BRO394_12.pdf

Applications
• WiMAX, WCDMA,
and LTE base station
receivers
Ultra Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs)
• WLAN enterprise
access point receivers
Select LNAs Available from Stock for Prototype or High-Volume Production
• GPS receivers
Skyworks Solutions offers a select group of ultra low noise, high linearity low noise
amplifiers which are in stock and ready for immediate design into your demanding
applications.
• Public safety radios
• Test and measurement
instrumentation
• ISM band receivers
• Military
communications
• Smart energy
Features
• Excellent noise figure,
as low as 0.50 dB
• High third order
intercept
• Excellent stability
• Small form factor
packages
• Broadband designs
• Low supply current
• High efficiency
• Flat gain response
• Single and two stage
designs
Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor (pHEMT)
Linear LNAs
The ultra low noise SKY67100, SKY67101, and SKY67102 are part of a LNA family
which cover a frequency range from 400–2800 MHz, using a common package and
application layout. The cascode architecture of these devices yields excellent linearity,
bandwidth, and super low noise figure with high efficiency. Typical bias conditions are
VDD = 4 V and IDS = 55 mA to produce 17 dB gain across the 400–2800 MHz band. A key
attribute of these devices is their high active reverse isolation which results in easy input
and output impedance matching, and unconditional stability up to 18 GHz and beyond.
Additionally, these devices feature fully integrated active bias circuitry requiring only a
single positive supply voltage, resulting in a minimal number of external components.
For less demanding applications, the low cost and lower gain SKY67014-396LF features
noise figure <1.0 dB, 12 dB gain, 15 dBm OP1 dB, yet draws only 5 mA of current with
3.3 V supply. An OIP3 of 26 dBm @ 2.5 GHz is achievable with 15 mA supply current.
Integrated active bias circuitry reduces external matching requirements and enables a wide
supply voltage range of 1.8 to 5 V and operation over a broad 1500–3000 MHz frequency
range. For lower frequency operation with similar performance attributes, Skyworks now
offers the SKY67012-396LF (300–600 MHZ) and the SKY67013-396LF (600–1500 MHz).
All these parts are ideal for use in high sensitivity battery-operated receivers.
The higher linearity SKY6700X family consists of three devices which cover a frequency
range of 700–3000 MHz. These cascode pHEMT devices are essentially higher power
versions of the SKY67101, SKY67100, and SKY67102 devices with the addition of a low
current power down pin. Using larger FET devices, these parts are ideal for operating in
high temperature environments up to +100 °C and provide OIP3 > 39 dBm.
The high gain SKY67105, SKY67106, and SKY67107
devices utilize the best properties of low noise pHEMT
input stages and inGap HBT or pHEMT output stages
to obtain excellent noise figure and efficient linearity.
These two stage designs achieve outstanding isolation
and stability with high gain of roughly 35 dB. With
their extremely high reverse isolation, these devices are
unconditionally stable to 24 GHz and beyond.
Applications include high performance cellular
infrastructure base station receivers for GSM, WCDMA,
and LTE modulation schemes, as well as any other high
performance LNA application in the 300–3000 MHz
frequency range. These devices come packaged in a
2 x 2 mm, 8-pin, plastic DFN package or a 4 x 4 mm,
16-pin QFN package which offers excellent thermal
performance.
Our amplifier solutions leverage the extensive design
knowledge, technical leadership, manufacturing
expertise, and superior quality of Skyworks. A select list of
Skyworks’ LNAs are provided in Table 1. Evaluation boards
are also available.
Our application engineering team is ready to assist you
with your design efforts. Application notes and block
diagrams are available on Skyworks’ Web site,
www.skyworksinc.com.
WiFi LNAs
Skyworks offers a broad portfolio of LNAs supporting
multiple WiFi markets, ranging from access points,
gateways, and routers to smart phones and tablets. With
industry-leading low noise figures in the 5 GHz band, the
SKY65404-31 is a small form-factor, highly-integrated
LNA ideal for applications requiring excellent receiver
sensitivity. The corresponding device for the 2.4 GHz
frequency band is the SKY65405-21, with a matched
noise figure of 1.1 dB. Both are packaged in a
1.5 x 1.5 x 0.45 mm QFN package, and require a minimal
number of external components, enabling ease-of-use
and a fast time-to-market.
