Applications for a Switched-Capacitor Instrumentation Building Block

Application Note 3
July 1985
Applications for a Switched-Capacitor Instrumentation
Building Block
Jim Williams
CMOS analog IC design is largely based on manipulation
of charge. Switches and capacitors are the elements used
to control and distribute the charge. Monolithic filters, data
converters and voltage converters rely on the excellent
characteristics of IC CMOS switches. Because of the importance of switches in their circuits, CMOS designers have
developed techniques to minimize switch induced errors,
particularly those associated with stray capacitance and
switch timing. Until now, these techniques have been used
only in the internal construction of monolithic devices. A
new device, the LTC®1043, makes these switches available
for board-level use. Multi-pole switching and a self-driven,
non-overlapping clock allow the device to be used in circuits
which are impractical with other switches.
Conceptually, the LTC1043 is simple. Figure 1 details its
features. The oscillator, free-running at 200kHz, drives a
non-overlapping clock. Placing a capacitor from Pin 16 to
ground shifts the oscillator frequency downward to any
desired point. The pin may also be driven from an external
source, synchronizing the switches to external circuitry.
A non-overlapping clock controls both DPDT switch sections. The non-overlapping drive prevents simultaneous
conduction in the series connected switch sections.
Charge balancing circuitry cancels the effects of stray
capacitance. Pins 1 and 10 may be used as guard points
for Pins 3 and 12 in particularly sensitive applications.
L, LT, LTC, LTM, Linear Technology and the Linear logo are registered trademarks of Linear
Technology Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
DPA 10
S1A 7
8 S2A
C+
A 11
C–A 12
CHARGE
BALANCING
CIRCUITRY
S3A 13
14 S4A
DPB 1
S1B 6
5 S2B
C+
B 2
C–B 3
CHARGE
BALANCING
CIRCUITRY
S3B 18
15 S4B
F1
F2
NON-OVERLAPPING CLOCK
CT 16
OSCILLATOR
4
17
V+
V–
AN03 F01
Figure 1. Block Diagram of LTC1043 Showing Individual Switches
an3f
AN3-1
Application Note 3
Although the device’s operation is simple, it permits surprisingly sophisticated circuit functions. Additionally, the
careful attention paid to switching characteristics makes
implementing such functions relatively easy. Discrete
timing and charge-balance compensation networks are
eliminated, reducing component count and trimming
requirements.
Switched-capacitor approaches have greatly aided analog
MOS IC design. The LTC1043 brings many of the freedoms
and advantages of CMOS IC switched-capacitor circuits to
the board level, providing a valuable addition to available
design techniques.
Classical analog circuits work by utilizing continuous
functions. Their operation is usually described in terms of
voltage and current. Switched-capacitor based circuits are
sampled data systems which approximate continuous functions with bandwidth limited by the sampling frequency.
Their operation is described in the distribution of charge
over time. To best understand the circuits which follow,
this distinction should be kept in mind. Analog sampled
data and carrier-based systems are less common than
true continuous approaches, and developing a working
familiarity with them requires some thought.
Figure 2 uses the LTC1043 to build a simple, precise instrumentation amplifier. An LTC1043 and an LT®1013 dual
op amp are used, allowing a dual instrumentation amplifier
using just two packages. A single DPDT section converts the
differential input to a ground referred single-ended signal
at the LT1013’s input. With the input switches closed, C1
acquires the input signal. When the input switches open,
C2’s switches close and C2 receives charge. Continuous
clocking forces C2’s voltage to equal the difference between
the circuit’s inputs. The 0.01μF capacitor at Pin 16 sets the
switching frequency at 500Hz. Common mode voltages
are rejected by over 120dB and drift is low.
Instrumentation Amplifier
5V
4
5V
+
7
3
8
C2
1μF
11
C1
1μF
(EXTERNAL)
DIFFERENTIAL
INPUT
+
8
1/2 LT1013
2
–
1
VOUT
4
–5V
1μF
12
–
R1
13
16
0.01μF
17
–5V
R2
14
1/2 LTC1043
AN03 F02
CMRR > 120dB AT DC
CMRR > 120dB AT 60Hz
DUAL SUPPLY OR SINGLE 5V
GAIN = 1 + R2/R1
VOS ≈ 150μV
$ VOS
≈ 2μV/°C
$T
COMMON MODE INPUT VOLTAGE INCLUDES THE SUPPLIES
Figure 2. ±5V Precision Instrumentation Amplifier
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AN3-2
Application Note 3
Amplifier gain is set in the conventional manner. This circuit
is a simple, economical way to build a high performance
instrumentation amplifier. Its DC characteristics rival any
IC or hybrid unit and it can operate from a single 5V supply. The common mode range includes the supply rails,
allowing the circuit to read across shunts in the supply
lines. The performance of the instrumentation amplifier
depends on the output amplifier used. Specifications for an
LT1013 appear in the figure. Lower figures for offset, drift
and bias current are achievable by employing type LT1001,
LT1012, LT1056 or the chopper-stabilized LTC1052.
the input chopper, proper amplitude and polarity information is presented to A2, the DC output amplifier. This stage
integrates the square wave into a DC voltage to provide the
output. The output is divided down and fed back to Pin 8
of the input chopper where it serves as the zero signal
reference. Because the main amplifier is AC-coupled, its
DC terms do not affect overall circuit offset, resulting in
the extremely low offset and drift noted in the specifications. This circuit offers lower offset and drift than any
commercially available instrumentation amplifier.
