AtomRace: Data Race and Atomicity Violation Detector and Healer

AtomRace:
Data Race and Atomicity
Violation
Detector and Healer
Zdeněk Letko
Tomáš Vojnar
Bohuslav Křena
Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic (EU)
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
1 / 29
Agenda
●
AtomRace approach
●
Detection abilities
●
Problem exhibition technique
●
Experimental results
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
2 / 29
What is a data race?
●
A data race occurs when two concurrent
threads access a shared variable and:
–
at least one access is a write and
–
the threads use no explicit mechanism to prevent
the accesses from being simultaneous.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
3 / 29
Lockset-based approach
●
●
Instructions of interest:
–
Memory access.
–
Lock operations.
Principle:
–
●
For each variable maintains a set of candidate locks.
Disadvantages:
–
Support only synchronization based on locks.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
4 / 29
Happens-before approach
●
●
●
Instructions of interest:
–
Memory access.
–
Synchronization (posting, receiving).
Principle:
–
Sync events split execution into segments.
–
Segments that are not related by
the happens-before relation are simultaneous.
Disadvantage:
–
Support only predefined synchronization.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
5 / 29
Self-healing requirements
●
Support for any kind of synchronization.
●
No false alarms.
●
Dynamic → minimal performance degradation.
●
●
Never mind if race which does not occur within
the current execution is not reported.
Report problem before it happens.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
6 / 29
AtomRace approach
●
Instructions of interest:
–
●
Memory access.
Every access to a variable is enclosed by meta
instructions.
beforeAccessEvent(p, loc6);
p = null;
afterAccessEvent(p, loc6);
}
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
Primitive
atomic section
related to p
7 / 29
Data race detection
●
●
A race is detected if two primitive atomic
sections related to the same variable instance
overlap and at least one access is for writing.
Reports simultaneous accesses.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
8 / 29
An example
Thread 1
Thread 2
.
.
if (p != null){
p.doSomeWork();
}
.
.
Time
.
.
// set p to null
p = null;
.
.
.
.
.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
9 / 29
An example
Thread 1
Thread 2
.
.
if (p != null){
p.doSomeWork();
}
.
.
Time
.
Problem
.
detected
.
p = null;
.
.
.
.
.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
10 / 29
An example
Thread 1
Thread 2
.
.
if (p != null){
p.doSomeWork();
}
.
Time
.
.
.
.
p = null;
.
.
.
.
.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
11 / 29
Atomicity Violation
Thread 1
.
.
if (p != null){
.
.
.
p.doSomeWork();
More general
atomic section
related to p
}
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
12 / 29
More general atomic section
●
Atomic section related to a variable:
–
●
If a thread t starts executing within the atomic
section over a variable v, no other thread should
access v in an unserializable way before the thread
t reaches the end point of the atomic section.
Serializability:
–
Each atomic region is executed atomically.
–
M. Xu, R. Bodík, and M. Hill. A serializability violation detector
for shared-memory server programs. In SIGPLAN. 2005.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
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More general atomic section
●
Serializability expressed by the set of access
modes that are only allowed:
A⊆{read , write}
●
Associated with each end point of each atomic
section.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
14 / 29
Atomicity violation detection
●
Within an atomic section gather a set of
suspected accesses to a variable:
beforeAccessEvent(p, loc3)
if (p != null){
p.doSomeWork();
afterAccessEvent(p,loc4)
}
atomExitEvent(p, loc5)
A = {read}
A = {read, write}
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
15 / 29
Atomicity violation detection
●
Within an atomic section gather a set of
suspected accesses to a variable:
beforeAccessEvent(p, loc3)
if (p != null){
p.doSomeWork();
afterAccessEvent(p,loc4)
}
atomExitEvent(p, loc5)
p = null;
A = {read}
A = {read, write}
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
16 / 29
Atomicity violation detection
●
Within an atomic section gather a set of
suspected accesses to a variable:
beforeAccessEvent(p, loc3)
if (p != null){
p = null;
p.doSomeWork();
(Thread 2, write, loc6)
afterAccessEvent(p,loc4)
A = {read}
}
atomExitEvent(p, loc5)
A = {read, write}
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
17 / 29
When not to detect - Java
●
Safe to skip detection:
–
Variable declared as final
●
–
Cannot change the value.
Variable declared as volatile
●
Designed to tolerate simultaneous accesses.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
18 / 29
When not to detect - Java
●
Avoid false alarms:
–
Variable set within a <clinit> method
●
●
–
Initializes static variables – executed on demand.
Synchronization ensured by the JVM.
Example:
static int p = 10;
...
beforeAccessEvent(var, loc9);
System.out.println(“Value of p is:” + p);
afterAccessEvent(var, loc9);
...
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
19 / 29
Special situations
●
Time
Overlapping atomic sections
−
Multiple threads execute multiple atomic sections
over a single variable.
Example:
Thread 1
.
local = p;
.
Time
Thread 2
.
.
local2 = p+10;
.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
20 / 29
Special situations