Table 1. Select LNAs for Cellular Infrastructure, GPS, Broadband, ISM Band, and WLAN Applications
Part Number
New Products
Application
Frequency
Range
(GHz)
Test
Frequency
(MHz)
Gain
(dB)
NF
(dB)
OIP3
(dBm)
OP1 dB
(dBm)
VDD (V)
(Operating
Range)
IDD (mA)
(Operating
Range)
Package
(mm)
SKY67101-396LF
Cellular
Infrastructure
0.4–1.2
900
17.5
0.50
34.0
19.0
4
(3.3–5.0)
56
(20–90)
DFN 8L
2 x 2 x 0.75
SKY67100-396LF
Cellular
Infrastructure
1.2–2.3
1950
17.5
0.70
34.0
18.5
4
(3.3–5.0)
56
(20–90)
DFN 8L
2 x 2 x 0.75
SKY67102-396LF
Cellular
Infrastructure
2.0–3.0
2600
17.2
0.80
33.8
15.0
4
(3.3–5.0)
50
(20–90)
DFN 8L
2 x 2 x 0.75
SKY67001-396LF
Cellular
Infrastructure
0.6–1.2
900
17.5
0.60
40.5
21.0
5
(3.3–5.0)
100
(50–120)
DFN 8L
2 x 2 x 0.75
SKY67002-396LF
Cellular
Infrastructure
1.6–2.1
1850
17.5
0.65
39.5
20.0
5
(3.3–5.0)
95
(50–120)
DFN 8L
2 x 2 x 0.75
SKY67003-396LF
Cellular
Infrastructure
2.0–3.0
2600
17.5
0.88
39.0
19.7
5
(3.3–5.0)
100
(50–120)
DFN 8L
2 x 2 x 0.75
SKY67105-306LF
Cellular
Infrastructure
0.6–1.1
850
37.0
0.70
41.0
26.0
5
(3.5–5.0)
138
(120–155)
QFN 16L
4 x 4 x 0.90
SKY67106-306LF
Cellular
Infrastructure
1.5–3.0
1950
35.0
0.65
37.0
24.0
5
(3.5–5.0)
100
(80–125)
QFN 16L
4 x 4 x 0.90
SKY67107-306LF
Cellular
Infrastructure
2.3–2.8
2600
32.0
0.85
37.5
18.5
5
(3.5–5.0)
125
(50–145)
QFN 16L
4 x 4 0.75
SKY67012-396LF
General
Purpose
0.3–0.6
450
16.5
0.85
24.0
14.0
3.3
(1.8–5.0)
15
(5–30)
DFN 8L
2 x 2 x 0.75
SKY67013-396LF
General
Purpose
0.6–1.5
900
14.0
0.85
26.0
15.5
3.3
(1.8–5.0)
15
(5–30)
DFN 8L
2 x 2 x 0.75
SKY67014-396LF
General
Purpose
1.5–3.0
2450
12.0
0.95
18.0
6.0
3.3
(1.8–5.0)
5
(5–30)
DFN 8L
2 x 2 x 0.75
SKY65404-31
5.8 GHz
WLAN and
ISM Band
4.9–5.9
5800
13.0
1.20
20.0
9.0
3.3
(2.8–5.0)
11
(10–15)
DFN 6L
1.5 x 1.5 x 0.45
SKY65405-21
2.4 GHz
WLAN and
ISM Band
2.4–2.5
2450
15.0
1.10
24.0
15.0
3.3
(2.8–5.0)
12
(10–16)
DFN 6L
1.5 x 1.5 x 0.45
Skyworks Green™ products are compliant to all applicable materials legislation and are halogen-free. For additional information, refer to Skyworks Definition of Green™, document number SQ04-0074.
Superheterodyne Radio Receiver
Antenna
Downconverter
Mixer
“I” ADC
I/Q Demodulator
Intermediate
Frequency
(IF) Amplifier
Digital
Baseband Out
Image
Reject /
Channel
Select
Filter
Intermediate
Frequency
(IF) Filter
Low Noise
Amplifier
(LNA)
Gain
Control
(1st ) Local
Oscillator
(LO)
Baseband
(BB) Filters
“Q” ADC
(2 nd ) Local
Oscillator
(LO)
Figure 1. Typical Superheterodyne Radio Receiver Block Diagram
Applications
Radio receivers, such as the superheterodyne receiver
shown in Figure 1, typically must process weak signals
in the presence of extraneous received signals as well
as internally-generated noise and distortion products.