Lock-In Amplifier
Ultrahigh Performance Instrumentation Amplifier
Figure 3 is similar to Figure 2, but utilizes the remaining
LTC1043 section to construct a low drift chopper amplifier.
This approach maintains the true differential inputs while
achieving 0.1μV/°C drift. The differential input is converted
to a single-ended potential at Pin 7 of the LTC1043. This
voltage is chopped into a 500Hz square wave by the switching action of Pins 7, 11 and 8. A1, AC-coupled, amplifies
this signal. A1’s square wave output, also AC-coupled, is
synchronously demodulated by switches 12, 14 and 13.
Because this switch section is synchronously driven with
The AC carrier approach used in Figure 3 may be extended
to form a “lock-in” amplifier. A lock-in amplifier works by
synchronously detecting the carrier modulated output of
the signal source. Because the desired signal information
is contained within the carrier, the system constitutes
an extremely narrow-band amplifier. Non-carrier related
components are rejected and the amplifier passes only
signals which are coherent with the carrier. In practice,
lock-in amplifiers can extract a signal 120dB below the
noise level.
5V
CHOPPER
4
1/4 LTC1043
1/2 LTC1043
+ INPUT
6
11
8
2
1μF
1μF
5V
1μF
7
5
3
1M 2
+
7
LT1056
–
1/4 LTC1043
1μF
6
14
100k
12
4
DC
OUTPUT AMPLIFIER
1μF
PHASE
SENSITIVE
DEMODULATOR
AC AMPLIFIER
100k
–
100k
5V
7
6
LT1056
13
–5V
2
3
3
+
OUTPUT
4
–5V
100Ω
– INPUT
18
15
16
17
0.01μF
0.01
–5V
OFFSET = 10μV
DRIFT = 0.1μV/°C
FULL DIFFERENTIAL INPUT
CMRR = 140dB
OPEN-LOOP GAIN > 108
GAIN = R2/R1 + 1
IBIAS = 1nA
R2
100k
R1
100Ω
AN03 F03
Figure 3. Chopper-Stabilized Instrumentation Amplifier
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AN3-3
Application Note 3
Figure 4 shows a lock-in amplifier which uses a single
LTC1043 section. In this application, the signal source
is a thermistor bridge which detects extremely small
temperature shifts in a biochemical microcalorimetry
reaction chamber.
the desired 500Hz signal buried within the 60Hz noise
source. The LTC1043’s zero-cross-synchronized switching
at A2’s positive input (Trace E) causes A2’s gain to alternate
between plus and minus one. As a result, A1’s output is
synchronously demodulated by A2. A2’s output (Trace F)
consists of demodulated carrier signal and non-coherent
components. The desired carrier amplitude and polarity
information is discernible in A2’s output and is extracted
by filter averaging at A3. To trim this circuit, adjust the
phase potentiometer so that C1 switches when the carrier
crosses through zero.
