DTS SPCM-AQRH

DATASHEET
Photon Detection
SPCM-AQRH
Single Photon Counting Module
Key Features









Peak PDE: > 70% @ 700nm
180µm active area
> 35 Mcps dynamic range
Gated output
Single +5 V supply
RoHS-compliant
Low after pulse probability
High uniformity over large
active area
Unmatched linearity
Applications



Excelitas Technologies’ newly improved SPCM-AQRH Single Photon Counting Module
detects single photons over the wavelength range of 400nm to 1060nm with
performance parameters superior to other solid state or vacuum-tube based photon
counters.





LIDAR
Quantum Cryptography
Photon correlation
spectroscopy
Astronomical observation
Optical range finding
Adaptive optics
Ultra-sensitive fluorescence
Particle sizing
The SPCM-AQRH uses a unique silicon avalanche photodiode (SLiK) with a circular
active area, achieving a peak photon detection efficiency greater than 70% at 700nm
over a 180µm diameter with unmatched uniformity over the full active area. A TTL
level pulse is generated for each photon detected and the signal is available at the
BNC connector at the rear of the module. The signal should be terminated into 50Ω.
The photodiode is both thermoelectrically cooled and temperature controlled,
ensuring stabilized performance despite ambient temperature changes. Operating
temperature range has been increased and the module (case temperature) will
function between 5˚C and 70˚C.
Recent electronic circuit improvements have reduced the minimum dead time to
20ns, thereby increasing linearity and improving the dynamic range of the module.
Timing resolution of the module was also improved significantly. The SPCM-AQRH
has internal protection circuitry that protects the avalanche photodiode and the
module electronics from damage due to accidental overload from exposure to
ambient lighting.
Excelitas’ series of photon counting modules are designed and built to be fully
compliant with the European Union’s RoHS Directive 2011/65/EU.
www.excelitas.com
Page 1 of 12
SPCM-AQRH Rev 2014-09
SPCM-AQRH Series
Single Photon Counting Module
Table 1. Specifications of SPCM-AQRH-1X, @ 22 ºC, all models, unless otherwise indicated
Parameter
Supply voltage
(1)
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
4.75
5.0
5.25
V
0.4
1.2
A
0.1
0.2
Ω
70
°C
Supply current
Power cable total resistance
Case operating temperature
(1, 3)
5
Active area (diameter) at minimum PDE
Photon detection efficiency (PDE)
(10, 11)
(without FC adaptor)
at:
400nm
650nm
830nm
1060nm
Refer to SPCM-NIR family for red – NIR
optimized/selected modules, see Figure 4
Dark Count
170
180
µm
2
50
35
1
5
65
45
2
%
%
%
%
(4, 5, 6)
SPCM-AQRH-10
SPCM-AQRH-11
SPCM-AQRH-12
SPCM-AQRH-13
SPCM-AQRH-14
SPCM-AQRH-15
SPCM-AQRH-16
Average dark count variation at constant case
(4, 5, 6)
temperature (6 hrs. at 25 °C)
SPCM-AQRH-10, 11, 12, 13
SPCM-AQRH-14, 15, 16
Variation of average dark count rate at 5°C to 70°C
(4, 5, 6)
case temperature for
SPCM-AQRH-10, 11, 12, 13
SPCM-AQRH-14, 15, 16
(12)
Single photon timing resolution (at 825nm)
Dead time (count rate below 5M/c)
20
Other values can be factory set
Linearity correction factor
Afterpulsing probability
(8)
12
(7)
at 200 Kc/s
1 Mc/s
5 Mc/s
10 Mc/s
20 Mc/s
25 Mc/s
± 10
±1
%

± 20
±2
%

ps
40
40
ns
Mc/s
1
1.02
1.16
1.40
2.35
3.32
(13)
0.5
Setting time following power up (1% stability) at
1 Mc/s and 25°C
www.excelitas.com
Counts /
second
350
Please refer to SPCM-AQRH-TR family of
optimized timing modules
Output count rate before saturation
1500
1000
500
250
100
50
25
15
Page 2 of 12
%
20
s
SPCM-AQRH Rev 2014-09
SPCM-AQRH Series
Single Photon Counting Module
Parameter
Min
Threshold setting required on counter for digital
output pulse (terminate in 50Ω)
(9)
Output pulse width
Other values can be factory set
Output pulse amplitude
TTL HIGH
TTL LOW
Gating turn on/off (50Ω output)
Disable = TTL low (<0.8V)
Enable = TTL high (>2.0V)
Gating threshold voltage (at V supply = 5V)
Low level (sink current >90mA)
High level (sink current >30mA)
Refer to Operating Instructions below for noted items
1.5
-0.1
0
2.0
Typ
Max
Unit
1.0
V
8
ns
2
5.25
0.8
V
V
40
60
45
65
ns
0.4
5.25
V
Operating Instructions
1. Connection to incorrect voltage or reverse voltage may damage or destroy the module. The warranty is invalid should such
damage occur. The center contact of the barrel type power connector (corresponding to the white stripe on the wire) is +5V.
