Dec 2002 Secondary Side Synchronous Post Regulator Provides Precision Regulation and High Efficiency for Multiple Output Isolated Power S

DESIGN FEATURES
Secondary Side Synchronous Post
Regulator Provides Precision
Regulation and High Efficiency for
Multiple Output Isolated Power
Supplies
by Charlie Y. Zhao, Wei Chen and Chiawei Liao
Introduction
secondary windings are used. The
additional power conversion stage and
components increase conduction
losses. Another option is to use a
magnetic amplifier post regulator. The
efficiency of a magnetic amplifier post
regulator can be high, especially for
low or medium current applications,
but is usually low in high current
applications. Furthermore, its complex assembly and poor regulation at
light load make it less than a perfect
solution. A better alternative is a post
regulator design that uses the new
LT3710.
The LT3710 controller brings simplicity, high efficiency and precision
regulation to multiple output isolated
power supply applications. The
LT3710 is a special synchronous step-
Many telecom, server and other applications require an isolated power
supply with multiple output voltages,
but maintaining tight regulation for
all of the output voltages can be a
power supply designer’s headache.
Traditionally, a linear regulator is
used for each auxiliary output, but
efficiency of a linear regulator can be
very low, limiting its usage to low
output current applications. One alternative to the linear regulator is to
use a buck converter as a post regulator. This method can yield better
efficiency, but the power supply needs
a larger output inductor and capacitor if the post regulator cascades the
main output; or it needs an additional rectifier, inductor and capacitor
before the post regulator if multiple
down switching regulator controller
with dual N-Channel MOSFET drivers. It is used as a high efficiency
secondary side synchronous post
regulator controller to generate a
tightly regulated auxiliary output directly from the rectified transformer
secondary winding voltage. This
scheme minimizes the size of inductor and output capacitors at the main
output stage. The LT3710 is a constant
frequency voltage mode controller with
programmable current limit protection and up to 500KHz switching
frequency. With leading edge modulation, it operates well with a main
output control loop that uses either
current mode control or voltage mode
control.
T
D1T
D1
VIN
LT3710 PWM RAMP
VAOUT
L1
V1
T1
•
t0
VOUT1
•
D2
Q1
QP
V2
t2 t3
BGATE
L2
IL
VOUT2
IP
t1
TGATE
C1
RTN
PWM
VSP
V1
VFB
IP
C2
TGATE
IL
Q2
LT3710
SYNC
BGATE
T
RTN
V2
D2T
VSP
Figure 1. Simplified application schematic and key waveforms
28
Linear Technology Magazine • December 2002
