"Techniques for Efficient Fragment Detection in Web Pages"

Techniques for Efficient Fragment Detection in Web Pages
Lakshmish Ramaswamy
Arun Iyengar
College of Computing, Georgia Tech
801 Atlantic Drive
Atlanta GA 30332
laks, lingliu @cc.gatech.edu
ABSTRACT
!"#%$&'(*)+,-./)0,12-0 3,4
-.5#!67)8%59,/$&9,+:;,&67)8%59&$<(
/00 4=>%$&',-:?5@,A, 3967) ,CBEDFC673@$<'/+0
"#%$&#:,[email protected])H+%<&A, 31F,%&%1F-H
,50I)0%BJK+A,%L%,=5350,#$&&/,%$<:,C00 4
-,M-
NAKA%,)0O"#%$&P<@67)< ,%BPQM/7,#R
)-!%+0 4SM2,K6P5)!%5M-4$&C00 4R%#:,-J:
% 3E67)E ,5T6O ,EAU,F,V"%$<:,%?+,F)L+3%51
A,%+0W5:%X#+#,,,M-=#+%E+:,5,CB
Keywords
YLZ5[S\]!^:_A`abc[Sd^%e9fTgcbThjiIdkTij_T\Tl'YTZ5['\]!^_+`nm%[Sm5kciI_T\Tl'YTZ5['\]!^_+`neT^:a
`^:m:`iIo_
1. INTRODUCTION
p;qT_c[S]!iImmo_+`^_+`Ro_r`kc^s?^:btkc[SdRfVod^%erd^:ZiIogTd=m5kU[ShIhI^_T\^d
`o<`kc^Kdm%['h"['bciIhIi`quoSv2`kc^Es?^buiI_\^_T^:Z5[Shw['_Ue!`kc^KfV^:Zvxo'Z][S_cm:^
o'vEiI_UeTiIyAijeTgc[ShOsM^bzdi`^d
iI_zfU[Z`ijm:gchj['Z%{}|?kT^:Z^!kU['dRbV^:^_zmoS_Ta
dijeL^:Z5[SbThj^GZ^d^%[ZmCk~`o%s@['Z5eLd[ShIhI^yAij['`iI_c\t`kciId8fLZobThj^:].{€9_T^
fLZo]!iIdiI_c\9Z^:d^%['Zm5keTiZ^m:`iIoS_=`kU['`kc[SdFbV^^_RfcgTZdgT^%eX['_UeXdgTm:a
m:^dd#vxgThjhq‚mo]!]!^:Zm:i"['hIijƒ:^%eHiI_HZ^:m^_+`&q+^%[Zd&ijdR„2…#†%‡Sˆ‰CŠT‹Mbc[Sd^%e
fTgcbThjiIdkTij_T\TlceT^hIiIy^:ZqJ['_Ue8m%['mCkTiI_c\=o'vPs?^b8fU[S\S^d
Œ +lVŽ+lV{
‘K^d^%[ZmCk’oS_zv>Z5[S\S]!^_+`abU[Sd^e’fTgcbThjiIdkTij_T\}[S_cezm%[Sm5kciI_c\}kc[Sd
bV^:^_.fTZoS]!fT`^%eb+q!`kc^v>ohIhIosEiI_T\uoSbcd^:ZyS['`iIoS_cd“
”‚• ^:bGfc[S\S^d<eToS_n– `&['hIs?[qTd&kc[%y^X[diI_c\Shj^R`kc^]!^<oSZ9vxgc_Tm:a
`iIo_c[ShIi`q+{O€;v>`^:_Xs?^bfc[S\^:dMkU[[email protected]^:y^:Z5[ShcfciI^m^dFoSv2iI_Tv>oSZa
]['`iIoS_nlAsEkcoSd^`kc^]!^dE['_Uevxgc_Tm:`iIo_TdE['Z^&iI_UeL^fV^_UeL^_+`%{
”’— ^_T^:Z5[ShIhq+l<s?^b˜fU[S\S^dG['Z^_2– `Hm:o]!fchI^:`^:hIq˜eAqT_c[S]!iImGoSZ
fV^:ZdoS_U[ShIiIƒ^%ew{F€;v>`^:_`kc^FeLqL_U[']!iIm[S_Ue;fV^:Zdo_c[ShIiIƒ^%e<mo_La
`^_+`K['Z^&^:]XbV^%eTeT^%eiI_8Z^hj['`iIy^hqJd#`5['`iIms?^:b.fU['\^d{
”‚• ^:b!fU[S\S^dOv"Zo]™`kc^Ed[S][email protected]^bdiI`^@`^_ceX`o<dkU['Z^EiI_Tv>oSZa
]['`iIoS_.[S]!oS_c\X`kT^]!d^hIy^d{
Sš od#`?o'vw`kciIdFsMoSZ›Xs?[[email protected]^9œn[S›Adkc]!iIdk=s@['d?['_!ij_+`^:Z_
[`K#ž š ‘K^d^%['Zm5k.iI_8`kT^dgc]!]!^:ZdMoSvF'ŸŸ!['_Ue.'ŸŸS Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for
personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are
not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies
bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to
republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific
permission and/or a fee.
CIKM 2003 November 3–8, 2003, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
Copyright 2003 ACM 1-58113-723-0/03/0011 ... ¡ 5.00.
Ling Liu
Fred Douglis
IBM T.J. Watson Research Center
P.O. Box 704
Yorktown
Heights, NY 10598
aruni, fdouglis @us.ibm.com
¢ o_Tm^fL`gU[ShIhqX[;v>Z5['\]!^_+`Fm%[[email protected]^:£c_c^%eR[SdF[9fc['Z`FoSvw[Ks?^b
fU['\^H¤*oSZ!]!o'Z^J\S^_c^:Z5['hIhIqtfc['Z`=o'v['_co'`kc^:Z=v"Z5[S\S]!^_+`C¥ClOsEkTijm5k
kU['dK[=eTiId#`iI_cm:`@`kT^]!^9o'ZEvxgc_Tm:`iIo_c[ShIi`q8[Sddo+mij['`^esEi`kJiI`;['_Ue
sEkciIm5k~ijd8eTiId#`iI_c\SgciIdkU['bchI^Hv"Zo]¦`kc^GoS`kc^CZ.fU[Z`d8o'v
`kT^s?^b
fU['\^{~,_§v"Z5[S\]!^:_A`abc[Sd^%etfcgcbThIijdkTiI_c\TlM`kc^.m%['mCkT^%[SbTiIhji`,q¨['_Ue
`kc^KhIivx^:`iI]!^;['Z^9dfV^:mi£U^%e['`?[v>Z5[S\S]!^_+`?hI^y^:hcZ5['`kT^:ZM`kc[S_!`kc^
fU['\^&hI^y^:h©{
|?kc^=[eTyS[S_+`5['\^do'v?v>Z5['\]!^_+`abU['d^%e}dmCkT^]!^d&[Z^![SfTfU['Z^:_A`
[S_ce&kU[%y^bV^^_&moS_cmhIgTdijy^hq<eT^]!oS_cd#`Z5[`^%eiI_<`kT^hji`^:Z5[`gTZ^;Œ Ž+l
'©{ªžOq«d^fU[Z5['`iI_c\r`kc^}_To_TafV^:ZdoS_U['hjiIƒ^e~m:o_+`^_+`Jv"Zo]¦`kc^
fV^:ZdoS_U[ShIiIƒ^%emoS_A`^:_A`O['_Ue=]['Z›AiI_c\`kT^]¬[SdOdgcm5knl+i`Oij_Tm:Z^%['d^d
`kc^Xm%[Sm5kc^%['bchI^mo_+`^_+`<o'v?`kc^XsM^bzdi`^d{JYcgLZ`kc^:Z]!o'Z^lnsEi`k
v>Z5['\]!^_+`abU['d^%e¨fcgTbchIiIdkciI_c\Ll9`kT^H[']!ogT_A`JoSvReT['`5[z`kU[`.\^C`d
iI_Ay['hjijeT['`^%e.[`;`kT^&m%[Sm5kc^:d;iIdEZ^%eTgTm^%e2{M_[SeceLiI`iIoS_nlc`kT^&iI_Tvxo'Za
]['`iIoS_G`kc['`<iId&dkU[Z^%eH['m:Zodd&sM^b‚fc[S\^:d
_T^^%eLd9`o8bV^Rd#`oSZ^%e
o_Thqo_Tm^lVsEkciIm5k}ij]!fLZoy^d@`kc^ReTiId›8dfc[Sm^RgT`iIhIiIƒ%['`iIo_H['`;`kc^
m%['mCkT^d{
