A3952: Full-Bridge PWM Motor Driver

Data Sheet
29319.1C
3952
FULL-BRIDGE PWM MOTOR DRIVER
A3952SB
16
LOAD
SUPPLY
2
15
OUTB
RC
3
14
MODE
GROUND
4
13
GROUND
12
GROUND
11
SENSE
10
OUTA
9
LOAD
SUPPLY
BRAKE
1
REF
VBB
LOGIC
GROUND
5
LOGIC
SUPPLY
6
PHASE
7
ENABLE
VCC
8
VBB
Dwg. PP-056
Note that the A3952SB (DIP) and the A3952SLB
(SOIC) are electrically identical and share a
common terminal number assignment.
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Load Supply Voltage, VBB .................. 50 V
Output Current, IOUT
(tw ≤ 20 µs) .................................. ±3.5 A
(Continuous) ............................... ±2.0 A
Logic Supply Voltage, VCC ................. 7.0 V
Logic Input Voltage Range,
VIN ....................... -0.3 V to VCC + 0.3 V
Sense Voltage, VSENSE ...................... 1.5 V
Reference Voltage, VREF .................... 15 V
Package Power Dissipation,
PD ....................................... See Graph
Operating Temperature Range,
TA ............................... –20°C to +85°C
Junction Temperature, TJ ............. +150°C*
Storage Temperature Range,
TS ............................. –55°C to +150°C
Designed for bidirectional pulse-width modulated current control of
inductive loads, the A3952S– is capable of continuous output currents
to ±2 A and operating voltages to 50 V. Internal fixed off-time PWM
current-control circuitry can be used to regulate the maximum load
current to a desired value. The peak load current limit is set by the
user’s selection of an input reference voltage and external sensing
resistor. The fixed OFF-time pulse duration is set by a user-selected
external RC timing network. Internal circuit protection includes thermal
shutdown with hysteresis, transient suppression diodes, and crossovercurrent protection. Special power-up sequencing is not required.
T
C
With the ENABLE input held low, the PHASE input controls load
current polarity by selecting the appropriate source and sink driver pair.
The MODE input determines whether the PWM current-control circuitry
operates in a slow current-decay mode (only the selected sink driver
switching) or in a fast current-decay mode (selected source and sink
switching). A user-selectable blanking window prevents false triggering
of the PWM current control circuitry. With the ENABLE input held high,
all output drivers are disabled. A sleep mode is provided to reduce
power consumption when inactive.
U
D
O
y
R
l
P n
O e
D
E ce d
The A3952S– is supplied in a choice of four power packages. In all
package styles, the batwing/power tab is at ground potential and needs
no isolation. These devices are also available for operation from -40°C
to +125°C. To order, change the suffix from 'S–' to 'K–'.
U
n
IN re
e or
T
f
N Re 9 f
O
C or
S
I
D
F
FEATURES
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
s
U
* Fault conditions that produce excessive junction
temperature will activate device thermal shutdown
circuitry. These conditions can be tolerated but
should be avoided.
w
e
n
±2 A Continuous Output Current Rating
50 V Output Voltage Rating
Internal PWM Current Control
Fast and Slow Current-Decay Modes
Sleep (Low Current Consumption) Mode
Internal Transient Suppression Diodes
Under-Voltage Lockout
Internal Thermal Shutdown Circuitry
Crossover-Current Protection
5
9
3
A
e
Output current rating may be limited by duty cycle,
ambient temperature, heat sinking and/or forced
cooling. Under any set of conditions, do not
exceed the specified current rating or a junction
temperature of +150°C.
n
g
si
When a logic low is applied to the BRAKE input, the braking
function is enabled. This overrides ENABLE and PHASE to turn OFF
both source drivers and turn ON both sink drivers. The brake function
can be safely used to dynamically brake brush dc motors.
