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Non-isolated, DOSA-SIP,
22A Selectable-Output DC/DC Converters
VOUT Range
IOUT Range
VIN Range
Typ. @ 25°C, full load
User-selectable outputs: 0.8-5V
Voltage Range
22 Amps maximum output current
Current, full power
Undervoltage Shutdown
With autorestart hysteresis
Short Circuit Current
Output is short circuited
Positive or negative polarity
Default polarity is positive
Double lead free to RoHS standards
Selectable phased start-up sequencing
and tracking
Remote On/Off Control
Wide range VIN 8.3-14V
Up to 112 Watts total output power
Typ. @ 25°C, full load
Power Output
112W max.
±2% of VNOM
Ripple & Noise
Line and Load Regulation (max.)
±0.1% / ±0.3%
These miniature point-of-load (POL) switching DC/DC converters are ideal regulation and
supply elements for mixed voltage systems. Fully
compatible with the Distributed-power Open
Standards Alliance specification (, LSN2’s can power CPU’s, programmable logic and mixed-voltage systems with little
heat and low noise. A typical application uses
a master isolated 12Vdc supply and individual
LSN2 converters for local 1.8 and 3.3Vdc supplies. All system isolation resides in the central
supply, leaving lower cost POL regulation at the
load. The LSN2’s can deliver very high power (to
112 Watts) in a tiny area without heat sinking or
external components. They feature quick transient
response (to 25μsec) and very fast current slew
rates (to 20A/μsec).
Overcurrent Protection
Hiccup autorecovery
Overtemperature Protection
+115°C shutdown
Efficiency (minimum)
Efficiency (typical)
Very high efficiency up to 94%
Starts up into pre-biased load
Fast settling, high di/dt IOUT slew rate
12V nominal
User adjustable
50% load
Continuous short circuit protection
Typ. @ 25°C, full load
Transient Response
50% load step to 2% of final value
Operating Temperature Range
–40 to +60°C
With 200 lfm airflow
UL/IEC/EN 60950
And CSA C22.2-No.60950
EMI, Conducted/Radiated
FCC pt.15, class B
May require external filter
22 Amp model
0.50 x 2.00 x 0.38 inches (12.7 x 50.8 x 9.653 mm)
For full details go to
MDC_LSN2-T/22-D12_D01Δ Page 1 of 13
Non-isolated, DOSA-SIP,
22A Selectable-Output DC/DC Converters
R/N (mVp-p) 
Model 
LSN2-T/22-D12 
22 
 Typical at TA = +25°C under nominal line voltage and full-load conditions, unless noted. All
models are tested and specified with external 22μF tantalum input and 1 || 10μF output
capacitors. These capacitors are necessary for our test equipment and may not be required to
achieve specified performance in your applications. See I/O Filtering and Noise Reduction.
 Ripple/Noise (R/N) is tested/specified over a 20MHz bandwidth and may be reduced with
external filtering. See I/O Filtering and Noise Reduction for details. R/N specs are shown at
VOUT = +1V
VIN Nom.
B14, P68
Regulation (max.) 
 These devices have no minimum-load requirements and will regulate under no-load
conditions. Regulation specifications describe the output-voltage deviation as the line voltage
or load is varied from its nominal/midpoint value to either extreme.
 Nominal line voltage, no-load/full-load conditions.
 LSN2-T/22-D12 efficiencies are shown at 5VOUT.
 Max. output current is 20 Amps with VOUT ≥ 3.3V.
This is an incomplete model number. Please refer to the Part Number Structure when
L SN2 - T / 22 - D12 N B G - C
Output Configuration:
L = Unipolar
Low Voltage
Non-Isolated SIP
Nominal Output Voltage:
0.8-5 Volts (D12)
Maximum Rated Output
Current in Amps
RoHS-6 compliant*
Power Good Output:
Blank = Omitted
G = Installed
Blank = Installed
B = is not installed
*Contact Murata Power Solutions
(DATEL) for availability.
On/Off Polarity:
Blank = Positive polarity
N = Negative polarity
Input Voltage Range:
D12 = 8.3-14 Volts (12V nominal)
Not all model number combinations are
available. Contact Murata Power Solutions (DATEL).