|?kcoSgc\SkH`kc^CZ^=kU[%y^RbV^^_‚m:o_cdijeL^:Z5[SbThj^=Z^:d^%['Zm5k‚^:­wo'Z`d<o_
fV^:Zv>oSZ][S_Tm^<[S_ceJbV^_T^:£[email protected]'vPv>Z5['\]!^_+`abU['d^%eJfTgcbThjiIdkTij_T\=['_Ue
m%['mCkTij_T\Tl`kc^CZ^Okc[Sd®bV^:^_<hji``hI^OZ^:d^%['Zm5k<o_
eT^:`^:m:`iI_c\Edgcm5k&v>Z5[S\'a
][email protected]_^:¯LiId#`ij_T\=s?^bdi`^d{ š od#`o'v7`kc^Z^d^['Zm5k^:­woSZ`d;o_
v>Z5['\]!^_+`m%['mCkTiI_c\‚Z^hqtgcfVoS_t`kT^8s?^:b¨[eL]!iI_ciId#`Z5['`o'ZoSZ`kc^
s?^:brfU[S\S^ueT^diI\_T^:Z
`o.][S_AgU['hIhIqGv>Z5['\]!^_+`<`kc^!fc[S\S^dRoS_z`kc^
s?^:b.di`^{?°;osM^y^:Z%lT][S_Agc[Shwv>Z5[S\S]!^_+`;eT^:`^mC`ijoS_.iId;bVo'`k.y^:Zq
moSd#`hIq8[S_ce8^:ZZo'Z;fLZo_T^{
_
`kciIdfU['fV^:[email protected]^;[_Toy^hAdmCkT^]!^?`o&['gT`o][`iIm%[ShIhq
eT^C`^m:`O[S_ceX±V[S\&[email protected]>Z5[S\S]!^_+`dOiI_[;sM^b!di`^{ • ^E['_U['hIqLƒ^
s?^:b.fU['\^dEsEi`k8Z^dfV^m:`E`o=`kT^iZ;iI_LvxoSZ][`iIo_.dkc['ZiI_c\!bV^kc[%yAa
iIoSZ%l®fV^:Zdo_c[ShIiIƒ%['`iIo_rm5kU[Z5[Sm:`^CZijd#`iImdl7[S_Ue}`kc^RmCkc[S_c\S^d<o+mmgLZa
ZiI_c\!`o=`kc^:]o'y^:Z;`iI][email protected]?[Sd^%eoS_.`kciId9['_U['hIqLdiIdlwogLZ9d#qLd#`^]
eT^C`^m:`d['_Ue8±U[S\d;`kc^}²iI_+`^:Z^d#`iI_c\S³uv"Z5[S\S]!^_+`d9iI_G[!sM^b}di`^{
|?kc^Z^:d^%[[email protected]`kTijdEfc[SfV^:ZK[Z^<[ShIo_T\=`kTZ^^&eLia
]!^_TdijoS_cd{FYPiZd#`%lLs?^9v>oSZ][ShIhq8eT^:£c_c^;`kT^9moS_cm^:fT`EoSv7[G´F†SŠUµS¶*·
µ†S‹,‰M„2…†%‡Sˆ!‰CŠc‹*l+sEkTijm5kXv>oSZ][email protected][SdiIdFv>oSZFv>Z5['\]!^_+`FeT^C`^m:`iIo_
dm5kc^]!^d{¸L^moS_Uewl+s?^9fLZoyLijeL^;['_JiI_Lv>Z5[Sd#`ZgTm:`gTZ^Evxo'ZEeT^C`^m:`iI_c\
v>Z5['\]!^_+`d7sEi`kciI_[;sM^b=di`^l+iI_cm:hjgceTiI_c\<['_=^:¹!m:ij^:_A`OeLo+mgc]!^_+`
]!oAeT^:h[S_ce9v*['d#`7d#`ZiI_c\E^_cm:oAeTiI_c\K[ShI\SoSZi`kc]~vxo'ZPv>Z5['\]!^_+`®eT^:`^mCa
`iIo_2{.|?kTiIZ5ewl®sM^ufLZ^d^_+`&`sMo[ShI\SoSZi`kc]!d<vxo'Z=eL^:`^m:`iI_c\Jv>Z5[S\'a
]!^_+`dR`kc['`[Z^.dkU[Z^%e«[']!o_T\zº»eTo+m:gc]!^_+`dXo'Z!`kU[`!kU[%y^
eTi­w^:Z^:_A`=hjiv>^:`iI]!^.mCkc['Z5['m:`^:[email protected]§s?^Jm%[ShIhE`kc^G¼L½T†S…‰µ
„2…#†%‡Sˆ‰CŠT‹n¾R‰C‹,‰¿:‹*¶©ÀSŠ!Á; ‡ÀS…5¶x‹>½Aˆ¨[S_UeRö Ä%‰C‹*¶xˆ‰:·>ÅK‰C…CÆCÀSŠU†Â ¶jÇ%†S‹*¶©ÀSŠ
È †SÆ:‰µGÉ>ÃF·>ÅÊ
„w…†%‡Sˆ!‰CŠc‹O¾
‰C‹,‰¿:‹*¶*ÀSŠ}Á; ‡À'…C¶x‹>½+ˆËZ^dfV^m:`iIy^:hIq+{
2. A FRAGMENT MODEL OF WEB PAGES
|?kc^
s?^b‚eTo+mgT]!^_+`d9moS_cdijeT^CZ^%eGiI_G`kciIdfU['fV^:Z<[Z^=°| š œ
eTo+m:gc]!^_+`d{ • ^;['ddgc]!^E`kU[`@[ShIhV°9| š œGeLo+mgc]!^:_A`dO['Z^
ÌM‰:Âx·
Í:ÎSÏCÐ!ÑÒ§Ó Ô'թց×Ø+Ù:ÚcÛ!ÜÝ+Þß!ÞàUáÞá'âÜHÝcØ'Þ8ã?Ü:äjäå>ØSâÛ!Ü%æçÙ%á'Ý~èVÜ
Ù:ØÝAéÜ:âÞÜ%ætÞØzã?ÜäIäê©åxØSâÛ!Üæ¨æTØ+ÙÚTÛ!ÜÝ+Þß֘ë‚Ü.âÜ:åxÜCâJÞØrßÚTÙCà«á
Þâ5á'Ýcß#å>ØSâÛá'ÞìIØSÝJá'ß?æLØ+ÙÚcÛ!ÜÝ+ÞÝTØSâÛáSäIìIí%áÞìjØSÝnÖî9ïEð.ñGï?ìjæAò.Ó ó'Õ
ìIß&á!ã?Ü:äjäêôAÝcØ%ãEÝGõÝ+ÞÜ:âÝcÜCÞ;ÞØ+ØSäPåxØSâ9Þâ5áSÝcß#å>ØSâÛ!ìIÝcöJáSÝHá'âèTìÞâ5á'âò
î9ïEð.ñzæTØ+Ù:ÚcÛ!ÜÝ+Þ@ìIÝ+ÞØ!áRãMÜäIäIê©å>ØSâÛ!Ü%æ8ØSÝcÜÖ
2.1 Candidate Fragments
ë‚Ü&ìIÝAÞâØAæLÚcÙÜ;ÞàcÜÝTØSÞìIØÝ.Ø'åÙ%áSÝcæTìjæcáÞÜå>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+ÞßEáSßEåxØSäIäjØ%ãEß÷
ørù áSÙ5à8ëzÜèJúUá'öÜ&ØSåFá
ã?ÜèJßìIÞÜ<ìIßKáXÙ%á'ÝUæTìjæTá'ÞÜå>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+Þ%Ö
ørû úUá'âÞ=ØSå<á}Ù%áSÝcæTìjæcáÞÜ8å>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+Þ!ìIß!ìÞßÜäå<áGÙ%áSÝcæTìjæcáÞÜ
å>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+ÞOìå2áSÝ+ò=ØSÝcÜEØSåVÞàTÜEå>ØäIäIØ%ãEìjÝTö
Þ,ã?Ø<ÙØSÝUæTìÞìIØÝTßMáâÜ
ßá'ÞìIß#ücÜ%æ2÷
ý ï?àcÜúcá'âÞRìjßRßàUáâÜ%æráSÛ!ØSÝcöçþð8ÿHáSäâÜ%áSæLò‚Ü Lìjß#ÞìIÝTö
Ù%á'ÝUæTìjæTá'ÞÜ9å"â5áSöÛ!Ü:ÝAÞß ãEàcÜCâÜXð
ý ï?àcÜ}úcá'âÞJàUáSß8æTì wÜ:âÜÝ+ÞJúVÜ:âßØÝcáSäIìIí%á'ÞìIØSÝ á'ÝUæ¨äIìåxÜ:ê
ÞìIÛ!Ü&ÙCàcá'â5á'Ù:ÞÜ:âìIß#ÞìIÙß9ÞàUá'Ý8ÞàcØSßÜRØ'åFìIÞßKÜÝTÙØÛ!úcáSßß#ê
ìIÝc
ö *úUá'âÜ:ÝAÞKØ'â9á'ÝcÙÜ:ß#ÞØSâ ?Ù%áSÝcæTìjæcáÞÜå>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+Þ%Ö
õÞ
ìjß<ÜéAìjæTÜ:ÝAÞ&å"âØÛ ÞàcÜæLÜ:üUÝTìÞìjØSÝHÞàcá'Þ<ÞàcÜ=Þ,ã?Ø.ÙØSÝUæLìIÞìIØSÝcß
áâÜ&ìIÝUæTÜ:úVÜÝUæLÜÝ+ÞEáSÝcæuÞàcÜ:ßÜ&ÙØÝcæTìÞìIØÝcßKæLÜ:üUÝTÜ9å>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+Þß?ÞàUáÞ
èVÜ:ÝcÜ:üTÞOÙáSÙ5àcìIÝcöå"âØۙÞã?ØæTì wÜ:âÜÝ+ÞMáSÝUæRìjÝcæTÜúVÜ:ÝUæTÜ:ÝAÞúVÜCâßúVÜÙ:ê
ÞìIéÜ:ßÖ7ëzÜ9ÙáSäIä2ÞàTÜ;å"â5áSöÛ!Ü:ÝAÞß@ßáÞìIß#å>òLìIÝc
ö MØSÝUæTìÞìIØ
Ý ö MØÝcæTìÞìIØ'
Ý &)(+*-,
!"$# áSÝcæ.ÞàcÜ<å>â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+Þßßá'ÞìIß#å"òTìIÝT%