The 500Hz carrier is applied at T1’s input (Trace A, Figure 5). T1’s floating output drives the thermistor bridge,
which presents a single-ended output to A1. A1 operates
at an AC gain of 1000. A 60Hz broadband noise source
is also deliberately injected into A1’s input (Trace B). The
carrier’s zero crossings are detected by C1. C1’s output
clocks the LTC1043 (Trace C). A1’s output (Trace D) shows
THERMISTOR BRIDGE
IS THE SIGNAL SOURCE
500Hz
SINE DRIVE
4
T1
1 6.19k
6.19k
10k*
TEST
POINT
A
5V
2
+
6.19k
2
–
1/4 LTC1043
6
LT1007
RT
10k*
5V
3
3
SYNCHRONOUS
DEMODULATOR
12
–
5V
LM301A
13
3
+
1
100k
14
3
–5V
16
30pF
100Ω
+
0.002
10k
5V
1k
8
+
–
VOUT ≈ 1000 • DC
BRIDGE SIGNAL
+
–5V
LOCK-IN AMPLIFIER TECHNIQUE
USED TO EXTRACT VERY SMALL
SIGNALS BURIED INTO NOISE
7
LT1011
3
1μF
6
OPERATE LTC1043 WITH
±5V SUPPLIES
5V
2
–
T1 = TF5SX17ZZ, TOROTEL
RT = YSI THERMISTOR 44006
≈ 6.19k AT 37.5°C
*MATCH 0.05%
*
6.19k = VISHAY S-102
47μF
PHASE
TRIM
50k
1M
LT1012
–5V
0.01
2
8
4
AN03 F04
1
–5V
ZERO CROSSING DETECTOR
Figure 4. Lock-In Amplifer
A = 2V/DIV
B = 2V/DIV
C = 50V/DIV
D = 5V/DIV
E = 5V/DIV
F = 5V/DIV
HORIZONTAL = 5ms
AN03 F05
Figure 5
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AN3-4
Application Note 3
Wide Range, Digitally Controlled,
Variable Gain Amplifier
Aside from low drift and noise rejection, another dimension in amplifier design is variable gain. Designing a wide
range, digitally variable gain block with good DC stability is
a difficult task. Such configurations usually involve relays
or temperature compensated FET networks in expensive
and complex arrangements. The circuit shown in Figure 6
uses the LTC1043 in a variable gain amplifier which features
continuously variable gain from 0 to 1000, gain stability
of 20ppm/°C and single-ended or differential input. The
circuit uses two separate LTC1043s. Unit A is clocked by a
frequency input which could be derived from a host processor. LTC1043B is continuously clocked by a 1kHz source
which could also be processor supplied. Both LTC1043s
function as the sampled data equivalent of a resistor within
the bandwidth set by A1’s 0.01μF value and the switchedcapacitor equivalent feedback resistor. The time-averaged
current delivered to the summing point by LTC1043A is a
function of the 0.01μF capacitor’s input-derived voltage and
the commutation frequency at Pin 16. Low commutation
frequencies result in small time-averaged current values,
approximating a large input resistor. Higher frequencies
produce an equivalent small input resistor. LTC1043B, in
A1’s feedback path, acts in a similar fashion. For the circuit
values given, the gain is simply:
G=
fIN 0.01µF
•
10 100pF
Gain stability depends on the ratiometric stability between
the 1kHz and variable clocks (which could be derived from
a common source) and the ratio stability of the capacitors.
For polystyrene types, this will typically be 20ppm/°C. The
circuit input, determined by the pin connections shown in
the figure, may be either single-ended or fully differential.
Additionally, although A1 is connected as an inverter, the
circuit’s overall transfer function may be either positive
or negative. As shown, with Pins 13A and 7A grounded
and the input applied to 8A, it is negative.
LTC1043B
7B
11B
C2
100pF
8B
16B
1kHz CLOCK
12B
13B
14B
0.01
13A
LTC1043A
14A
–
A1
LT1056
12A
C1
0.01μF
11A
7A
+
eOUT
AN03 F06
8A
16A
eIN (FOR DIFFERENTIAL INPUT, GROUND PIN 8A
AND USE PINS 13A AND 7A FOR INPUTS)
fIN 0kHz TO 10kHz = GAIN 0 TO 1000
Figure 6. Variable-Gain Amplifier
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AN3-5
Application Note 3
Precision, Linearized Platinum RTD Signal
Conditioner
The RTD’s constant current forces the voltage across
it to vary with its resistance, which has a nearly linear
positive temperature coefficient. The nonlinearity could
cause several degrees of error over the circuit’s 0°C to
400°C operating range. A2 amplifies RP’s output, while
simultaneously supplying nonlinearity correction. The
correction is implemented by feeding a portion of A2’s
output back to A1’s input via the 10k to 250k divider. This
causes the current supplied to RP to slightly shift with its
operating point, compensating sensor nonlinearity to within
±0.05°C. The remaining LTC1043 section furnishes A2
with a differential input. This allows an offsetting potential,
derived from the LT1009 reference, to be subtracted from
RP’s output. Scaling is arranged so 0°C equals 0V at A2’s
output. Circuit gain is set by A2’s feedback values and
linearity correction is derived from the output.
Figure 7 shows a circuit which provides complete, linearized signal conditioning for a platinum RTD. One side of
the RTD sensor is grounded, often desirable for noise
considerations. This LTC1043 based circuit is considerably simpler than instrumentation or multi-amplifier based
designs and will operate from a single 5V supply. A1 serves
as a voltage-controlled ground referred current source by
differentially sensing the voltage across the 887Ω feedback
resistor. The LTC1043 section which does this presents
a single-ended signal to A1’s negative input, closing a
loop. The 2k-0.1μF combination sets amplifier roll-off
well below the LTC1043’s switching frequency and the
configuration is stable. Because A1’s loop forces a fixed
voltage across the 887Ω resistor, the current through RP
is constant. A1’s operating point is primarily fixed by the
2.5V LT1009 voltage reference.