Always order by complete part number:
Part Number
A3952SB
A3952SEB
A3952SLB
A3952SW
Package
RθJA
RθJT
16-Pin DIP
28-Lead PLCC
16-Lead SOIC
12-Pin Power-Tab SIP
43°C/W
36°C/W
90°C/W
36°C/W
6.0°C/W
6.0°C/W
6.0°C/W
2.0°C/W
3952
FULL-BRIDGE
PWM MOTOR DRIVER
OUTB
VBB
SLEEP &
STANDBY MODES
OUTA
LOAD
SUPPLY
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
MODE
PHASE
INPUT LOGIC
UVLO
& TSD
ENABLE
EMITTERS
'EB' ONLY
BRAKE
LOGIC
SUPPLY
VCC
–
+
R
Q
REF
S
BLANKING
1.5 V
RS
PWM LATCH
VCC
9R
SENSE
'B' & 'LB'
PACKAGES
RC
+ –
VTH
R
GROUND
CT
RT
Dwg. FP-036A
TRUTH TABLE
BRAKE ENABLE PHASE
ALLOWABLE PACKAGE POWER DISSIPATION IN WATTS
10
'W' TAB
'B' , 'EB', & 'LB' TAB
8
MODE
OUTA
OUTB
H
H
H
H
H
L
X
X
H
H
L
H
Z
Z
H
Z
Z
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
L
H
L
H
H
L
L
L
L
H
L
X
X
H
L
L
L
X
X
L
L
L
6
'W' AMBIENT
4
'B' & 'EB' AMBIENT
'LB' AMBIENT
2
DESCRIPTION
Sleep Mode
Standby, Note 1
Forward,
Fast-Decay Mode
Forward,
Slow-Decay Mode
Reverse,
Fast-Decay Mode
Reverse,
Slow-Decay Mode
Brake,
Fast-Decay Mode
Brake, No Current
Control, Note 2
0
25
50
75
100
TEMPERATURE IN °C
125
Dwg. GP-007-1B
150
X = Irrelevant
NOTES:
Z = High Impedance (source and sink both OFF)
1. Includes active pull-offs for power outputs.
2. Includes internal default Vsense level for over-current protection.
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
Copyright © 1994, 2004 Allegro MicroSystems, Inc.
3952
FULL-BRIDGE
PWM MOTOR DRIVER
25
6
24
GROUND
LOGIC
MODE
NO
CONNECTION
26
1
OUT B
BRAKE
LOAD
SUPPLY
2
27
REF
3
28
RC
5
23
7
LOGIC
22
9
21
10
20
11
19
VCC
VBB
8
GROUND
A3952SW
VBB
GROUND
4
A3952SEB
GROUND
10
11
12
Dwg. PP-057
SENSE
9
OUTA
8
MODE
RC
7
ENABLE
6
PHASE
5
LOGIC
SUPPLY
4
REF
OUTB
3
BRAKE
2
LOAD
SUPPLY
18
EMITTERS
1
GROUND
17
15
LOAD
SUPPLY
SENSE
14
ENABLE
16
13
PHASE
OUTA
12
LOGIC
SUPPLY
VCC
Dwg. PP-058
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS at TA = +25°C, VBB = 50 V, VCC = 5.0 V, VBRAKE = 2.0 V,
VSENSE = 0 V, RC = 20 kΩ/1000 pF to Ground (unless noted otherwise).
Limits
Characteristic
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
VCC
–
50
V
Output Drivers
Load Supply Voltage Range
VBB
Operating, IOUT = ±2.0 A, L = 3 mH
Output Leakage Current
ICEX
VOUT = VBB
–
<1.0
50
µA
VOUT = 0 V
–
<-1.0
-50
µA
Source Driver, IOUT = -0.5 A
–
0.9
1.2
V
Source Driver, IOUT = -1.0 A
–
1.0
1.4
V
Source Driver, IOUT = -2.0 A
–
1.2
1.8
V
Sink Driver, IOUT = +0.5 A
–
0.9
1.2
V
Sink Driver, IOUT = +1.0 A
–
1.0
1.4
V
Sink Driver, IOUT = +2.0 A
–
1.3
1.8
V
IF = 0.5 A
–
1.0
1.4
V
IF = 1.0 A
–
1.1
1.6
V
IF = 2.0 A
–
1.4
2.0
V
Output Saturation Voltage
Clamp Diode Forward Voltage
VCE(SAT)
VF
(Source or Sink)
Load Supply Current
IBB(ON)
VENABLE = 0.8 V
–
2.9
6.0
mA
(No Load)
IBB(OFF)
VENABLE = 2.0 V, VMODE = 0.8 V
–
3.1
6.5
mA
VBRAKE = 0.8 V
–
3.1
6.5
mA
VENABLE = VMODE = 2.0 V
–
<1.0
50
µA
IBB(SLEEP)
Continued next page …
www.allegromicro.com
3952
FULL-BRIDGE
PWM MOTOR DRIVER
Limits
Characteristic
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
Operating
4.5
5.0
5.5
V
Control Logic
Logic Supply Voltage Range
VCC
Logic Input Voltage
VIN(1)
2.0
–
–
V
VIN(0)
–
–
0.8
V
IIN(1)
VIN = 2.0 V
–
<1.0
20
µA
IIN(0)
VIN = 0.8 V
–
<-2.0
-200
µA
Reference Voltage Range
