,018
$777,488
$38,446,484
$297,856
$13,594,986
$11,110
$1,242,244
$404,631
$31,245,430
$155,509
$9,412,021
$68,590
$7,213,333
$335,939
$34,531,689
$63,326
$3,766,588
$193,680
$8,840,100
$0
$830,249
$0
$9,201,746
$0
$96,147,891
$201,345
$12,785,425
$77,971
$3,201,811
$744,502
$41,206,552
$0
$102,877,509
$78,421
$4,162,853
$159,524
$7,828,923
$0
$422,792
$13,370,225 $1,153,370,225
State Total
Multipliers
Total Economic
Impact
Total
Employment
Impact
1.9043
1.8623
1.9800
1.8718
2.2143
1.8893
1.9598
1.8594
1.9477
1.9216
1.8604
1.8602
1.8750
1.8850
1.8589
1.9792
1.8681
1.8684
1.8584
1.9061
1.9142
1.8748
1.8677
1.8621
1.9064
1.8589
1.8600
1.8666
1.8612
1.8883
1.8642
1.9184
1.8711
1.8585
1.9129
1.8753
1.8685
1.8964
1.8638
1.8585
1.8673
2.0342
1.8834
1.8619
1.8578
1.8720
2.1250
1.8662
1.8642
1.8583
$48,931,919
$3,092,346
$93,429,535
$13,327,235
$398,335,013
$38,594,526
$89,584,494
$2,862,537
$105,351,026
$63,164,520
$5,378,459
$4,822,263
$33,977,804
$34,583,799
$26,487,421
$81,502,821
$14,871,309
$35,536,142
$17,764,528
$55,912,810
$64,330,974
$31,268,710
$23,648,616
$26,969,697
$43,375,313
$2,382,467
$4,143,402
$6,358,445
$14,233,514
$43,836,276
$16,783,427
$73,755,734
$25,437,578
$2,308,711
$59,769,383
$17,650,363
$13,478,112
$65,485,895
$7,020,166
$16,429,327
$1,550,324
$18,718,191
$181,084,937
$23,805,183
$5,948,324
$77,138,665
$218,614,707
$7,768,716
$14,594,678
$785,674
$2,276,186,016
$45,523,720
$66,842,438
503
32
961
137
4,097
397
921
29
1,084
650
55
50
350
356
272
838
153
366
183
575
662
322
243
277
446
25
43
65
146
451
173
759
262
24
615
182
139
674
72
169
16
193
1,863
245
61
793
2,249
80
150
8
23,413
468
688
$398,335,013
$785,674
4,097
8
14
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Economic Impact ... Agriculture Spending
Total Economic and Employment Impacts
of Agriculture Direct Spending
Total Economic and Employment Impacts
of Agriculture Indirect Spending
Tables 11, 12 and 13 show the 2015 direct, indirect and induced
impacts respectively, of agriculture spending. Table 11 presents the
total economic and employment impacts of direct agriculture spending in all 50 states. The nationwide total economic impact is an
estimated $1,058,841,630 with about 11,094 newly created jobs.
The largest economic and employment impacts of direct agriculture
spending is in California with total economic impact of more than
$185,307,769 and creation of 1,942 new jobs. As before, the order of
job creation was similar to overall economic impact. The state with
least economic and employment impacts is Wyoming with $365,503
and four newly created jobs.
The average economic and employment impacts of direct agriculture spending per state are approximately $21,176,833 and an
estimated 222 new jobs. The standard deviation of economic and
employment impacts of direct agriculture spending is approximately
$31,094,684 and new job creation of 326. This again reflects the
wide spread of economic and employment impacts among states.
The total economic and employment impact of indirect agriculture
spending in all 50 states is shown in Table 12. The nationwide total
economic impact is approximately $487,060,836, with an estimated
5,103 new jobs. The largest economic and employment impacts of
indirect agriculture spending is in the state of California with a total
economic impact of approximately $85,230,970 and creation of 893
new jobs. The order of job creation was similar to overall economic
impact. Wyoming has the least economic and employment impact
with $168,110 and creation of two new jobs.
The average economic and employment impacts of indirect agriculture spending per state are $9,741,217 and creation of 102 jobs. The
standard deviation of economic and employment impacts of indirect
agriculture spending is $14,302,673 and job creation of 150. The
large standard deviation indicates the wide variability of economic
and employment impacts among states.
Table 11: 2015 Direct Economic & Employment Impacts of Agriculture Spending
Direct Spending
State
Payroll
Alabama
$9,317,676
Alaska
$611,763
Arizona
$17,225,796
Arkansas
$2,565,690
California
$65,438,414
Colorado
$7,416,208
Connecticut
$16,575,698
Delaw are
$557,285
Florida
$19,927,882
Georgia
$11,882,156
Haw aii
$1,041,126
Idaho
$932,978
Illinois
$6,571,201
Indiana
$6,686,613
Iow a
$5,193,121
Kansas
$14,873,981
Kentucky
$2,877,624
Louisiana
$6,918,647
Maine
$3,444,594
Maryland
$10,645,314
Massachusetts $12,175,124
Michigan
$6,060,323
Minnesota
$4,561,989
Mississippi
$5,268,583
Missouri
$8,276,550
Montana
$462,857
Nebraska
$807,478
Nevada
$1,255,001
New Hampshire
$2,817,497
New Jersey
$8,353,625
New Mexico
$3,271,880
New York
$13,878,051
North Carolina
$4,898,943
North Dakota
$453,576
Ohio
$11,362,400
Oklahoma
$3,410,294
Oregon
$2,632,274
Pennsylvania
$12,598,434
Rhode Island
$1,364,360
South Carolina
$3,185,523
South Dakota
$305,881
Tennessee
$3,390,117
Texas
$35,422,907
Utah
$4,636,240
Vermont
$1,150,888
Virginia
$14,907,071
Washington
$37,902,240
West Virginia
$1,504,791
Wisconsin
$2,825,568
Wyoming
$155,765
TOTAL
$420,000,000
Average
STD
Parts
$13,976,514
$917,644
$25,838,695
$3,848,535
$98,157,622
$11,124,313
$24,863,547
$835,928
$29,891,823
$17,823,233
$1,561,689
$1,399,467
$9,856,802
$10,029,919
$7,789,682
$22,310,972
$4,316,437
$10,377,970
$5,166,891
$15,967,971
$18,262,685
$9,090,485
$6,842,984
$7,902,874
$12,414,825
$694,286
$1,211,217
$1,882,501
$4,226,246
$12,530,438
$4,907,821
$20,817,077
$7,348,414
$680,364
$17,043,599
$5,115,440
$3,948,411
$18,897,651
$2,046,539
$4,778,285
$458,822
$5,085,175
$53,134,361
$6,954,360
$1,726,333
$22,360,607
$56,853,360
$2,257,186
$4,238,352
$233,648
$630,000,000
Taxes
Total
$372,707
$23,666,897
$0
$1,529,406
$396,882
$43,461,373
$143,679
$6,557,904
$2,094,029
$165,690,065
$274,696
$18,815,217
$663,028
$42,102,272
$24,743
$1,417,956
$0
$49,819,705
$570,343
$30,275,732
$59,969
$2,662,784
$55,232
$2,387,678
$262,848
$16,690,851
$181,876
$16,898,408
$141,253
$13,124,056
$743,699
$37,928,652
$138,126
$7,332,187
$221,397
$17,518,014
$192,897
$8,804,383
$404,522
$27,017,806
$516,225
$30,954,034
$210,899
$15,361,707
$257,296
$11,662,269
$168,595
$13,340,052
$264,850
$20,956,224
$23,328
$1,180,471
$33,074
$2,051,770
$0
$3,137,502
$0
$7,043,743
$497,876
$21,381,940
$112,553
$8,292,254
$716,107
$35,411,235
$274,341
$12,521,698
$10,233
$1,144,172
$372,687
$28,778,686
$143,232
$8,668,966
$63,175
$6,643,859
$309,418
$31,805,503
$58,326
$3,469,225
$178,389
$8,142,198
$0
$764,703
$0