250k*
(LINEARITY CORRECTION LOOP)
5V
3
1/2 LT1013
2
–
5V
10k*
2.4k
8
+
1
LT1009
2.5V
274k*
4
50k
ZERO
ADJUST
0.1μF
8.25k*
4
2k
1/2 LTC1043
7
0V TO 4V = 0°C TO 400°C
±0.05°C
1/2 LTC1043
8
5
5
6
+
1/2 LT1013
6
11
1μF
2
13
IK
RP
100Ω
AT 0°C
5k
8.06k*
3
14
1k
GAIN
ADJUST
1μF
1μF
887Ω
1μF
12
–
7
15
18
16
17
1k*
AN03 F07
RP = ROSEMOUNT 118MFRTD
* 1% FILM RESISTOR
TRIM SEQUENCE:
SET SENSOR TO 0°C VALUE. ADJUST ZERO FOR 0V OUT
SET SENSOR TO 100°C VALUE. ADJUST GAIN FOR 1,000V OUT
SET SENSOR TO 400°C VALUE. ADJUST LINEARITY FOR 4.000V OUT
REPEAT AS REQUIRED
0.01
Figure 7. Linearized Platinum Signal Conditioner
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AN3-6
Application Note 3
To calibrate this circuit, substitute a precision decade
box (e.g., General Radio 1432k) for RP . Set the box to
the 0°C value (100.00Ω) and adjust the offset trim for a
0.00V output. Next, set the decade box for a 140°C output
(154.26Ω) and adjust the gain trim for a 1.400V output
reading. Finally, set the box to 249.0°C (400.00°C) and
trim the linearity adjustment for a 4.000V output. Repeat
this sequence until all three points are fixed. Total error
over the entire range will be within ±0.05°C. The resistance
values given are for a nominal 100.00Ω (0°C) sensor.
Sensors deviating from this nominal value can be used
by factoring in the deviation from 100.00Ω. This deviation, which is manufacturer specified for each individual
sensor, is an offset term due to winding tolerances during
fabrication of the RTD. The gain slope of the platinum is
primarily fixed by the purity of the material and is a very
small error term.
Relative Humidity Sensor Signal Conditioner
Relative humidity is a difficult physical parameter to
transduce, and most transducers available require fairly
complex signal conditioning circuity. Figure 8 combines
two LTC1043s with a recently introduced capacitively
based humidity transducer in a simple charge pump
based circuit.
The sensor specified has a nominal 500pF capacitance
at RH = 76%, with a slope of 1.7pF/% RH. The average
voltage across this device must be zero. This provision
prevents deleterious electrochemical migration in the
sensor. LTC1043A inverts a resistively scaled portion of
the LT1009 reference, generating a negative potential at
Pin 14A. LTC1043B alternately charges and discharges
the humidity sensor via Pins 12B, 13B and 14B. With 14B
and 12B connected, the sensor charges via the 1μF unit
to the negative potential at Pin 14A. When the 14B-12B
pair opens, 12B is connected to A1’s summing point via
13B. The sensor now discharges into the summing point
through the 1μF capacitor. Since the charge voltage is fixed,
Note that A1 constitutes a voltage controlled current source
with input and output referred to ground. This is a difficult
function to achieve and is worthy of separate mention.
8B
7B
11B
5V
0.1μF
470Ω
0.1μF
100pF
6B
5B
10k 5% RH TRIM
1k
LTC1043A
500Ω
7A
2B
8A
100pF
LT1009
2.5V
11A
1μF
0.1μF
0.1μF
12A
13A
14A
14B
LTC1043B
90% RH
TRIM
13B
–
A1
+ LT1056
12B
SENSOR = PANAMETRICS #RHS
≈500pF AT RH = 76%
1.7pF/% RH
AN03 F08
0V TO 1V =
0% to 100% RH
1μF
SENSOR
22M
Figure 8. Relative Humidity Signal Conditioner
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AN3-7
Application Note 3
the average current into the summing point is determined
by the sensor’s humidity related value. The 1μF value AC
couples the sensor to the charge-discharge path, maintaining the required zero average voltage across the device.
The 22M resistor prevents accumulation of charge, which
would stop current flow. The average current into A1’s
summing point is balanced by packets of charge delivered
by the switched-capacitor network in A1’s feedback loop.
The 0.1μF capacitor gives A1 an integrator-like response,
and its output is DC.
Drift terms in this circuit include the LT1009 and the ratio
stability of the sensor and the 100pF capacitors. These
terms are well within the sensor’s 2% accuracy specification
and temperature compensation is not required. To calibrate
this circuit, place the sensor in a known 5% RH environment and adjust the “5% RH trim” for 0.05V output. Next,
place the sensor in a 90% RH environment and set the
“90% RH trim” for 900mV output. Repeat this procedure
until both points are fixed. Once calibrated, this circuit is
accurate within 2% in the 5% to 90% RH range.
To allow 0% RH to equal 0V, offsetting is required. The
signal and feedback terms biasing the summing point
are expressed in charge form. Because of this, the offset
must also be delivered to the summing point as charge,
instead of a simple DC current. If this is not done, the
circuit will be affected by frequency drift of LTC1034B’s
oscillator. Section 8B-11B-7B serves this function, delivering LT1009-referenced offsetting charge to A1.