VREF
Operating
0
–
15
V
Reference Input Current
IREF
VREF = 2.0 V
25
40
55
µA
Reference Voltage Divider Ratio
–
VREF = 15 V
9.5
10.0
10.5
–
Comparator Input Offset Voltage
VIO
VREF = 0 V
–
±1.0
±10
mV
PWM RC Fixed OFF Time
toff
CT = 1000 pF, RT = 20 kΩ
18
20
22
µs
ton(min)
CT = 820 pF, RT ≥ 12 kΩ
–
1.7
3.0
µs
CT = 1200 pF, RT ≥ 12 kΩ
–
2.5
3.8
µs
ENABLE ON to Source ON
–
2.9
–
µs
ENABLE OFF to Source OFF
–
0.7
–
µs
ENABLE ON to Sink ON
–
2.4
–
µs
ENABLE OFF to Sink OFF
–
0.7
–
µs
PHASE Change to Source ON
–
2.9
–
µs
PHASE Change to Source OFF
–
0.7
–
µs
PHASE Change to Sink ON
–
2.4
–
µs
PHASE Change to Sink OFF
–
0.7
–
µs
–
0.8
1.5
µs
TJ
–
165
–
°C
∆TJ
–
15
–
°C
VCC(UVLO)
3.15
3.50
3.85
V
∆VCC(UVLO)
300
400
500
mV
Logic Input Current
PWM Minimum ON Time
Propagation Delay Time
tpd
tpd(pwm)
Thermal Shutdown Temperature
Thermal Shutdown Hysteresis
UVLO Disable Threshold
UVLO Hysteresis
IOUT = ±2.0 A, 50% EIN to 90% EOUT Transition:
Comparator Trip to Sink OFF
Logic Supply Current
ICC(ON)
VENABLE = 0.8 V, VBRAKE = 2.0 V
–
20
30
mA
(No Load)
ICC(OFF)
VENABLE = 2.0 V, VMODE = 0.8 V
–
12
18
mA
ICC(BRAKE)
VBRAKE = 0.8 V
–
26
40
mA
ICC(SLEEP)
VENABLE = VMODE = VBRAKE = 2.0 V
–
3.0
5.0
mA
NOTES: 1. Typical Data is for design information only.
2. Each driver is tested separately.
3. Negative current is defined as coming out of (sourcing) the specified device terminal.
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
3952
FULL-BRIDGE
PWM MOTOR DRIVER
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
INTERNAL PWM CURRENT CONTROL DURING
FORWARD AND REVERSE OPERATION
The A3952S– contains a fixed OFF-time pulse-width
modulated (PWM) current-control circuit that can be used
to limit the load current to a desired value. The value of
the current limiting (ITRIP) is set by the selection of an
external current sensing resistor (RS) and reference input
voltage (VREF). The internal circuitry compares the voltage
across the external sense resistor to one tenth the voltage
on the REF input terminal, resulting in a function approximated by
ITRIP = VREF/(10RS).
In forward or reverse mode the current-control circuitry
limits the load current. When the load current reaches
ITRIP, the comparator resets a latch to turn OFF the
selected sink driver (in the slow-decay mode) or selected
sink and source driver pair (in the fast-decay mode). In
slow-decay mode, the selected sink driver is disabled; the
load inductance causes the current to recirculate through
the source driver and flyback diode (see figure 1). In fastdecay mode, the selected sink and source driver pair are
disabled; the load inductance causes the current to flow
from ground to the load supply via the ground clamp and
flyback diodes.
V
BB
DRIVE CURRENT
RECIRCULATION
(SLOW-DECAY MODE)
RECIRCULATION
(FAST-DECAY MODE)
ENABLE
MODE
I
TRIP
RC
LOAD
CURRENT
RC
Dwg. WP-015-1
Figure 2 — Fast and Slow Current-Decay Waveforms
INTERNAL PWM CURRENT CONTROL DURING
BRAKE MODE OPERATION
The brake circuit turns OFF both source drivers and
turns ON both sink drivers. For dc motor applications, this
has the effect of shorting the motor’s back-EMF voltage,
resulting in current flow that brakes the motor dynamically.