A well-designed receiver must have optimal sensitivity
to the desired signal while producing minimal internally
generated noise and distortion.
In order for the receiver to have optimal sensitivity, the
production of distortion products within the cascade
must be minimized while simultaneously minimizing
noise figure. In most systems, distortion performance is
described by the third order intercept (IP3) of the cascade,
which is given by
IP 3 casc =
The amount of noise produced in a receiver is expressed
as its noise factor (F) or noise figure (NF). The noise factor
of a cascade of components is given by
F casc
F −1
F −1 F 3 −1
= F1 + 2
+
+ ... + n −1n
G1
G 1G 2
∏G N
N =1
where
Gn = gain of stage n, expressed as a ratio (i.e., not
expressed in dB)
Fn = noise factor of stage n, expressed as a ratio (i.e., not
expressed in dB). F is the ratio of the input signalto-noise ratio to the output signal-to-noise ratio for
each stage
Noise figure is F expressed in dB
NF = 10 log (F)
The equation for cascaded noise factor shows that the
noise performance of the stages nearest to the input of
the cascade set the lower bound for the noise figure of
the entire cascade, which must be minimized to optimize
receiver sensitivity. Also, the gain of the first stage is very
important since it strongly affects the noise contribution
of the following stages.
1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
IP 3 n IP 3 n −1 × G n IP 3 n − 2 × G n × G n −1
1
n
IP 31 × ∏ G N
N =1
where
Gn = gain of stage n, expressed as a ratio (i.e., not
expressed in dB)
IP3n = third order intercept of stage n, expressed as power
in watts, not in dBm. IP3 is the theoretical power
level at which the power of desired signal is equal
to that of the third-order distortion products.
Additionally, IP3 may be referred to power level at the
input of a stage, in which case it is called input third order
intercept (IIP3), or it may be referred to power level at the
output of a stage, in which case it is called output third
order intercept (OIP3). When performing analysis of a
cascade, it is necessary to use either IIP3 or OIP3 for each
stage in the cascade.
Typically, IP3 is expressed in dBm (dB relative to 1 mW) for
radio receivers as
IP3
IP3 (dBm) = 10 log 10 –3
Optimal Circuit Design
IP3 performance is significantly affected by operating
current (IDS), as well as by output impedance matching
and the architecture of the LNA. Suggestions for optimal
values of these parameters are also contained in the
application notes described above.
Stability is an important factor in any amplifier design.
Skyworks offers complete stability data to 18 GHz for
all LNA products, along with suggestions for printed
circuit board design that will prevent the possibility of
oscillation.
With discrete low noise transistors, the source impedance
that yields best noise figure (Zopt) often differs greatly
from that which offers best impedance match: the
conjugate impedance of the active device which produces
the complex conjugate input reflection coefficient, S11
conjugate. This can result in difficult matching tradeoffs
to obtain an acceptable compromise for NF, gain, and
input return loss.
The SKY6710X monolithic microwave integrated
circuit (MMIC) LNAs are designed such that Zopt and
S11 conjugate are nearly equal. This allows the circuit
designer to simultaneously achieve excellent NF, gain
and input return loss.
The SKY67100 standard application circuit is optimized
for performance from 1700 to 2000 MHz, as shown in
the performance plots in Figures 2 and 3.
0
+25 °C
+85 °C
–40 °C
–5
Input Return Loss (dB)
A low noise amplifier will produce minimum noise figure
when it is driven from a specific impedance (Zopt), which
generally is not 50 Ω. Noise figure will degrade when
driven by any other impedance. Since the characteristic
impedance (Z0) of most radio receivers is 50 Ω, the
circuit designer must provide an input impedance
matching network which transforms Z0 to Zopt. Since this
impedance matching network is at the input of the LNA,
its loss will have significant impact on cascaded NF, so
the designer must trade off optimal impedance match
for NF performance while also paying careful attention
to the quality factor of each component in the matching
network.
SKY67100, SKY67101, SKY67102 Highlights:
–10
–15
–20
–25
–30
–35
1.70
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.90
1.95
2.00
Frequency (GHz)
Figure 2. Narrowband Input Return Loss vs. Frequency
SKY67100
1.0
0.9
0.8
Noise Figure (dB)
Skyworks offers several application notes from our Web
site (www.skyworksinc.com) which show suggested
circuit designs for each LNA product at many frequency
bands. Important factors include, but are not limited
to, optimal impedance matching for noise figure and
distortion performance, selection of operating current
and the prevention of oscillation.