Circular atomic sections
−
Section starts and ends at the same location within
a loop.
Example:
.
for (int i=0; i<5; i++){
.
local += p;
.
}
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
21 / 29
Special situations

Recursive atomic sections
−
Atomic section is entered recursively.
Example:
int method(int param){
if (param < limit)
p = p + method(param+1);
return param;
}
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
...
22 / 29
Obtaining atomicity
●
●
Pattern based static analysis
–
Load and store bug patterns
x++;
–
Test and use bug patterns
if (p != null)
p = p.next;
Access Interleaving Invariants
–
S. Lu, J. Tucek, F. Qin, and Y. Zhou. Avio: detecting atomicity
violations via access interleaving invariants. In ASPLOS-XII.
2006. ACM Press.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
23 / 29
Problem manifestation
●
How to make data races and atomicity
violations manifest – so they can be detected?
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
24 / 29
Problem manifestation
●
●
How to make data races and atomicity
violations manifest – so they can be detected?
Get use of noise injection:
–
ConTest tool (IBM Haifa Research Labs)
●
–
Synchronization focused
Y. Ben-Asher, Y. Eytani, E. Farchi, and S. Ur. Noise makers
need to know where to be silent - producing schedules that
find bugs. ISOLA. 2006.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
25 / 29
Noise injection
●
●
●
Noise injected inside atomic sections.
The noise is put inside atomic sections using
before/afterAccessEvents → makes them
longer.
Noise injection policy:
–
Random
–
Variable focused
–
Location focused
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
26 / 29
AtomRace with Noise Injection
●
4 processors, TIDorb Java (1400+ classes)
Conflicts Coverage of Execution time
detected problematic
variables
Only AtomRace
1.58
0.37
5.76 sec
Random
24.19
2.27
106.17 sec
Location based
11.38
1.71
7.40 sec
Variable based
261.38
3.63
34.44 sec
Average in 100 runs, noise 50ms, noise frequency 50%.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
27 / 29
Conclusions


AtomRace
−
Supports any kind of synchronization.
−
Meets the requirements for dynamic self-healing.
Problem manifestation technique
−

Increases the efficiency of dynamic detection
technique – better if noise injected wisely.
Future work
−
Performance, obtaining more general atomicity,
healing the first occurrence of atomicity violation.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
28 / 29
Thank you.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
29 / 29
Proposed Architecture
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
30 / 29
AI-invariants:
unserializable interleavings
Interleaving
scenario
readlocal
writeremote
readlocal
writelocal
writeremote
readlocal
writelocal
readremote
writelocal
readlocal
writeremote
writelocal
Description
The interleaving write makes the two
reads have different views of the
same memory locations.
The local read does not get the local
result it expetcts.
Intermediate result that assumed to
be invisible to other threads is read by
a remote access.
The local variable relies on a value
from the preceding local read that is
then overwritten by the remote write.
Zdeněk Letko, PADTAD 2008
31 / 29
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