However, if the back-EMF voltage is large, and there is no
PWM current limiting, then the load current can increase to
a value that approaches a locked rotor condition. To limit
the current, when the ITRIP level is reached, the PWM
circuit disables the conducting sink driver. The energy
stored in the motor’s inductance is then discharged into
the load supply causing the motor current to decay.
As in the case of forward/reverse operation, the drivers
are re-enabled after a time given by toff = RTCT (see “RC
Fixed OFF Time” below). Depending on the back-EMF
voltage (proportional to the motor’s decreasing speed), the
load current again may increase to ITRIP. If so, the PWM
cycle will repeat, limiting the load current to the desired
value.
Brake Operation - MODE Input High
During braking, when the MODE input is high, the
current limit can be approximated by
RS
Dwg. EP-006-2A
Figure 1 — Load-Current Paths
The user selects an external resistor (RT) and capacitor (CT) to determine the time period (toff = RTCT) during
which the drivers remain disabled (see “RC Fixed OFF
Time” below). At the end of the RTCT interval, the drivers
are re-enabled allowing the load current to increase again.
The PWM cycle repeats, maintaining the load current at
the desired value (see figure 2).
www.allegromicro.com
ITRIP = VREF/(10RS).
CAUTION: Because the kinetic energy stored in the
motor and load inertia is being converted into current,
which charges the VBB supply bulk capacitance (power
supply output and decoupling capacitance), care must be
taken to ensure the capacitance is sufficient to absorb the
energy without exceeding the voltage rating of any devices
connected to the motor supply.
3952
FULL-BRIDGE
PWM MOTOR DRIVER
Brake Operation - MODE Input Low
During braking, with the MODE input low, the peak
current limit defaults internally to a value approximated by
ITRIP = 1.5 V/RS.
In this mode, the value of RS determines the ITRIP value
independent of VREF. This is useful in applications with
differing run and brake currents and no practical method of
varying VREF.
Choosing a small value for RS essentially disables the
current limiting during braking. Therefore, care should be
taken to ensure that the motor’s current does not exceed
the absolute maximum ratings of the device. The braking
current can be measured by using an oscilloscope with a
current probe connected to one of the motor’s leads.
RC Fixed OFF Time
The internal PWM current control circuitry uses a one
shot to control the time the driver(s) remain(s) OFF. The
one shot time, toff (fixed OFF time), is determined by the
selection of an external resistor (RT) and capacitor (CT)
connected in parallel from the RC terminal to ground. The
fixed OFF time, over a range of values of CT = 820 pF to
1500 pF and RT = 12 kΩ to 100 kΩ, is approximated by
toff = RTCT.
When the PWM latch is reset by the current comparator, the voltage on the RC terminal will begin to decay from
approximately 3 volts. When the voltage on the RC
terminal reaches approximately 1.1 volt, the PWM latch is
set, thereby re-enabling the driver(s).
RC Blanking
In addition to determining the fixed OFF-time of the
PWM control circuit, the CT component sets the comparator blanking time. This function blanks the output of the
comparator when the outputs are switched by the internal
current control circuitry (or by the PHASE, BRAKE, or
ENABLE inputs). The comparator output is blanked to
prevent false over-current detections due to reverse
recovery currents of the clamp diodes, and/or switching
transients related to distributed capacitance in the load.
During internal PWM operation, at the end of the toff
time, the comparator’s output is blanked and CT begins to
be charged from approximately 1.1 V by an internal current
source of approximately 1 mA. The comparator output
remains blanked until the voltage on CT reaches approximately 3.0 volts.
Similarly, when a transition of the PHASE input occurs,
CT is discharged to near ground during the crossover delay
time (the crossover delay time is present to prevent
simultaneous conduction of the source and sink drivers).
After the crossover delay, CT is charged by an internal
current source of approximately 1 mA. The comparator
output remains blanked until the voltage on CT reaches
approximately 3.0 volts.
Similarly, when the device is disabled via the ENABLE
input, CT is discharged to near ground. When the device is
re-enabled, CT is charged by the internal current source.
The comparator output remains blanked until the voltage
on CT reaches approximately 3.0 V.