!"$#'©æLÜÝcØ'ÞìIÝcöGñnìåxÜCÞìjÛ!ÜC/ê .PÜCâßØÝUá'äIìjíá'ÞìIØݨècáSßÜ%ærå>â5á'öSê
Û!Ü:ÝAÞ0ß CÖtñ2ìåxÜ:ÞìIÛ!Ü8Ù5àUáâ5áSÙ:ÞÜCâìjß#ÞìIÙßØ'å&áå>â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+Þ!öØéÜCâÝtÞàTÜ
ÞìIÛ!Ü9æTÚTâ5áÞìIØÝåxØSâ@ãEàTìIÙCàuÞàcÜ;å"â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+Þ ìIå®Ù%áSÙ5àcÜæ ã?ØSÚcäjæJß#Þ5áò
å"âÜß1
à *ìjÝ}ÞÚcÝTÜ&ãEìIÞà}ÞàcÜ
éSáSäIÚcÜXá'Þ9ÞàTÜRßÜCâéÜ:â CÖ<ï?àTÜXúVÜ:âßØSÝUáSäê
ìIí%áÞìIØÝ.Ù5àUáâ5áSÙ:ÞÜ:âìIß#ÞìIÙßKØSåá<å>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+Þ@ÙØ'ââÜßúVØÝcæJÞØRÞàTÜ9éSá'âìê
áÞìIØÝcß&Ø'åOÞàTÜ
å"â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+ÞìIÝGâÜ:ä"áÞìIØÝ}ÞØJÙØ+ØSôAìjÜ:ß&ØSâ&úcá'â5áSÛ!ÜCÞÜ:âß
Ø'å7Þàc3
Ü 2549ñÖ
õÞXÙáSÝrèVÜØèTßÜ:âéÜ%æ‚Þàcá'Þ
ÞàcÜ!ÞãMØìjÝcæTÜúVÜ:ÝUæTÜ:ÝAÞ
ÙØSÝUæLìIÞìIØSÝcß
ìIÝuÞàcÜÙ%á'ÝUæLì"æTá'ÞÜ9å"â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+ÞKæTÜ:ücÝcìÞìIØÝ8Ù:ØSââÜßúVØSÝUæuãMÜäIä2ÞØ
ÞãMØ
ôÜ:òGáSìIÛ!ßØ'åMå>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+Þ&ÙáSÙ5àcìIÝcöL7
Ö 6Oò}ìjæLÜÝ+ÞìIå"òLìjÝTö.á'ÝUæ}Ù:âÜ%á'ÞìIÝTö
å"â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+ÞßMØÚLÞ?Ø'ånÞàTÜ;úcá'âÞßOÞàcá'Þ?á'âÜKßàUá'âÜæuá'Ù:âØßß@Û!Ø'âÜ@ÞàUáSÝ
ØSÝcÜ9å"â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+Þ ãMÜ&á%éØìjæÚcÝTÝcÜÙÜ:ßßá'âòJæTÚTúcäIìIÙ%á'ÞìIØÝJØSå®ìjÝLåxØ'âÛá'ê
ÞìIØSÝ=á'Þ7ÞàTÜ?Ù%á'ÙC àTÜß+
Ö 6Oò<Ù:âÜá'ÞìIÝcö9å"â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+ÞßPÞàUá'ÞPàUá%éÜ?æLì wÜ:âÜÝ+Þ
äIìåxÜCÞìjÛ!ÜáSÝUæúVÜ:âßØSÝUáSäIìIí%áÞìjØSÝ.úTâØSúVÜ:âÞìIÜß?ã?Ü9ÝcØSÞ?ØÝcäòìIÛ!úTâØéÜ
ÞàTÜÙ%áSÙ5àcÜáSècäIÜ}ÙØSÝAÞÜ:ÝAÞuèTÚTÞuáSäIßؒÛ!ìIÝcìIÛ!ìIíÜ8ÞàTÜ}áSÛ!ØÚTÝ+ÞuáSÝUæ
å"â$Ü 8+ÚcÜÝTÙ:òuØSå7ÞàTÜìIÝTåxØ'âÛá'ÞìIØÝJÞàUá'ÞKÝTÜÜ%æTß?ÞØXèVÜìIÝLéSáSäIìjæcáÞÜ%æ2Ö
3. FRAGMENT DETECTION: THE BASICS
ï?àTÜ&úTâìIÛá'âòuöSØáSänØSåØSÚTâEß#òLß#ÞÜہìIß@ÞØ!æTÜ:ÞÜ:Ù:Þ;áSÝUæ9Vá'ö=Ù%áSÝcæTìê
æTá'ÞÜMå"â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+Þß®å>âØSÛËúUá'öÜß7Ø'åVá;öSìIéÜÝ<ã?ÜèRßìIÞÜSÖ7ï?àcÜOå>â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+Þ
æLÜ:ÞÜÙ:ÞìIØSÝ.úTâØ+ÙÜ:ßß;ìIßKæTìIéAìjæTÜ%æuìjÝ+ÞØXÞàLâÜÜ&ß#ÞÜúTß;
Ö :Pìâß#Þ ÞàcÜß#òLß#ê
ÞÜ:Û ìIßKÙ:ØÝcÙ:ÜìIéÜ%æuÞØXÙØÝTß#ÞâÚcÙ:ÞKá'=
Ý <?>[email protected]ÐÑ B!C,ÑE
Ò D2GÏ [email protected]Ð Ñ BC3IcÏÑÑ
*ßÜ:?
Ü JLÜÙ:ÞìIØSÝ=óLKÖ $På>ØSâÞàcÜMúUáSöSÜßØSåUá;ã?ÜèRßìÞÜL
Ö JLÜ:ÙØÝcæ ÞàcÜ?ß#òLß#ê
ÞÜ:ÛËáSúTúcäIìIÜßPÞàcÜFå>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+ÞæLÜ:ÞÜÙ:ÞìIØÝRáSäIöSØSâìÞàcÛ!ßPÞØ;áSÚT öÛ!ÜÝ+ÞÜ%æ
å"â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+ÞPÞâÜÜß7Ø'åcÞàcÜFã?ÜèRúUá'öÜßPÞØ;æTÜ:ÞÜ:Ù:ÞPÞàcÜOÙ%áSÝcæTìjæcáÞÜMå>â5á'öSê
Û!Ü:ÝAÞßÖ®õÝ
ÞàcÜ?Þàcìâ5æXß#ÞÜ:ú ÞàTÜ?ß#òLß#ÞÜۙÙØäIäIÜÙ:ÞßFß#Þ5á'ÞìIß#ÞìIÙßMáSèVØÚLÞ
ÞàTÜ=å>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+Þß<ßÚcÙ5àzá'ß<Þ àTÜ!ßìIíÜ àTØã¬Ûá'ÝAò}úcáSöSÜßRßàcá'âÜ=ÞàTÜ
å"â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+Þ á'ÙÙÜßß&â5á'ÞÜ:ß&Ü:ÞÙÖXï?àcÜßÜ=ß#Þ5áÞìIß#ÞìjÙ:ßRá'ìjæGÞàcÜXáæLÛ!ìjÝLê
ìIß#Þâ5áÞØSâÞØtæTÜÙ:ì"æLÜHãEàTÜ:ÞàcÜ:âJÞØrÞÚTâÝ~ØÝçÞàcÜ}å>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+Þ5áÞìjØSÝnÖ
:PìIöSÚTâM
Ü RöìIéÜß<áßôÜ:ÞÙ5à}ØSåOÞàcÜ=áâÙCàTìÞÜÙ:ÞÚTâÜRØSåMØÚTâ9å>â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+Þ
æLÜ:ÞÜÙ:ÞìIØSÝ.ß#òLß#ÞÜÛ.Ö
N9ÚLâ<å>â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+Þ
æTÜ:ÞÜ:Ù:ÞìIØÝzå>â5á'Û!Ü:ã?Ø'âôHàcáSß<ÞãMØ.ìIÝUæTÜ:úVÜÝUæLÜÝ+Þ
ßÙ5àcÜ:Û!Üß÷OáXßÙCàTÜÛ!Ü9ÞØ!æLÜ:ÞÜÙ:O
Þ JAàUá'âÜæuå>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+ÞßKáSÝcæ.áSÝTØSÞàTÜ:â
ßÙ5àcÜ:Û!Ü=ÞØæTÜ:ÞÜ:Ù:Þ=ñwPê . å>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+ÞßQ
Ö 6MØSÞàzØ'å@ÞàcÜ!ßÙ5àcÜÛ!Ü:ßRáâÜ
äIØ+Ù%áÞÜ%æìIÝGØSÝcÜ<äjá'âöSÜ
å"â5áSÛ!Ü:ãMØSâô úTâØSèUá'ècäò.ÙØSäIäjØ+Ùá'ÞÜ%æãEìÞà}á
ßÜCâéÜ:âêßìjæTÜ8ÙáSÙ5àcÜ áSÝcærãMØSâôrØSݒÞàTÜJãMÜè’úUáSöSÜ.æLÚcÛ!úcß<å>âØSÛ
ÞàTÜã?ÜèJßìÞÜÖ
ï?àTÜ&ßÙCàTÜÛ!Ü9ÞØ!æLÜ:ÞÜÙ:5
Þ JAàUáâÜ%æuå"â5áSöÛ!Ü:ÝAÞß@ãMØSâôAßEØÝ8éSá'âìIØSÚcß
úcáSöSÜßRå"âØÛ ÞàcÜ!ßá'Û!ÜãMÜèzßìÞÜ ãEàTÜ:âÜ%áSß
ÞàcÜñw/ê . å>â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+Þß
RTS VUXWY R !"7Z)["H\A" S^] _`#H"ba)c\c S "H\A"HU
áSúTúTâØáSÙ5àtãMØSâôAß=ØݧæTì wÜ:âÜ:ÝAÞXéÜ:âßìIØÝTß=ØSå9Ü%áSÙ5à’ã?ÜètúUá'öÜ'*ìå
ÞàcÜ<ã?Ü:èGúcáSöSÜXàUá'ßÛ!ØSâÜ&ÞàcáSÝ}ØÝTÜXéÜ:âßìIØSÝdCÖe:TØSâÜcá'Û!úcäIÜ ìIÝ