MDC_LSN2-T/22-D12_D01Δ Page 2 of 13
Non-isolated, DOSA-SIP,
22A Selectable-Output DC/DC Converters
Performance/Functional Specifications (1)
Input Voltage Range
See Ordering Guide
Dynamic Load Response
40μsec to ±2% of final value
(50-100-50% load step, di/dt = 20A/μsec)
Not isolated, input and output commons
are internally connected
Start-Up Time
7msec for VOUT = nominal
(VIN on to VOUT regulated or On/Off to VOUT)
Start-Up Threshold
8.1 Volts
Switching Frequency
Undervoltage Shutdown
7.5 Volts
Calculated MTBF (4)
TBC Hours
–40 to +85°C with derating
Overvoltage Shutdown
250 ±30kHz
Internal Input Filter Type
Operating Temperature Range
See Derating Curves
Reverse Polarity Protection
See fuse information
Operating PC Board Temperature
–40 to +100°C max. (12)
Recommended External Fuse
25 Amps
Storage Temperature Range
–55 to +125°C
Thermal Protection/Shutdown
Relative Humidity
To 85°C/85% RH, non-condensing
Reflected (Back) Ripple Current
Input Current:
Full Load Conditions
Inrush Transient
Shutdown Mode (Off, UV, OT)
Output Short Circuit
No Load
Low Line (VIN = VMIN)
Remote On/Off Control: (5)
Positive Logic (no model suffix)
Negative Logic (“N” model suffix)
See Ordering Guide
100mA, 5VOUT
12.62 Amps
OFF = ground pin to +0.3V max.
ON = open pin or +2.5V min. to +VIN max.
ON = 0 to +0.3V max.
OFF = open pin or +2.5V min. to +VIN max.
1mA max.
Outline Dimensions
See Mechanical Specifications
0.28 ounces (7.8 grams)
Pin Material
Tin plate over copper alloy
Electromagnetic Interference
(conducted and radiated)
FCC part 15, class B, EN55022 (may
need external filter)
UL/cUL 60950-1 CSA-C22.2 No.60950-1
IEC/EN 60950-1
Flammability Rating
Voltage Output Range
See Ordering Guide
Minimum Loading
No minimum load
Accuracy (50% load)
Voltage Adjustment Range
±2% of VNOM
Input Voltage (Continuous or transient)
See Ordering Guide
On/Off Control
Input Reverse Polarity Protection
Output Current (7)
Temperature Coefficient
±0.02% of VOUT range per °C
Ripple/Noise (20 MHz bandwidth)
See Ordering Guide and (8)
Line/Load Regulation (See Tech Notes)
See Ordering Guide and (10)
See Ordering Guide
Maximum Capacitive Loading: (15)
Cap-ESR = 0.001 to 0.01
Cap-ESR >0.01
Current Limit Inception: (98% of VOUT)
Short Circuit Mode (6)
Short Circuit Current Output
Protection Method (17)
–0V min. to +VIN max.
See Fuse section
Current-limited. Devices can
withstand sustained short circuit
without damage.
Storage Temperature
–55 to +125°C
Lead Temperature (soldering 10 sec. max.) +280°C
These are stress ratings. Exposure of devices to any of these conditions may adversely affect
long-term reliability. Proper operation under conditions other than those listed in the Performance/Functional Specifications Table is not implied.
45 Amps (cold startup)
43 Amps (after warm up)
Hiccup autorecovery on overload removal
Short Circuit Duration
Continuous, no damage (output shorted
to ground)
Prebias Startup (16)
Converter will start up if the external
output voltage is less than VSET
Sequencing (Omit “B” model suffix)
Slew Rate
Startup delay until sequence start
Tracking accuracy, rising input
Tracking accuracy, falling input
Sequence pin input impedance
2V max. per millisecond
10 milliseconds
VOUT = ±200mV max. of Sequence In
VOUT = ±400mV max. of Sequence In
Remote Sense to VOUT
0.5V max. (7)
Power Good Output (14)
(“G” suffix)
Power_Good Configuration
TRUE (OK) = open drain
FALSE (not OK) = Signal Ground to 0.4V
MOSFET to ground with external user
pullup, 10mA max. sink
+15 Volts
Performance/Functional Specification Notes:
All models are tested and specified with external 1 || 10μF ceramic/tantalum output capacitors
and a 22μF external input capacitor. All capacitors are low ESR types. These capacitors are
necessary to accommodate our test equipment and may not be required to achieve specified
performance in your applications. All models are stable and regulate within spec under no-load
General conditions for Specifications are +25°C, VIN = nominal, VOUT = nominal, full load. “Nominal” output voltage is +5V.
Input Back Ripple Current is tested and specified over a 5-20MHz bandwidth. Input filtering is
CIN = 2 x 100μF tantalum, CBUS = 1000μF electrolytic, LBUS = 1μH.
Note that Maximum Power Derating curves indicate an average current at nominal input voltage.
At higher temperatures and/or lower airflow, the DC/DC converter will tolerate brief full current
outputs if the total RMS current over time does not exceed the derating curve.
Mean Time Before Failure is calculated using the Telcordia (Belcore) SR-332 Method 1, Case 3,
ground fixed conditions, TPCBOARD = +25°C, full output load, natural air convection.
The On/Off Control may be driven with external logic or by applying appropriate external voltages
which are referenced to –Input Common. The On/Off Control Input should use either an open
collector/open drain transistor or logic gate which does not exceed +VIN. A 68K external pullup
resistor to +VIN will cause the “ON” state for negative logic models.
Short circuit shutdown begins when the output voltage under increasing load degrades approximately 2% from the selected setting.