$8,475,292
$0
$88,557,268
$185,450
$11,776,049
$71,815
$2,949,036
$685,725
$37,953,403
$0
$94,755,601
$72,230
$3,834,206
$146,930
$7,210,850
$0
$389,413
$12,314,681 $1,062,314,681
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
15
Direct
State Direct Direct Economic
Employment
Multipliers
Impact
Impact
0.9618
0.9405
1
0.9453
1.1184
0.9542
0.9898
0.9391
0.9837
0.9705
0.9396
0.9395
0.947
0.952
0.9388
0.9996
0.9435
0.9436
0.9386
0.9627
0.9668
0.9468
0.9433
0.9405
0.9628
0.9388
0.9394
0.9427
0.94
0.9537
0.9415
0.9689
0.945
0.9386
0.9661
0.9471
0.9437
0.9578
0.9413
0.9386
0.9431
1.0274
0.9512
0.9403
0.9383
0.9455
1.0732
0.9425
0.9415
0.9386
$22,762,822
$1,438,407
$43,461,373
$6,199,187
$185,307,769
$17,953,480
$41,672,829
$1,331,602
$49,007,644
$29,382,598
$2,501,952
$2,243,223
$15,806,236
$16,087,285
$12,320,864
$37,913,480
$6,917,918
$16,529,998
$8,263,794
$26,010,042
$29,926,360
$14,544,464
$11,001,018
$12,546,319
$20,176,653
$1,108,226
$1,927,432
$2,957,724
$6,621,119
$20,391,956
$7,807,157
$34,309,946
$11,833,004
$1,073,920
$27,803,088
$8,210,378
$6,269,810
$30,463,311
$3,265,582
$7,642,267
$721,192
$8,707,515
$84,235,673
$11,073,019
$2,767,081
$35,884,943
$101,691,710
$3,613,739
$6,789,015
$365,503
$1,058,841,630
$21,176,833
$31,094,684
238
15
455
65
1942
188
437
14
513
308
26
24
166
169
129
397
72
173
87
273
314
152
115
131
211
12
20
31
69
214
82
359
124
11
291
86
66
319
34
80
8
91
883
116
29
376
1065
38
71
4
11,094
222
326
Table 12: 2015 Indirect Economic & Employment Impacts of Agriculture Spending
Direct Spending
State
Payroll
Alabama
$9,317,676
Alaska
$611,763
Arizona
$17,225,796
Arkansas
$2,565,690
California
$65,438,414
Colorado
$7,416,208
Connecticut
$16,575,698
Delaw are
$557,285
Florida
$19,927,882
Georgia
$11,882,156
Haw aii
$1,041,126
Idaho
$932,978
Illinois
$6,571,201
Indiana
$6,686,613
Iow a
$5,193,121
Kansas
$14,873,981
Kentucky
$2,877,624
Louisiana
$6,918,647
Maine
$3,444,594
Maryland
$10,645,314
Massachusetts $12,175,124
Michigan
$6,060,323
Minnesota
$4,561,989
Mississippi
$5,268,583
Missouri
$8,276,550
Montana
$462,857
Nebraska
$807,478
Nevada
$1,255,001
New Hampshire
$2,817,497
New Jersey
$8,353,625
New Mexico
$3,271,880
New York
$13,878,051
North Carolina
$4,898,943
North Dakota
$453,576
Ohio
$11,362,400
Oklahoma
$3,410,294
Oregon
$2,632,274
Pennsylvania
$12,598,434
Rhode Island
$1,364,360
South Carolina
$3,185,523
South Dakota
$305,881
Tennessee
$3,390,117
Texas
$35,422,907
Utah
$4,636,240
Vermont
$1,150,888
Virginia
$14,907,071
Washington
$37,902,240
West Virginia
$1,504,791
Wisconsin
$2,825,568
Wyoming
$155,765
TOTAL
$420,000,000
Average
STD
Parts
$13,976,514
$917,644
$25,838,695
$3,848,535
$98,157,622
$11,124,313
$24,863,547
$835,928
$29,891,823
$17,823,233
$1,561,689
$1,399,467
$9,856,802
$10,029,919
$7,789,682
$22,310,972
$4,316,437
$10,377,970
$5,166,891
$15,967,971
$18,262,685
$9,090,485
$6,842,984
$7,902,874
$12,414,825
$694,286
$1,211,217
$1,882,501
$4,226,246
$12,530,438
$4,907,821
$20,817,077
$7,348,414
$680,364
$17,043,599
$5,115,440
$3,948,411
$18,897,651
$2,046,539
$4,778,285
$458,822
$5,085,175
$53,134,361
$6,954,360
$1,726,333
$22,360,607
$56,853,360
$2,257,186
$4,238,352
$233,648
$630,000,000
Taxes
Total
$372,707
$23,666,897
$0
$1,529,406
$396,882
$43,461,373
$143,679
$6,557,904
$2,094,029
$165,690,065
$274,696
$18,815,217
$663,028
$42,102,272
$24,743
$1,417,956
$0
$49,819,705
$570,343
$30,275,732
$59,969
$2,662,784
$55,232
$2,387,678
$262,848
$16,690,851
$181,876
$16,898,408
$141,253
$13,124,056
$743,699
$37,928,652
$138,126
$7,332,187
$221,397
$17,518,014
$192,897
$8,804,383
$404,522
$27,017,806
$516,225
$30,954,034
$210,899
$15,361,707
$257,296
$11,662,269
$168,595
$13,340,052
$264,850
$20,956,224
$23,328
$1,180,471
$33,074
$2,051,770
$0
$3,137,502
$0
$7,043,743
$497,876
$21,381,940
$112,553
$8,292,254
$716,107
$35,411,235
$274,341
$12,521,698
$10,233
$1,144,172
$372,687
$28,778,686
$143,232
$8,668,966
$63,175
$6,643,859
$309,418
$31,805,503
$58,326
$3,469,225
$178,389
$8,142,198
$0
$764,703
$0
$8,475,292
$0
$88,557,268
$185,450
$11,776,049
$71,815
$2,949,036
$685,725
$37,953,403
$0
$94,755,601
$72,230
$3,834,206
$146,930
$7,210,850
$0
$389,413
$12,314,681 $1,062,314,681
State
Indirect
Multipliers
Indirect
Economic
Impact
0.4424
0.4327
0.46
0.4349
0.5144
0.4389
0.4553
0.432
0.4525
0.4464
0.4322
0.4322
0.4356
0.4379
0.4319
0.4598
0.434
0.4341
0.4317
0.4428
0.4447
0.4356
0.4339
0.4326
0.4429
0.4319
0.4321
0.4337
0.4324
0.4387
0.4331
0.4457
0.4347
0.4318
0.4444
0.4357
0.4341
0.4406
0.433
0.4318
0.4338
0.4726
0.4376
0.4326
0.4316
0.4349
0.4937
0.4336
0.4331
0.4317
$10,470,235
$661,774
$19,992,232
$2,852,032
$85,230,970
$8,257,999
$19,169,165
$612,557
$22,543,417
$13,515,087
$1,150,855
$1,031,954
$7,270,535
$7,399,813
$5,668,280
$17,439,594
$3,182,169
$7,604,570
$3,800,852
$11,963,485
$13,765,259
$6,691,560
$5,060,258
$5,770,906
$9,281,512
$509,846
$886,570
$1,360,735
$3,045,715
$9,380,257
$3,591,375
$15,782,787
$5,443,182
$494,054
$12,789,248
$3,777,069
$2,884,099
$14,013,505
$1,502,175
$3,515,801
$331,728
$4,005,423
$38,752,660
$5,094,319
$1,272,804
$16,505,935
$46,780,840
$1,662,512
$3,123,019
$168,110
$487,060,836
$9,741,217
$14,302,673
Indirect
Employment
Impact
110
7
209
30
893
87
201
6
236
142
12
11
76
78
59
183
33
80
40
125
144
70
53
60
97
5
9
14
32
98
38
165
57
5
134
40
30
147
16
37
3
42
406
53
13
173
490
17
33
2
5,103
102
150
Economic Impact ... Agriculture Spending
Total Economic and Employment Impacts
of Agriculture Induced Spending
Table 13 presents the total economic and employment impacts of
induced agriculture spending in 2015 in all 50 states. The estimated
nationwide total economic impact is $550,584,654 with the creation
of 5,770 new jobs. The largest economic and employment impacts
of induced agriculture spending is in the state of California with a
total economic impact of approximately $96,348,773 and creation
of 1,010 new jobs. The order of job creation was similar to economic
impact. The state of Wyoming has the least amount economic and
employment impact with $190,034 and the creation of two new jobs.
The average economic and employment impacts of induced agriculture spending per state are an estimated 11,011,693 and creation of
115 jobs. The standard deviation of economic and employment impacts of induced agriculture spending is approximately $16,168,047
and 169 jobs. There is wide variability in economic and employment
impacts among states as is evidenced by the large standard deviation.