ØSâ5æLÜ:âXÞØGæLÜ:ÞÜÙ:Þ=ñ2Pê .˜å>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+Þß ã?ÜuàUá%éÜÞØ}äIØ+Ù%á'ÞÜJúUá'âÞßRØSå
áuå"â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+ÞÞàUáÞ&àUá%éÜXæTì wÜ:âÜÝ+Þ&äIìåxÜ:ÞìIÛ!Ü!á'ÝUæ}úVÜ:âßØÝcáSäIìIí%á'ÞìIØSÝ
Ù5àUá'â5á'Ù:ÞÜ:âìIß#ÞìIÙßÖ¬ï?àcìIßuÙ%áSÝ«èVÜ}æTØÝTÜè+ò«ÙØSÛ!úUáâìjÝTöræTì wÜ:âÜ:ÝAÞ
éÜ:âßìIØSÝcß9Ø'åÞàcÜ&ã?Üè}úcáSöÜRáSÝcææTÜ:ÞÜ:Ù:ÞìIÝcö=ÞàcÜ<úcá'âÞß;Þàcá'Þ;àUá%éÜ
Ù5àUáSÝTöÜ%æ}á'ÝUæ.ÞàcÜ
úUáâÞß9ÞàUáÞàUá%éÜ&âÜÛá'ìIÝcÜ%æÙØSÝcß#Þ5áSÝ+Þ%Ö&î;Ø%ã@ê
ÜéÜCâ ÞØ<æTÜ:ÞÜ:Ù:f
Þ JAàUáâÜ%æXå>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+Þß ãMÜ9áâÜKäIØ+ØSôLìIÝTö<å>ØSâMúUá'âÞßOØSå
á&å>â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+Þ?ÞàUáÞ@áâÜßàUáâÜ%æ!èAò=ØSÞ àcÜCâ?å>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+Þß ãEàcìIÙ5àuÝcá'ÞÚLê
â5áSäIäò
äIÜ%áæLß7ÚcßPÞØEã?ØSâô&ãEìÞà=áKÙØäIäIÜÙ:ÞìIØSÝ=ØSåUæTì wÜ:âÜÝ+ÞPãMÜèXúcáSöÜ:ß
å>âØSہÞàcÜßá'Û!Ü9ã?Üè8ßìIÞÜSÖ
ëçàTìjäIÜÞàcÜìIÝcúTÚTÞß<ÞØ.ÞàcÜuñ2Pê . å>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+ÞXæTÜ:ÞÜ:Ù:ÞìIØÝrßÙ5àcÜÛ!Ü
áSÝcæ¨Þàc'
Ü JLàUáâÜ%æ¨å>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+ÞæLÜ:ÞÜÙ:ÞìIØSݘá'úcúLâØáSÙ5à æTì wÜ:â èVØSÞà
ßÙ5àcÜÛ!ÜßOâÜäòÚcúVØÝÞàcÜ û ÚTöÛ!ÜÝ+ÞÜ%g
æ :Tâ5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+Þ?ïnâÜÜ9âÜúLâÜßÜÝLê
Þ5á'ÞìIØSÝJØ'å®ìÞß?ìIÝcúTÚTÞFã?ÜèuúUá'öÜß ãEàTìjÙ5àìIß@æTÜßÙCâìjèVÜæìIÝ!ÞàcÜKÝcÜ LÞ
ßÚcèTßÜÙ:ÞìIØÝ2ÖOï?àcÜØSÚTÞúcÚLÞ?Ø'å7ØÚLâ@å>â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+ÞEæTÜCÞÜÙ:ÞìIØÝJß#òTß#ÞÜ:Û ìIß
á.ßÜ:ÞRØSåEå>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+Þß<ÞàUáÞ=áâÜußàcá'âÜ%ærá'Û!ØÝTö}á.öìIéÜÝrÝAÚcÛRèVÜ:â
ØSåFæLØ+ÙÚcÛ!Ü:ÝAÞßEØ'â;Þàcá'ÞKàUá%éÜ<æLKì wÜCâÜÝ+Þ;äIìåxÜCÞìjÛ!Ü<Ù5àUáâ5áSÙ:ÞÜ:âìIß#ÞìIÙßÖ
ï?àcìIß;ìjÝLåxØ'âÛá'ÞìIØÝ.ãEìIäIä7èVÜ&ßÜ:âéÜ%æá'ß;âÜÙ:ØÛ!Û!ÜÝcæcá'ÞìIØSÝcß@ÞØ=ÞàcÜ
å>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+Þ;Ù%áSÙ5àcìIÝTö!úVØäIìIÙ:ò.Ûá'ÝUáSöSÜ:â;ØSâKÞàcÜ&âÜßúVÜÙ:ÞìIéÜ&ãMÜè}áæAê
Û!ìIÝcìIß#Þâ5á'ÞØ'h
â *ßÜ
Ü :PìIöÚTâ7
Ü $CÖ
3.1 Augmented Fragment Tree
û öØ+ØAæ8Û!ØAæLÜäVÞØRâÜúLâÜßÜÝ+Þ?ÞàcÜ;ã?ÜèuúUá'öÜßEìIß@ØÝTÜØSåPÞàTÜ9ôÜCòTß
ÞØÜ i!ÙìIÜÝ+Þ<á'ÝUæ}áSÙ:ÙÚTâ5áÞÜRå>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+ÞæTÜ:ÞÜÙCÞìjØSÝnÖ;ëzÜ
ìjÝ+ÞâØAæLÚcÙÜ
ÞàcÜ&Ù:ØÝcÙ:ÜúTÞEØ'åFáSÝ û ÚcöÛ!Ü:ÝAÞÜ
æ :Tâ5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+ÞKïnâÜ:Ü<áSß;áXÛ!ØAæTÜäVÞØ
âÜúLâÜßÜÝ+ÞEã?ÜèJúUáSöSÜßÖ
Þ û :+9ÞâÜÜ!ìIßXá.àTìIÜ:â5á'âÙ5àcìIÙ%á'äOâÜúLê
û ݂áSÚTöÛ!ÜÝ+ÞÜ%æ}å>â5áSöSÛ!ÜÝ+)
âÜßÜÝ+Þ5áÞìjØSݧØ'åEÞàcÜß#ÞâÚcÙ:ÞÚLâÜJØ'å;áSݒîïEð.ñ~æTØ+Ù:ÚcÛ!ÜÝ+Þ%ÖGõ,ÞRìIß
á.ÙØSÛ!úUáSÙCÞRe
× N&ð ÞâÜÜÓ CÕ?ãEìÞà’áSäIäOÞàTÜÞÜ LÞê©å>ØSâÛá'ÞÞìIÝTö8Þ5áSöSß
âÜÛ!ØéÜ%æ áSÝcæzÜ%áSÙ5à’ÝcØAæLÜJá'ÚcöSÛ!ÜÝ+ÞÜ%æHãEìÞàtáæcæLìÞìjØSÝUá'ä?ìIÝTåxØ'âê
Ûá'ÞìIØSÝGå>ØSâ<Ü i!Ù:ìjÜ:ÝAÞ<Ù:ØÛ!úUáâìIßØ݂Ø'å@æLKì wÜCâÜÝ+Þ<æTØ+ÙÚTÛ!ÜÝ+Þßá'ÝUæ
æTì wÜ:âÜ:ÝAÞ;å>â5á'öÛ!ÜÝ+Þß9Ø'å?æLØ+ÙÚcÛ!Ü:ÝAÞßÖ ù á'ÙCà}ÝTØAæTÜ
ìjÝ}ÞàcÜ<ÞâÜÜ
ìIß
áSÝTÝcØ'Þ5á'ÞÜ%æJãEìÞà8ÞàTÜ9åxØSäIäjØ%ãEìIÝcö!ücÜäjæTß÷
økj AØ æTÜ;õ#æLÜÝ+ÞìIücÜ:âe j ØAæTÜ:êõ×eC÷ û éÜ:Ù:ÞØSâEìIÝUæLìIÙ%á'ÞìIÝcö
ÞàcÜ;äjØ'ê
Ù%á'ÞìIØÝ8ØSå7ÞàcÜ9ÝcØAæTÜ&ìIÝuÞàcÜÞâÜÜÖ
økj ØAæTÜCPê lOáSäIÚTÜ÷ û ß#ÞâìIÝTö&ìjÝcæTìIÙ%áÞìjÝTö&ÞàcÜ@éSáSäIÚcÜ@Ø'å2ÞàTÜ@ÝcØAæLÜÖ
ï?àcÜEéá'äIÚcÜEØSå®áäIÜ%á'ånÝcØAæLÜKìIßFÞàcÜ@ÞÜ AÞFìIÞßÜ:äIå®áSÝcæXÞàcÜEéSáSäIÚcÜ
ØSåá'Ý.ìIÝAÞÜCâÝUáSä2ÝcØAæLÜ&ìIß j 2ñnm
ñ *ÜÛ!úLÞò!ß#ÞâìIÝcnö CÖ
ø JLÚcèLÞâÜÜ:oê lOáSäIÚcÜ÷ û ß#ÞâìIÝTöEÞàcá'ÞnìIß7æTÜ:ücÝcÜ%æKâÜÙÚTâßìIéÜ:äIò+Ö :cØ'â
áHäIÜ%á'åÝcØAæTÜ ÞàcQ
Ü JLÚTèTÞâÜÜ:oê lOáSäIÚcÜuìIß$Ü 8+ÚUáSä?ÞØHìÞß j ØAæTÜCê
lMá'äjÚTÜ
Ö :cØSâRá'äjäOìIÝAÞÜCâÝUáSäFÝcØAæLÜß ÞàT
Ü JLÚTèTÞâÜÜ:oê lOáSäIÚcÜXìjß
á
ÙØÝTÙ%á'ÞÜÝcá'ÞìIØÝØ'å7Þàc
Ü JAÚcèLÞâÜÜ:oê lMá'äIÚcÜß@Ø'åFáSäIänìÞßKÙCàTìIä"æAâÜÝ
ÝcØAæTÜ:ß7áSÝcæ
ìÞßPØ%ãEÝ j ØAæTÜCPê lOáSäIÚTÜÖ7ï?àTf
Ü JLÚTèTÞâÜÜCPê lOáSäIÚTÜFØ'åVá
ÝcØAæTÜOÙ%áSÝ
èVÜMúVÜCâÙÜìIéÜ%æ
áSß®ÞàTÜOå"â5áSöÛ!Ü:ÝAp
Þ *ÙØÝ+ÞÜÝ+Þ®âÜ:öìIØVÝ qsrLthupvHwMx!qzyH{!|gvH}z~Tts}!y!qs€-v$xQt~T~-K‚T‚G{w!~G€-vv3}q[xvAƒ
„X…{!w!~G€-vHv†‡…[KˆHvA‰?Š5}=K}z~-vH‹Av€3uTqs‚GvEŒstsK{vhK‚O~-vŽv}‹s~-=qcr
…{!w!~G€-vHv†P‘tsK{!v?K}wz’[~-vH‚Hƒ+“pK‚L€-vH”!€-vH‚Gv}[~-‚‘~-vT‚GKˆHvOqcr•~-!v
‚‡~G€-{y~-{!€-v)}X~-v
x!qzy{|gvH}z~hwdvHK}‹=€-vH”!€-v‚GvH}z~-v$x–w[’'~-K‚
}q[xvAƒ
„X…{!w!~G€-vHv†‡…[K‹A}Vt~-{!€-vA‰ŽŠ?}'vH}!yHq[x!K}‹Mqsrf~-vg‚G{!w!~G€-vHvgŒstsK{!v