MDC_LSN2-T/22-D12_D01Δ Page 3 of 13
Non-isolated, DOSA-SIP,
22A Selectable-Output DC/DC Converters
Performance/Functional Specification Notes:
If Sense is connected remotely at the load, up to 0.5 Volts difference is allowed between the
Sense and +VOUT pins to compensate for ohmic voltage drop in the power lines. A larger voltage
drop may cause the converter to exceed maximum power dissipation.
(8) Output noise may be further reduced by adding an external filter. See I/O Filtering and Noise
(9) All models are fully operational and meet published specifications, including “cold start” at
–40°C. The package temperature of all on-board components must not exceed +128°C.
(10) Regulation specifications describe the deviation as the line input voltage or output load current is
varied from a nominal midpoint value to either extreme.
(11) Other input or output voltage ranges are available under scheduled quantity special order.
(12) Maximum PC board temperature is measured with the sensor in the center.
(13) Do not exceed maximum power specifications when adjusting the output trim.
(14) When
Sequencing is not used, the Power Good output is TRUE at any time the output is within
approximately ±10% of the voltage set point. Power Good basically indicates if the converter is
in regulation. Power Good detects Over Temperature if the PWM has shut down due to OT. Power
Good does not directly detect Over Current.
If Sequencing is in progress, Power Good will falsely indicate TRUE (valid) before the output
reaches its setpoint. Ignore Power Good if Sequencing is in transition.
(15) The maximum output capacitive loads depend on the the Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) of
the external output capacitor. Use only as much output fitering as needed and no more. Low ESR
ceramic caps may degrade dynamic performance. Thoroughly test your system under full load
with all components installed.
(16) Do not use Pre-bias startup and sequencing together. See Technical Notes below.
(17) After short circuit shutdown, if the load is partially removed such that the load still exceeds the
overcurrent (OC) detection, the converter will remain in hiccup restart mode.
(18) For best noise performance, leave the Track/Sequence pin OPEN when not used.
Only one phase of two is shown.
Figure 1. LSN2 Series Simplified Schematic
I/O Filtering and Noise Reduction
All models in the LSN2 Series are tested and specified with external
1 || 10μF ceramic/tantalum output capacitors and a 22μF tantalum input
capacitor. These capacitors are necessary to accommodate our test equipment and may not be required to achieve desired performance in your application. The LSN2's are designed with high-quality, high-performance internal
I/O caps, and will operate within spec in most applications with no additional
external components.
In particular, the LSN2's input capacitors are specified for low ESR and are
fully rated to handle the units' input ripple currents. Similarly, the internal
output capacitors are specified for low ESR and full-range frequency response.
In critical applications, input/output ripple/noise may be further reduced using
filtering techniques, the simplest being the installation of external I/O caps.
External input capacitors serve primarily as energy-storage devices. They
minimize high-frequency variations in input voltage (usually caused by IR
drops in conductors leading to the DC/DC) as the switching converter draws
pulses of current. Input capacitors should be selected for bulk capacitance
(at appropriate frequencies), low ESR, and high rms-ripple-current ratings.
The switching nature of modern DC/DC's requires that the dc input voltage
source have low ac impedance at the frequencies of interest. Highly inductive
source impedances can greatly affect system stability. Your specific system
configuration may necessitate additional considerations.
MDC_LSN2-T/22-D12_D01Δ Page 4 of 13
Non-isolated, DOSA-SIP,
22A Selectable-Output DC/DC Converters
Safety Considerations
LSN2 SIPs are non-isolated DC/DC converters. In general, all DC/DC's
must be installed, including considerations for I/O voltages and spacing/separation requirements, in compliance with relevant safety-agency specifications (usually UL/IEC/EN60950).
In particular, for a non-isolated converter's output voltage to meet SELV
(safety extra low voltage) requirements, its input must be SELV compliant.
If the output needs to be ELV (extra low voltage), the input must be ELV.
#).X§&%32M7 K(Z
#"53§&%32M7 K(Z
Input Overvoltage and Reverse-Polarity Protection
Figure 2. Measuring Input Ripple Current
Output ripple/noise (also referred to as periodic and random deviations or
PARD) may be reduced below specified limits with the installation of additional
external output capacitors. Output capacitors function as true filter elements
and should be selected for bulk capacitance, low ESR, and appropriate frequency response. Any scope measurements of PARD should be made directly
at the DC/DC output pins with scope probe ground less than 0.5" in length.
LSN2 SIP Series DC/DC's do not incorporate either input overvoltage or input
reverse-polarity protection. Input voltages in excess of the specified absolute
maximum ratings and input polarity reversals of longer than "instantaneous"
duration can cause permanent damage to these devices.
Start-Up Time
The VIN to VOUT Start-Up Time is the interval between the time at which a
ramping input voltage crosses the lower limit of the specified input voltage range and the fully loaded output voltage enters and remains within its
specified accuracy band. Actual measured times will vary with input source
impedance, external input capacitance, and the slew rate and final value of
the input voltage as it appears to the converter.