Table 13: 2015 Induced Economic & Employment Impacts of Agriculture Spending
Direct Spending
State
Payroll
Alabama
$9,317,676
Alaska
$611,763
Arizona
$17,225,796
Arkansas
$2,565,690
California
$65,438,414
Colorado
$7,416,208
Connecticut
$16,575,698
Delaw are
$557,285
Florida
$19,927,882
Georgia
$11,882,156
Haw aii
$1,041,126
Idaho
$932,978
Illinois
$6,571,201
Indiana
$6,686,613
Iow a
$5,193,121
Kansas
$14,873,981
Kentucky
$2,877,624
Louisiana
$6,918,647
Maine
$3,444,594
Maryland
$10,645,314
Massachusetts $12,175,124
Michigan
$6,060,323
Minnesota
$4,561,989
Mississippi
$5,268,583
Missouri
$8,276,550
Montana
$462,857
Nebraska
$807,478
Nevada
$1,255,001
New Hampshire
$2,817,497
New Jersey
$8,353,625
New Mexico
$3,271,880
New York
$13,878,051
North Carolina
$4,898,943
North Dakota
$453,576
Ohio
$11,362,400
Oklahoma
$3,410,294
Oregon
$2,632,274
Pennsylvania
$12,598,434
Rhode Island
$1,364,360
South Carolina
$3,185,523
South Dakota
$305,881
Tennessee
$3,390,117
Texas
$35,422,907
Utah
$4,636,240
Vermont
$1,150,888
Virginia
$14,907,071
Washington
$37,902,240
West Virginia
$1,504,791
Wisconsin
$2,825,568
Wyoming
$155,765
TOTAL
$420,000,000
Average
STD
Parts
$13,976,514
$917,644
$25,838,695
$3,848,535
$98,157,622
$11,124,313
$24,863,547
$835,928
$29,891,823
$17,823,233
$1,561,689
$1,399,467
$9,856,802
$10,029,919
$7,789,682
$22,310,972
$4,316,437
$10,377,970
$5,166,891
$15,967,971
$18,262,685
$9,090,485
$6,842,984
$7,902,874
$12,414,825
$694,286
$1,211,217
$1,882,501
$4,226,246
$12,530,438
$4,907,821
$20,817,077
$7,348,414
$680,364
$17,043,599
$5,115,440
$3,948,411
$18,897,651
$2,046,539
$4,778,285
$458,822
$5,085,175
$53,134,361
$6,954,360
$1,726,333
$22,360,607
$56,853,360
$2,257,186
$4,238,352
$233,648
$630,000,000
Taxes
Total
$372,707
$23,666,897
$0
$1,529,406
$396,882
$43,461,373
$143,679
$6,557,904
$2,094,029
$165,690,065
$274,696
$18,815,217
$663,028
$42,102,272
$24,743
$1,417,956
$0
$49,819,705
$570,343
$30,275,732
$59,969
$2,662,784
$55,232
$2,387,678
$262,848
$16,690,851
$181,876
$16,898,408
$141,253
$13,124,056
$743,699
$37,928,652
$138,126
$7,332,187
$221,397
$17,518,014
$192,897
$8,804,383
$404,522
$27,017,806
$516,225
$30,954,034
$210,899
$15,361,707
$257,296
$11,662,269
$168,595
$13,340,052
$264,850
$20,956,224
$23,328
$1,180,471
$33,074
$2,051,770
$0
$3,137,502
$0
$7,043,743
$497,876
$21,381,940
$112,553
$8,292,254
$716,107
$35,411,235
$274,341
$12,521,698
$10,233
$1,144,172
$372,687
$28,778,686
$143,232
$8,668,966
$63,175
$6,643,859
$309,418
$31,805,503
$58,326
$3,469,225
$178,389
$8,142,198
$0
$764,703
$0
$8,475,292
$0
$88,557,268
$185,450
$11,776,049
$71,815
$2,949,036
$685,725
$37,953,403
$0
$94,755,601
$72,230
$3,834,206
$146,930
$7,210,850
$0
$389,413
$12,314,681 $1,062,314,681
State
Induced
Multipliers
Induced
Economic
Impact
0.5001
0.4891
0.52
0.4916
0.5815
0.4962
0.5147
0.4883
0.5115
0.5047
0.4886
0.4885
0.4924
0.4951
0.4882
0.5198
0.4906
0.4907
0.4881
0.5006
0.5027
0.4924
0.4905
0.489
0.5007
0.4882
0.4885
0.4902
0.4888
0.4959
0.4896
0.5038
0.4914
0.4881
0.5024
0.4925
0.4907
0.498
0.4895
0.4881
0.4904
0.5342
0.4946
0.489
0.4879
0.4916
0.5581
0.4901
0.4896
0.488
$11,835,815
$748,033
$22,599,914
$3,223,866
$96,348,773
$9,336,111
$21,670,040
$692,388
$25,482,779
$15,280,162
$1,301,036
$1,166,381
$8,218,575
$8,366,402
$6,407,164
$19,715,313
$3,597,171
$8,596,089
$4,297,419
$13,525,114
$15,560,593
$7,564,104
$5,720,343
$6,523,285
$10,492,781
$576,306
$1,002,289
$1,538,004
$3,442,982
$10,603,304
$4,059,887
$17,840,180
$6,153,162
$558,471
$14,458,412
$4,269,466
$3,260,142
$15,839,141
$1,698,186
$3,974,207
$375,010
$4,527,501
$43,800,425
$5,758,488
$1,438,835
$18,657,893
$52,883,101
$1,879,145
$3,530,432
$190,034
$550,584,654
$11,011,693
$16,168,047
Induced
Employment
Impact
124
8
237
34
1,010
98
227
7
267
160
14
12
86
88
67
207
38
90
45
142
163
79
60
68
110
6
11
16
36
111
43
187
64
6
152
45
34
166
18
42
4
47
459
60
15
196
554
20
37
2
5,770
115
169
16
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Economic Impact ... Public Safety and Other Spending
Total Economic and Employment Impacts of
Public Safety and Other Direct Spending
Total Economic and Employment Impacts of
Public Safety and Other Indirect Spending
Tables 14, 15, and 16 show the 2015 direct, indirect, and induced
impacts respectively, of public safety spending. Since the impacts to
“other” markets are equivalent to public safety, that data is not presented. Table 14 presents the total economic and employment impacts of direct public safety spending in all 50 states. The total economic impact is approximately $45,378,927 with a total job creation
of 475. The largest economic and employment impacts of direct
public safety spending is in the state of California with a total economic impact of $7,941,762 and creation of 83 new jobs. The state
of Wyoming has the least economic and employment impacts among
public safety direct spending with $15,664 and no new jobs created.
The average economic and employment impacts of direct public safety spending per state are approximately $907,579 and creation of 10
new jobs. The standard deviation of economic and employment impacts of direct public safety spending are approximately $1,332,629
and new job creation of 14. The large standard deviation again indicates the variability of economic and employment impacts of direct
public safety spending among states.
The total economic and employment impact of indirect public safety
spending in 2015 in all 50 states is shown in Table 15. The nationwide total economic impact is approximately $20,874,036 creation
of an estimated 219 new jobs. The largest economic and employment
impacts of indirect public safety spending is in the state of California
with total economic impact of more than $3,652,756 and creation
of 38 new jobs. Wyoming has the least economic and employment
impacts with $7,205 and no new jobs created.
The economic and employment impacts of indirect public safety
spending per state averages approximately $417,481 and creation of
four new jobs. The standard deviation of economic and employment
impacts of indirect public safety spending are $612,972 creation of
six new jobs. As with public safety direct spending, there is a wide
variability of economic and employment impacts among the states.
Table 14: 2015 Direct Economic & Employment Impacts of Public Safety Spending
Direct Spending
State
Payroll
Alabama
$399,329
Alaska
$26,218
Arizona
$738,248
Arkansas
$109,958
California
$2,804,503
Colorado
$317,838
Connecticut
$710,387
Delaw are
$23,884
Florida
$854,052
Georgia
$509,235
Haw aii
$44,620
Idaho
$39,985
Illinois
$281,623
Indiana
$286,569
Iow a
$222,562
Kansas
$637,456
Kentucky
$123,327
Louisiana
$296,513
Maine
$147,625
Maryland
$456,228
Massachusetts
$521,791
Michigan
$259,728
Minnesota
$195,514
Mississippi
$225,796
Missouri
$354,709
Montana
$19,837
Nebraska
$34,606
Nevada
$53,786
New Hampshire
$120,750
New Jersey
$358,013
New Mexico
$140,223
New York
$594,774
North Carolina
$209,955
North Dakota
$19,439
Ohio
$486,960
Oklahoma
$146,155
Oregon
$112,812
Pennsylvania
$539,933
Rhode Island
$58,473
South Carolina
$136,522
South Dakota
$13,109
Tennessee
$145,291
Texas
$1,518,125
Utah
$198,696
Vermont
$49,324
Virginia
$638,874
Washington
$1,624,382
West Virginia
$64,491
Wisconsin
$121,096
Wyoming
$6,676
TOTAL
$18,000,000
Average
STD
Parts
Taxes
Total
$598,993
$15,973
$1,014,296
$39,328
$0
$65,546
$1,107,373
$17,009
$1,862,630
$164,937
$6,158
$281,053
$4,206,755
$89,744
$7,101,003
$476,756
$11,773
$806,366
$1,065,581
$28,415
$1,804,383
$35,825
$1,060
$60,770
$1,281,078
$0
$2,135,130
$763,853
$24,443
$1,297,531
$66,930
$2,570
$114,119
$59,977
$2,367
$102,329
$422,434
$11,265
$715,322
$429,854
$7,795
$724,217
$333,844
$6,054
$562,460
$956,184
$31,873
$1,625,514
$184,990
$5,920
$314,237
$444,770
$9,488
$750,772
$221,438
$8,267
$377,331
$684,342
$17,337
$1,157,906
$782,687
$22,124
$1,326,601
$389,592
$9,039
$658,359
$293,271
$11,027
$499,812
$338,695
$7,225
$571,717
$532,064
$11,351
$898,124
$29,755
$1,000
$50,592
$51,909
$1,417
$87,933
$80,679
$0
$134,464
$181,125
$0
$301,875
$537,019
$21,338
$916,369
$210,335
$4,824
$355,382
$892,160
$30,690
$1,517,624
$314,932
$11,757
$536,644
$29,158
$439
$49,036
$730,440
$15,972
$1,233,372
$219,233
$6,139
$371,527
$169,218
$2,707
$284,737
$809,899
$13,261
$1,363,093
$87,709
$2,500
$148,681
$204,784
$7,645
$348,951
$19,664
$0
$32,773
$217,936
$0
$363,227
$2,277,187
$0
$3,795,311
$298,044
$7,948
$504,688
$73,986
$3,078
$126,387
$958,312
$29,388
$1,626,574
$2,436,573
$0
$4,060,954
$96,737
$3,096
$164,323
$181,644
$6,297
$309,036
$10,013
$0
$16,689
$27,000,000 $527,772 $45,527,772
MA X
MIN
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
17
State Direct
Multipliers
0.9618
0.9405
1
0.9453
1.1184
0.9542
0.9898
0.9391
0.9837
0.9705
0.9396
0.9395
0.947
0.952
0.9388
0.9996
0.9435
0.9436
0.9386
0.9627
0.9668
0.9468
0.9433
0.9405
0.9628
0.9388
0.9394
0.9427
0.94
0.9537
0.9415
0.9689
0.945
0.9386
0.9661
0.9471
0.9437
0.9578
0.9413
0.9386
0.9431
1.0274
0.9512
0.9403
0.9383
0.9455
1.0732
0.9425
0.9415
0.9386
Direct
Economic
Impact
$975,550
$61,646
$1,862,630
$265,679
$7,941,762
$769,435
$1,785,978
$57,069
$2,100,328
$1,259,254
$107,227
$96,138
$677,410
$689,455
$528,037
$1,624,863
$296,482
$708,428
$354,163
$1,114,716
$1,282,558
$623,334
$471,472
$537,699