2.
These modules are not qualified for shock or vibration other than normal instrumentation environments.
3. The module dissipates a mean power of 2.0W and a maximum power of 6W at high count rate and 70°C. Adequate heat
sinking must be provided by clamping the module to a suitable heat sink via the holes in the module base. To meet specified
performance, the module case temperature must not exceed 70°C. See Figure 6 for stability of probability of detection vs.
temperature.
4. On a small percentage of delivered modules, bi-stability of the dark count has been observed. Research indicates this bistability is probably due to transitions at a single impurity site between a low energy and a high energy state.
The phenomenon is seen as an abrupt change in the dark count rate, e.g., 350 to 390 c/s., and the dark count switches between
the two states at a rate dependent upon the detector temperature. Multilevel switching has also been observed, where more
than one impurity site is switching.
5. Long-term bi-stability is related to fundamental semiconductor physics and is beyond Excelitas’ control. Warranty claims will
not be considered against bi-stability alone.
Warranty claims will only be considered if the high level of the dark count exceeds the maximum level in the specification.
6. In the dark, the module generates random counts that follow a Poisson distribution. In a Poissonian process, the standard
deviation is equal to the square root of the average count. In this specification the “dark count variation” refers to the stability of
the average count of the module.
7.
The actual photon rate could be calculated using the following equation, as indicated in Note #7 in the box below:
8. For the typical dead time setting of 20ns, typical maximum count rate is 40Mc/s before saturation. If the longest output
pulse width option is set (28ns), the typical maximum count rate is 30Mc/s before saturation. If the maximum dead time setting is
used, about 62ns, typical maximum count rate would be about 12Mc/s. Note that using a longer dead time will degrade linearity.
www.excelitas.com
Page 3 of 12
SPCM-AQRH Rev 2014-09
SPCM-AQRH Series
Single Photon Counting Module
9. Output pulse width is set at the standard of 8ns ± 2ns at 1V. Optional output pulse width is 18ns. Please refer to Table 3,
Ordering Guide, for which model number to order. If the application requires other output pulse widths, contact the factory for
quotation.
10. If needed, an FC fibre adaptor can be factory installed on the SPCM-AQRH module allowing optical fibres to be used. The FC
adaptor is optimized for use at 550 nm and with a 100µm core multimode fibre. If other wavelengths or fibre sizes are needed,
please contact the factory for availability. The addition of an FC adaptor will cause a small drop in the effective PDE of the module.
The amount of the loss will depend on the wavelength and the diameter of the fibre used to provide optical input to the module.
Typically, one can expect around a 5% loss with a 100µm core fibre at 550nm.
11. Red-NIR wavelength photon detection efficiency can be optimized. PDE is enhanced over the 700-900nm wavelength range.
Please refer to the Product Brief of the SPCM-NIR series. See Figure 4 for the typical photon efficiency of standard and enhanced
PDE modules.
12. Timing resolution is measured using a 10µm diameter light spot, at 825nm, and with case temperature at 22°C. For timing
resolution requirements of larger spot size measurement, or at different wavelengths, please contact Excelitas. For timing
resolution optimized modules, please refer to the Product Brief of the SPCM-AQRH-TR series
13. Afterpulse is measured for the first 500ns (excluding the first 75ns) on the time line of the afterpulse curve, with an average
count rate of 100kc/s ± 20kc/s.