The On/Off to VOUT Start-Up Time assumes the converter is turned off via the
On/Off Control with the nominal input voltage already applied to the converter.
The specification defines the interval between the time at which the converter
is turned on and the fully loaded output voltage enters and remains within its
specified accuracy band. See Typical Performance Curves.
Remote Sense
Figure 3. Measuring Output Ripple/Noise (PARD)
All external capacitors should have appropriate voltage ratings and be located
as close to the converters as possible. Temperature variations for all relevant
parameters should be taken into consideration.
The most effective combination of external I/O capacitors will be a function
of your line voltage and source impedance, as well as your particular load
and layout conditions. Our Applications Engineers can recommend potential
solutions and discuss the possibility of our modifying a given device’s internal
filtering to meet your specific requirements. Contact our Applications Engineering Group for additional details.
Input Fusing
Most applications and or safety agencies require the installation of fuses at
the inputs of power conversion components. The LSN2 Series are not internally fused. Therefore, if input fusing is mandatory, either a normal-blow or a
slow-blow fuse with a value no greater than twice the maximum input current
calculated at low line with the converter's minimum efficiency should be
installed within the ungrounded input path to the converter.
LSN2 Series offer an output sense function. The sense function enables
point-of-use regulation for overcoming moderate IR drops in conductors and/
or cabling. Since these are non-isolated devices whose inputs and outputs
usually share the same ground plane, sense is provided only for the +Output.
The remote sense line is part of the feedback control loop regulating the
DC/DC converter’s output. The sense line carries very little current and
consequently requires a minimal cross-sectional-area conductor. As such,
it is not a low-impedance point and must be treated with care in layout and
cabling. Sense lines should be run adjacent to signals (preferably ground), and
in cable and/or discrete-wiring applications, twisted-pair or similar techniques
should be used. To prevent high frequency voltage differences between VOUT
and Sense, we recommend installation of a 1000pF capacitor close to the
The sense function is capable of compensating for voltage drops between the
+Output and +Sense pins that do not exceed 10% of VOUT.
[VOUT(+) – Common] – [Sense(+) – Common]  10%VOUT
Power derating (output current limiting) is based upon maximum output
current and voltage at the converter's output pins. Use of trim and sense
functions can cause the output voltage to increase, thereby increasing output
power beyond the LSN2's specified rating. Therefore:
(VOUT at pins) x (IOUT)  rated output power
MDC_LSN2-T/22-D12_D01Δ Page 5 of 13
Non-isolated, DOSA-SIP,
22A Selectable-Output DC/DC Converters
The internal 10.5resistor between +Sense and +Output (see Figure 1)
serves to protect the sense function by limiting the output current flowing
through the sense line if the main output is disconnected. It also prevents
output voltage runaway if the sense connection is disconnected.
Note: If the sense function is not used for remote regulation, +Sense
must be tied to +Output at the DC/DC converter pins.
Remote On/Off Control
The input-side remote On/Off Control is an external input signal available in
either positive (no suffix) or negative (“N” suffix) polarity. Normally this input
is controlled by the user’s external transistor or relay. With simple external
circuits, it may also be selected by logic outputs. Please note however that
the actual control threshold levels vary somewhat with the PWM supply and
therefore are best suited to “open collector” or “open drain” type logic. The
On/Off control takes effect only when appropriate input power has been
applied and stabilized (approximately 7msec).
For positive polarity, the default operation leaves this pin open (unconnected)
or HIGH. The output will then always be on (enabled) whenever appropriate
input power is applied. Negative polarity models require the On/Off to be
grounded to the –Input terminal or brought LOW to turn the converter on.
To turn the converter off, for positive polarity models, ground the On/Off
control or bring it LOW. For negative polarity, raise the On/Off at least to +2.5V
to turn it off.
Dynamic control of the On/Off must be capable of sinking or sourcing the
Figure 4. On/Off Control Using An External Open Collector Driver
control current (approximately 1mA max.) and not overdrive the input greater
than the +VIN power input. Always wait for the input power to stabilize before
activating the On/Off control. Be aware that a delay of several milliseconds
occurs (see specifications) between activation of the control and the resulting
change in the output.
Power-up sequencing
If a controlled start-up of one or more LSN2 Series DC/DC converters is
required, or if several output voltages need to be powered-up in a given
sequence, the On/Off control pin can be driven with an external open collector
device as per Figure 4.
Leaving the input of the on/off circuit closed during power-up will have the
output of the DC/DC converter disabled. When the input to the external open
collector is pulled high, the DC/DC converter's output will be enabled.
Output Overvoltage Protection
LSN2 SIP Series DC/DC converters do not incorporate output overvoltage protection. In the extremely rare situation in which the device’s feedback loop is
broken, the output voltage may run to excessively high levels (VOUT = VIN). If it
is absolutely imperative that you protect your load against any and all possible
overvoltage situations, voltage limiting circuitry must be provided external to
the power converter.