r—qc€r˜ts‚‡~hyHqs|g”Vt€-‚Gqs}•ƒ7™'v7y0qzqA‚Gvg‚G!K}‹AKvH‚š ›[œžcŸ‘ts‚e~-!v
vH}!yHq[x!K}‹T|gvHy0Vtc}K‚G| ˜‚GvHv+~-vLx!K‚GyH{!‚G‚GKqA}wdvHKq$u5¡ƒ¢“pv€-v†
r—qc€-v5u;v3tsK‚Gq€-vr—v€p~-qe~-vO…{w~G€-vHv†/…K‹s}Vtc~-{€-v?ts‚T…[{w!~G€-vv†
…!K}‹AKvAƒ
…[K}‹sKvH‚
š ›zœLcŸTt€-v)v‚G‚GvH}z~-£tcKK’'¤V}‹sv€-”!€-K}z~-‚qsrf~-!vx!qzyH{!|gvH}z~
˜qc€?v$¥z{KŒAtcKvH}z~-K’)tŽ‚‡~G€-}!‹z¡ƒ‘¦;{~T{}KK§nv5qs~-v€?¤}‹sv€-”!€-K}z~-‚fK§Av
¨M© ›[œsKr[~-!v;xqzyH{|gvH}z~•yts}!‹AvH‚•w[’3t?‚G|tcKzts|gqs{}z~$œ~-‚‚GK}!‹AKv
tcK‚Gqgyts}‹svH‚?w[’)tŽ‚G|tsKtc|gqA{!}[~$ƒ
ª K‹s{!€-vf«pKKK{‚‡~G€0tc~-v‚ž~-K‚”€-qA”dv€G~P’ewz’3‹AKŒ[K}‹?v¬!ts|g”!v‚•qcr!~-!v
¨M© ›ets‚G)ts}xE~-vT‚GK}!‹AKvH‚pqcr~Pupq‚‡~G€-K}‹s‚Hƒ;“p!v?¤!€-‚‡~ptc}VxE~-!v
‚GvyHqA}x=‚‡~G€-K}!‹A‚3K}Q~-ve¤‹A{!€-vŽtc€-vhvH‚G‚GvH}z~-tsK’Q~-!vŽ‚-tc|gvh‚‡~G€-K}!‹A‚
uT~-g‚G|tc”dv€G~-{!€-wtc~-KqA}!‚Hƒ¢­P~Ly$tc}gwdv?‚GvvH}7~-Vt~‘~-!v ¨M© ›OVts‚G
qcrž~-v5~/upqE‚‡~G€-}!‹A‚?tc€-v3~-qc~0tsK’Qx®v€-vH}z~$œ[uTv€-v$tc‚?~-!v3‚GK}!‹AKvH‚
qcrT~-v7~/u;q%‚‡~G€-K}‹A‚ŽŒAt€G’
¯/{‚‡~Žwz’ktQ‚GK}‹sKv)ŒstsK{!v)qs{!~Žqsrf~-!v°
ŒstsK{!vH‚OK}%~-v‚GK}!‹AKvH‚3‚Gv~E ˜‚GK}‹sKvŽŒstsK{v‚3ts”!”dv$tc€-K}!‹)K}=wdqs~-
‚Gv~-‚3tc€-v{!}Vx!v€-K}!v$xQK}Q~-vx!tc‹s€0ts|)¡ƒ?“p!K‚5”€-qA”dv€G~P’Qqsr+‚G!K}!†
‹sKvH‚pVtc‚‘|tsx!vT~;ŒAv€G’7”dqs”{t€;K}gvH‚‡~-K|tc~-K}!‹~-!vf€-vH‚GvH|Ew!ts}yv
tc}VxMyqA}z~0tsK}|gv}[~pqsrLx!qzy{|gvH}z~-‚3š ›[œ±sŸ²ƒ
³T´^µd¶•·c¸º¹»e¼5½¾d¿ºÀ¢Á£¸%ÂVÃeÄŞ´—ƵdÁ£¸Ç
ÈgÉËÊMÌ
3.2 AF Tree Construction
“ !vp¤€-‚‡~+‚‡~-vH”Eqsrdqs{!€¢r^€0tc‹A|gvH}z~‘x!v~-vHy~-KqA}Ž”!€-qzyHvH‚G‚LK‚¢~-qOyHqs}ŒAv€G~
p
u;vHw7”ts‹Av‚+~-q?~-vH€+yHqc€G€-vH‚G”dqA}x!K}‹3Š ª ~G€-vHvH‚Hƒ¢“pvTŠ ª ~G€-vHvfy$ts}
wdv?yHqs}‚‡~G€-{y~-v$xg}~/u;q‚‡~-vH”‚HƒL“p!v5¤€-‚‡~;‚‡~-vH”K‚;~-qe~G€0ts}‚‡r^qs€-|Ít
u;vHwx!qzy{|gvH}z~¢~-q~-‚ ©Îe¨ ~G€-vHv?tc}Vx7”!€-{!}vp~-!vpr^€0ts‹s|gvH}z~‘~G€-vv
wz’)vHKK|gK}Vtc~-K}!‹E~-vO~-v¬~fr^qs€-|t~G~-}!‹7}q[xvH‚HƒL“pv3€-v‚G{~?qsrž~-!v
¤!€-‚‡~e‚‡~-vH”º‚t‚G”dvHyHtcKˆHvHx ©Îe¨ ~G€-vHvŽ~-Vtc~3yHqA}z~0tsK}!‚eqA}’%~-!v
yqA}z~-vH}z~+‚‡~G€-{y~-{€-v;~0ts‹s‚T ˜vAƒ ‹!ƒKœzKK§nvOÏ?“žŠ5¦pÐÑfÒeœÏ?“pÓÒeœ!Ï?ÔfÒ5¡ƒ
“p!v7‚GvHyHqs}Vx=‚‡~-vH”‚3~-qMts}!}qs~0t~-vŽ~-!vŽr^€0tc‹A|gvH}z~3~G€-vv7qAw~0tsK}v$x
K}%~-ve¤!€-‚‡~3‚‡~-vH”QuT~-=ÕOq[xv†o­ © œÕOq[x!v†P‘tsK{!vAœ…{!w!~G€-vHv†P‘tsK{!vAœ
tc}Vx%…[{w~G€-vHv†/…!}!‹AKvAƒ
4.
FRAGMENT DETECTION ALGORITHMS
Ö $
t ŒK}!‹Tx!vH‚Gy€-Kwdv$xO~-!v+‚‡~G€-{y~-{€-vLqcr[~-v+Š ª ~G€-vHvLts}x3|gv~-q[x[†
qsKqA‹s’~-qhyHqA}!‚‡~G€-{y~pK~$œzu;vO}!qu×xvH‚Gy€-Kwdv5~-!vOtcK‹Aqs€-~-!|g‚;~-qExv†
~-vy~O…Vt€-v$xMtc}Vx
ІPÔ1r£€0ts‹A|gv}[~-‚Hƒ
4.1 Detecting Shared Fragments
“pvp…tc€-v$xer^€0tc‹A|gvH}z~+xv~-vHy~-KqA}ŽtsK‹sqs€-~-|Ëqs”dv€0tc~-v‚¢qA}hŒAt€G†
KqA{!‚u;vHwk”ts‹Av‚hr£€-qA|Ø~-v7‚-tc|gvEupvwk‚G~-v
tc}Vxºx!v~-vHy~-‚hyHts}Vx†
xt~-vr£€0ts‹s|gvH}z~-‚
~-Vt~Qt€-vÚÙ/ts””€-q$¬!K|t~-vH’!ۖ‚Gtc€-v$xƒÍ­P}ÜqA{!€
r^€0tc|gvupqc€-§)r^qs€O…tc€-v$xgr^€0tc‹A|gvH}z~5x!v~-vHy~-KqA}œu;vtAx!x)~-!€-vvetAx[†
x!~-KqA}ts3”tc€0tc|gv~-v€-‚~-qXx!v¤}vQ~-v=tc””€-qA”!€-t~-vH}vH‚G‚
qsrh‚G{y0
ts”!”!€-q$¬K|tc~-vH’Q‚Gtc€-v$xQr£€0ts‹A|gv}[~-‚Hƒ3“pvH‚GvŽ”Vt€0ts|gv~-v€-‚5y$ts}=wdv
yHqs}!¤V‹s{!€-v$xmwVts‚GvHxÝqA}Ý~-!vQ}vv$x!‚qsre~-!vQ”Vt€G~-KyH{tc€)upvwނG~-vAƒ
“pv3tsyHyH{€0tsy’Mts}x)~-!vO”dv€Gr^qs€-|ts}!yHveqsr•~-vetcK‹Aqs€-~-!|ßt€-vex!v†
”dvH}x!vH}z~TqA})~-v3ŒstsK{!vH‚Tqsr¢~-v‚Gv3”Vt€0ts|gv~-v€-‚Hƒ
„
ÉË´—Æž´˜¿=¶¢¿à³•·c¾!µ¿º¸Æáfĕ´£ân¸¢ã—ä_å²æç3èsézê!ëžåoìní$îAï “p!K‚•”tc†
€0ts|gv~-v€Q‚G”dvHyH¤VvH‚%~-!v'|gK}K|E{!|ð‚GKˆHv–qcrE~-!v–x!v~-vy~-v$x
r^€0ts‹s|gvH}z~$ƒ
„
ĕž·c´—Æ•µñ³¾VòAáÂV·dã—ë¢óé[èsíç3éô0õ‡öcèsîsï “p!‚M}x!Ky$t~-vH‚Q~-v
|g}!K|E{|÷}[{|Ewdv€gqsre”ts‹svH‚)~-tc~)‚Gqs{x݂Gtc€-v=t'‚GvH‹c†
|gvH}z~fK}Qqs€0xv€Tr—qs€?~T~-q7wdvexvHyHtc€-v$xMtŽr^€0tc‹A|gvH}z~$ƒ
„
ÉË´—Æž´˜¿=¶¢¿àÉø¾á$òcŞ´—Ƶ7³¾VòAáÂV·dã—ä_å²æ•äÜézõ‡ôóVç3é[ôõ/ösècîsï “pK‚
”Vtc€0tc|gv~-v€f‚G”dvyH¤VvH‚f~-v5|gK}K|E{!|ùqŒnv€-tc”Mwdv~PupvHvH})~-v
…{w~G€-vHv†/…!K}‹AKvH‚)~-qmwdvºyHqA}!‚Gx!v€-v$x×ts‚=tX‚GVt€-v$x_r^€0ts‹c†
|gvH}z~$ƒ
“pv‘‚GVt€-v$xr£€0ts‹s|gvH}z~+x!v~-vy~-KqA}ŽtsK‹Aqc€-K~-!|˔dv€Gr^qs€-|g‚ž~-v‘x!v†
~-vHy~-Kqs}_}Þ~-€-vHv=‚‡~-vH”‚Hƒ ª €-‚‡~$œ5~My€-vHtc~-vH‚Mtk”dqzqA3qcrEtcKO~-v
}q[xvH‚ewdvHKqA}!‹AK}‹)~-qQŠ ª ~G€-vHvH‚eqcrfvHŒnv€G’MupvHwº”Vts‹sv7qsr‘~-vhupvHw
‚G~-vAœn€-vH|gqŒ[K}‹etcK}q[xvH‚+~-Vtc~‘xq3}qc~‘|gvv~¢~-v ä_å²æ•ç3ècézê!ëžåPìAí