Linear Technology Magazine • December 2002
ON OFF
FZT
853
270k
4.7µF
0.1µF
10k
1N4148
22µF
100V
1.24k
73.2k
11V
MMSZ5241B
20k
B0540W
VIN–
36V–72V
INPUT
+
1
2
13
20
1nF
1µF
5VREF
5
6
52.3k
1%
FSET
0.1µF
SHDN 5VREF
OVLO
VCC VBST
BAS21
L2 1mH
1.5µF
100V
1.5µF
100V
18
15
11
82pF
3
7
4.7nF
4
8
7
6
5VREF
•8
7
U1
2
4
2
5
7
14
5
1
12
11
16 2
6
VAUX
LTC1698
MARGIN
OVPIN
3
4
10
PGND GND PWRGD ICOMP
0.1µF
OPTODRV
1µF
13
7
9
B0540W
+
+
470µF
4V
POSCAP
1.24k
1%
2.43k
1%
1.78k
1%
3.01k
1%
UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED:
ALL CAPS 25V
ALL RESISTORS 0.1W, 5%
Q1, Q2: SILICONIX Si7456DP
(800) 554-5565
Q3: SILICONIX Si7892DP ×2
Q4: SILICONIX Si7892DP
Q5: ZVN3310F
U1: QT OPTOELECTRONICS MOC207
(408) 720-1440
L1: COILCRAFT D01813P-122HC
L2: COILCRAFT DO1608C-105 (847) 639-6400
T1, T2: PULSE
(619) 674-8100
0.22µF
Q4
470µF
4V
POSCAP
2.5µH
SUMIDA CEP125-2R5 (847) 956-0667
B0540W
22nF
470Ω
1nF
CMPZ5240B
10V
2k
10Ω
1nF
100V
VDD ISNS ISNSGND FG CG VCOMP
8
SYNC
VFB
1µF
4.7µF
FZT690B
1nF
100V
10Ω
SEC (FIGURE 2b)
2.2nF
250VAC
Q3
VCCS
(FIGURE 2b)
4.7k
15
3
4.7nF
1k
220pF
B2100
4 3 1
1•
4
5 8
0.1µF
T2
PULSE
P2033
0.020Ω
1/2W
Q2
BAT54
3.3Ω
1k
3.3nF
3k
10Ω
10
9
PGND 12
SG
14
BAS21
BAS21
BAT54
10k
BAT54
THERM SYNC SGND SS VC VFB
LT3781
TG BSTREF BG SENSE
19
Q5
330pF
B2100
Q1
T1
PULSE
PA0191
1
•
VIN+
•
•
L1
1.2µH
VOUT1
TRIM
VOUT
RTN
VOUT1+
3.3V
AT 10A
DESIGN FEATURES
Figure 2a. 36V–72V DC to 3.3V/10A and 1.8V/10A dual output isolated power supply
29
DESIGN FEATURES
10pF
SEC
(FIGURE 2a)
10k
7
0.01µF
VCCS
(FIGURE 2a)
1µF
1
5
13
4
C37 680pF
14
6
180pF
10k
17
SYNC
CMDSH-3
BOOST
SS
GBIAS
TGATE
VCC
CSET
0.1µF
16V
4.7µF
16V
LT3710
SW
BGATE
PGND
BGS
ILCOMP
CL+
16
10Ω
2
Q1
3
15
RSENSE
0.006Ω
1%
L1
1.8µH
+
CMDSH-3
9
Q2
11
B340A
680µF
4V
POSCAP
+
VOUT2
1.8V/10A
680µF
4V
POSCAP
12
CL–
PGND
VAOUT
VFB
10
8
0.033µF
0.01µF
4700pF
3.3k
330pF
Q1, Q2: SILICONIX Si7892DP
L1: SUMIDA CEP125-IR8
(800) 554-5565
(847) 956-0667
3.01k
1%
220Ω
2.32k
1%
3.4k
1%
JP1
1
2
SHORT JUMPER
FOR 2.5V OUTPUT
Figure 2b. (continued) 36V–72V DC to 3.3V/10A and 1.8V/10A dual output isolated power supply
LT3710 Post Regulator
Operation
The LT3710’s basic functional blocks
include a voltage amplifier for feedback regulation, a ramp generator
synchronized to the secondary side
switching pulse, a PWM comparator
with leading edge modulation, a current limit amplifier and high speed
MOSFET drivers.
Figure 1 shows a simplified LT3710
application circuit and key waveforms.
The main output power stage is a
forward converter. The LT3710 regulates the auxiliary output VOUT2. The
LT3710 circuit looks like a synchronous buck converter except that the
input is a pulsed voltage rectified
from the power transformer secondary winding.