$864,714
$47,495
$82,604
$126,760
$283,762
$873,941
$334,592
$1,470,426
$507,129
$46,025
$1,191,561
$351,873
$268,706
$1,305,570
$139,954
$327,526
$30,908
$373,179
$3,610,100
$474,558
$118,589
$1,537,926
$4,358,216
$154,875
$290,958
$15,664
$45,378,927
$907,579
$1,332,629
Table 15: 2015 Indirect Economic & Employment Impacts of Public Safety Spending
Direct
Employment
Impact
475
10
14
10
1
20
3
83
8
19
1
22
13
1
1
7
7
6
17
3
7
4
12
13
7
5
6
9
0
1
1
3
9
4
15
5
0
12
4
3
14
1
3
0
4
38
5
1
16
46
2
3
0
Direct Spending
State
Payroll
Parts
Alabama
$399,329
$598,993
Alaska
$26,218
$39,328
Arizona
$738,248
$1,107,373
Arkansas
$109,958
$164,937
California
$2,804,503
$4,206,755
Colorado
$317,838
$476,756
Connecticut
$710,387
$1,065,581
Delaw are
$23,884
$35,825
Florida
$854,052
$1,281,078
Georgia
$509,235
$763,853
Haw aii
$44,620
$66,930
Idaho
$39,985
$59,977
Illinois
$281,623
$422,434
Indiana
$286,569
$429,854
Iow a
$222,562
$333,844
Kansas
$637,456
$956,184
Kentucky
$123,327
$184,990
Louisiana
$296,513
$444,770
Maine
$147,625
$221,438
Maryland
$456,228
$684,342
Massachusetts
$521,791
$782,687
Michigan
$259,728
$389,592
Minnesota
$195,514
$293,271
Mississippi
$225,796
$338,695
Missouri
$354,709
$532,064
Montana
$19,837
$29,755
Nebraska
$34,606
$51,909
Nevada
$53,786
$80,679
New Hampshire
$120,750
$181,125
New Jersey
$358,013
$537,019
New Mexico
$140,223
$210,335
New York
$594,774
$892,160
North Carolina
$209,955
$314,932
North Dakota
$19,439
$29,158
Ohio
$486,960
$730,440
Oklahoma
$146,155
$219,233
Oregon
$112,812
$169,218
Pennsylvania
$539,933
$809,899
Rhode Island
$58,473
$87,709
South Carolina
$136,522
$204,784
South Dakota
$13,109
$19,664
Tennessee
$145,291
$217,936
Texas
$1,518,125
$2,277,187
Utah
$198,696
$298,044
Vermont
$49,324
$73,986
Virginia
$638,874
$958,312
Washington
$1,624,382
$2,436,573
West Virginia
$64,491
$96,737
Wisconsin
$121,096
$181,644
Wyoming
$6,676
$10,013
TOTAL
$18,000,000 $27,000,000
Average
STD
$7,941,762
83
MA X
$15,664
0
MIN
Taxes
Total
$15,973
$1,014,296
$0
$65,546
$17,009
$1,862,630
$6,158
$281,053
$89,744
$7,101,003
$11,773
$806,366
$28,415
$1,804,383
$1,060
$60,770
$0
$2,135,130
$24,443
$1,297,531
$2,570
$114,119
$2,367
$102,329
$11,265
$715,322
$7,795
$724,217
$6,054
$562,460
$31,873
$1,625,514
$5,920
$314,237
$9,488
$750,772
$8,267
$377,331
$17,337
$1,157,906
$22,124
$1,326,601
$9,039
$658,359
$11,027
$499,812
$7,225
$571,717
$11,351
$898,124
$1,000
$50,592
$1,417
$87,933
$0
$134,464
$0
$301,875
$21,338
$916,369
$4,824
$355,382
$30,690
$1,517,624
$11,757
$536,644
$439
$49,036
$15,972
$1,233,372
$6,139
$371,527
$2,707
$284,737
$13,261
$1,363,093
$2,500
$148,681
$7,645
$348,951
$0
$32,773
$0
$363,227
$0
$3,795,311
$7,948
$504,688
$3,078
$126,387
$29,388
$1,626,574
$0
$4,060,954
$3,096
$164,323
$6,297
$309,036
$0
$16,689
$527,772 $45,527,772
State
Indirect
Multipliers
0.4424
0.4327
0.46
0.4349
0.5144
0.4389
0.4553
0.432
0.4525
0.4464
0.4322
0.4322
0.4356
0.4379
0.4319
0.4598
0.434
0.4341
0.4317
0.4428
0.4447
0.4356
0.4339
0.4326
0.4429
0.4319
0.4321
0.4337
0.4324
0.4387
0.4331
0.4457
0.4347
0.4318
0.4444
0.4357
0.4341
0.4406
0.433
0.4318
0.4338
0.4726
0.4376
0.4326
0.4316
0.4349
0.4937
0.4336
0.4331
0.4317
Indirect
Economic
Impact
$448,724
$28,362
$856,810
$122,230
$3,652,756
$353,914
$821,536
$26,252
$966,146
$579,218
$49,322
$44,227
$311,594
$317,135
$242,926
$747,411
$136,379
$325,910
$162,894
$512,721
$589,940
$286,781
$216,868
$247,325
$397,779
$21,851
$37,996
$58,317
$130,531
$402,011
$153,916
$676,405
$233,279
$21,174
$548,111
$161,874
$123,604
$600,579
$64,379
$150,677
$14,217
$171,661
$1,660,828
$218,328
$54,549
$707,397
$2,004,893
$71,251
$133,844
$7,205
$20,874,036
$417,481
$612,972
Indirect
Employment
Impact
219
4
6
$3,652,756
38
$7,205
0
5
0
9
1
38
4
9
0
10
6
1
0
3
3
3
8
1
3
2
5
6
3
2
3
4
0
0
1
1
4
2
7
2
0
6
2
1
6
1
2
0
2
17
2
1
7
21
1
1
0
Economic Impact ... Public Safety and Other Spending
Total Economic and Employment Impacts of
Public Safety and Other Induced Spending
Table 16 presents the total economic and employment impacts of
induced public safety spending in 2015 in all 50 states. The total
economic impact is estimated to be $23,596,485 with total new job
creation of 247. The largest economic and employment impacts of
induced public safety spending is in the state of California with a
total economic impact of approximately $4,129,233 and creation
of 43 new jobs. Following California are the states of Washington,
Texas, Florida and Arizona. The order of job creation was similar to
economic impact. The state with least economic and employment
impacts is Wyoming with $8,144 and no new jobs created.
The average economic and employment impacts of induced public
safety spending per state are an estimated $471,930 and creation of
five jobs. The standard deviation of economic and employment impacts of induced public safety spending are approximately $692,916
and creation of seven new jobs. The large standard deviation indicates the wide variability of economic and employment impacts
among states.
Table 16: 2015 Induced Economic & Employment Impacts of Public Safety Spending
Direct Spending
State
Payroll
Alabama
$399,329
Alaska
$26,218
Arizona
$738,248
Arkansas
$109,958
California
$2,804,503
Colorado
$317,838
Connecticut
$710,387
Delaw are
$23,884
Florida
$854,052
Georgia
$509,235
Haw aii
$44,620
Idaho
$39,985
Illinois
$281,623
Indiana
$286,569
Iow a
$222,562
Kansas
$637,456
Kentucky
$123,327
Louisiana
$296,513
Maine
$147,625
Maryland
$456,228
Massachusetts
$521,791
Michigan
$259,728
Minnesota
$195,514
Mississippi
$225,796
Missouri
$354,709
Montana
$19,837
Nebraska
$34,606
Nevada
$53,786
New Hampshire
$120,750
New Jersey
$358,013
New Mexico
$140,223
New York
$594,774
North Carolina
$209,955
North Dakota
$19,439
Ohio
$486,960
Oklahoma
$146,155
Oregon
$112,812
Pennsylvania
$539,933
Rhode Island
$58,473
South Carolina
$136,522
South Dakota
$13,109
Tennessee
$145,291
Texas
$1,518,125
Utah
$198,696
Vermont
$49,324
Virginia
$638,874
Washington
$1,624,382
West Virginia
$64,491
Wisconsin
$121,096
Wyoming
$6,676
TOTAL
$18,000,000
Average
STD
MA X
MIN
Parts
$598,993
$39,328
$1,107,373
$164,937
$4,206,755
$476,756
$1,065,581
$35,825
$1,281,078
$763,853
$66,930
$59,977
$422,434
$429,854
$333,844
$956,184
$184,990
$444,770
$221,438
$684,342
$782,687
$389,592
$293,271
$338,695
$532,064
$29,755
$51,909
$80,679
$181,125
$537,019
$210,335
$892,160
$314,932
$29,158
$730,440
$219,233
$169,218
$809,899
$87,709
$204,784
$19,664
$217,936
$2,277,187
$298,044
$73,986
$958,312
$2,436,573
$96,737
$181,644
$10,013
$27,000,000
Taxes
Total
$15,973
$1,014,296
$0
$65,546
$17,009
$1,862,630
$6,158
$281,053
$89,744
$7,101,003
$11,773
$806,366
$28,415
$1,804,383
$1,060
$60,770
$0
$2,135,130
$24,443
$1,297,531
$2,570
$114,119
$2,367
$102,329
$11,265
$715,322
$7,795
$724,217
$6,054
$562,460
$31,873
$1,625,514
$5,920
$314,237
$9,488
$750,772
$8,267
$377,331
$17,337
$1,157,906
$22,124
$1,326,601
$9,039
$658,359
$11,027
$499,812
$7,225
$571,717
$11,351
$898,124
$1,000
$50,592
$1,417
$87,933
$0
$134,464
$0
$301,875
$21,338
$916,369
$4,824
$355,382
$30,690
$1,517,624
$11,757
$536,644
$439
$49,036
$15,972
$1,233,372
$6,139
$371,527
$2,707
$284,737
$13,261
$1,363,093
$2,500
$148,681
$7,645
$348,951
$0
$32,773
$0
$363,227
$0
$3,795,311
$7,948
$504,688
$3,078
$126,387
$29,388
$1,626,574
$0
$4,060,954
$3,096
$164,323
$6,297
$309,036
$0
$16,689
$527,772 $45,527,772
State
Induced
Multipliers
Induced
Economic
Impact
0.5001
0.4891
0.52
0.4916
0.5815
0.4962
0.5147
0.4883
0.5115
0.5047
0.4886
0.4885
0.4924
0.4951
0.4882
0.5198
0.4906
0.4907
0.4881
0.5006
0.5027
0.4924
0.4905
0.489
0.5007
0.4882
0.4885
0.4902
0.4888
0.4959
0.4896
0.5038
0.4914
0.4881
0.5024
0.4925
0.4907
0.498
0.4895
0.4881
0.4904
0.5342
0.4946
0.489
0.4879
0.4916
0.5581
0.4901
0.4896
0.488
$507,249
$32,059
$968,568
$138,166
$4,129,233
$400,119
$928,716
$29,674
$1,092,119
$654,864
$55,759
$49,988
$352,225
$358,560
$274,593
$844,942
$154,164
$368,404
$184,175
$579,648
$666,883
$324,176
$245,158
$279,569
$449,691
$24,699
$42,955
$65,914
$147,556
$454,427
$173,995
$764,579
$263,707
$23,934
$619,646
$182,977
$139,720
$678,820
$72,779
$170,323
$16,072
$194,036
$1,877,161
$246,792
$61,664
$799,624
$2,266,419
$80,535
$151,304
$8,144
$23,596,485
$471,930
$692,916
Induced
Employment
Impact
5
0
10
1
43
4
10
0
11
7
1
1
4
4
3
9
2
4
2
6
7
3
3
3
5
0
0
1
2
5
2
8
3
0
6
2
1
7
1
2
0
2
20
3
1
8
24
1
2
0
247
5
7
$4,129,233
43
$8,144
0
18
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Impacts of UAS Development
Total Economic and Employment Impacts
of UAS Development in the Top Five States
A comparison of the total economic and job creation impacts of
UAS integration in the U.S. in the top five states is presented in Table
17. The orders of output and job multipliers are consistent with
the order of the states in terms of direct spending. California is the
number one state with the highest direct spending of $179,892,071
and the highest direct employment of 2,108, which resulted in the
highest contribution to total economic impact of approximately
$398,335,013 and total new job creation impact of approximately
4,097. In addition, California has the highest multipliers for job and
output creation. Figure 2 graphically shows the total economic and
job creation impacts of the top five states in the U.S.