Figure 5. Inverting On/Off Control
Output Overcurrent Detection
Overloading the power converter's output for an extended time will invariably
cause internal component temperatures to exceed their maximum ratings and
eventually lead to component failure. High-current-carrying components such
as inductors, FET's and diodes are at the highest risk. LSN2 SIP Series DC/DC
converters incorporate an output overcurrent detection and shutdown function
that serves to protect both the power converter and its load.
If the output current exceeds it maximum rating by typically 50% or if the
output voltage drops to less than 98% of it original value, the LSN2's internal
overcurrent-detection circuitry immediately turns off the converter, which then
goes into a "hiccup" mode. While hiccupping, the converter will continuously
attempt to restart itself, go into overcurrent, and then shut down. Once the
output short is removed, the converter will automatically restart itself.
Output Reverse Conduction
Many DC/DC's using synchronous rectification suffer from Output Reverse
Conduction. If those devices have a voltage applied across their output before
a voltage is applied to their input (this typically occurs when another power
supply starts before them in a power-sequenced application), they will either
fail to start or self destruct. In both cases, the cause is the "freewheeling" or
"catch" FET biasing itself on and effectively becoming a short circuit.
LSN2 SIP DC/DC converters do not suffer from Output Reverse Conduction.
They employ proprietary gate drive circuitry that makes them immune to
moderate applied output overvoltages.
Thermal Considerations and Thermal Protection
The typical output-current thermal-derating curves shown below enable
designers to determine how much current they can reliably derive from each
model of the LSN2 SIPs under known ambient-temperature and air-flow conditions. Similarly, the curves indicate how much air flow is required to reliably
deliver a specific output current at known temperatures.
MDC_LSN2-T/22-D12_D01Δ Page 6 of 13
Non-isolated, DOSA-SIP,
22A Selectable-Output DC/DC Converters
The highest temperatures in LSN2 SIPs occur at their output inductor, whose
heat is generated primarily by I 2 R losses. The derating curves were developed
using thermocouples to monitor the inductor temperature and varying the load
to keep that temperature below +110°C under the assorted conditions of air
flow and air temperature. Once the temperature exceeds +115°C (approx.),
the thermal protection will disable the converter. Automatic restart occurs
after the temperature has dropped below about +110°C.
As you may deduce from the derating curves and observe in the efficiency
curves on the following pages, LSN2 SIPs maintain virtually constant
efficiency from half to full load, and consequently deliver very impressive
temperature performance even if operating at full load.
Lastly, when LSN2 SIPs are installed in system boards, they are obviously
subject to numerous factors and tolerances not taken into account here. If you
are attempting to extract the most current out of these units under demanding temperature conditions, we advise you to monitor the output-inductor
temperature to ensure it remains below +110°C at all times.
Output Adjustments
The LSN2 series includes a special output voltage trimming feature which
is fully compatible with competitive units. The output voltage may be varied
using a single trim resistor from the Trim input to Power Common (pin 4)
or an external DC trim voltage applied between the Trim input and Power
As with other trim adjustments, be sure to use a precision low-tempco resistor (±100 ppm/°C) mounted close to the converter with short leads. Also be
aware that the output voltage accuracy is ±2% (typical) therefore you may
need to vary this resistance slightly to achieve your desired output setting.
Resistor Trim Equation:
RTRIM () = _____________ –1000
VO – 0.7525
Pre-Biased Startup
Newer systems with multiple power voltages have an additional problem
besides startup sequencing. Some sections have power already partially
applied (possibly because of earlier power sequencing) or have leakage power
present so that the DC/DC converter must power up into an existing voltage.
This power may either be stored in an external bypass capacitor or supplied
by an active source.
RTRIM (k)
This “pre-biased” condition can also occur with some types of programmable logic or because of blocking diode leakage or small currents passed
through forward biased ESD diodes. Conventional DC/DC’s may fail to start up
correctly if there is output voltage already present. And some external circuits
are adversely affected when the low side MOSFET in a synchronous rectifier
converter sinks current at start up.
The LSN2 series includes a pre-bias startup mode to prevent these initialization problems. Essentially, the converter acts as a simple buck converter until
the output reaches its set point voltage at which time it converts to a synchronous rectifier design. This feature is variously called “monotonic” because
the voltage does not decay (from low side MOSFET shorting) or produce a
negative transient once the input power is applied and the startup sequence
Don’t Use Pre-Biasing and Sequencing Together
Normally, you would use startup sequencing on multiple DC/DC’s to solve the
Pre-Bias problem. By causing all power sources to ramp up together, no one
source can dominate and force the others to fail to start. For most applications, do not use startup sequencing in a Pre-Bias application, especially with
an external active power source.
If you have active source pre-biasing, leave the Sequence input open so that
the output will step up quickly and safely. A symptom of this condition is
repeated failed starts. You can further verify this by removing the existing load
and testing it with a separate passive resistive load which does not exceed full
current. If the resistive load starts successfully, you may be trying to drive an
external pre-biased active source.