In normal operation, a switching
cycle begins at t0, the falling edge of
the rectified transformer secondary
voltage V1. An internal ramp is triggered to start a new PWM switching
cycle, turning off the top MOSFET Q1
(control switch) and turning on the
bottom MOSFET Q2 (synchronous
switch). From t0 to t1, the control
switches of both the main converter
(QP) and the LT3710 circuit (Q1) are
“off.” At t1, the rectified transformer
secondary voltage V1 goes high. During the period (t1 to t2), the control
switch of the main converter is “on”
but the control switch of the LT3710
circuit remains “off.” The primary
switch current IP equals the reflected
main output inductor current, IL1/N,
where N is the transformer primary to
secondary turns ratio. From t0 to t2,
the switch node voltage V2 remains
near zero and the auxiliary inductor
current IL is flows into COUT2 and the
load across VOUT2. This state lasts
until the PWM ramp signal intersects
the voltage error amplifier output,
VAOUT, at t2. The top MOSFET Q1
turns on and the bottom MOSFET Q2
turns off. The switch node voltage V2
is pulled up to the same voltage as V1
and charges the auxiliary inductor.
During the period t2 to t3, the control
switches of both the main converter
and the LT3710 circuit are “on.” The
primary switch current IP is the sum
of the reflected main output inductor
SEC
SECONDARY VOLTAGE
10V/DIV
LT3710 SWITCH NODE
10V/DIV
IL
INDUCTOR CURRENT
5A/DIV
2µs/DIV
Figure 3. 36V–72V DC to 3.3V/10A and
1.8V/10A dual output isolated power supply
30
Figure 4. Post regulator input voltage, switch node and inductor current
waveforms for 48V input to 3.3V/10A and 1.8V/10A outputs
Linear Technology Magazine • December 2002
DESIGN FEATURES
90
85
VIN = 36V
85
80
80
VIN = 48V
EFFICIENCY (%)
EFFICIENCY (%)
Dual Output Isolated 2-Switch
Forward Power Supply
90
VIN = 36V
75
70
VIN = 72V
65
75
VIN = 72V
70
65
VOUT1 = 3.3V
VOUT2 = 1.8V
LOAD CURRENT = IVOUT1 = IVOUT2
60
VIN = 48V
VOUT1 = 3.3V
VOUT2 = 2.5V
LOAD CURRENT = IVOUT1 = IVOUT2
60
55
55
0
1
2
3 4 5 6 7
LOAD CURRENT (A)
8
9
10
0
1
2
3 4 5 6 7
LOAD CURRENT (A)
8
10
9
Figure 5. Efficiency vs load current for the circuit in Figure 2
current and the auxiliary output inductor current (IL1 + IL)/N during this
stage. This state ends at t3, when the
rectified transformer secondary voltage V1 becomes zero, and the next
switching cycle begins.
There is a step change in the primary switch current at t2 when the
control switch of the LT3710 circuit
turns on. Leading edge modulation
prevents loop instability even if peak
current mode control is used on the
primary side.
The synchronization threshold of
the LT3710 is about 2.5V. The falling
edge of the rectified transformer secondary must pass through this
threshold each cycle. To ensure proper
synchronization, the LT3710 internal oscillator frequency should be set
lower than the system switching frequency.
The auxiliary output VOUT2 can
range from 0.8V to near the main
output voltage VOUT1. The voltage
VOUT2 can be determined by D2 • VSP,
where VSP is the amplitude of the
secondary voltage (VIN/N) and D2 is
the duty cycle of the switch node
voltage V2.
Figure 2 shows an application using
the LT3710—in this case a dual output high efficiency, isolated DC/DC
power supply with 36V to 72V input
range and 3.3V/10A and 1.8V/10A
outputs. The basic power stage topology is a 2-switch forward converter
with synchronous rectification. The
primary side controller uses an
LT3781, a current mode 2-switch forward controller with built-in MOSFET
drivers. On the secondary side, an
LTC1698 synchronous rectifier controller provides the voltage feedback
for the main 3.3V output, as well as
the gate drive for the synchronous
MOSFETs. The error amplifier output
of the main 3.3V circuit is fed into the
optocoupler and then relayed to
LT3781 on the primary side to complete the main 3.3V regulation. The
auxiliary 1.8V output is precisely regulated by the LT3710 circuit.