For applications that use the internal fast-decay mode
PWM operation, the minimum recommended value is CT =
1200 pF ±5 %. For all other applications, the minimum
recommended value is CT = 820 pF ±5 %. These values
ensure that the blanking time is sufficient to avoid false
trips of the comparator under normal operating conditions.
For optimal regulation of the load current, the above
values for CT are recommended and the value of RT can
be sized to determine toff. For more information regarding
load current regulation, see below.
LOAD CURRENT REGULATION WITH THE INTERNAL
PWM CURRENT-CONTROL CIRCUITRY
When the device is operating in slow-decay mode,
there is a limit to the lowest level that the PWM currentcontrol circuitry can regulate load current. The limitation is
the minimum duty cycle, which is a function of the userselected value of toff and the maxuimum value of the
minimum ON-time pulse, ton(min), that occurs each time the
PWM latch is reset. If the motor is not rotating, as in the
case of a stepper motor in hold/detent mode, or a brush dc
motor when stalled or at startup, the worst-case value of
current regulation can be approximated by
I(AV) ≈
[(VBB – VSAT(source+sink)) • ton(min)max] – [1.05 (VSAT(sink) + VD) • toff]
1.05 (ton(min)max + toff) • RLOAD
where toff = RTCT, RLOAD is the series resistance of the
load, VBB is the load/motor supply voltage, and ton(min)max
is specified in the electrical characteristics table. When
the motor is rotating, the back EMF generated will influence the above relationship. For brush dc motor applications, the current regulation is improved. For stepper
motor applications when the motor is rotating, the effect is
more complex. A discussion of this subject is included in
the section on stepper motors under “Applications”.
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
3952
FULL-BRIDGE
PWM MOTOR DRIVER
In applications utilizing both fast- and slow-decay
internal PWM modes, the performance of the slow-decay
current regulation should be evaluated per the above
procedure and a ton(min)max of 3.8 µs. This corresponds to
a CT value of 1200 pF, which is required to ensure sufficient blanking during fast-decay internal PWM.
LOAD CURRENT REGULATION WITH EXTERNAL
PWM OF THE PHASE AND ENABLE INPUTS
The PHASE and ENABLE inputs can be pulse-width
modulated to regulate load current. Typical propagation
delays from the PHASE and ENABLE inputs to transitions
of the power outputs are specified in the electrical characteristics table. If the internal PWM current control is used,
then the comparator blanking function is active during
phase and enable transitions. This eliminates false
tripping of the over-current comparator caused by switching transients (see “RC Blanking” above).
Toggling the PHASE terminal determines/controls
which sink/source pair is enabled, producing a load current
that varies with the duty cycle and remains continuous at
all times. This can have added benefits in bidirectional
brush dc servo motor applications as the transfer function
between the duty cycle on the phase input and the average voltage applied to the motor is more linear than in the
case of ENABLE PWM control (which produces a discontinuous current at low current levels). See also, “DC Motor
Applications” below.
SYNCHRONOUS FIXED-FREQUENCY PWM
The internal PWM current-control circuitry of multiple
A3952S– devices can be synchronized by using the simple
circuit shown in figure 3. A 555 IC can be used to generate the reset pulse/blanking signal (t1) and the period of
the PWM cycle (t2). The value of t1 should be a minimum
of 1.5 µs in slow-decay mode and 2 µs in fast-decay
mode. When used in this configuration, the RT and CT
components should be omitted. The PHASE and ENABLE
inputs should not be PWMed with this circuit configuration
due to the absence of a blanking function synchronous
with their transitions.
V CC
t2
100 kΩ
Set VREF to 0 volts. With the load connected and the PWM
current control operating in slow-decay mode, use an
oscilloscope to measure the time the output is low (sink
ON) for the output that is chopping. This is the typical
minimum ON time (ton(min)typ) for the device. CT then
should be increased until the measured value of ton(min) is
equal to ton(min)max) = 3.0 µs as specified in the electrical
characteristics table. When the new value of CT has been
set, the value of RT should be decreased so the value for
toff = RT•CT (with the artificially increased value of CT) is
equal to 105% of the nominal design value. The worstcase load current regulation then can be measured in the
system under operating conditions.
PHASE Pulse-Width Modulation
20 kΩ
The following procedure can be used to evaluate the
worst-case slow-decay internal PWM load current regulation in the system:
RC 1
1N4001
2N2222
t
RC N
1
Dwg. EP-060
ENABLE Pulse-Width Modulation
With the MODE input low, toggling the ENABLE input
turns ON and OFF the selected source and sink drivers.