Table 17: 2015 Total Economic and Employment Impacts of UAS
Development in the Top Five States
Direct
spending
Total
Economic
impact
Output
multiplier
S tate
Direct jobs
Total job
Creation
Impact
California
2108
4,097
1.94
179,892,071
398,335,013
2.21
Washington
1157
2,249
1.94
102,877,509
218,614,707
2.13
Texas
958
1,863
1.94
96,147,891
181,084,937
1.88
Florida
557
1,084
1.94
54,089,966
105,351,026
1.95
Arizona
494
961
1.94
47,186,634
93,429,535
1.98
Job
multiplier
Total Economic and Employment Impacts
of UAS Development in the
United States From 2015-2025
UAS integration into the NAS will have tremendous economic and
job creation impacts on the aerospace industry and aid in driving
economic development in many states across the country. In today’s
economic environment, job creation will continue to be extremely
important for the aerospace industry and the U.S. economy. Note
that the economic impact of UAS integration will not stop with the
primary UAS market. Similar to other industries, job growth will
stretch into many additional sectors, and the economic growth in the
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
19
aerospace industry will support the growth in many other businesses
across multiple U.S. industries, including the hospitality and entertainment industries.
The total direct spending in UAS development and the total economic and employment impacts are expected to increase significantly
in the next 11 years from 2015 through 2025, as seen in Table 18.
The expected total direct spending in UAS development in 2015 is
an estimated $1,153,370,225. This amount is expected to increase
by 100% in 2016 to approximately $2,306,740,450. In 2017, total direct spending is expected to increase by 50% to an estimated
$3,460,110,675. This rate of growth is expected to decrease in 2018
to approximately 5% with total spending of $3,633,116,209 and to
level off at 5% between 2019 and 2025, with total spending in 2025
of 5,112,159,353.
Table 18: Direct Spending and Employment in The U.S. from 2015-2025
Year
Total Direct Spending
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
1,153,370,225
2,306,740,450
3,460,110,675
3,633,116,209
3,814,772,019
4,005,510,620
4,205,786,151
4,416,075,459
4,636,879,232
4,868,723,193
5,112,159,353
Total Direct
Employment
11,400
22,800
34,200
35,910
37,706
39,591
41,570
43,649
45,831
48,123
50,529
Percent Change Over
Previous Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
The expected total economic and employment impacts in the U.S.
for UAS integration for the 11-year period from 2015 through 2025
is shown in Table 19. In 2015, the expected total economic and employment impacts are estimated to be $2,276,186,016 with creation
of 23,413 jobs. These amounts are expected to increase by 100%
in 2016 (from 2015) to approximately $4,552,372,033 in economic
impact and job creation of 46,826. In 2017, the economic and employment impacts are expected to increase by approximately 50% to
$6,828,558,049 and 70,240 jobs. This rate of growth is expected to
decrease in 2018 to approximately 5% and level off at 5% through
2025. By 2025, the expected total economic impact is estimated to
be $10,088,890,263 and total employment impact 103,776.
Table 19: Economic & Employment Impacts in The U.S. from 2015-2025
Total Economic Total Employment
Impact
Impact
Year
Total Direct
Spending
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
$ 1,153,370,225 $ 2,276,186,016
$ 2,306,740,450 $ 4,552,372,033
$ 3,460,110,675 $ 6,828,558,049
$ 3,633,116,209 $ 7,169,985,952
$ 3,814,772,019 $ 7,528,485,249
$ 4,005,510,620 $ 7,904,909,512
$ 4,205,786,151 $ 8,300,154,987
$ 4,416,075,459 $ 8,715,162,737
$ 4,636,879,232 $ 9,150,920,874
$ 4,868,723,193 $ 9,608,466,917
$ 5,112,159,353 $10,088,890,263
23,413
46,826
70,240
73,752
77,439
81,311
85,377
89,645
94,128
98,834
103,776
Percent Change Over
Previous Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Figure 3 graphically compares total spending and economic impacts
from 2015 to 2025. There are high growth rates for both spending
and total economic impact in the first three years (2015-2017) but
both spending and total economic impact growth are expected to
decrease to 5% in 2018 and level off at 5% through 2025.
impact by agriculture, $3.2 billion by public safety and $3.2 billion
by other activities;
• The manufacturing jobs created will be high paying ($40,000) and
require technical baccalaureate degrees; and
• In the first three years, U.S. airspace integration will create more
than 34,000 manufacturing jobs and more than 70,000 new jobs.
This study demonstrates the significant contribution of UAS integration to the economic growth and job creation in the aerospace
industry and to the social and economic progress of the citizens in the
United States.
Direct employment and total employment impact from 2015 to
2025 are compared in Figure 4. There are high growth rates for both
direct and total employment impacts in the first three years (20152017) to approximately 100% and 50% in 2016 and 2017, respectively. The growth rate of both direct employment and total employment impacts are expected to decrease to 5% in 2018 and level off at
5% through 2025.
Conclusion
UAS integration into the NAS is expected to have enormous economic and job creation impacts in the United States. These impacts
have been demonstrated to be due to direct, indirect and induced
effects of total spending in UAS development. The results of these
economic impacts are as follows:
During the 11-year period 2015-2025:
• UAS integration is expected to contribute $82.1 billion to the nation’s economy by agriculture, public safety and other activities;
• 103,776 new jobs will be created, with 844,741 job years worked
over the time period;
• UAS integration is expected to contribute $75.6 billion economic
20
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Appendix A
Sato, Akira (2011, October). Civil UAV Applications in Japan and Related Safety & Certification. Presented at the 1st
Annual Agricultural UAS Conference: Precision Agriculture, Atlanta, GA.