Note # 7: Actual photon rate calculation
Table 2. Absolute Maximum Ratings
Supply voltage (1)
5.5 V
Maximum count rate
Maximum count rate can be sustained if case temperature is maintained
within limit specified limits
Peak light intensity
maximum 104 photons / pulse, pulse width < 1ns
Case temperature (3)
-20°C/+70°C storage, +5°C /+70°C operating
www.excelitas.com
Page 4 of 12
SPCM-AQRH Rev 2014-09
SPCM-AQRH Series
Single Photon Counting Module
Table 3. SPCM Ordering Guide
SPCM-AQRH-WX-FC
FC connector option
Dark count selection
Pulse width model
FC connector attached
0 – Dark count <1500 c/s
1 – Dark count <1000 c/s
2 – Dark count < 500 c/s
3 – Dark count < 250 c/s
4 – Dark count < 100 c/s
5 – Dark count < 50 c/s
6 – Dark count < 25 c/s
1 – Output pulse width = TYP 7ns, dead time = TYP 20ns
2 – Output pulse width = TYP 18ns, dead time = TYP 30ns
Table 4. Fibre Ordering Guide
Diameter
Part
Number
Fibre Type
Connector Type
SPCM-QC4
Multimode
FC/bare
SPCM-QC6
Multimode
FC/bare
SPCM-QC8
Multimode
as SPCM-QC6 but 905 SMA on free end
SPCM-QC9
Multimode
as SPCM-QC6 but FC connector on free end
Cladding
Outer
Numerical
Aperture
62.5um
125um
2.5mm
0.27
100um
140um
2.5mm
0.29
Core
Figure 1. Module Block Diagram
www.excelitas.com
Page 5 of 12
SPCM-AQRH Rev 2014-09
SPCM-AQRH Series
Single Photon Counting Module
Figure 2. Electrical Connections
OUTPUT CONNECTOR
The digital OUTPUT pulse (BNC connector, TTL levels, >1.5V) should be terminated into a 50Ω load to avoid distortion
and ringing. A 1.0V triggering level is recommended on counters and oscilloscopes to avoid triggering on noise. Note that
TTL stands for Transistor-Transistor Logic.
GATE CONNECTOR
The GATE input (BNC connector) impedance is 50Ω and is internally connected to the +5 volt supply through a 50Ω pullup resistor (standard module versions). It can be driven by standard TTL level signals. The gate drive must be capable of
sinking 100 mA to gate the module off (5V/50Ω). Operation: TTL high – module counts, TTL low – counting disabled.
POWER CONNECTOR
The +5V power connector is a standard barrel connector (2.5mm I.D., 5.5mm O.D.) with an 18 AWG cable. The center
stripe corresponds to the center of the barrel and connects to the positive terminal of the 5Vsupply. Reversal of the wires
may damage the module.
Figure 3. Typical SPCM-AQRH PDE Scan at 650 nm
www.excelitas.com
Page 6 of 12
SPCM-AQRH Rev 2014-09
SPCM-AQRH Series
Single Photon Counting Module
Figure 4. Typical Photon Detection Efficiency (PDE) vs. Wavelength
SPCM-AQRH Typical Detection Efficiency
Photon Detection Efficiency (PDE)
80%
70%
Standard
SPCM
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
Wavelength (nm)
Figure 5. Photon detection probability (PD) uniformity vs. Light spot size
Average Probability of Detection (%)
Relative pd (%) vs spot diameter
100%
95%
90%
85%
80%
75%
70%
65%
60%
55%
50%
0
www.excelitas.com
50
100
150
200
Spot Size diameter (um)
Page 7 of 12
250
300
SPCM-AQRH Rev 2014-09
SPCM-AQRH Series
Single Photon Counting Module
Figure 6. Probability of Detection Variation vs. Module case Temperature
Figure 7. Typical Correction Factor
TYPICAL CORRECTION FACTOR
(SPCM-AQRH-XX)
10
9
8
Correction Factor
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
5
www.excelitas.com
10
15
20
Count Rate
(Million of Counts per Second)
Page 8 of 12
25
30
35
SPCM-AQRH Rev 2014-09
SPCM-AQRH Series
Single Photon Counting Module
Figure 8. Count Rate Linearity
SPCM AQRH
Typical Count Rate linearity
1E+08
1E+07
Module Count Rate
1E+06
1E+05
1E+04
1E+03
1E+02
1E+01
1E+00
1E+00
1E+01
1E+02
1E+03
1E+04
1E+05
1E+06
1E+07
1E+08
1E+09
Incident Photons
Figure 9. Optical Power vs. Number of Photons
100E+6
10E+6
N(l), Number of Photons / second
1E+6
N(l) = 5.03 E15 x l x P where l is
wavelength in nm and P is the
optical power
100E+3
10E+3
400 nm
630 nm
830 nm
1060 nm
1E+3
100E+0
10E+0
1E+0
1E-18
10E-18
100E-18
1E-15
10E-15
100E-15
1E-12
10E-12
P, Optical Power (watts)
www.excelitas.com
Page 9 of 12
SPCM-AQRH Rev 2014-09
SPCM-AQRH Series