It may also be possible to use pre-bias and sequencing together if the PreBias source is in fact only a small external bypass capacitor slowly charged by
leakage currents. Test your application to be sure.
Voltage Trim
The LSN2 Series may also be trimmed using an external voltage applied
between the Trim input and Output Common. Be aware that the internal “load”
impedance looking into trim pin is less than 5k. Therefore, you may have to
compensate for this in the source resistance of your external voltage reference.
Use a low noise DC reference and short leads. Mount the leads close to the
converter. Consider using a small bypass capacitor (0.1μF ceramic) between
trim and output common to improve stability.
Voltage Trim Equation:
VTRIM (in Volts) = 0.7 –(0.0667 x (VO – 0.7525))
The LSN2 fixed trim voltages to set the output voltage are:
Figure 6. Trim Connections
MDC_LSN2-T/22-D12_D01Δ Page 7 of 13
Non-isolated, DOSA-SIP,
22A Selectable-Output DC/DC Converters
LSN2 Power Sequencing
Two Approaches
Whereas in the old days, one master switch simultaneously turned on the
power for all parts of a system, many modern systems require multiple supply
voltages for different on-board sections. Typically the CPU or microcontroller
needs 1.8 Volts or lower. Memory (particularly DDR) may use 1.8 to 2.5 Volts.
Interface “glue” and “chipset” logic might use +3.3Vdc power while Input/
Output subsystems may need +5V. Finally, peripherals use 5V and/or 12V.
There are two ways to manage these timing and voltage differences. Either
the power up/down sequence can be controlled by discrete On/Off logic controls for each power supply (see Figure 7). Or the power up/down cycle is set
by Sequencing or Tracking circuits. Some systems combine both methods.
Timing is Everything
This mix of system voltages is being distributed by several local power solutions including Point-of-load (POL) DC/DC converters and sometimes a linear
regulator, all sourced from a master AC power supply. While this mix of voltages is challenging enough, a further difficulty is the start-up and shutdown
timing relationship between these power sources and relative voltage differences between them.
For many systems, the CPU and memory must be powered up, boot-strap
loaded and stabilized before the I/O section is turned on. This avoids uncommanded data bytes being transferred, compromising an active external
network or placing the I/O section in an undefined mode. Or it keeps bad commands out of disk and peripheral controllers until they are ready to go to work.
Another goal for staggered power-up is to avoid an oversize load applied to
the master source all at once. A more serious reason to manage the timing
and voltage differences is to avoid either a latchup condition in programmable logic (a latchup might ignore commands or would respond improperly
to them) or a high current startup situation (which may damage on-board
circuits). And on the power down phase, inappropriate timing or voltages can
cause interface logic to send a wrong “epitaph” command.
A different power sequencing solution is employed on DATEL’s LSN2 DC/DC
converter. After external input power is applied and the converter stabilizes,
a high impedance Sequence/Track input pin accepts an external analog voltage. The output power voltage will then track this Sequence/Track input at
a one-to-one ratio up to the nominal set point voltage for that converter. This
Sequencing input may be ramped, delayed, stepped or otherwise phased as
needed for the output power, all fully controlled by the user’s simple external
circuits. As a direct input to the converter’s feedback loop, response to the
Sequence/Track input is very fast (milliseconds).
Power Phasing Architectures
Observe the simplified timing diagrams below. There are many possible power
phasing architectures and these are just some examples to help you analyze
your system. Each application will be different. Multiple output voltages may
require more complex timing than that shown here.
If the power up/down timing needs to be closely controlled, each POL must be
characterized for start-up and down times. These often vary—one POL may
stabilize in 15 milliseconds whereas another takes 50 milliseconds. Another
problem is that the sequencing controller itself must be “already running” and
stabilized before starting up other circuits. If there is a glitch in the system,
the power up/down sequencer could get out of step with possible disastrous
results. Lastly, changing the timing may require reprogramming the logic
sequencer or rewriting software.
By properly controlling this Sequence pin, most operations of the discrete
On/Off logic sequencer may be duplicated. The Sequence pin system does
not use the converter’s Enable On/Off control (unless it is a master emergency
shut down system).
However the sequencer controller has some obvious difficulties besides
extra cost, wiring and programming complexity. First, power is applied as a
fast-rising, all-or-nothing step which may be unacceptable to certain circuits,
especially large output bypass capacitors. These could force POL’s into
overcurrent shutdown. And some circuits (such as many linear regulators and
some POL’s) may not have convenient start-up controls. This requires designing and fabricating external power controls such as high-current MOSFET’s.
Sequence/Track Input
The first system (discrete On/Off controls) applies signals from an alreadypowered logic sequencer or dedicated microcontroller which turns on each
downstream power section in cascaded series. This of course assumes all
POL’s have On/Off controls. A distinct advantage of the sequencing controller
is that it can produce an “All On” output signal to state that the full system is
stable and ready to go to work. For additional safety, the sequencer can monitor the output voltages of all downstream POL’s with an A/D converter system.