The corresponding pair of flyback and ground clamp
diodes conduct after the drivers are disabled, resulting in
fast current decay. When the device is enabled, the
internal current control circuitry will be active and can be
used to limit the load current in a slow-decay mode.
For applications that PWM the ENABLE input, and
desire that the internal current limiting circuit function in the
fast-decay mode, the ENABLE input signal should be
inverted and connected to the MODE input. This prevents
the device from being switched into sleep mode when the
ENABLE input is low.
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Figure 3 — Synchronous Fixed-Frequency Control Circuit
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
A logic high applied to both the ENABLE and MODE
terminals puts the device into a sleep mode to minimize
current consumption when not in use.
An internally generated dead time prevents crossover
currents that can occur when switching phase or braking.
Thermal protection circuitry turns OFF all drivers
should the junction temperature reach 165°C (typical).
This is intended only to protect the device from failures
due to excessive junction temperatures and should not
3952
FULL-BRIDGE
PWM MOTOR DRIVER
imply that output short circuits are permitted. The hysteresis of the thermal shutdown circuit is approximately 15°C.
If the internal current-control circuitry is not used; the
VREF terminal should be connected to VCC, the SENSE
terminal should be connected to ground, and the RC
terminal should be left floating (no connection).
An internal under-voltage lockout circuit prevents
simultaneous conduction of the outputs when the device is
powered up or powered down.
APPLICATION NOTES
Current Sensing
The actual peak load current (IOUTP) will be greater
than the calculated value of ITRIP due to delays in the turn
OFF of the drivers. The amount of overshoot can be
approximated as
(VBB – [(ITRIP • RLOAD) + VBEMF]) • tpd(pwm)
IOUTP ≈
LLOAD
where VBB is the load/motor supply voltage, VBEMF is the
back-EMF voltage of the load, RLOAD and LLOAD are the
resistance and inductance of the load respectively, and
tpd(pwm) is the propagation delay as specified in the electrical
characteristics table.
The reference terminal has an equivalent input resistance of 50 kΩ ±30%. This should be taken into account
when determining the impedance of the external circuit
that sets the reference voltage value.
To minimize current-sensing inaccuracies caused by
ground trace IR drops, the current-sensing resistor should
have a separate return to the ground terminal of the
device. For low-value sense resistors, the IR drops in the
PCB can be significant and should be taken into account.
The use of sockets should be avoided as their contact
resistance can cause variations in the effective value of
RS.
Larger values of RS reduce the aforementioned effects
but can result in excessive heating and power loss in the
sense resistor. The selected value of RS must not cause
the SENSE terminal absolute maximum voltage rating to
be exceeded. The recommended value of RS is in the
range of
RS = (0.375 to 1.125)/ITRIP.
The current-sensing comparator functions down to
ground allowing the device to be used in microstepping,
sinusoidal, and other varying current profile applications.
Thermal Considerations
For reliable operation, it is recommended that the
maximum junction temperature be kept as low as possible,
typically 90°C to 125°C. The junction temperature can be
measured by attaching a thermocouple to the power tab/
batwing of the device and measuring the tab temperature,
TT . The junction temperature can then be approximated
by using the formula
TJ ≈ TT + (2 VF IOUT RθJT)
where VF is the clamp diode forward voltage and can be
determined from the electrical specification table for the
given level of IOUT. The value for RθJT is given in the
package thermal resistance table (page 1) for the appropriate package.
The power dissipation of the batwing packages can be
improved by 20 to 30% by adding a section of printed
circuit board copper (typically 6 to 18 square centimeters)
connected to the batwing terminals of the device. See
Application Note 29501.5, Improving Batwing Power
Dissipation.
The thermal performance in applications with high load
currents and/or high duty cycles can be improved by
adding external diodes in parallel with the internal diodes.
In internal PWM slow-decay applications, only the two topside (flyback) diodes need be added. For internal fastdecay PWM, or external PHASE or ENABLE input PWM
applications, all four external diodes should be added for
maximum junction temperature reduction.
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
3952
FULL-BRIDGE
PWM MOTOR DRIVER
This also improves the maximum rate at which the load
current can increase (as compared to fast decay) due to
the slow rate of decay during toff. When the average load
current is decreasing, fast-decay mode is used to regulate
the load current to the desired level. This prevents tailing
of the current profile caused by the back-EMF voltage of
the stepper motor.