Single Photon Counting Module
Figure 10. Dimensional Outline
Saturation
The photon count decreases at higher incoming light levels. The count at which the output rate starts to decrease is called
the saturation point. As an extreme example, if the module is exposed to intense light the count rate will fall to zero. While
the module is protected against light overload, precautions should be taken to avoid any excessive light level that will
damage the SPCM module. After an over exposure, the dark count of the module could increase temporarily for up to an
hour. For faster recovery, it is recommended to power off the module and leave it in the dark for one to two minutes prior
to restarting.
Fibre Connection Option
The SPCM-AQRH-WX-FC has an “FC” fibre-optic receptacle pre-aligned to the optical detector. Optical fibres with an FC
connector on one end are available separately, (see Ordering Guide 2). The standard fibre lens is optimized for 550nm.
Though the fibre / GRIN in the standard module will function through the complete range of 400nm to 1060nm, due to the
wavelength-dependence of the graded index coupling lens, improvements to operating wavelengths other than 550 nm are
special orders. The photon detection efficiency of connectorized modules is about 95% of that quoted for standard
modules at 550nm.
Fibre Shielding
When used with optical fibres, both the fibre jacket and the connector shrouds must be completely opaque. Otherwise,
stray light will increase the count rate. The SPCM-QCX pigtails conform to this requirement (see Ordering Guide 2).
Gating Function
A gating function is provided with each module – useful for viewing a signal that occurs only in a small timeframe window.
Also, in some applications the background light flux is higher than the signal. In this case, the gating option could be used to
improve the S/N ratio by opening a window only when the light signal is present. The output of the module and the active
quench function are disabled when a TTL low level is applied to the module gate input. When a TTL high level is applied to
the module gate input, the output of the module and the active quench circuit are enabled again. Any photon detection
www.excelitas.com
Page 10 of 12
SPCM-AQRH Rev 2014-09
SPCM-AQRH Series
Single Photon Counting Module
that occurs less than 2μs before the module gate input changes can result in an output pulse. However, this output pulse
has lost timing accuracy.
Light Emission during Photon Detection
One peculiarity of silicon avalanche photodiodes is that as an incoming photon is detected a small amount of light is emitted
from the avalanche region. The emitted light has a broad spectral distribution. In most cases, this is not a problem.
However, it can cause some confusion if another detector is monitoring light, or if the optical system is such that light
emitted from the SPCM-AQRH is reflected back on itself. If these photons return more than 20 ns after the initial event,
they will be detected.
Safety Warning
The SPCM-AQRH contains a high voltage power supply. Users may be injured if the case is opened. All internal
settings are pre-set; there are no user adjustments.
Units that appear defective or have suffered mechanical damage should not be used because of possible
electrical shorting of the high voltage power supply. Opening the case may damage sensitive components and
expose the user to the risk of electrical shock. Please contact factory for repairs.
RoHS Compliance
This series of avalanche photodiode modules are designed and built to be fully compliant with the European Union Directive
2011/65/EU – Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic equipment.
Warranty
A standard 12-month warranty following shipment applies. Any warranty is null and void if the module case has been
opened. Warranty is null and void if the module input exceeds 5.5 V or the polarity of the +5 V supply is reversed.
EDS Warning
Modules should only be handled at an ESD-safe work station.