Figure 7. Power Up/Down Sequencing Controller
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Non-isolated, DOSA-SIP,
22A Selectable-Output DC/DC Converters
These diagrams illustrate the time and slew rate relationship between two
typical power output voltages. Generally the Master will be a primary power
voltage in the system which must be present first or coincident with any
Slave power voltages. The Master output voltage is connected to the Slave’s
Sequence input, either by a voltage divider, divider-plus-capacitor or some
other method. Several standard sequencing architectures are prevalent. They
are concerned with three factors:
The time relationship between the Master and Slave voltages
The voltage difference relationship between the Master and Slave
The voltage slew rate (ramp slope) of each converter’s output.
For most systems, the time relationship is the dominant factor. The voltage
difference relationship is important for systems very concerned about possible
latchup of programmable devices or overdriving ESD diodes. Lower slew
rates avoid overcurrent shutdown during bypass cap charge-up.
In Figure 18, two POL’s ramp up at the same rate until they reach their different respective final set point voltages. During the ramp, their voltages are
nearly identical. This avoids problems with large currents flowing between
Figure 10. Staggered or Sequential Phasing—Inclusive (Fixed Delays)
Figure 11. Staggered or Sequential Phasing—Exclusive
(Fixed Cascaded Delays)
Figure 8. Coincident or Simultaneous Phasing (Identical Slew Rates)
logic systems which are not initialized yet. Since both end voltages are different, each converter reaches it’s setpoint voltage at a different time.
Figures 10 and 11 show both delayed start up and delayed final voltages for
two converters. Figure 10 is called “Inclusive” because the later starting POL
finishes inside the earlier POL. The timing in Figure 10 is more easily built
using a combined digital sequence controller and the Sequence/Track pin.
Figure 11 is the same strategy as Figure 10 but with an “exclusive” timing
relationship staggered approximately the same at power-up and power-down.
To use the Sequence pin after power start-up stabilizes, apply a rising external
voltage to the Sequence input. As the voltage rises, the output voltage will
track the Sequence input (gain = 1). The output voltage will stop rising
when it reaches the normal set point for the converter. The Sequence input
may optionally continue to rise without any effect on the output. Keep the
Sequence input voltage below the converter’s input supply voltage.
Use a similar strategy on power down. The output voltage will stay constant
until the Sequence input falls below the set point.
Figure 9. Proportional or Ratiometric Phasing (Identical VOUT Time)
Figure 9 shows two POL’s with different slew rates in order to reach differing
final voltages at about the same time.
Any strategy may be used to deliver the power up/down ramps. The circuits
below show simple RC networks but you may also use operational amplifiers,
D/A converters, etc.
The circuits shown in Figures 12 through 14 introduce several concepts when
using these Sequencing controls on Point-of-Load (POL) converters. These
circuits are only for reference and are not intended as final designs ready for
your application. Also, numerous connections are omitted for clarity.
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Non-isolated, DOSA-SIP,
22A Selectable-Output DC/DC Converters
Figure 12. Wiring for Simultaneous Phasing
Figure 14. Proportional Phasing
Figure 12 shows a basic Master (POL A) and Slave (POL B) connected so the
POL B ramps up identically to POL A as shown in timing diagram, Figure 8. RC
network R1 and C1 charge up at a rate set by the R1-C1 time constant, giving
a roughly linear ramp. As POL A reaches 3.3VOUT (the setpoint of POL B), POL
B will stop rising. POL A then continues rising until it reaches 5V. R1 should be
significantly smaller than the internal bias current resistor from the Sequence
pin. Start with a 20kvalue. We assume that the critical phase is only on
power up therefore there is no provision for ramped power down.
Figure 13 shows a single POL and the same RC network. However, we have
added a FET at Q1 as an up/down control. When VIN power is applied to the
POL, Q1 is biased on, shorting out the Sequence pin. When Q1’s gate is biased
off, R1 charges C1 and the POL’s output ramps up at the R1-C1 slew rate.
Note: Q1’s gate would typically be controlled from some external digital logic.
Figure 15. Sequence/Track Simplified Equivalent Schematic
Guidelines for Sequence/Track Applications
Figure 13. Self-Ramping Power Up
[1] Leave the converter’s On/Off Enable control (if installed) in the On setting.
Normally, you should just leave the On/Off pin open.
[2] Allow the converter to stabilize (typically less than 20 mS after +VIN
power on) before raising the Sequence input. Also, if you wish to have a
ramped power down, leave +VIN powered all during the down ramp. Do
not simply shut off power.
[3] If you do not use the Sequence/Track pin, leave it open or tied to +VIN.
If you wish to have a ramped power down (rather than a step down), add a
small resistor in series with Q1’s drain.
Figure 14 shows both a RC ramp on Master POL A and a proportional tracking
divider (R2 and R3) on POL B. We have also added an optional very small
noise filter cap at C2. Figure 14’s circuit corresponds roughly to Figure 9’s
timing for power up.