Figure 9 shows an alternate circuit which requires two op
amps but needs only one LTC1043 package. This circuit
retains insensitivity to clock frequency while permitting a
DC offset trim. This is accomplished by summing in the
offset current after A1.
0.01μF
1/4 LTC1043
8
7
16
–5V
17
11
470
100pF
1k*
500
90%
RH TRIM
5V
1/4 LTC1043
13
14
2
7
6
LT1056
3
LT1004
1.2V
–
12
1μF
+
10k
+
6
LM301A
4
2
–5V
1μF
3
8
–
OUTPUT
0V TO 1V = 0% TO 100%
1
SENSOR
9k*
22M
100pF
10k
5% RH TRIM
* = 1% FILM RESISTOR
33k
SENSOR = PANAMETRICS #RHS
≈500pF AT RH = 76%
1.7pF/%RH
1k*
AN03 F09
Figure 9. Relative Humidity Signal Conditioner
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AN3-8
Application Note 3
LVDT Signal Conditioner
shows an LTC1043 based LVDT signal conditioner. A1 and
its associated components furnish the amplitude stable
sine wave source. A1’s positive feedback path is a Wein
bridge, tuned for 1.5kHz. Q1, the LT1004 reference, and
additional components in A1’s negative loop unity-gain
stabilize the amplifier. A1’s output (Trace A, Figure 11), an
amplitude stable sine wave, drives the LVDT. C1 detects
zero crossings and feeds the LTC1043 clock pin (Trace
B). A speed-up network at C1’s input compensates LVDT
phase shift, synchronizing the LTC1043’s clock to the
transformer’s output zero crossings. The LTC1043 alternately connects each end of the transformer to ground,
LVDTs (linear variable differential transformers) are another
example of a transducer which the LTC1043 can signal
condition. An LVDT is a transformer with a mechanically
actuated core. The primary is driven by a sine wave, usually
amplitude stabilized. Sine drive eliminates error inducing
harmonics in the transformer. The two secondaries are
connected in opposed phase. When the core is positioned
in the magnetic center of the transformer, the secondary
outputs cancel and there is no output. Moving the core
away from the center position unbalances the flux ratio
between the secondaries, developing an output. Figure 10
1/4 LTC1043
0.005
0.005
30k
7
5V
5V
30k
3
+
–
4
11
8
LT1013
2
8
1.5kHz
1
RD-BLUE
YEL-BLK
4
100k
–5V
AMPLITUDE STABLE
SINE WAVE SOURCE
BLUE
GRN
10k
1μF
6
+
1/2 LT1013
–
LT1004
1.2V
Q1
2N4338
OUTPUT
0V m ±2.5V
0M m ±2.50MM
YEL-RED
BLK
10k
GAIN TRIM
LVDT
10μF
7
200k
1N914
4.7k
+
1.2k
5
12
7.5k
AN03 F10
–5V
17
13
14
1/4 LTC1043
LVDT = SCHAEVITZ E-100
5V
100k
5V
0.01
3
100k
PHASE
TRIM
1k
8
+
7
LT1011
2
TO PIN 16, LTC1043
1
–
4
–5V
Figure 10. LVDT Signal Conditioner
an3f
AN3-9
Application Note 3
A = 10V
B = 10V
C = 0.2V
D = 0.2V
E = 0.2V
HORIZONTAL = 500μs
AN03 F11
Figure 11
resulting in positive half-wave rectification at Pins 7 and 14
(Traces C and D, respectively). These points are summed
(Trace E) at a lowpass filter which feeds A2. A2 furnishes
gain scaling and the circuit’s output.
The LTC1043’s synchronized clocking means the information presented to the lowpass filter is amplitude and phase
sensitive. The circuit output indicates how far the core is
from center and on which side.
To calibrate this circuit, center the LVDT core in the transformer and adjust the phase trim for 0V output. Next, move
the core to either extreme position and set the gain trim
for 2.50V output.
Charge Pump F→V and V→F Converters
Figure 12 shows two related circuits, both of which show
how the LTC1043 can simplify a precision circuit function.
Charge pump F→V and V→F converters usually require
substantial compensation for non-ideal charge gating
behavior. These examples equal the performance of such
circuits, while requiring no compensations. These circuits
are economical, component count is low, and the 0.005%
transfer linearity equals that of more complex designs.
Figure 12A is an F→V converter. The LTC1043’s clock
pin is driven from the input (Trace A, Figure 13). With the
input high, Pins 12 and 13 are shorted and 14 is open.
The 1000pF capacitor receives charge from the 1μF unit,
which is biased by the LT1004. At the input’s negativegoing edge, Pins 12 and 13 open and 12 and 14 close.