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
21
Appendix B
State Level Detailed Economic Impact
22
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Alabama Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
259
518
777
816
856
899
944
991
1041
1093
1148
503
1007
1510
1585
1665
1748
1835
1927
2023
2125
2231
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$25.70
$51.39
$77.09
$80.94
$84.99
$89.24
$93.70
$98.38
$103.30
$108.47
$113.89
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$48.93
$97.86
$146.80
$154.14
$161.84
$169.93
$178.43
$187.35
$196.72
$206.56
$216.88
Alaska Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$404.65
$809.31
$1,213.96
$1,274.66
$1,338.39
$1,405.31
$1,475.58
$1,549.35
$1,626.82
$1,708.16
$1,793.57
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
16
33
49
52
54
57
60
63
66
69
73
Arizona Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
494
989
1483
1557
1635
1717
1803
1893
1988
2087
2191
961
1922
2883
3027
3179
3338
3504
3680
3864
4057
4260
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$47.19
$94.37
$141.56
$148.64
$156.07
$163.87
$172.07
$180.67
$189.70
$199.19
$209.15
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$93.43
$186.86
$280.29
$294.30
$309.02
$324.47
$340.69
$357.73
$375.61
$394.39
$414.11
23
32
64
95
100
105
110
116
122
128
134
141
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$1.66
$3.32
$4.98
$5.23
$5.49
$5.77
$6.06
$6.36
$6.68
$7.01
$7.36
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$3.09
$6.18
$9.28
$9.74
$10.23
$10.74
$11.28
$11.84
$12.43
$13.05
$13.71
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Arkansas Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$430.90
$861.80
$1,292.70
$1,357.34
$1,425.20
$1,496.46
$1,571.29
$1,649.85
$1,732.34
$1,818.96
$1,909.91
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
71
141
212
222
233
245
257
270
284
298
313
137
274
411
432
453
476
500
525
551
579
608
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$7.12
$14.24
$21.36
$22.43
$23.55
$24.73
$25.96
$27.26
$28.62
$30.06
$31.56
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$13.33
$26.65
$39.98
$41.98
$44.08
$46.28
$48.60
$51.03
$53.58
$56.26
$59.07
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$155.99
$311.99
$467.98
$491.38
$515.95
$541.75
$568.83
$597.28
$627.14
$658.50
$691.42
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
California Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
2108
4216
6324
6640
6972
7321
7687
8071
8475
8898
9343
4097
8195
12292
12907
13552
14230
14941
15688
16472
17296
18161
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$179.89
$359.78
$539.68
$566.66
$594.99
$624.74
$655.98
$688.78
$723.22
$759.38
$797.35
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$398.34
$796.67
$1,195.01
$1,254.76
$1,317.49
$1,383.37
$1,452.54
$1,525.16
$1,601.42
$1,681.49
$1,765.57
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$2,273.52
$4,547.03
$6,820.55
$7,161.58
$7,519.66
$7,895.64
$8,290.42
$8,704.95
$9,140.19
$9,597.20
$10,077.06
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Colorado Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
204
408
613
643
675
709
745
782
821
862
905
Connecticut Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
474
948
1422
1493
1568
1646
1729
1815
1906
2001
2101
921
1843
2764
2903
3048
3200
3360
3528
3705
3890
4084
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$45.71
$91.42
$137.13
$143.99
$151.19
$158.75
$166.69
$175.02
$183.77
$192.96
$202.61
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$89.58
$179.17
$268.75
$282.19
$296.30
$311.12
$326.67
$343.01
$360.16
$378.16
$397.07
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
397
794
1191
1251
1313
1379
1448
1520
1596
1676
1760
$20.43
$40.86
$61.28
$64.35
$67.57
$70.94
$74.49
$78.22
$82.13
$86.23
$90.54
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$38.59
$77.19
$115.78
$121.57
$127.65
$134.03
$140.74
$147.77
$155.16
$162.92
$171.07
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$298.24
$596.48
$894.73
$939.46
$986.43
$1,035.76
$1,087.54
$1,141.92
$1,199.02
$1,258.97
$1,321.92
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Delaware Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$719.86
$1,439.72
$2,159.58
$2,267.56
$2,380.93
$2,499.98
$2,624.98
$2,756.23
$2,894.04
$3,038.74
$3,190.68
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
15
30
45
48
50
53
55
58
61
64
67
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
29
59
88
93
97
102
107
113
118
124
131
$1.54
$3.08
$4.62
$4.85
$5.09
$5.35
$5.61
$5.89
$6.19
$6.50
$6.82
24
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$2.86
$5.73
$8.59
$9.02
$9.47
$9.94
$10.44
$10.96
$11.51
$12.08
$12.69
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$26.86
$53.73
$80.59
$84.62
$88.85
$93.30
$97.96
$102.86
$108.00
$113.40
$119.07
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Florida Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
557
1115
1672
1756
1844
1936
2033
2135
2241
2353
2471
1084
2167
3251
3414
3584
3763
3952
4149
4357
4574
4803
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$54.09
$108.18
$162.27
$170.38
$178.90
$187.85
$197.24
$207.10
$217.46
$228.33
$239.75
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$105.35
$210.70
$316.05
$331.86
$348.45
$365.87
$384.16
$403.37
$423.54
$444.72
$466.95
Georgia Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
334
668
1003
1053
1106
1161
1219
1280
1344
1411
1481
650
1299
1949
2047
2149
2256
2369
2488
2612
2743
2880
Hawaii Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
28
57
85
90
94
99
104
109
114
120
126
55
111
166
174
183
192
202
212
222
234
245
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$2.89
$5.78
$8.67
$9.11
$9.56
$10.04
$10.54
$11.07
$11.62
$12.20
$12.81
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$5.38
$10.76
$16.14
$16.94
$17.79
$18.68
$19.61
$20.59
$21.62
$22.70
$23.84
25
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$32.87
$65.74
$98.61
$103.54
$108.72
$114.16
$119.86
$125.86
$132.15
$138.76
$145.70
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$63.16
$126.33
$189.49
$198.97
$208.92
$219.36
$230.33
$241.85
$253.94
$266.64
$279.97
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$619.23
$1,238.46
$1,857.69
$1,950.57
$2,048.10
$2,150.51
$2,258.03
$2,370.94
$2,489.48
$2,613.96
$2,744.65
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Idaho Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$65.11
$130.22
$195.33
$205.09
$215.35
$226.12
$237.42
$249.29
$261.76
$274.84
$288.59
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
26
51
77
80
84
89
93
98
103
108
113
50
99
149
156
164
172
181
190
199
209
220
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$2.59
$5.18
$7.78
$8.17
$8.57
$9.00
$9.45
$9.93
$10.42
$10.94
$11.49
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$4.82
$9.64
$14.47
$15.19
$15.95
$16.75
$17.58
$18.46
$19.39
$20.36
$21.37
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$59.97
$119.93
$179.90
$188.89
$198.34
$208.26
$218.67
$229.60
$241.08
$253.14
$265.79
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Illinois Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
180
360
539
566
595
624
656
688
723
759
797
350
699
1049
1101
1156
1214
1274
1338
1405
1475
1549
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$18.12
$36.24
$54.36
$57.08
$59.94
$62.93
$66.08
$69.38
$72.85
$76.50
$80.32
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$33.98
$67.96
$101.93
$107.03
$112.38
$118.00
$123.90
$130.10
$136.60
$143.43
$150.60
Indiana Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$285.38
$570.76
$856.13
$898.94
$943.89
$991.08
$1,040.64
$1,092.67
$1,147.30
$1,204.67
$1,264.90
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
183
366
549
576
605
636
667
701
736
773
811
356
711
1067
1121
1177
1235
1297
1362
1430
1502
1577
Iowa Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
140
280
420
441
464
487
511
537
563
592
621
272
545
817
858
901
946
994
1043
1095
1150
1208
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$14.25
$28.50
$42.75
$44.88
$47.13
$49.48
$51.96
$54.56
$57.28
$60.15
$63.16
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$26.49
$52.97
$79.46
$83.44
$87.61
$91.99
$96.59
$101.42
$106.49
$111.81
$117.40
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$18.35
$36.69
$55.04
$57.79
$60.68
$63.72
$66.90
$70.25
$73.76
$77.45
$81.32
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$34.58
$69.17
$103.75
$108.94
$114.39
$120.11
$126.11
$132.42
$139.04
$145.99
$153.29
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$197.47
$394.93
$592.40
$622.02
$653.12
$685.77
$720.06
$756.06
$793.87
$833.56
$875.24
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Kansas Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$153.36
$306.72
$460.08
$483.08
$507.24
$532.60
$559.23
$587.19
$616.55
$647.38
$679.75
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
431
863
1294
1359
1426
1498
1573
1651
1734
1821
1912
838
1677
2515
2641
2773
2911
3057
3210
3370
3539
3716
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$41.18
$82.36
$123.54
$129.72
$136.20
$143.01
$150.16
$157.67
$165.55
$173.83
$182.52
26
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$81.50
$163.01
$244.51
$256.73
$269.57
$283.05
$297.20
$312.06
$327.66
$344.05
$361.25
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$807.44
$1,614.89
$2,422.33
$2,543.45
$2,670.62
$2,804.15
$2,944.36
$3,091.58
$3,246.16
$3,408.47
$3,578.89
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Kentucky Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
79
157
236
248
260
273
287
301
316
332
349
153
306
459
482
506
531
558
586
615
646
678
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$7.96
$15.92
$23.88
$25.08
$26.33
$27.65
$29.03
$30.48
$32.00
$33.60
$35.28
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$14.87
$29.74
$44.61
$46.84
$49.19
$51.65
$54.23
$56.94
$59.79
$62.78
$65.92
Louisiana Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$149.97
$299.93
$449.90
$472.39
$496.01
$520.81
$546.85
$574.19
$602.90
$633.05
$664.70
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
188
376
564
592
622
653
686
720
756
794
833
Maine Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
94
188
282
296
311
326
343
360
378
397
417
183
365
548
576
604
635
666
700
735
771
810
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$9.56
$19.12
$28.68
$30.11
$31.62
$33.20
$34.86
$36.60
$38.43
$40.35
$42.37
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$17.76
$35.53
$53.29
$55.96
$58.76
$61.69
$64.78
$68.02
$71.42
$74.99
$78.74
27
366
731
1097
1151
1209
1269
1333
1400
1470
1543
1620
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$19.02
$38.04
$57.06
$59.91
$62.91
$66.05
$69.36
$72.82
$76.46
$80.29
$84.30
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$35.54
$71.07
$106.61
$111.94
$117.54
$123.41
$129.58
$136.06
$142.87
$150.01
$157.51