~-!€-v‚GqAxƒQ“p!vH}'~-vtcK‹Aqs€-~-!|÷”€-qzyHvH‚G‚GvH‚hv$tsy0–}q[xvgK}'~-v
”dqzqA[K}hx!vHy€-v$ts‚GK}‹5qs€0xv€¢qsr~-vK€ž‚GˆvH‚Hƒž™_!Kv‘”!€-qzyHvH‚G‚GK}!‹Ov$tcy
}q[xvAœ‘K~7‚gyqA|g”Vt€-v$xXts‹AtsK}‚‡~qc~-v€g}!q[x!vH‚E}X~-v)”dqzqA?tc}Vx
‹s€-qs{”!‚3~-v7}!q[x!vH‚3~-tc~htc€-vQú-û—üŽû˜ýKþsÿ0ƒ7“p!v7‚GK|gK£t€-~/’ºwdv~/u;vHvH}
ë 0õ‡èsíísë¢óå²æd
ê —
í ƒT­Pr
}q[xvH‚OK‚5|gv$ts‚G{€-v$xQwz’QyHqs|g”Vtc€-K}!‹7~-vH€ ~-v
}[{|Ewdv€7qsrO}q[xvH‚gtº‹c€-qA{!”ÝVtc‚7K‚gv$¥z{Vtc?qc€gK‹sv€g~-ts}
ë¢óé[èAíç3é[ôõ/ösè œ[~-vH})~-Vt~5‹c€-qA{!”Qqsr+}!q[x!vH‚TK
‚ dts‹s‹Av$x%tc‚OtŽy$ts}†
x!x!tc~-v
r£€0ts‹s|gvH}z~$ƒÝ“p!vM~-€0x–‚‡~-vH”1vH}‚G{€-vH‚7~-Vt~7~-v)‚Gy0vH|gv
x!v~-vHy~-‚qA}!K’1~-v
r^€0ts‹s|gvH}z~-‚g~-Vtc~
t€-v%|tc¬K|tsK’m‚Gtc€-v$xmw[’
vHKK|gK}Vtc~-K}!‹Ž~-qs‚Gv5r£€0ts‹A|gv}[~-‚‘~-Vtc~ftc€-v3}!qs~f|t¬!K|tc’g‚Gtc€-v$xƒ
“pK‚Ž‚Žx!qs}vwz’'y0vy§[K}‹QuT!v~-v€h~-v€-vupts‚EtQ£t€-‹Av€Er^€0ts‹c†
|gvH}z~huTKyXts‚gtcK€-vHtAx’XwdvvH}1x!v~-vHy~-v$xk~-Vtc~EyHqA}z~0tc}!v$xk~-v
ts}!yHvH‚‡~-qc€-‚fqsr¢tcKV~-vO}!q[x!vH‚;}g~-!vOyH{€G€-vH}z~p‹s€-qs{”)ts}x)}!qŽqc~-v€
}q[xvH‚HƒŽ­Pr‘‚G{y0'tr^€0ts‹s|gvH}z~eVtc‚ets€-v$tsx’wdvHvH}ºx!v~-vHy~-v$xœ~-!vH}
~-K‚5‚5}qc~et7|tc¬K|tsK’Q‚Gtc€-v$xQr£€0ts‹A|gv}[~Ots}xQvH}!yHvh}qs~Ox!v†
yHtc€-vHxtc‚Otgy$tc}Vx£x!tc~-ver^€0tc‹A|gvH}z~$ƒ Î ~-!v€GuTK‚GvŽ~5K‚OxvHyHtc€-v$x=tc‚
t5r£€0ts‹A|gv}[~$œnts}x7tsK!~-!vf}q[xvH‚+}Ž~-vf‹s€-qs{”gt€-vp€-vH|gqŒnv$xr^€-qA|
~-vO}q[x!v‚?”dqzqs˜ƒ
4.2 Detecting L-P Fragments
™kv3x!v~-vHy~?~-!vІPÔ1r£€0ts‹s|gvH}z~-‚?wz’)yHqs|g”Vtc€-K}!‹gx!®v€-vH}z~TŒnv€G†
‚GKqA}!‚gqsrOts€-v$tAx[’1v¬‚‡~-K}!‹ºy$tc}Vx£x!tc~-v)r^€0ts‹s|gvH}z~-‚Q —upvwm”ts‹Av‚0¡
ts}xkx!vH}z~-r^’K}‹%~-vy0Vtc}‹Av‚EqzyHyH{€G€-K}‹ºts|gqA}!‹Q~-v)x!®v€-v}[~
Œnv€-‚GKqs}‚Hƒ
“pvM}!”{~7~-qº~-!‚)tc‹sqs€-~-|
K‚)tº‚Gv~qsrŠ ª ~G€-vHvH‚gyHqc€G€-v†
‚G”dqA}x!K}‹1~-q_x!®v€-v}[~QŒnv€-‚GKqA}!‚qcr7upvwڔVtc‹AvH‚Hƒ “p!vH‚GvkŒnv€G†
‚GKqA}!‚M|tH’1wdvQ~-|gv†P‚G”tsyHvHxÝqs€
Œnv€-‚GKqA}!‚
‹svH}v€0tc~-v$xÝuT~-Üx!r£†
r—v€-vH}z~5yqzqA§[KvH‚Hƒ
“pvh}q[xvH‚3qcrL~-!vEŠ ª ~G€-vHv‚3K}=~-!K‚3tsK‹sqs€-~-|ßVt$ŒnvŽts}tAx[†
ö [ícëõ‡ézõ œsuTKyŽy$ts}Ž~0ts§nvftc}z’
x!~-KqA}ts¤VvHxh~-v€-|gv$xŽtc‚¢~-
v æ 3óé[æê
í e
é dí3óé[ædê
í 3
ö $å˜õ/åoöc
æ 3óé[ædê
í ƒ
ŒstsK{v¢r^€-qs
| “pvO‚Gy!vH|gv3yHqs|g”Vtc€-v‚p~/upqEŒnv€-‚GKqA}!‚fqsr+tŽu;vHwM”ts‹svtc~Tv$tcy
‚‡~-vH”'ts}Vxºx!v~-vy~-‚ІPÔÜy$ts}x!xt~-vEr^€0tc‹A|gvH}z~-‚HƒÑLtsy0'‚‡~-vH”ºqA{~G†
”{~-‚?tE‚Gv~5qsr+y$tc}Vx!x!tc~-ver^€0tc‹A|gvH}z~-‚HœuT!Ky%t€-v|gv€-‹Av$x~-qgqAw†
~0tsK}Ü~-v Î w[¯‡vHy~ © vH”dvH}x!vH}!y’ 5€0tc” ÎO© e¡)qcrŽ~-!vºv}[~-€-v
x!qzy{|gvH}z~$ƒ Î w¯/vHy~ © v”dvH}VxvH}y’ 5€0ts”ùš !ŸhK‚=tm‹s€0tc”!yHts
"$#&%"$#('#()+*,*$-/.)0.12*$34#65(.)7*,-8)49:#()+*;"$#(</,*$-8.)'34-8%0=>#&*@?A#(#()B*$3#
1C",D9:#()+*$':.1E,F?G#&=H'-I*$#JLKM,5N3O'*$#(%O.1P*$34#B,<8D."$-I*$39Q#&R#&S
5&T*$#('6-8)U*@?A.B%,''#('(JWV@)F*$34#YX4"$'*6%4,''Z*$34#[,<8D."$-I*$39\9[,"$]7'
*$3#P).7^#('2*$3,*G34,_#`53,)4D#^Y-8)W_,<8T#`."G-8):%>.'-I*$-8.)W=>#&*a?G#(#()
*$3#P*a?G.b_#&"$'-8.)4'.1c*$3#ZdEef*"$#&#JhgG34-8'-8';^.)4#E=+i:"$#(5&T"$'-8_j#(<Ii
5&.9:%,"$-8)4Dk#,53l).7^#P.1c*$3#EdPef*"$#(#P.1.)4#P_j#&"$'-8.)[?;-I*$3W*$3#
9:.'*6'-89:-/</,"6)4.7^#m1"$.9n*$34#:dPeH*"$#(#Y.1G*$34#m'#(5(.)4^f_j#N"$'-/.)J
gG3#;5(.)+*$#()+*h,)4^m*$34#A%>.'-I*$-8.)[.1*$3#G*@?A.Z)4.7^#&'M,"$#5(.9:%4,"$#^
,)^Y,5(5(."^-8)4D<8ib*$34#;[email protected]+uwx.1>*$3#)4.7^#&'A,"$#`9[,"$]j#^m,'
y vzw>s{}|4v7~>sr€7}pjx(‚ƒu‚„p~{}|4v7~srk.";…P~‡†&|4v7~>srJˆgG34#`'#(5&S
.)^F%,''Z.1G*$34#Y,<8D."$-8*$39‰^#&*$#&5&*$'}*$34#Y5(,)^-/^4,*$#m1",D9:#()+*$'
,)^q9:#N"$D#('G*$3#(9Š*$.b.=*,-8)‹,)0ŒE=7#(5&*`Ž}#&%>#()^#()45&ilP",%43‡J
 -89:-/</,"b*$.0*$34#  34,"$#^‘1",D9:#()+*Y^#&*$#(5N*$-/.)L,<8D."$-I*$39B€h?A#
34,_j#Z,m1#&?’5&.)X4DT",=4<8#Z%4,",9:#N*$#&"$';-/)W*$34-8'`,<8D."$-I*$349B“
”–•˜—š™c—ƒ›Fœ›žcŸ 4¡›F¢™£;¤‡—¥j¢ˆ¦§ ‚„~‡¨}©v+t‚«ªjs¬­cgG34-8'c%4,S
",9:#N*$#&"W-/)4^-85,*$#('l*$3#‹9:-/)-89bT49®'-8¯(#f.1Z*$34#0^#&*$#(5&*$#^
1",D9:#()+*J
”O°m±—²š³F°m±c 4™c¡¢6´k±cŸ¢µ±¶>²š³P¦ {}|4‚«zr{}|4v7~>s(·P|4©sx|4pzr+¬­
gG34-8'ˆ%4,",9:#N*$#&"-8)^-85,*$#('*$3#M9:-8)-/9mT49¸1",5&*$-8.)m.1534-8<IS
^"$#&)B.1h,b).7^#}*$34,*`'34.T4</^q53,)D#Z-8)B_,<8T4#Z=>#N1š."$#Z*$3#
%,"$#()+*;)4.7^#Z-8*$'#&<8125(,)B=>#Z^#(5(</,"$#(^‹,' y vzws{}|v~>srJ
5.
EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION
¹ #‹3,_j#B%>#N"1š."$9:#(^L,U",)D#‹.16#&R%>#&"$-89:#()+*$'Y*$.‘#(_,<8T,*$#
.T"h,T*$.9[,*$-85M1",D9:#()+*2^#&*$#(5&*$-8.)b'534#(9:#JV@)6*$34-8''#&5&*$-8.)m?A#
D-8_j#,P="$-8#&1._j#&"$_7-8#&?º.1*@?A.E'#&*$'ˆ.1#&R%>#&"$-89:#()+*$'(JcgG34#AX"$'*2'#&*
.1#&R%>#&"$-89:#()+*$'2*$#('*$'A*$3#`*a?G.61",D9:#()+*^#&*$#(5&*$-8.)l,<8D."$-I*$349:'(€
'3.?;-/)D`*$3#ˆ=>#()4#NX4*$',)^}#N»#(5&*$-8_j#()#(''.17*$34#h,<8D."$-I*$349:'(J2gG3#
'#&5(.)4^0'#N*}'*$T^-8#('P*$3#k-89:%4,5&*P.12*$34#Z1C",D9:#&)7*$'E^#&*$#&5&*$#^B=+i
.T"`'i'*$#(9¼.)l-89:%"$._7-/)Dm*$3#Z5,534-8)4Db#&½:5(-8#()5&i+J
gG3#U-8)4%T*W*$.–*$34#F'5N3#(9:#('q-8'‹,º5(.</<8#(5N*$-/.)¾.1b?A#(= %,D#('
-8)5(<8T^-8)Dm^-I»#&"$#()+*A_#&"$'-8.)4'A.1‡#,53[%,D#JhgG3#&"$#&1š."$#E?G#`%>#&"$-IS
.7^-85,<8<IiY1š#N*$5N3#^m?G#&=Y%,D#('21"$.9¿^-I»#&"$#()+*2?G#(=Y'-I*$#('h<8-8]j#`ÀGÀÁ
 3+**$%‡“ ÃÃ)#&?;'(J =4=>5J 5(.J T]ÄN€V@)+*$#&"$)#&*$)4#N?;'
 3+**$%‡“ ÃÃ???ZJ -8)+*$#&"$)4#&*$)#&?;'(J 5(.9WÄN€  </,'34^.*
 3+**$%‡“ ÃÃ???ZJ '</,'34^.*J ."$D+ÄY#&*$5J0,)^‘5&"$#(,*$#^–,q?A#(=HÅ ^T49:%‡Æ
1."P#,53q?A#(=q'-I*$#J
Va)O*$3#qX4"$'*Y'#&*[.1Z#NR%>#N"$-/9:#&)7*$'m?G#B#(_,<8T4,*$#^O.T"['34,"$#^
1C",D9:#()+*b^#&*$#(5&*$-8.)‘'5N3#(9:#:,)^f*$3#Y-89:%,5N*6.1*$34#:%4,",9:#&S
*$#N"$' § ‚„~ § [email protected](|¨[email protected]©W,)^ § ‚„~‡¨}©v7t‚«ªjsY.)F*$3#b^#&*$#(5&*$#^
'34,"$#^Ç1",D9:#()+*$'(J®e4."F#&R,9:%<8#‘.)’,È^4,*,'#&*f.1WÉÊH?G#(=
%4,D#('ˆ1"$.9˜ÀGÀÁf?G#&=4'-I*$#€?;3-85N3k?G#&"$#G5&.<8<8#(5&*$#^k.)m*$3#PË&Ìj̓ÎE.1
Ï T4<IimÐÑÑjÐ7€.T"ˆ'3,"$#^61C",D9:#()+*ˆ^#N*$#(5&*$-8.)m,<8D."$-I*$349^#&*$#(5&*$#^
Ò ÊÑb1C",D9:#&)7*$'?;3#() § ‚„~¨}©v+t‚aªsZ?G,';'#&*;*$. Ò Ñb=+i*$#&';,)^
§ ‚„~ § v+u†&|¨[email protected]©W?,'6'#&*6*$.0ÉÑjÓWJ[Va)‘,</<M.T"6#&R%>#&"$-89:#()+*$'
?A#b).*$-85(#^‹*$3,*Z.T"Z,<8D."$-I*$349Ô^#&*$#(5&*$#(^F,[</,"$D#&"6)7T49b=>#N"E.1
'9[,<8</#N"E'-8¯(#^q1C",D9:#()+*$';?;3#() § ‚„~ § v+u†&|¨}v7†Nup©b?G,'`'#&*P*$.
3-8D34#N"Y_,<8T4#('(J‘e4."m*$34#W'$,9:#lÀGÀÁÕ^,*,'#&*€2*$34#W)T9b=>#&"k.1
1C",D9:#()+*$'M-8)45N"$#,'#^b*$. Ò ÊÖ}?;34#&)b*$34# § ‚„~ § v+u†&|¨}v7†Nup©E?G,'
-8)5&"$#,'#(^:*$.6×ÑjÓWJ2Va):.T"A#&R%>#&"$-89:#()+*$'ˆ?G#`,</'.k)4.*$-85(#^b*$3,*M,
</,"$D#%>#&"$5(#&)7*,D#G.1>^#&*$#(5&*$#^Z1",D9:#()+*$'2,"$#G'3,"$#^m=+ikÐ;%,D#('
,)^0.)<8iF,[1š#&?1C",D9:#()+*$'Z,"$#Y'34,"$#^0=+i09:."$#6*$3,)‘ÊÑjÓn.1
*$3#}?G#(=l%,D#('(J
ŒET"Y'#(5&.)^º#&R%>#&"$-89:#()+*k?,'[,-89:#^º,*:'*$T4^i-8)4D‹*$34#W%>#&"S
1."$9[,)45(#}.1c*$3#Z؇Saّ1",D9:#()+*;^#&*$#(5&*$-8.)q,<8D."$-I*$349BJMgG34.T4D3
?A#b#&R%>#&"$-89:#()+*$#^q?;-I*$3f,W)7T9b=>#&"P.1h?G#(=F'-I*$#('(€^T#k*$.W'%,5(#
<8-89:-I*,*$-8.)'(€ˆ?G#:="$-/#NÚ4iU^-8'5(T4''6.T"k#&R%>#&"$-89:#()+*$'Z.)U*$3#Y?G#(=
'-I*$#`1"$.9  </,'3^.*  3+**$%“ ÃÃ???ZJ '</,'3^.*J ."$DjÄNJdL*$.*,<>.1cÉ×
1C",D9:#()+*$'`?A#&"$#b^#&*$#(5&*$#(^l?;34#()B*$3#m{}|4‚«zr{}|4v7~>s·P|4©sx|4pzCr
?G,'F'#&*F*$.¸ÑJ ÊÑ7€:,)^ÐÖjÊH1",D9:#()+*$'‹?G#N"$#H^#&*$#(5&*$#(^¾?;34#()
{}|‚azCr{}|4v7~s(·P|4©sx|pzr;?,'c'#&*‡*$.`ÑJ ÉÑ7J ¹ #ˆ.=4'#&"$_#^}34-8D3#&"
)7T9b=>#&"$'G.1ˆ1",D9:#()+*$'=>#(-8)4DY^#&*$#(5N*$#^l?;34#&)
{}|4‚«zr{}|4v7~>s(·P|4©sx|4pzrº-8'q'#&*W*$.–34-8D3#&"B_,<8T#('l-8) ,</<E.T"
#&R%>#&"$-89:#()+*$'(J
V@)6.T"cX4),<+'#&*.1#&R%>#&"$-89:#()+*$'?G#A'*$T4^iP*$34#A-89:%4,5&*.11",DS
9:#()+*‡5,534-8)D`.)}*$34#2%>#&"1."$9[,)5(#2.17*$34#25,5N3#€*$34#2'#&"$_j#N",)^
*$34#b)4#&*a?G."$]‹?;3#()U*$34#m?G#(=f'-8*$#&'m-8)45&."$%>.",*$#Y*$34#b1C",D9:#()+*$'
^#N*$#(5&*$#^W=7iW.T"`'i'*$#(9Š-8)+*$.b*$34#(-I";"$#('%>#(5N*$-/_#}?G#(=B%4,D#('(J
V@)5(."$%>.",*$-8)4D`*$34#M^#&*$#&5&*$#^Z1",D9:#()+*$'-89:%"$._j#('‡*$34#h%>#&"1š."S
9[,)5(#h.14*$3#M5(,534#('ˆ,)^Z*$34#2?G#(=k'#&"$_j#N"$'-8)m,*ˆ<8#,'*ˆ*a?G.;?,(i'(J
