Application Note

VISHAY SFERNICE
www.vishay.com
Inductive Products
Application Note
PLAC 100 Versatile Planar Transformer
by Sebastien Marchio
This application note is valid unless otherwise specified in
the datasheet.
1. GENERAL DEFINITION
1.1 Versatile Planar Transformer
The versatile planar transformer PLAC 100 is a magnetic
product specific to switching mode power supplies. It can
be used as a power transformer or as an output choke
inductor for many power supply topologies: forward,
flyback, half-bridge, full bridge, push-pull.
The flexibility is obtained thanks to its available windings:
• 6 windings with 1 turn
• 6 windings with 3 turns
The user determines their own configuration of the
windings via the PCB layout provided by
PLAC 100 SOFT.
1.2 Planar Transformer
Planar transformer is a low profile transformer whose coil
is made with printed circuit board.
1.3 Output Choke Inductor
An output choke inductor is used as a filter with switched
mode power supplies. Its purpose is to reduce the
variations of output signal. It has to operate with a DC
load causing a bias magnetic field. Thus it is advisable to
use gapped standard PLAC 100 (Al 100; 160; 250; 400;
630) for this application.
Custom Al are available on request.
2. ELECTRICAL DEFINITIONS
2.2 Al
PLAC 100 is available in 6 Al (UG; 100; 160; 250; 400;
630).
Inductance value is given by the equation:
L (H) = Al (nH) x 10-9 x N2
N is the turn number of the coil.
2.3 Coil Resistance
Typical values of coil resistance at 25 °C:
• For 1 turn (connexion 1 to 12): RDC = 3 m
• For 3 turns (connexion 13 to 24): RDC = 35 m
Revision: 16-Sep-13
2.4 Ratio
The ratio “m” is the characteristic: m = Ns/Np
Np: Number of turns for the primary
Ns: Number of turns for the secondary
For PLAC 100, m is dependent on the configuration used.
2.5 Dielectric Test 
If: Leakage Current
4 dielectric tests are defined for the PLAC 100:
• Voltage: 1000 VAC
Hipot between 1 turn winding and 3 turns winding with
If < 100 µA
• Voltage: 300 VAC
Hipot between 1 turn winding with If < 100 µA
Hipot between 3 turns winding with If < 100 µA
• Voltage: 800 VAC
Hipot between windings and ground with If < 100 µA
2.6 Insulation Resistance
4 dielectric tests are defined for the PLAC 100:
• Voltage: 1000 VDC
Between 1 turn winding and 3 turns windings with
RDC > 1 G
Between 1 turn winding with RDC > 1 G
Between 3 turns winding with RDC > 1 G
Between windings and ground with RDC > 1 G
3. MAGNETICAL DEFINITIONS
3.1 Saturation Flux Density
The saturation flux density Bs is the maximum intrinsic
induction possible in a magnetic material. For a good
usage, the working flux density should never exceed Bs.
At 100 °C the PLAC 100 material has Bs = 300 mT.
3.2 Effective Core Dimensions
To facilitate calculations on a non-uniform soft magnetic
core, a set of effective dimensions are define to create an
equivalent configuration as theoretical ring core
configuration:
Effective cross-sectional area of core: Ae = 113 mm2
Effective magnetic path length: le = 37.47 mm
Effective volume of core: Ve = 4234 mm3.
Document Number: 59056
1
For technical questions, contact: [email protected]
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
APPLICATION NOTE
2.1 Inductance
The measurement conditions of inductance are:
Temperature: 25 °C
Frequency: 10 kHz
Voltage: 0.1 V
The higher coil resistances at 100 °C used by the
PLAC 100 SOFT are:
• For 1 turn (connexion 1 to 12): RDC = 6.6 m
• For 3 turns (connexion 13 to 24): RDC = 46.2 m
Application Note
www.vishay.com
Vishay Sfernice
PLAC 100 Versatile Planar Transformer
4. INPUT AND OUTPUT TERMS
5. ENVIRONMENTAL DEFINITIONS
4.1 Input Data for Power Supply Definition in the
PLAC 100 SOFT
4.1.1 Frequency: F
F is the operating input frequency of the power supply.