Current limiting is also provided
by the LT3710 circuit. The current
limit can be programmed by the value
of the external sensing resistor RSENSE
(see Figure 2b), to 70mV/RSENSE. If
current limiting is not required,
T2
LTC1693-1
(Drivers)
LT1431
V1
T1
•
•
GA GB
VIN
L1
•
•
VOUT1 = 3.3V
C1
Drivers
GA
A
E
F
B
C
QA
GB
QB
Q3
RTN
Q4
D
LTC1922-1
RS
Q1
V2
L2
VOUT2 = 2.5V
C2
TGATE
Q2
LT3710
SYNC
BGATE
RTN
Figure 6. Simplified schematic of a push-pull converter using the LT3710
Linear Technology Magazine • December 2002
31
DESIGN FEATURES
T2
LTC1693-1
(Drivers)
LT1431
VIN
A
QA
C
QC
V1
T1
A
B
C
•
D
L1
•
•
C1
Drivers
B
A
E
F
B
C
QB
D
VOUT1
3.3V
QD
Q3
RTN
Q4
D
LTC1922-1
RS
Q1
V2
L2
VOUT2
2.5V
C2
TGATE
Q2
LT3710
SYNC
BGATE
RTN
Figure 7. Simplified schematic of a full-bridge converter using the LT3710
ground the current sensing pins CL+
and CL–.
A Pulse Engineering planar transformer acts as the power transformer.
This transformer is constructed on a
PQ20 core with nine turns of primary
windings, two turns of secondary
windings and seven turns of auxiliary
windings for the LT3781 bias supply.
Because the maximum secondary
winding voltage VSP is about 16V, 30V
MOSFETs are chosen with the consideration that the secondary voltage
overshoot is typically 20% to 30% of
VSP. In this design Si7892DP N-channel MOSFETs were selected for low
RDS(ON), a 30V VDSS rating and a
compact and thermally enhanced
PowerPAK™ SO-8 package.
This circuit provides 1500V inputto-output isolation at switching
frequency of 230KHz. Additional features include primary side on/off
control, ±5% secondary side trimming on the 3.3V output, input
overvoltage protection, undervoltage
lockout and board thermal shutdown.
The entire circuit is mounted on a
standard half brick size PC board
with about a half inch height. Figure␣ 3
shows a top side picture of the board.
Figure 4 shows the LT3710 post
regulator input voltage, switch node
voltage and inductor current waveforms with 48V input to 3.3V/10A
and 1.8V/10A outputs. The efficiency
curve of this circuit is shown in
Figure␣ 5. With a 48V input and full
loads on both main and auxiliary
outputs, measured total efficiency is
about 86%.
Other Isolated Topologies
Using the LT3710
Application of the LT3710 is not limited to forward converter topologies.
It can also be used with other buck
derived single-ended or dual-ended
isolated topologies, such as pushpull, half-bridge and full-bridge
converters. Figure 6 shows a simplified circuit of push-pull converter
using the LT3710. The primary side
controller is an LTC1922-1 synchronous phase modulated controller. The
secondary side uses the LT1431, a
programmable reference, to feed back
the output signal and drive an optocoupler. The secondary MOSFETs can
be driven by an LTC1693-1, which
contains two high speed dual N-channel MOSFET drivers. The LT3710
regulates the auxiliary output. Note
that the LT3710 circuit works at twice
the switching frequency of the main
output push-pull converter because
of the double-ended secondary structure. The higher switching frequency
means the inductor L2 and output
capacitor C2 can be smaller. Figure 7
shows a full bridge application with
the LT3710.
Conclusion
The LT3710 is a high efficiency secondary side synchronous post
regulator controller. It is designed to
generate a tightly regulated auxiliary
output in multiple output isolated
power supplies. The LT3710 provides
a simple, high efficiency and space
saving post regulator solution, especially for low voltage/high current
applications.
PowerPAK is a trademark of Vishay Siliconix
32
Linear Technology Magazine • December 2002
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