PCB Layout
The load supply terminal, VBB, should be decoupled
(>47 µF electrolytic and 0.1 µF ceramic capacitors are
recommended) as close to the device as is physically
practical. To minimize the effect of system ground I•R
drops on the logic and reference input signals, the system
ground should have a low-resistance return to the load
supply voltage.
In stepper motor applications applying a constant
current to the load, slow-decay mode PWM is used
typically to limit the switching losses in the device and iron
losses in the motor.
See also “Current Sensing” and “Thermal Considerations” above.
Fixed Off-Time Selection
DC Motor Applications
With increasing values of toff, switching losses decrease, low-level load-current regulation improves, EMI is
reduced, the PWM frequency will decrease, and ripple
current will increase. The value of toff can be chosen for
optimization of these parameters. For applications where
audible noise is a concern, typical values of toff are chosen
to be in the range of 15 to 35 µs.
Stepper Motor Applications
In closed-loop systems, the speed of a dc motor can
be controlled by PWM of the PHASE or ENABLE inputs, or
by varying the REF input voltage (VREF). In digital systems
(microprocessor controlled), PWM of the PHASE or
ENABLE input is used typically thus avoiding the need to
generate a variable analog voltage reference. In this case,
a dc voltage on the REF input is used typically to limit the
maximum load current.
The MODE terminal can be used to optimize the
performance of the device in microstepping/sinusoidal
stepper motor drive applications. When the average load
current is increasing, slow-decay mode is used to limit the
switching losses in the device and iron losses in the motor.
In dc servo applications that require accurate positioning at low or zero speed, PWM of the PHASE input is
selected typically. This simplifies the servo-control loop
because the transfer function between the duty cycle on
the PHASE input and the average voltage applied to the
VBB
+5 V
47 µF
10
9
8
PHASE1
0.5 Ω
V
5
0.5 Ω
REF2
6
7
6
7
ENABLE 1
4
VCC
VBB
MODE 1
3
LOGIC
2
11
1
12
+
REF1
5
820 pF
MODE 2
11
2
25 kΩ
4
ENABLE 2
10
3
PHASE2
9
VBB
LOGIC
8
V
VCC
1
12
25 kΩ
820 pF
Dwg. EP-048
Typical Bipolar Stepper Motor Application
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3952
FULL-BRIDGE
PWM MOTOR DRIVER
CAUTION: In fast-decay mode, when the direction of
the motor is changed abruptly, the kinetic energy stored in
the motor and load inertia will be converted into current
that charges the VBB supply bulk capacitance (power
supply output and decoupling capacitance). Care must be
taken to ensure the capacitance is sufficient to absorb the
energy without exceeding the voltage rating of any devices
connected to the motor supply.
motor is more linear than in the case of ENABLE PWM
control (which produces a discontinuous current at lowcurrent levels).
With bidirectional dc servo motors, the PHASE terminal can be used for mechanical direction control. Similar
to when braking the motor dynamically, abrupt changes in
the direction of a rotating motor produce a current generated by the back EMF. The current generated will depend
on the mode of operation. If the internal current-control
circuitry is not being used, then the maximum load current
generated can be approximated by
See also, the sections on brake operation under
“Functional Description,” above.
ILOAD = (VBEMF + VBB)/RLOAD
where VBEMF is proportional to the motor’s speed. If the
internal slow-decay current-control circuitry is used, then
the maximum load current generated can be approximated
by ILOAD = VBEMF/RLOAD. For both cases, care must be taken
to ensure the maximum ratings of the device are not
exceeded. If the internal fast-decay current-control
circuitry is used, then the load current will regulate to a
value given by
ILOAD = VREF/(10•RS).
VBB
+5 V
16
2
15
3
14
4
47 µF
MODE
13
LOGIC
12
5
6
PHASE
7
ENABLE
8
0.5 Ω
25 kΩ
820 pF
VBB
+
1
BRAKE
11
VCC
10
VBB
9
Dwg. EP-047
Typical DC Servo Motor Application
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
3952
FULL-BRIDGE
PWM MOTOR DRIVER
A3952SB
Dimensions in Inches
(controlling dimensions)
16
0.020
0.008
9
NOTE 4
0.430
MAX
0.280
0.240
0.300
BSC
1
0.070
0.045
0.100
0.775
0.735
8
0.005
BSC
MIN
0.210
MAX
0.015
0.150
0.115
MIN
0.022
0.014
Dwg. MA-001-17A in
Dimensions in Millimeters
(for reference only)
16
0.508
0.204
9
NOTE 4
10.92
MAX
7.11
6.10
7.62
BSC
1
1.77
1.15
2.54
19.68
18.67
8
BSC
0.13
MIN
5.33
MAX
0.39
3.81
2.93
MIN
0.558
0.356
NOTES: 1. Leads 1, 8, 9, and 16 may be half leads at vendor’s option.