[4] Observe the Output slew rate relative to the Sequence input. A rough
guide is 2 Volts per millisecond maximum slew rate. If you exceed this
slew rate on the Sequence pin, the converter will simply ramp up at
it’s maximum output slew rate (and will not necessarily track the faster
Sequence input). The reason to carefully consider the slew rate limitation
is in case you want two different POL’s to precisely track each other.
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Non-isolated, DOSA-SIP,
22A Selectable-Output DC/DC Converters
[5] Be aware of the input characteristics of the Sequence pin. The high
input impedance affects the time constant of any small external ramp
capacitor. And the bias current will slowly charge up any external caps
over time if they are not grounded. The internal pull-up resistor to +VIN is
typically 1M.
Notice in the simplified Sequence/Track equivalent circuit (Figure 15) that
a blocking diode effectively disconnects this circuit when the Sequence/
Track pin is pulled up to +VIN or left open.
[6] Allow the converter to eventually achieve its full-rated setpoint output
voltage. Do not remain in ramp up/down mode indefinitely. The converter
is characterized and meets all its specifications only at the setpoint
voltage (plus or minus any trim voltage). During the ramp-up phase, the
converter is not considered fully in regulation. This may affect performance with excessive high current loads at turn-on.
[7] The Sequence is a sensitive input into the feedback control loop of
the converter. Avoid noise and long leads on this input. Keep all wiring
very short. Use shielding if necessary. Consider adding a small parallel
ceramic capacitor across the Sequence/Track input (see Figure 14) to
block any external high frequency noise.
[8] If one converter is slaving to another master converter, there will be a
very short phase lag between the two converters. This can usually be
Power Good Output
The Power Good Output consists of an unterminated BSS138 small signal
field effect transistor and a dual window comparator input circuit driving the
gate of the FET. Power Good is TRUE (open drain, high impedance state) if the
converter’s power output voltage is within about ±10% of the setpoint. Thus,
the PG TRUE condition indicates that the converter is approximately within
regulation. Since an overcurrent condition occurs at about 2% output voltage
reduction, the Power Good does not directly measure an output overcurrent
condition at rated maximum output current. However, gross overcurrent or
an output short circuit will set Power Good to FALSE (+0.2V saturation, low
impedance condition).
Using a simple connection to external logic (and returned to the converter’s
Common connection), the Power Good output is unterminated so that the user
may adapt the output to a variety of logic families. The PG pin may therefore
be used with logic voltages which are not necessarily the same as the input
or output power voltages. Install an external pullup resistor to the logic supply
voltage which is compatible with your logic system. When the Power Good is
out of limit, the FET is at saturation, approximately +0.2V output. Keep this
LOW (FALSE) pulldown current to less than 10mA.
Please note that Power Good is briefly false during Sequence ramp-up. Ignore
Power Good while in transition.
[9] You may connect two or more Sequence inputs in parallel from two
converters. Be aware of the increasing pull-up bias current and reduced
input impedance.
[10] Any external capacitance added to the converter’s output may affect
ramp up/down times and ramp tracking accuracy.
Figure 16. Equivalent Power Good Circuit
MDC_LSN2-T/22-D12_D01Δ Page 11 of 13
Non-isolated, DOSA-SIP,
22A Selectable-Output DC/DC Converters
MDC_LSN2-T/22-D12_D01Δ Page 12 of 13
Non-isolated, DOSA-SIP,
22A Selectable-Output DC/DC Converters
Case B14
10 9 B 8 7 6
A 5 4 3 2 1
5 EQ. SP. @
0.100 (2.54)
Function P68
Function P68
+Sense In
VTRACK/Sequence **
Power Good Out *
On/Off Control
0.040 (1.02)
5 EQ. SP. @
0.100 (2.54)
Ø 0.030 ± 0.002
(0.76 ± 0.05)
Dimensions are in inches (mm) shown for ref. only.
* Power Good output is optional.
If not installed, the pin is omitted.
Third Angle Projection
** VTRACK/Sequence pin “B”
is not installed for parts ordered
with the “B” suffix.
Note: Because of the high currents, wire the
appropriate input, output and common pins in
parallel groups.
Murata Power Solutions, Inc.
11 Cabot Boulevard, Mansfield, MA 02048-1151 U.S.A.
ISO 9001 and 14001 REGISTERED
Tolerances (unless otherwise specified):
.XX ± 0.02 (0.5)
.XXX ± 0.010 (0.25)
Angles ± 2˚
Components are shown for reference only.
This product is subject to the following operating requirements
and the Life and Safety Critical Application Sales Policy:
Refer to:
Murata Power Solutions, Inc. makes no representation that the use of its products in the circuits described herein, or the use of other
technical information contained herein, will not infringe upon existing or future patent rights. The descriptions contained herein do not imply
the granting of licenses to make, use, or sell equipment constructed in accordance therewith. Specifications are subject to change without
© 2014 Murata Power Solutions, Inc.
MDC_LSN2-T/22-D12_D01Δ Page 13 of 13