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$240.37
$480.75
$721.12
$757.18
$795.04
$834.79
$876.53
$920.35
$966.37
$1,014.69
$1,065.42
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Maryland Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$209.43
$418.86
$628.29
$659.71
$692.69
$727.33
$763.70
$801.88
$841.97
$884.07
$928.28
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
296
592
888
932
979
1028
1079
1133
1190
1249
1311
575
1150
1725
1812
1902
1997
2097
2202
2312
2428
2549
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$29.33
$58.67
$88.00
$92.40
$97.02
$101.87
$106.97
$112.31
$117.93
$123.83
$130.02
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$55.91
$111.83
$167.74
$176.13
$184.93
$194.18
$203.89
$214.08
$224.79
$236.02
$247.83
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$439.20
$878.39
$1,317.59
$1,383.46
$1,452.64
$1,525.27
$1,601.53
$1,681.61
$1,765.69
$1,853.98
$1,946.67
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Massachusetts Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
340
681
1021
1072
1126
1182
1241
1303
1369
1437
1509
662
1323
1985
2084
2189
2298
2413
2534
2660
2793
2933
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$33.61
$67.21
$100.82
$105.86
$111.16
$116.71
$122.55
$128.68
$135.11
$141.87
$148.96
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$64.33
$128.66
$192.99
$202.64
$212.77
$223.41
$234.58
$246.31
$258.63
$271.56
$285.14
Michigan Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$560.47
$1,120.95
$1,681.42
$1,765.49
$1,853.76
$1,946.45
$2,043.78
$2,145.96
$2,253.26
$2,365.93
$2,484.22
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
165
331
496
521
547
575
603
633
665
698
733
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
125
250
375
394
414
435
456
479
503
528
555
243
487
730
766
805
845
887
931
978
1027
1078
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$12.66
$25.32
$37.99
$39.88
$41.88
$43.97
$46.17
$48.48
$50.90
$53.45
$56.12
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$23.65
$47.30
$70.95
$74.49
$78.22
$82.13
$86.24
$90.55
$95.07
$99.83
$104.82
$16.68
$33.36
$50.04
$52.54
$55.16
$57.92
$60.82
$63.86
$67.05
$70.40
$73.92
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$31.27
$62.54
$93.81
$98.50
$103.42
$108.59
$114.02
$119.72
$125.71
$131.99
$138.59
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$228.98
$457.95
$686.93
$721.28
$757.34
$795.21
$834.97
$876.71
$920.55
$966.58
$1,014.91
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Mississippi Economic Impact
Minnesota Economic Impact
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
322
643
965
1013
1064
1117
1173
1231
1293
1358
1426
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$279.35
$558.70
$838.05
$879.95
$923.95
$970.15
$1,018.66
$1,069.59
$1,123.07
$1,179.22
$1,238.18
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
143
285
428
450
472
496
520
546
574
602
633
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
277
555
832
874
918
963
1012
1062
1115
1171
1230
$14.48
$28.97
$43.45
$45.62
$47.90
$50.30
$52.81
$55.46
$58.23
$61.14
$64.20
28
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$26.97
$53.94
$80.91
$84.95
$89.20
$93.66
$98.35
$103.26
$108.43
$113.85
$119.54
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$183.05
$366.09
$549.14
$576.59
$605.42
$635.69
$667.48
$700.85
$735.90
$772.69
$811.33
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Montana Economic Impact
Missouri Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
230
459
689
723
759
797
837
879
923
969
1017
446
892
1338
1405
1476
1549
1627
1708
1794
1883
1978
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$22.75
$45.50
$68.26
$71.67
$75.25
$79.02
$82.97
$87.12
$91.47
$96.05
$100.85
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$43.38
$86.75
$130.13
$136.63
$143.46
$150.64
$158.17
$166.08
$174.38
$183.10
$192.26
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$287.55
$575.10
$862.65
$905.79
$951.07
$998.63
$1,048.56
$1,100.99
$1,156.04
$1,213.84
$1,274.53
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
13
25
38
40
42
44
46
48
51
53
56
25
49
74
77
81
85
89
94
99
103
109
Nebraska Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
22
44
66
69
73
76
80
84
88
93
97
43
85
128
134
141
148
155
163
171
180
189
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$2.23
$4.46
$6.68
$7.02
$7.37
$7.74
$8.12
$8.53
$8.96
$9.40
$9.87
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$4.14
$8.29
$12.43
$13.05
$13.70
$14.39
$15.11
$15.86
$16.66
$17.49
$18.37
29
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$1.28
$2.56
$3.84
$4.04
$4.24
$4.45
$4.67
$4.91
$5.15
$5.41
$5.68
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$2.38
$4.76
$7.15
$7.50
$7.88
$8.27
$8.69
$9.12
$9.58
$10.06
$10.56
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$25.33
$50.66
$75.98
$79.78
$83.77
$87.96
$92.36
$96.98
$101.82
$106.92
$112.26
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Nevada Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$35.91
$71.82
$107.73
$113.11
$118.77
$124.71
$130.94
$137.49
$144.37
$151.58
$159.16
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
34
67
101
106
111
117
123
129
135
142
149
65
131
196
206
216
227
238
250
263
276
290
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$3.41
$6.81
$10.22
$10.73
$11.27
$11.83
$12.42
$13.04
$13.69
$14.38
$15.10
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$6.36
$12.72
$19.08
$20.03
$21.03
$22.08
$23.19
$24.35
$25.56
$26.84
$28.18
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
New Hampshire Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
75
151
226
237
249
262
275
288
303
318
334
146
293
439
461
484
508
534
561
589
618
649
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$7.65
$15.29
$22.94
$24.09
$25.29
$26.56
$27.89
$29.28
$30.75
$32.28
$33.90
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$14.23
$28.47
$42.70
$44.84
$47.08
$49.43
$51.90
$54.50
$57.22
$60.08
$63.09
New Jersey Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
232
464
696
731
767
806
846
888
933
979
1028
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
89
178
266
280
294
308
324
340
357
375
394
173
345
518
544
571
600
630
661
694
729
765
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$9.00
$18.01
$27.01
$28.36
$29.78
$31.27
$32.83
$34.47
$36.19
$38.00
$39.90
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$16.78
$33.57
$50.35
$52.87
$55.51
$58.29
$61.20
$64.26
$67.47
$70.85
$74.39
$23.21
$46.43
$69.64
$73.13
$76.78
$80.62
$84.65
$88.89
$93.33
$98.00
$102.90
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$43.84
$87.67
$131.51
$138.08
$144.99
$152.24
$159.85
$167.84
$176.23
$185.05
$194.30
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$540.55
$1,081.10
$1,621.65
$1,702.74
$1,787.87
$1,877.27
$1,971.13
$2,069.69
$2,173.17
$2,281.83
$2,395.92
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
New York Economic Impact
New Mexico Economic Impact
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
451
902
1353
1420
1491
1566
1644
1726
1813
1903
1999
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$122.20
$244.40
$366.60
$384.93
$404.18
$424.39
$445.60
$467.89
$491.28
$515.84
$541.64
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
390
781
1171
1229
1291
1355
1423
1494
1569
1648
1730
759
1517
2276
2390
2509
2635
2766
2905
3050
3203
3363
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$38.45
$76.89
$115.34
$121.11
$127.16
$133.52
$140.20
$147.21
$154.57
$162.29
$170.41
30
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$73.76
$147.51
$221.27
$232.33
$243.95
$256.14
$268.95
$282.40
$296.52
$311.35
$326.91
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$777.49
$1,554.98
$2,332.46
$2,449.09
$2,571.54
$2,700.12
$2,835.12
$2,976.88
$3,125.73
$3,282.01
$3,446.11
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
North Dakota Economic Impact
North Carolina Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
135
269
404
424
445
467
491
515
541
568
597
262
523
785
824
865
909
954
1002
1052
1105
1160
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$13.59
$27.19
$40.78
$42.82
$44.97
$47.21
$49.57
$52.05
$54.66
$57.39
$60.26
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$25.44
$50.88
$76.31
$80.13
$84.13
$88.34
$92.76
$97.40
$102.27
$107.38
$112.75
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$297.86
$595.71
$893.57
$938.25
$985.16
$1,034.42
$1,086.14
$1,140.44
$1,197.47
$1,257.34
$1,320.21
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
12
24
37
38
40
42
45
47
49
52
54
Ohio Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
316
633
949
996
1046
1098
1153
1211
1272
1335
1402
615
1230
1844
1937
2033
2135
2242
2354
2472
2595
2725
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$31.25
$62.49
$93.74
$98.42
$103.34
$108.51
$113.94
$119.63
$125.62
$131.90
$138.49
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$59.77
$119.54
$179.31
$188.27
$197.69
$207.57
$217.95
$228.85
$240.29
$252.30
$264.92
31
24
47
71
75
79
82
87
91
95
100
105
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$1.24
$2.48
$3.73
$3.91
$4.11
$4.31
$4.53
$4.76
$4.99
$5.24
$5.51
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$2.31
$4.62
$6.93
$7.27
$7.64
$8.02
$8.42
$8.84
$9.28
$9.75
$10.23
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$11.11
$22.22
$33.33
$35.00
$36.75
$38.58
$40.51
$42.54
$44.66
$46.90
$49.24
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Oklahoma Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$404.63
$809.26
$1,213.89
$1,274.59
$1,338.32
$1,405.23
$1,475.50
$1,549.27
$1,626.73
$1,708.07
$1,793.47
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
93
187
280
294
309
324
341
358
375
394
414
182
363
545
572
600
631
662
695
730
766
805
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$9.41
$18.82
$28.24
$29.65
$31.13
$32.69
$34.32
$36.04
$37.84
$39.73
$41.72
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$17.65
$35.30
$52.95
$55.60
$58.38
$61.30
$64.36
$67.58
$70.96
$74.51
$78.23
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$155.51
$311.02
$466.53
$489.85
$514.35
$540.06
$567.07
$595.42
$625.19
$656.45
$689.27
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Oregon Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
71
143
214
225
236
248
260
273
287
301
316
139
277
416
437
459
481
506
531
557
585
614
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$7.21
$14.43
$21.64
$22.72
$23.86
$25.05
$26.30
$27.62
$29.00
$30.45
$31.97
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$13.48
$26.96
$40.43
$42.46
$44.58
$46.81
$49.15
$51.61
$54.19
$56.90
$59.74
Pennsylvania Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$68.59
$137.18
$205.77
$216.06
$226.86
$238.20
$250.11
$262.62
$275.75
$289.54
$304.01
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
347
693
1040
1092
1146
1203
1264
1327
1393
1463
1536
Rhode Island Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