4.1.2 Input voltage: Ve; Ve max.
The input network voltage is stabilized between minimum
input voltage Ve and maximum input voltage Ve max.
4.1.3 Output voltage: Vs 
Output voltage is the voltage needed on the output load.
4.1.5 Power: Pmax.
Pmax. is the maximum power used by the output load. The
losses induced by diodes are ignored.
4.1.6 Loss voltage: Vp 
Vp is equivalent decreased voltage caused by output choke
and diodes.
5.1 Climatic Category
The climatic category is defined in terms of temperature
extremes (hot and cold) and number of days exposure to
dampness, heat, and steady-state conditions that the
component is designed to withstand.
The PLAC 100 climatic characteristics are:
• Operating range: - 55 °C to + 125 °C
• Damp heat: 10 days
5.2 Classify Materials
Plastic materials used are UL94 class V0 and PLAC 100
is RoHS-compliant.
6. STORAGE RECOMMENDATIONS
Careful attention must be paid when the components are
stored. Because high and very low environmental
temperature, high humidity, corrosive gases, etc. might
affect the solderability of the terminals and the function of the
package. Listed below are notes to be observed:
• The recommended storage conditions are in between
+ 10 °C and 25 °C (room temperature) at relative humidity
in between 35 % and 75 %.
4.2 Output Data for Power Supply Definition in the
PLAC 100 SOFT
4.2.1 Maximum duty cycle: Amax.
The duty cycle is the ratio between conduction time of the
switches and the input signal period.
• Do not store them within the vicinity of any corrosive
gases such as hydrogen sulphide, sulphurous acid,
chlorine or ammonium. The oxidation of the metals
caused by such toxic gases may affect solderability as
well as the electrical performance of these products.
AxT
T (s)
T
• Exposure to the direct sunlight and dust must be avoided
• Handle carefully to avoid deformation of terminals
Amax. is a the maximum duty cycle that provides maximum
current. It corresponds to a minimum input voltage that
works without saturating the magnetic material.
• Keep parts in the original packages until just before use,
and unpack only the quantity needed. Always seal any
opened packages to protect them from oxidation and
contaminants.
4.2.2 Current
The PLAC 100 SOFT provides many data about current:
• Primary current for one coil: Ip RMS (A)
If any special storage conditions are applied (outside those
recommendations), it is the user's responsibility.
• Secondary current for one coil: Is RMS (A)
7. SMD AND THROUGH HOLE 
COMPONENTS, SOLDER AND CLEANING 
RECOMMENDATION
• Magnetising current: Imag (A)
APPLICATION NOTE
• Maximum current: Imax. (A)
4.2.3 Power loss
Power loss has two origins:
• Copper loss (Pcu1 and Pcu2) due to primary and secondary
resistance coil.
PLAC 100 is designed to many soldering method as reflow
and dual wave soldering.
7.1 Adhesive Application (for SMD only)
• Core loss (Pf) due to hysteresis and Eddy currents
Core loss depends on frequency. 
The PLAC 100 SOFT estimates core loss at 100 °C.
4.2.4 Variation of temperature
Power loss (PTOT) involves increasing PLAC 100
temperature.
The
variation
between
ambient
temperature (T) and PLAC 100 (TPLAC 100) is
characterized by thermal resistance (RTH = 22).
Increasing temperature is evaluated by:
TPLAC 100 - T = RTH x PTOT
Revision: 16-Sep-13
When an assembly has to be wave soldered, an
adhesive is essential to bond the SMDs to the substrate.
Under normal conditions reflow, soldered substances do
not need adhesive to maintain PLAC 100 orientation,
since the solder past does it. The amount of adhesive,
the curing time and temperature to use should be in
accordance
with
adhesive
manufacturer’s
recommendations.