The 1000pF capacitor quickly removes current (Trace B)
from A1’s summing node. Initially, current is transferred
through A1’s feedback capacitor and the amplifier output
goes negative (Trace C). When A1 recovers, it slews positive
to a level which resets the summing junction to zero. A1’s
1μF feedback capacitor averages this action over many
cycles and the circuit output is a DC level linearly related to
frequency. A1’s feedback resistors set the circuit’s DC gain.
To trim the circuit, apply 30kHz in and set the 10kΩ gain
trim for exactly 3V output. The primary drift term in this
circuit is the 120ppm/°C tempco of the 1000pF capacitor,
which should be polystyrene. This can be reduced to within
20ppm/°C by using a feedback resistor with an opposing
tempco (e.g., TRW #MTR-5/+120ppm). The input pulse
width must be low for at least 100ns to allow complete
discharge of the 1000pF capacitor.
In Figure 12B, the LTC1043 based charge pump is placed
in A1’s feedback loop, resulting in a V→F converter. The
clock pin is driven from A1’s output. Assume that A1’s
negative input is just below 0V. The amplifier output is
positive. Under these conditions, LTC1043’s Pins 12 and
13 are shorted and 14 is open, allowing the 0.01μF capacitor to charge toward the negative 1.2V LT1004. When the
input-voltage-derived current forces A1’s summing point
(Trace A, Figure 13) positive, its output (Trace B) goes
negative. This reverses the LT1043’s switch states, connecting Pins 12 and 14. Current flows from the summing
point into the 0.0μF capacitor (Trace C). The 30pF-22k
combination at A1’s positive input (Trace D) ensures A1
will remain low long enough for the 0.01μF capacitor to
completely reset to zero. When the 30pF-22k positive
feedback path decays, A1’s output returns positive and
the entire cycle repeats. The oscillation frequency of this
action is directly related to the input voltage with a transfer
linearity of 0.005%.
Start-up or overdrive conditions could force A1 to go to
the negative rail and stay there. Q1 prevents this by pulling
the summing point negative if A1’s output stays low long
enough to charge the 1μF-330k RC. Two LTC1043 switch
sections provide complementary sink-source outputs.
Similar to the F→V circuit, the 0.01μF capacitor is the
primary drift term, and the resistor type noted above will
provide optimum tempco cancellation. To calibrate this
circuit, apply 3V and adjust the gain trim for a 30kHz
output.
an3f
AN3-10
Application Note 3
10k
GAIN TRIM
75k*
1μF
1/4 LTC1043
1k
5V
13
–5V
LT1004
1.2C
–
14
1μF
A = 10V
LF356
B = 5mA
+
12
–5V
1000pF†
4
5V
16
17
–5V
7
8
11
FREQUENCY IN
0kHz TO 30kHz
OUTPUT
0V TO 3V
C = 0.5V
AC-COUPLED
*75k = TRW #MTR-5/+120ppm
†POLYSTYRENE
AN03 F12a
HORIZONTAL = 50ns/DIV
12a. Frequency-to-Voltage Converter
–5V
5V
AN03 F13
Figure 13
LT1009
2.5V
1k
1μF
17
1/2 LTC1043
6
5
fOUT
0kHz TO 30kHz
2
14
13
4
16
12
0.01μF†
11
A = 20mV
7
VIN
0V TO 3V
6.19k*
8
C = 20mA
5V
GAIN
2.5k
–
1μF
B = 10V
D = 5V
LF356
†POLYSTYRENE
*TRW MTR –5/+120ppm
+
–5V
30pF
22k
Q1
2N2907A
HORIZONTAL = 20μs/DIV
AN03 F14
Figure 14
330k
1μF
–5V
AN03 F12b
12b. Voltage-to-Frequency Converter
Figure 12
an3f
AN3-11
Application Note 3
reference source and then dumping it into A1’s summing
point. A1, connected as an integrator, responds with a linear
ramp output (Trace B, Figure 16). This ramp is compared
to the input voltage by C1B. When the crossing occurs,
C1B’s output goes low (Trace C, just faintly visible in the
photograph), setting the flip-flop high (Trace D). This pulls
LTC1043’s Pin 16 high, resetting A1’s integrator capacitor
via the paralleled switches. Simultaneously, Pin 14B opens,
12-Bit A→D Converter
Figure 15 shows the LTC1043 used to implement an
economical 12-bit A→D converter. The circuit is selfclocking, has a serial output, and completes a full-scale
conversion in 25ms.
Two LTC1043s are used in this design. Unit A free-runs,
alternately charging the 100pF capacitor from the LT1004
LT1043B
2B
6B
3B
18B
11B
7B
12B
13B
–5V
LT1004
1.2V
470Ω
500
14A
LT1043A
13A
14B
500
GAIN TRIM
16B
0.1μF
500
12A
0.1μF*
100pF*
5V
–
2A
5A
+
1k
5V
–
A1
LT1056
eIN
0V TO 3V
+
+
–
5V
1k
2
P
7
Q
74C74
CLR Q
5
SERIAL OUTPUT
0V TO 3V =
0 TO 4096 COUNTS
–5V
C1A
1/2 LT319A
100k
1k
C1B
1/2 LT319A
5V
*POLYSTYERENE CAPACITORS.