37
74
111
117
123
129
135
142
149
157
165
72
144
217
227
239
251
263
276
290
305
320
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$3.77
$7.53
$11.30
$11.86
$12.46
$13.08
$13.73
$14.42
$15.14
$15.90
$16.69
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$7.02
$14.04
$21.06
$22.11
$23.22
$24.38
$25.60
$26.88
$28.22
$29.63
$31.12
674
1347
2021
2122
2228
2339
2456
2579
2708
2843
2986
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$34.53
$69.06
$103.60
$108.77
$114.21
$119.92
$125.92
$132.22
$138.83
$145.77
$153.06
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$65.49
$130.97
$196.46
$206.28
$216.59
$227.42
$238.80
$250.74
$263.27
$276.44
$290.26
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$335.94
$671.88
$1,007.82
$1,058.21
$1,111.12
$1,166.67
$1,225.01
$1,286.26
$1,350.57
$1,418.10
$1,489.00
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
South Carolina Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$63.33
$126.65
$189.98
$199.48
$209.45
$219.92
$230.92
$242.46
$254.59
$267.32
$280.68
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
87
174
261
274
288
302
317
333
350
367
385
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
169
338
507
532
559
587
616
647
679
713
749
$8.84
$17.68
$26.52
$27.85
$29.24
$30.70
$32.24
$33.85
$35.54
$37.32
$39.18
32
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$16.43
$32.86
$49.29
$51.75
$54.34
$57.06
$59.91
$62.91
$66.05
$69.35
$72.82
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$193.68
$387.36
$581.04
$610.09
$640.60
$672.63
$706.26
$741.57
$778.65
$817.58
$858.46
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
South Dakota Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
8
16
25
26
27
28
30
31
33
35
36
16
32
48
50
53
55
58
61
64
67
71
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$0.83
$1.66
$2.49
$2.62
$2.75
$2.88
$3.03
$3.18
$3.34
$3.50
$3.68
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$1.55
$3.10
$4.65
$4.88
$5.13
$5.38
$5.65
$5.94
$6.23
$6.54
$6.87
Tennessee Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
99
198
297
312
328
344
361
379
398
418
439
193
385
578
606
637
669
702
737
774
813
853
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
958
1916
2875
3018
3169
3328
3494
3669
3852
4045
4247
1863
3725
5588
5867
6161
6469
6792
7132
7488
7863
8256
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$96.15
$192.30
$288.44
$302.87
$318.01
$333.91
$350.61
$368.14
$386.54
$405.87
$426.16
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$181.08
$362.17
$543.25
$570.42
$598.94
$628.89
$660.33
$693.35
$728.01
$764.41
$802.63
33
$9.20
$18.40
$27.61
$28.99
$30.43
$31.96
$33.55
$35.23
$36.99
$38.84
$40.79
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$18.72
$37.44
$56.15
$58.96
$61.91
$65.01
$68.26
$71.67
$75.25
$79.02
$82.97
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Utah Economic Impact
Texas Economic Impact
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
126
252
378
397
417
437
459
482
506
532
558
245
490
735
771
810
850
893
938
984
1034
1085
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$12.79
$25.57
$38.36
$40.27
$42.29
$44.40
$46.62
$48.95
$51.40
$53.97
$56.67
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$23.81
$47.61
$71.42
$74.99
$78.74
$82.67
$86.81
$91.15
$95.70
$100.49
$105.51
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$201.35
$402.69
$604.04
$634.24
$665.95
$699.25
$734.21
$770.92
$809.47
$849.94
$892.44
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Vermont Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
31
63
94
99
104
109
115
121
127
133
140
61
122
184
193
202
212
223
234
246
258
271
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$3.20
$6.40
$9.61
$10.09
$10.59
$11.12
$11.68
$12.26
$12.87
$13.52
$14.19
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$5.95
$11.90
$17.84
$18.74
$19.67
$20.66
$21.69
$22.78
$23.91
$25.11
$26.37
Virginia Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$77.97
$155.94
$233.91
$245.61
$257.89
$270.78
$284.32
$298.54
$313.47
$329.14
$345.60
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
408
816
1225
1286
1350
1418
1489
1563
1641
1723
1809
Washington Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
1157
2314
3470
3644
3826
4017
4218
4429
4651
4883
5127
2249
4497
6746
7083
7438
7809
8200
8610
9040
9492
9967
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$102.88
$205.76
$308.63
$324.06
$340.27
$357.28
$375.14
$393.90
$413.60
$434.28
$455.99
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$218.61
$437.23
$655.84
$688.64
$723.07
$759.22
$797.18
$837.04
$878.89
$922.84
$968.98
793
1587
2380
2499
2624
2756
2893
3038
3190
3349
3517
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$41.21
$82.41
$123.62
$129.80
$136.29
$143.11
$150.26
$157.77
$165.66
$173.95
$182.64
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$77.14
$154.28
$231.42
$242.99
$255.14
$267.89
$281.29
$295.35
$310.12
$325.63
$341.91
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$744.50
$1,489.00
$2,233.51
$2,345.18
$2,462.44
$2,585.56
$2,714.84
$2,850.58
$2,993.11
$3,142.77
$3,299.90
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
West Virginia Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
41
82
123
129
136
143
150
157
165
174
182
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
80
160
240
252
264
278
291
306
321
337
354
$4.16
$8.33
$12.49
$13.11
$13.77
$14.46
$15.18
$15.94
$16.74
$17.57
$18.45
34
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$7.77
$15.54
$23.31
$24.47
$25.70
$26.98
$28.33
$29.75
$31.23
$32.79
$34.43
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$78.42
$156.84
$235.26
$247.03
$259.38
$272.35
$285.96
$300.26
$315.28
$331.04
$347.59
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
Wisconsin Economic Impact
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
77
154
232
243
255
268
282
296
310
326
342
150
300
450
473
497
521
547
575
604
634
665
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
$7.83
$15.66
$23.49
$24.66
$25.89
$27.19
$28.55
$29.98
$31.47
$33.05
$34.70
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
Wyoming Economic Impact
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$14.59
$29.19
$43.78
$45.97
$48.27
$50.69
$53.22
$55.88
$58.67
$61.61
$64.69
$159.52
$319.05
$478.57
$502.50
$527.62
$554.01
$581.71
$610.79
$641.33
$673.40
$707.07
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Year
Total
Direct
Employment
Employment
Impact
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
4
8
12
13
14
14
15
16
17
18
18
8
16
24
25
27
28
29
31
32
34
36
Total Direct
Spending ($M)
Total Economic
Impact ($M)
$0.42
$0.85
$1.27
$1.33
$1.40
$1.47
$1.54
$1.62
$1.70
$1.78
$1.87
** Some states have zero tax revenue, because those states do not have a state income tax.
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AUVSI Economic Report 2013
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http://www.auvsi.org/econreport
$0.79
$1.57
$2.36
$2.47
$2.60
$2.73
$2.86
$3.01
$3.16
$3.32
$3.48
Total State
Taxes ($K)
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
Percent
Change Over
Previous
Year
100%
50%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
References
36
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
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Users Guide, Analysis Guide, Data Guide IMPLAN Professional
Version 2.0. IMPLAN Group Inc.
AUVSI FAST FACTS
MISSION
The mission of AUVSI is to advance the unmanned systems and
robotics community through education, advocacy and leadership.
MEMBERS
AUVSI represents more than 7,000 individual members and more
than 600 corporate members from 60+ allied countries involved in
the fields of government, industry and academia. AUVSI members
work in the defense, civil and commercial markets.
AUVSI ACTIVITIES
EVENTS
• AUVSI’s Unmanned Systems Conference and Exhibition –
More than 8,000 attendees and 600+ exhibitors from more than 40
countries and an average annual growth rate of 20% make this the
leading event for the global unmanned systems and robotics marketplace. www.auvsishow.org
• AUVSI’s Unmanned Systems Program Review – Providing
the latest information on government and industry programs for
ground, air and maritime systems, this annual event is one of the
most important to the unmanned systems community. This is one
event where business happens.
• Networking Events – AUVSI hosts meetings and events worldwide, providing education and networking opportunities for key industry leaders, including AUVSI’s Driverless Car Summit.
ADVOCACY
AUVSI works with its membership to shape policy by advocating
on behalf of the unmanned systems industry, monitoring legislation
and assessing the impact of the industry. AUVSI plays a key role in
addressing critical industry issues, such as National Airspace Access,
Frequency Spectrum (GPS), NextGen/SESAR, Coalition Building
and First Responder Grants. AUVSI works to influence legislation,
including the FAA Reauthorization, Transportation Bill, DOD Reauthorization and Homeland Security Reauthorization.
EDUCATION CAMPAIGN
AUVSI is working hard to change the public perception of the unmanned systems and robotics industry through promotion of our
members and the endless applications and benefits of their systems.
Part of this campaign includes a public website:
www.increasinghumanpotential.org.
PUBLICATIONS
• Print - Unmanned Systems magazine – A monthly magazine providing current industry news, trends and emerging developments;
Unmanned Systems: Mission Critical – A quarterly supplement dedicated to unmanned systems sectors that, once tapped, will change
the way the world works.
• Electronic – AUVSI’s Unmanned Systems eBrief – A weekly electronic newsletter that includes the latest global industry and association news and information; Flight Unmanned – A biweekly electronic publication of the association for AUVSI members.
ONLINE CAREER CENTER
A leading resource for job-seekers and employers in the unmanned
systems and robotics market.
KNOWLEDGE RESOURCES
Through its knowledge services AUVSI promotes vision, intellectual
leadership and education in unmanned systems. AUVSI’s Knowledge
Vault provides AUVSI members a one-stop shop for all AUVSI event
proceedings and publications.
AUVSI FOUNDATION
The AUVSI Foundation is a tax-exempt 501(c)3 public charity established to support educational initiatives such as AUVSI’s Youth
Education Program, discussion groups, forums and other programs.
The foundation has provided more than $500,000 to educational
programs worldwide. Each year, the AUVSI Foundation hosts and
sponsors competitions to challenge students to design, build and deploy autonomous air, ground and maritime systems.
CONTACT US
2700 SOUTH QUINCY STREET
SUITE 400
ARLINGTON VA 22206 USA
+1 703 845 9671
[email protected]
WWW.AUVSI.ORG
38
AUVSI Economic Report 2013
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