Otherwise,
the
adhesive
polymerization time and temperature have to also
respect PLAC 100 soldering recommendations. (§ 7-3).
2
Document Number: 59056
For technical questions, contact: [email protected]
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Application Note
www.vishay.com
Vishay Sfernice
PLAC 100 Versatile Planar Transformer
7.3 Soldering Recommendations
Caution: The height and the volume of adhesive dots
applied are critical for two reasons: the must be high
enough to reach the SMD, and there must not be any
excess adhesive, since this can pollute the solder land
and prevent the formation of a good soldered joint.
Normal preheating is required to activate flux and
minimize thermal shock to components. The maximum
recommended temperature for flow and reflow soldering
profiles are specified below. It is important to note
temperature of those profiles corresponds to parts
temperature (and not PCB temperature). The use of
leaded solder process or lead (Pb)-free solder process is
specified under each series of SMD or through hole
PLAC 100.
General Caution: User must always test and verify
pre-heating and soldering processes as well as other
production line assembly before final production.
7.2 Flux and Solder Recommendations
SMD and through hole PLAC 100 can be used with R
and RA (Rosin and Rosin Activated) type flux to OA
(Organic Acid). It is always advisable not to use a flux of
an activity level greater than necessary to achieve
optimum yields for solder wetting. Fluxes of RA or OA
activity levels are corrosive and therefore must be
removed. It is advisable that all types of fluxes be
removed by cleaning due to the possibility of corrosion.
• Tin lead solder:
• Lead (Pb)-free solder:
}
Typical solder paste
print thickness would be
0.8 mm to 1 mm thick
LEADED SOLDER PROCESS
LEAD (Pb)-FREE SOLDER PROCESS
for SMD only
for SMD only
Infrared or hot air reflow soldering (2 times max.)
Infrared or hot air reflow soldering (2 times max.)
Maximum temperature: 245 °C max.
Maximum temperature: 220 °C max.
210 °C
230 °C
Preheating temperature: 130 °C
APPLICATION NOTE
Room temperature
Preheating temperature: 150 °C
2 min
max.
40 s
max.
4 min max.
Room temperature
5s
max.
3 min
max.
50 s
max.
6 min max.
10 s
max.
Soldering iron temperature:
Use the appropriate soldering iron size, shape and heat capacity for soldering PLAC 100. Not exceed the maximum time and
temperature parameters specified: 3 s at 350 °C.
Wave and bath soldering temperature, for leaded versions only:
Not exceed the maximum time and temperature parameters specified: 10 s at 260 °C in accordance with IEC CEI 68-2-20.
Revision: 16-Sep-13
3
Document Number: 59056
For technical questions, contact: [email protected]
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Application Note
www.vishay.com
Vishay Sfernice
PLAC 100 Versatile Planar Transformer
7.4 Washing Recommendations
7.5 Reworking Recommendations
• General: 
Excessive and/or repeated high temperature heat
exposure may affect component performance and
reliability
• Recommended:
Hot air reflow technique is the safest method for SMD
component
• Caution:
Avoid use of a soldering iron or wave soldering as
rework technique
Cooling down time after soldering and before exposure to
defluxing solvents is required. The component body
temperature when exposed to cleaning should not exceed
60 °C. Cleaning spray rinse is recommended with pressures
of not greater than 60 psi (5.5 kg-cm2) for a period not to
exceed 15 s to 20 s.
Appropriate defluxing solvent/aqueous:
• Aqueous detergent solutions
• Terpene based semi-aqueous
• Ester/ether based solvents
• Methanol
Caution:
APPLICATION NOTE
• Avoid using cleaning US-Vigon solvents
• Avoid using cleaning solvents such as trichloroethane
or freon which endanger the environment
• Ultrasonic may cause component damage or failure
Revision: 16-Sep-13
4
Document Number: 59056
For technical questions, contact: [email protected]
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
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