MOUNT IN CLOSE PROXIMITY
5V
0.0068μF
1N4148
–5V
100k
1M
AN03 F15
Figure 15. 12-Bit A→D Converter
A = 20V/DIV
B = 0.2V/DIV
A
C = 20V/DIV
D = 20V/DIV
E = 20V/DIV
B
F = 100mV/DIV
G = 20V/DIV
H = 20V/DIV
A HORIZONTAL = 500μs/DIV
B HORIZONTAL = 20μs/DIV
AN03 F16
Figure 16
an3f
AN3-12
Application Note 3
preventing charge from being delivered to A1’s summing
point during the reset. The flip-flop’s Q output, low during
this interval, causes an AC negative-going spike at C1A.
This forces C1A’s output high, inserting a gap in the output
clock pulse stream (Trace A). The width of this gap, set
by the components at C1A’s negative input, is sufficient
to allow a complete reset of A1’s integrating capacitor.
The number of pulses between gaps is directly related
to the input voltage. The actual conversion begins at the
gap’s negative edge and ends at its positive edge. The
flip-flop output may be used for resetting. Alternately, a
processor driven “time-out” routine can determine the
end of conversion. Traces E through H offer expanded
scale versions of Traces A through D, respectively. The
staircase detail of A1’s ramp output reflects the charge
pumping action at its summing point. Note that drift in the
100pF and 0.1μF capacitors, which should be polystyrene,
ratiometrically cancels. Full-scale drift for this circuit is
typically 20ppm/°C, allowing it to hold 12-bit accuracy
over 25°C + 10°C. To calibrate the circuit, apply 3V in and
trim the gain potentiometer for 4096 pulses out between
data stream gaps.
Miscellaneous Circuits
Figures 17 to 22 show a group of miscellaneous circuits,
most of which are derivations of applications covered in
the text. As such, only brief comments are provided.
Voltage-Controlled Current Source—Grounded Source
and Load
This is a simple, precise voltage-controlled current source.
Bipolar supplies will permit bipolar output. Configurations featuring a grounded voltage control source and
a grounded load are usually more complex and depend
upon several components for stability. In this circuit, accuracy and stability are almost entirely dependent on the
100Ω shunt.
Current Sensing in Supply Rails
The LTC1043 can sense current through a shunt in either
of its supply rails (Figure 18). This capability has wide
application in battery and solar-powered systems. If the
ground-referred voltage output is unloaded by an amplifier,
the shunt can operate with very little voltage drop across
it, minimizing losses.
5V
3
INPUT
0V TO 2V
8
+
1/2 LT1013
2
–
POSITIVE OR
NEGATIVE RAIL
1
I
E
I=
RSHUNT
4
E
RSHUNT
LTC1043
13
0.68μF
14
12
5V
1k
1μF E
1μF
4
11
1/2 LTC1043
8
7
7
11
16
1μF
1μF
8
17
0.01
100Ω
AN03 F18
12
14
Figure 18. Precision Current Sensing in Supply Rails
13
16
17
0.001μF
IOUT =
VIN
100Ω
AN03 F17
OPERATES FROM A SINGLE 5V SUPPLY
Figure 17. Voltage Controlled Current Source with Ground
Referred Input and Output
an3f
AN3-13
Application Note 3
0.01% Analog Multiplier
Low Power, 5V Driven, Temperature Compensated
Crystal Oscillator
Figure 19, using the V→F and F→V circuits previously
described, forms a high precision analog multiplier. The
F→V input frequency is locked to the V→F output because
the LTC1043’s clock is common to both sections. The
F→V reference is used as one input of the multiplier, while
the V→F furnishes the other. To calibrate, short the X and
Y inputs to 1.7320V and trim for a 3V output.
Figure 21 uses the LTC1043 to differentiate between a
temperature sensing network and a DC reference. The
single-ended output biases a varactor-tuned crystal oscillator to compensate drift. The varactor-crystal network has
high DC impedance, eliminating the need for an LTC1043
output amplifier.
Inverting a Reference
Simple Thermometer
Figure 20 allows a reference to be inverted with 1ppm
accuracy. This circuit features high input impedance and
requires no trimming.
Figure 22’s circuit is conceptually similar to the platinum
RTD example of Figure 7. The thermistor network specified eliminates the requirement for a linearity trim, at the
expense of accuracy and range of operation.