2. Webbed lead frame. Leads indicated are internally one piece.
3. Lead thickness is measured at seating plane or below.
4. Lead spacing tolerance is non-cumulative.
5. Exact body and lead configuration at vendor’s option within limits shown.
www.allegromicro.com
Dwg. MA-001-17A mm
3952
FULL-BRIDGE
PWM MOTOR DRIVER
A3952SEB
Dimensions in Inches
(controlling dimensions)
18
0.013
0.021
12
19
0.219
0.191
11
0.026
0.032
0.456
0.450
INDEX AREA
0.495
0.485
0.050
BSC
0.219
0.191
25
5
26
0.020
28
1
4
0.456
0.450
0.495
0.485
MIN
0.165
0.180
Dwg. MA-005-28A in
Dimensions in Millimeters
(for reference only)
18
0.331
0.533
12
19
5.56
4.85
11
0.812
0.661
11.58
11.43
12.57
12.32
1.27
INDEX AREA
BSC
5.56
4.85
25
5
26
0.51
28
1
4
11.582
11.430
12.57
12.32
MIN
4.57
4.20
Dwg. MA-005-28A mm
NOTES: 1. Index is centered on “D” side.
2. Webbed lead frame. Leads indicated are internally one piece.
3. Lead spacing tolerance is non-cumulative.
4. Exact body and lead configuration at vendor’s option within limits shown.
5. Intended to meet new JEDEC Standard when that is approved.
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
3952
FULL-BRIDGE
PWM MOTOR DRIVER
A3952SLB
Dimensions in Inches
(for reference only)
16
9
0.0125
0.0091
0.491
0.394
0.2992
0.2914
0.050
0.016
0.020
0.013
1
2
0.050
BSC
3
0.4133
0.3977
0° TO 8°
0.0926
0.1043
0.0040 MIN.
Dwg. MA-008-17 in
Dimensions in Millimeters
(controlling dimensions)
16
9
0.32
0.23
10.65
10.00
7.60
7.40
1.27
0.40
0.51
0.33
1
2
3
10.50
10.10
1.27
BSC
0° TO 8°
2.65
2.35
0.10 MIN.
NOTES: 1. Webbed lead frame. Leads indicated are internally one piece.
2. Lead spacing tolerance is non-cumulative.
3. Exact body and lead configuration at vendor’s option within limits shown.
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Dwg. MA-008-17A mm
3952
FULL-BRIDGE
PWM MOTOR DRIVER
A3952SW
Dimensions in Inches
(controlling dimensions)
0.180
1.260
1.240
0.020
MAX
0.775
0.765
0.245
0.225
0.055
0.045
0.155 ø
0.145
0.140
0.365
INDEX
AREA
0.065
0.035
0.570
0.540
0.290 MIN
1
0.030
0.020
12
0.023
0.018
0.100
±0.010
Dimensions in Millimeters
(for reference only)
0.51
0.080
0.070
Dwg. MP-007 in
4.57
32.00
31.49
MAX
19.69
19.45
6.22
5.71
1.40
1.14
3.94
ø
3.68
3.56
9.27
INDEX
AREA
1.65
0.89
0.135
0.100
14.48
13.71
3.43
2.54
7.36 MIN
1
0.76
0.51
12
2.54
±0.254
NOTES: 1. Lead thickness is measured at seating plane or below.
2. Lead spacing tolerance is non-cumulative.
3. Exact body and lead configuration at vendor’s option within limits shown.
4. Lead gauge plane is 0.030” (0.762 mm) below seating plane.
0.59
0.45
2.03
1.77
Dwg. MP-007 mm
115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000
3952
FULL-BRIDGE
PWM MOTOR DRIVER
Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. reserves the right to make, from time to time,
such departures from the detail specifications as may be required to permit
improvements in the design of its products.
The information included herein is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, Allegro MicroSystems, Inc. assumes no responsibility for its use; nor
for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use.
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