Capabilities Brochure

V i s hay Intertechnolo g y, Inc .
AND TEC
I
INNOVAT
O L OGY
With Non-Linear Resistors
N
HN
CIRCUIT PROTECTION
O
19
62-2012
Resistors - Wide Resistance Range
PTC and NTC Thermistors,
Through-Hole Varistors
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Using PTC - Positive Temperature Coefficient Thermistors.................................................02
PTC Overload Protection Principles.....................................................................................02
Using NTC – Negative Temperature Coefficient Thermistors...............................................03
Examples of NTC Circuit Protection....................................................................................03
Rate of Rise Heat Detecting Fire Alarm................................................................................04
Using Through-Hole Varistors..............................................................................................05
Resources
• For technical questions contact resistors@vishay.com
One of the World’s Largest Manufacturers of
Discrete Semiconductors and Passive Components
Capabilities
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VMN-PL0436-1205
This document is subject to change without notice. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT ARE SUBJECT TO
SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
V i s hay Intertechnolo g y, Inc .
I
INNOVAT
AND TEC
O L OGY
With Non-Linear Resistors
N
HN
CIRCUIT PROTECTION
O
19
62-2012
Using PTC – Positive Temperature Coefficient Thermistors
PTC Overload Protection Principles
Features
Part Numbers
• Different voltages in function of the application:
30 V to 60 V, 145 V, 265 V, 600 V
• Several mechanical executions: pellets,
through hole leaded, SMD
• Wide range of trip and hold currents: from
10 mA to 4.5 A minimum trip currents
• Wide range of resistance: from 0.3 Ω to 5 kΩ
• Small ratio between trip and hold currents
(Itrip /Ihold = 1.5 at 25 °C)
• High maximum inrush current: up to 30 A
• UL approved series
General overload protection:
• 30 V to 60 V series: PTCCL..H....BE series (UL approved)
• 145 V series:
PTCCL..H...FBE (UL approved)
• 265 V series:
PTCCL..H...HBE (UL approved)
• 600 V series:
PTCCL..H...SBE
• SMD series:
PTCTZ
PTCSS Series (SMD, UL approved)
PTCSL Series
Telecom protection:
• General leaded: PTCTL
• SMD: PTCTZ and PTCTT
When connected in series
with the input of an electrical
or electronic circuit load
(see Figure 1), such as
a small motor or power
supply, the PTC thermistor
acts as a self-resettable
fuse, protecting the circuit
against current, voltage
and temperature overload
conditions.
Log R
PTC
Over-temperature:
• Tn 70 ºC to 140 ºC:
• Tn 70 °C to 150 °C:
Vsupply
Load
Normal
Operating
Zone
Figure 1
2Rmin
Rmin
Protecting
Zone
100
trip time (s)
25 ºC
Temp
Ts
Log I
Resistors - Wide Resistance Range
The electrical resistance of ceramic PTC (positive temperature coefficient) thermistors increases exponentially at the so
called switching temperature or Ts. This typical characteristic makes PTC thermistors very useful components for several
application areas such as voltage and current overload protection, over-temperature protection, inrush current generation,
time delay, energy discharge, and as a ceramic self-limiting heating element. As an overload protective element, PTC
thermistors are used in a wide range of circuits, including line cards, set-top boxes, and private automated branch
exchanges in telecom applications; airbag and temperature control devices in automobiles; power supplies, transformers,
DC motors and small domestic appliances; and in other consumer products.
10
Itrip
Ihold
1
0.1
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
I (mA)
Figure 3
Figure 2
Capabilities
2/6
Vmax
Log V
In normal operating conditions the PTC resistance
is low (see Figure 2), and
the current is below its hold
value (Ihold). However, an
overload will quickly heat
up the PTC thermistor until,
at around the switching
temperature (Ts), its
resistance increases rapidly,
limiting the current to far
below its trip value (Itrip), and
so protecting the circuit.
The trip time until protection
will depend on the level of
overload (see Figure 3).
VMN-PL0436-1205
This document is subject to change without notice. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT ARE SUBJECT TO
SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
V i s hay Intertechnolo g y, Inc .
I
INNOVAT
O L OGY
With Non-Linear Resistors
AND TEC
N
HN
CIRCUIT PROTECTION
O
19
62-2012
Using NTC – Negative Temperature Coefficient Thermistors
Resistors - Wide Resistance Range
The electrical resistance of NTC (negative temperature coefficient) thermistors increases as the ambient temperature
decreases, and decreases when temperature increases. NTC thermistors are used for overtemperature protection in PCs,
power supplies, and motherboards; Li-ion battery protection in fast chargers; and in digital scan cameras, fire and smoke
detectors, TCXOs, and other automotive, consumer, and industrial applications. They are generally included in a voltage
divider or Wheatstone bridges and can provide a measuring voltage to analog-digital converters. They also allow to control
the temperature compensation of displays and regulation of temperature with opamps or more complex ICs.