1/4 LTC1043
14
1k
–5V
13
1μF
LT1004-1.2V
12
5V
YINPUT
7.5k*
2
–
1μF
0.01μF†
80.6k*
7
LT1056
3
+
6
20k
OUTPUT
TRIM
OPERATE LTC1043 FROM ±5V
†POLYSTYRENE, MOUNT CLOSE
1μF
*1% FILM RESISTOR
ADJUST OUTPUT TRIM
SO X • Y = OUTPUT ±0.01%
16
4
5V
1/4 LTC1043
–5V
XINPUT
6
5
2
–
7
LT1056
22k 30pF
3
330k
2
2N2907A
(FOR START-UP)
0.001μF†
1μF
+
4
6
OUTPUT
XY ±0.01%
AN03 F19
–5V
–5V
Figure 19. Analog Multiplier with 0.01% Accuracy
5V
1k
LTC1043
13
14
LT1004
1.2V
12
1μF
1μF
11
7
8
–VREF ±1ppm
AN03 F20
Figure 20. Precision Voltage Inverter
an3f
AN3-14
Application Note 3
5V
470Ω
LT1009
2.5V
3.4k*
LTC1043
XTAL†
3.5MHz
100k
6
5
2N2222A
21.6k*
560k
MV209
RT1
3.2k
100Ω
100k
2
510pF
1μF
1μF
TEMPERATURE
COMPENSATION
GENERATOR
680Ω
510pF
3
3.5MHz OUT
0.03ppm/°C
0°C TO 70°C
RT2
6250Ω
18
15
OSCILLATOR
YSI44201
RT*
AN03 F21
THERMALLY COUPLED
Figure 21. Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator
5V
5V
4
1k
16.2k 0°C
10k
5%
1/2 LTC1043
7
LT1004
1.235V
+
8
107k
0V TO 1.000V =
0°C TO 100°C ±0.25°C
1/2 LT1013
–
11
3.2k
1μF
1μF
12
51.1k
500Ω
100°C
100k
T1
AN03 F22
6250
18
16
14
17
T1 = YELLOW SPRINGS #44201
ALL RESISTORS = TRW MAR-6 0.1% UNLESS NOTED
0.001
Figure 22. Linear Thermometer
High Current, “Inductorless,” Switching Regulator
Figure 23 shows a high efficiency battery driven regulator
with a 1A output capacity. Additionally, it does not require
an inductor, an unusual feature for a switching regulator
operating at this current level.
The LTC1043 switched-capacitor building block provides
non-overlapping complementary drive to the Q1-Q4 power
MOSFETs. The MOSFETs are arranged so that C1 and
C2 are alternately placed in series and then in parallel.
During the series phase, the 12V battery’s current flows
through both capacitors, charging them and furnishing
load current. During the parallel phase, both capacitors
deliver current to the load. Traces A and B, Figure 24, are
the LTC1043-supplied drives to Q3 and Q4, respectively.
Q1 and Q2 receive similar drive from Pins 3 and 11. The
diode-resistor networks provide additional non-overlapping drive characteristics, preventing simultaneous drive
to the series-parallel phase switches. Normally, the output
would be one-half of the supply voltage, but C1 and its
associated components close a feedback loop, forcing
the output to 5V. With the circuit in the series phase, the
an3f
Information furnished by Linear Technology Corporation is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed for its use. Linear Technology Corporation makes no representation that the interconnection of its circuits as described herein will not infringe on existing patent rights.
AN3-15
Application Note 3
output (Trace C) heads rapidly positive. When the output
exceeds 5V, C1 trips, forcing the LTC1043 oscillator pin
(Trace D) high. This truncates the LTC1043’s triangle wave
oscillator cycle. The circuit is forced into the parallel phase
and the output coasts down slowly until the next LTC1043
clock cycle begins. C1’s output diode prevents the triangle
down-slope from being affected and the 100pF capacitor
provides sharp transitions. The loop regulates the output to
5V by feedback controlling the turn-off point of the series
phase. The circuit constitutes a large-scale switched-capacitor voltage divider which is never allowed to complete
a full cycle. The high transient currents are easily handled
by the power MOSFETs and overall efficiency is 83%.
12V
–
6
8
+
7
LT1004
1.2V REFERENCE
C1
LT1011
1
GATES
PN0800-0004
6 CELLS
22k
8
2k
LTC1043
12V
4
+
1k
11
S
Q1
D
470μF
12
100pF
VOUT
5V
1A
S Q3 D
470μF
1k
38k
AN03 F23
12k
12V
13
14
6
5
12V
S Q2 D
1k
2
D
Q4
S
1k
3
18
15
ALL DIODES ARE 1N4148
Q1, Q2, Q3 = IRF9531 P-CHANNEL
Q4 = IRF533 N-CHANNEL
17
12V
16
4
12V
180pF
Figure 23. Inductorless Switching Regulator
A = 20V/DIV
B = 20V/DIV
C = 100mV/DIV
AC-COUPLED
D = 10V/DIV
HORIZONTAL = 20μs/DIV
AN03 F24
Figure 24
an3f
AN3-16
Linear Technology Corporation
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