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
+25 °C
+85 °C
–40 °C
0.2
0.1
0
1.70
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.90
Frequency (GHz)
Figure 3. Noise Figure vs. Frequency
SKY67100
1.95
2.00
This design offers exceptional LNA performance without
compromise. The SKY67100 application schematic shown
in Figure 4 highlights the simple matching requirements
for this family of LNAs, which all use the same application
layout.
VDD
C8
1000 pF
R1
1200 Ω
C6
1000 pF
C1
15 pF
RF Input
L1
4.3 nH
C2
9 pF
×
1
2
3
4
N/C
RFIN
RFGND
VIN
N/C
RFOUT/VDD
N/C
FEEDBACK
8
7
6
5
×
L2
3.0 nH
dBm
C3
0.1 μF
OIP3 (5 V)
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
C5
22 pF
5
OIP3 (3.3 V)
10
20
OIP3 (1.8 V)
30
25
IDDQ (mA)
RF Output
C4
2.2 pF
×
15
OIP3 (2.7 V)
Figure 5. OIP3 vs. IDDQ at 2.45 GHz
SKY67014-396LF
R2
220 Ω
S1944
Figure 4. SKY67100-396LF Evaluation Board Schematic
SKY67001, SKY67002, SKY67003 Highlights:
This family consists of the SKY67001, SKY67002 and
SKY67003 cascode e-pHEMT LNAs. These devices are higher
power versions of the SKY6710X with higher compression
and intercept points (OIP3 > 39 dBm). Using larger FET
devices, these parts operate at very low maximum channel
temperatures making them suitable for operation up to
100 degrees Celsius. The devices are unconditionally stable
to 24 GHz and beyond.
SKY67105, SKY67106, SKY67107 Highlights:
These are high-gain, high-linearity LNA with outstanding
isolation characteristics. Utilizing an e-pHEMT cascode
first stage and a e-pHEMT on InGaP HBT output stage,
these devices offer high gain of typically 35 dB. These
devices obtain < 0.8 dB typical noise figure from the
pHEMT input stage and efficient linearity (OIP3 > 37 dBm)
from the output stage. With outstanding isolation, these
devices are unconditionally stable to 24 GHz and beyond.
40
The SKY67014 is now part of a three device family of
efficient, cost-effective and high-performance LNAs for
broad market applications. The SKY67012-396LF covering
300 to 600 MHz and the SKY67013-396LF covering 600 to
1500 MHz, are now available. All devices in this family utilize
a common package and application layout. These devices
are packaged in a 2 x 2 mm, 8-pin, plastic DFN.
25 °C
85 °C
39
SKY67012, SKY67013, SKY67014 Highlights:
38
37
OIP3 (dBm)
The first device in this family of low-cost, high-performance
pHEMT LNAs was the SKY67014-396LF. The device offers
NF < 1.0 dB with easy matching, unconditional stability
to >24 GHz, and flexible biasing options. Depending
on application linearity requirements, this device can be
operated with VDD values from 1.8 to 5.0 volts and with IDDQ
values from 5 to 30 mA. The SKY67014 is specified over a
broad 1500 to 3000 MHz frequency range.
-40 °C
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
2.30 2.35 2.40 2.45 2.50 2.55 2.60 2.65 2.70 2.75 2.80
Frequency (GHz)
Figure 6. OIP3 vs. Frequency Over Temperature
White Papers, Application Notes, Published Articles
For additional information, please refer to the following:
White Papers
Published Articles
Designing Ultra Low Noise Amplifiers for
Infrastructure Receiver Applications
Make Accurate Sub-1 dB Noise Figure Measurements Part 1: Noise Concepts
Ultra-Low Noise Figure, High Gain Amplifier with
High Linearity
Make Accurate Sub-1 dB Noise Figure
Measurements Part 2: The Measurements
Skyworks De-embedded Scattering Parameters
Application Notes
SKY65050-372LF: Low Noise Amplifier Operation
SKY65047-360LF Matching Circuits for Various
Frequency Bands
Green Initiative™
Through our Green Initiative,™ we are committed to manufacturing products that comply with global
government directives and industry requirements.
Skyworks is continuously innovating RF, analog, and mixed-signal ICs. For the latest product introductions and
information about Skyworks, visit our Web site at www.skyworksinc.com
For additional information on our broad overall product portfolio, please contact your local sales office or email us at
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