Features for Circuit Protection:
•
•
•
•
•
Leaded and SMD versions in case sizes from 0402 to 1206
Large resistance range: from 3.3 Ω to 470 kΩ
Temperature range: - 55 °C to + 155 °C
SMD termination: 100 % Sn over Nickel
Customized types available upon request
Examples of NTC Circuit Protection
PC Cooling Fan
The output Q of a bistable RS drives the gate of a MOSFET transistor switching a cooling fan on and off.
The cooling principle is based on a limit cycle regulation between a chosen low temperature Tlow ( the NTC value at
temperature Tlow is equal to Rlow) and a high temperature Thigh (the NTC value at Thigh is equal to Rhigh). The NTC value is
compared to fixed resistors of values Rlow and Rhigh. Input R and S depend directly upon this comparison. The cooler fan
will work between the moment when R or S go from 0 to 1 .
VC
RNTC
+
–
+
Rhigh
+
Rlow
+
–
–
A
A
+
C
–
A
+
C
–
Fan
Motor
Temperature
–
R=1 S=0
THigh
R=S=0
R=S=0
(unchanged)
S
TLow
R Q
unchanged
R=0 S=1
Q
Time
Q
Sensor (pos. a)
Q=1
Vcc
Heatsink
0
Fan Off
Processor
Capabilities
Socket
Sensor (pos. b)
Q=0
Q=0
On
Time
Off
Sensor (pos. c)
3/6
VMN-PL0436-1205
This document is subject to change without notice. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT ARE SUBJECT TO
SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
V i s hay Intertechnolo g y, Inc .
I
INNOVAT
19
62-2012
R10
R3
TR1
R5
Resistors - Wide Resistance Range
AND TEC
O L OGY
With Non-Linear Resistors
N
HN
CIRCUIT PROTECTION
O
R1
-Θ
R9
alarm
D4
NTC2
(exposed)
DC
supply
R6
TR2
TR4
TR3
Z1
R7
D1
D2
Z2
TH1
-Θ
NTC1
(insulated) R8 R2 C1 C2
R11
R4
Z3
Z4
Rate of Rise Heat Detecting Fire Alarm
Rate of rise heat detecting fire alarms operate on the principle of monitoring for a sudden rise in temperature associated
with an outbreak of fire, rather than waiting for the temperature to increase to a predetermined fixed limit before activating.
They therefore provide a faster response to a fire incident. The detector employs two matched NTC thermistors (NTC1
and NTC2), one of which is semi-protected in the body of the fire-alarm unit, while the other is exposed to the surrounding
atmosphere.
With a gradual rise and fall in ambient temperature, both sensors track each other fairly closely. With the outbreak of fire
however, the exposed thermistor will react to the temperature increase faster than the shielded sensor. This causes an
imbalance between the two sensors which in turn triggers the detector output. These detectors also feature an upper
temperature limit at which point the detector will respond regardless of rise time.
Capabilities
4/6
VMN-PL0436-1205
This document is subject to change without notice. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT ARE SUBJECT TO
SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
V i s hay Intertechnolo g y, Inc .
AND TEC
I
INNOVAT
O L OGY
With Non-Linear Resistors
N
HN
CIRCUIT PROTECTION
O
19
62-2012
Using Through-Hole Varistors
VDRs (voltage dependent resistors), or Metal Oxide Varistors (MOV), are used for transient surge suppression. Surge
suppression circuits are commonly used in computers, automobiles, telecom and industrial equipment, domestic
appliances, and other consumer products.
Resistors - Wide Resistance Range
Specifications Table
Standard Series: VDRS05 to VDRS20
Sizes from 5 mm to 20 mm
Vrms from 14 V to 680 V
Vdc from 18 V to 895 V
Can absorb surges up to 6,500 A
UL recognized according UL1449 edition 3
High-Surge Series: VDRH05 to VDRH20
Sizes from 5 mm to 20 mm
Vrms from 11 V to 680 V
Vdc from 14 V to 895 V
Can absorb surges up to 10,000 A
UL recognized according UL1449 edition 3
Example of VDR Circuit Protection in PC
High Surge Voltage
(without VDR)
Line Inductance
VAB
Safe Clamping Voltage
(with VDR)
230 V
Mains
Mains
Line Capacitance
I
VDR
VAB
PC
Fuse
Time
3.15 A
M
Short
Fuse 3.15 A
Circuit
Opens
(on motor)
Capabilities
Washing Machine Motor
400 W
5/6
VMN-PL0436-1205
This document is subject to change without notice. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT ARE SUBJECT TO
SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
V i s hay Intertechnolo g y, Inc .
I
INNOVAT
AND TEC
O L OGY
With Non-Linear Resistors
N
HN
CIRCUIT PROTECTION
O
19
62-2012
Resistors - Wide Resistance Range
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Capabilities
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VMN-PL0436-1205
This document is subject to change without notice. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT ARE SUBJECT TO
SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000