Individual Module Test Data
Each module is supplied with test data indicating the module’s actual dark count, dead time, pulse width, photon detection
efficiency @ 630nm (550nm for fibre-coupled versions), correction factor and linearity.
Declaration of Conformity
This product is eligible to bear the CSA mark with adjacent indicator ‘C’ and ‘US’.
Products:
CLASS 8721 85
CLASS 8721 84
CLASS 8721 04
CLASS 8721 04
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOR LABORATORY USE – Certified to US standards
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOR LABORATORY USE – Certified to US standards
LABORATORY EQUIPMENT – Electrical
LABORATORY EQUIPMENT – Electrical
Single photon counting module SPCM-AQRH or SPCM-AQR model SPCM-AQRH-WX or SPCM-AQR-WX (where W = 1 and X =
2, 3, 4, 5, 6 not affecting safety certification), rated 5Vdc, 1.2A,
www.excelitas.com
Page 11 of 12
SPCM-AQRH Rev 2014-09
SPCM-AQRH Series
Single Photon Counting Module
Single photon counting module SPCM-AQRH-WX-FC or SPCM-AQR-WX-FC model SPCM-AQRH-WX-FC or SPCM-AQR-WX-FC
(where W = 1 and X = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 not affecting safety certification), rated 5Vdc, 1.2A
Single photon counting module SPCM-CDXXXXY (where X = can be 0000 to 9999, Y could be a letter from A to Z, not
affecting safety certification), rated 5Vdc, 1.2A
Altitude of Operation: 0 – 5000 Meters
Humidity of Operation: 15% - 95% relative humidity, non-condensing
Equipment class III, measurement category l, pollution degree 2
APPLICABLE REQUIREMENTS:
CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 61010-1-04 – Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control, and laboratory
use, part 1: General requirements (second edition) ANSI/UL std no. 61010-1 – Electrical equipment for measurement,
control, and laboratory use; part 1: General requirements (second edition)
This product is eligible to bear the CE mark in accordance with:
EN 61326:1997 Electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use
EN 61010-1:2001 Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use
This product has been tested as per the following standards:
• Emission CISPR 11
• IEC 61000-4-2 ESD
• IEC 61000-4-3 Radiated susceptibility
• IEC 61000-4-4 Burst
• IEC 61000-4-5 Surge
• IEC 61000-4-6 Conducted susceptibility
• IEC 61000-4-11 Voltage dips and interruptions
This equipment is intended for Indoor Use Only. There is no applicable maintenance manual. The data sheet is used also as
an instruction manual.
About Excelitas Technologies
Excelitas Technologies is a global technology leader focused on delivering innovative, customized solutions to meet the
detection, lighting, and other high-performance technology needs of OEM customers.
From analytical instrumentation to clinical diagnostics, medical, industrial, safety and security, and aerospace and defense
applications, Excelitas Technologies is committed to enabling our customers' success in their end-markets. Excelitas
Technologies has approximately 5,000 employees in North America, Europe and Asia, serving customers across the world.
Excelitas Technologies
22001 Dumberry Road
Vaudreuil-Dorion, Quebec
Canada J7V 8P7
Telephone: (+1) 450.424.3300
Toll-free: (+1) 800.775.6786
Fax: (+1) 450.424.3345
[email protected]
Excelitas Technologies
GmbH & Co. KG
Wenzel-Jaksch-Str. 31
D-65199 Wiesbaden
Germany
Telephone: (+49) 611 492 430
Fax: (+49) 611 492 165
[email protected]
Excelitas Technologies
Singapore, Pte. Ltd.
8 Tractor Road
Singapore 627969
Telephone: (+65) 6775 2022
(Main number)
Telephone: (+65) 6770 4366
(Customer Service)
Fax: (+65) 6778-1752
[email protected]
For a complete listing of our global offices, visit www.excelitas.com/Locations
© 2013 Excelitas Technologies Corp. All rights reserved. The Excelitas logo and design are registered trademarks of Excelitas Technologies Corp. All other trademarks not owned by Excelitas Technologies or its subsidiaries that are
depicted herein are the property of their respective owners. Excelitas reserves the right to change this document at any time without notice and disclaims liability for editorial, pictorial or typographical errors.
www.excelitas.com
Page 12 of 12
SPCM-AQRH Rev 2014-09
Similar pages