e-I"$'*€,'G*$34#P-/)1š."$9[,*$-8.)W*$3,*;-8''34,"$#^l,9:.)Dk?A#(=q%4,D#('-8'
'*$."$#(^f.)<Ii0.)45&#€*$3#Y^-/']+S«'%,5(#m"$#(Û7T-I"$#^0*$.W'*$."$#m*$34#Y^,*,
1"$.9Õ*$34#`?G#(=W'-I*$#}-8'G"$#^T5(#^J2e4.";#NR4,9:%4<8#€7.T"#&R%>#&"$-89:#()+*$'
.)[*$34#EÀGÀÁH?A#(=l'-I*$#}'3.?¸*$3,*^-8']:'%,5(#P"$#Û+T-8"$#&9:#()+*$'G,"$#
"$#^T45(#^[=+iW,"$.T4)^lÐÐÓ¿=+i[T4'-8)4Dk*$34#`1",D9:#()+*$'^#N*$#(5&*$#^W=7i
.T"P,<8D."$-8*$39BJ
 #&5(.)4^<Ii+€-8)45(."$%>.",*$-8)Dl1",D9:#()+*$'P-/)+*$.[?G#(=F'-I*$#('}"$#^T45(#('
*$34#m,9:.T4)+*`.1A^4,*,[-8)7_,<8-/^4,*$#(^0-8)‹*$34#65,5N3#('(JZgG3-8'}-8)B*$T"$)
5,T4'#('6,["$#^T5&*$-8.)F-/)F*$34#k*",½:5m=>#&*@?A#(#()f*$3#b."$-/D-8)U'#&"$_j#N"$'
,)4^b*$34#;5,5N3#JMŒET"h#&R%>#&"$-89:#()+*$'2'34.?L*$34,*h1š."G#,5N3:?G#&=:'-8*$#
*$34-8'Y"$#^T45&*$-8.)H-8':5(<8.'#&<8iº"$#(</,*$#^O*$.F*$34#B,_j#N",D#q)T9b=>#&"b.1
1",D9:#()+*$'G-8)[*$34#;?G#(=W%,D#('(€7*$3#(-I"-8)_,<8-/^4,*$-8.)[",*$#(';,)^Y*$34#
"$#Û+T4#&'*b",*$#&'b*$.‹*$34#[?G#(=O%,D#('Y-8)–*$34#[?G#&=O'-I*$#J‘ÜE.?G#(_#&"€
*$34#E,9:.T4)+*G.1ˆ^4,*,k*",)4'1š#N""$#^l=>#&*a?G#(#&)l'#&"$_#&";,)4^W5(,534#}-8)
,q%4,D#NSa<8#(_#(<25,534-8)4Dq'5N3#(9:#Y-8'Z34-8D3#&"6*$3,)F*$3#:^4,*,l*",)'S
1š#N""$#^q=>#&*a?G#(#()W'#&"$_j#N"`,)^W5,534#E-/)q,k1C",D9:#&)7*S«<8#(_j#&<‡5(,534-8)4D
'534#(9:#J
6. CONCLUSION
gG34-8'`%,%>#&"},^4^7"$#(''#('P*$3#Z%"$.=4<8#(9Ý.1M,T*$.9[,*$-/5Z1C",D9:#&)7*
^#N*$#(5&*$-8.)0-8)B?G#(=‹%4,D#('(J ¹ #6%"$._7-C^#^B,Y1š."$9[,<ˆ^#&X)-I*$-/.)‹.1
,B1",D9:#()+*b,)^–%"$.%>.'#(^O,)–-8)1",'*"$T45&*$T"$#l*$.0^#&*$#(5&*m1",DS
9:#()+*$'Z-8)U?G#&=‘'-I*$#('(J‹gA?A.0,<8D."$-8*$39:'b,"$#[^#(_#(<8.%>#^f1."b,TS
*$.9[,*$-85[^#&*$#(5N*$-/.)‘.1A1",D9:#()+*$'Z*$3,*k,"$#:'3,"$#^‘,5N"$.''6?G#(=
%,D#(';,)^:1",D9:#()+*$'A*$34,*34,_#E^-/'*$-8)5&*<8-I1š#&*$-89:#Z,)^[%>#&"$'.)S
,<8-8¯,*$-/.)¸5N34,",5&*$#&"$-8'*$-85('(J ¹ #q"$#(%>."*W*$3#B#(_,<8T,*$-8.)È.1}*$34#
%"$.%>.'#^f'5N3#(9:#b*$3"$.T4D3–,q'#&"$-8#('k.1#NR%>#N"$-/9:#&)7*$'(€c'34.?;-8)4D
*$34#E#&»#(5&*$-8_j#()#('';.1ˆ*$3#}%"$.%>.'#^B,<8D."$-I*$39:'(J
7.
Þ ßàEáAâREFERENCES
ã$äjåZæ$çèhâéê«æãèMåZâëæì7í‡îAï(ã;ðaæã$âåZåZæ$çjë+ñ&èaòIâç4ó
ô è«è@õö ÷÷Nîhî2î;ó îMïó âð@ø÷(áùGúqó
Þ û&àPücëjøæ`ýòIëæþƒçjã$ìIäjëjæ$ÿHýèñ(çë+ñ(ð@ë[ýõæ$ã$ò +ãñ&èaòIâç4ó
ô è«è@õö ÷÷Nîhî2î;ó æ$ÿ@òšó âðaøjó
Þ ï&
à hèaåZìèaòIë ó ô èaèaõ4ö ÷÷Nî2î2î`ó îMïó âðaø÷ ‡æ$âõjìIæN÷ hñ(øøæèaè÷Nè@òIë+÷ó
Þ (
à ó ˆñ(ð«í âÿ@ÿ@æ ‡ñ(çjëYýó hñ&êañ(øâõ+ñ(ì8ñ(ç4ó >æ$åZõjì8ñ&èaæáAæèaæãèaòIâçò8ñ
áGñ&èñEúYòIçjòIçjø}ñ(çëYò è@
ÿ MõjõjìIòIãñ&è@òIâçÿNó+þƒ
ç !!"$#&%'$(*)
+,+-+/.10232054 ú:6ñ k$û 7$7ûó
Þ 8&9
à Pó ðaâëæðó7ùAçkð@æ$ÿ@æ$åPéjì8ñ(çjã$æ;ñ(çj;
ë :âçèñ(òIçåZæçèM⠇áAâã$äjåZæ$çè@ÿó
þƒ;
ç 6!!!"$#<%'5(9*)>=@?BA9CD?FEGH?I= .JK4 6ß L$L5Mó
Þ N&àEáPó äè«èaìIæðMñ(çjP
ë Oc@ó OòIä@ó RQ+äjìIì SAäèaâå6ñ&èaæë:ùAéê«æãè
Uü Tè@ð@ñ(ã$èaòIâç[3ý ÿaèaæ$V
å Câðˆè ô X
æ WWâð@ìIS
ë WfòIëjX
æ Wlæ$é4ójþƒ;
ç 6!!!"$#<%'5(
)ZY$GH[SGH= .102525\$4 $û 7$7ßó
Þ MN
à ]+ó : ô ñ(ìIìIæ$çjøæ$ð 4 `ójþ æ$çjøñ(ð 4^ ó Wfò èaèaòIçjø 4 :A@ó Q+æ$ðaÿaè@ñ&è 4 ñ(çjë
‡ó hæ$æ$ë4ó äjéjìIòIÿ ô òIçjøE3ý ÿ«è@æ$_
å âðˆaü `Zã$òIæçèaì :ðaæNñ&èaòIçjøEZ
á çjñ(åZòIã
Wlæ$b
é :âçè@æ$çèNó7þƒ
ç 6!!!"$#<%'5(9 )cY?I?I?dY*EZefXGcfIg 0252524
ú:6ñ m$û 7$7$7ó
Þ h&9
à Pó+áAñ&èaè@ñ 4^ ó+áMäèaè@ñ 4 `ó ô âå6ñ(ÿ 4 áPó icñ(çjëjæ$ð@úYææ$ð 4 ýäjðaæÿ ô ñ 4
ñ(çjë ^ @ó Mñ(å6ñ(åZðaò è ô ñ(åY5ó ð@6â T1í ˆñ(ÿ@æ$P
ë Aã$ã$æì8ñ(ð@ñ&è@òIâçbâ Zá çjñ(åZòIãNñ(ìIì PjAæ$çjæ$ð@ñ&è@æ$b
ë :âçè@æ$çèGâçmè ô >
æ WWâð@ìIk
ë WUòIë>
æ Wlæ$é4ö
A/
ç Mõjõjðaâñ(ã ô ñ(çjëmþƒåZõjìIæ$åZæ$çè@ñ&è@òIâçójþƒb
ç l*6!! "5#<%'5(m*)
[email protected]$nIg-fI[ .0252054 ]äjçjæ`$û 7$7ûó
Þ L&
à o`ó+ú:ñ(çé7æ$ðN@ó QòIçjëòIçjø6ýòIåZòIì8ñ(Fð QòIìIæ$ÿ2òIçb9
ñ O>ñ(ð@øX
æ QòIìIæ;3ý ÿaèaæ$åYójþƒç
!!"$#&%'$(*)PCH=@?FEcY*p .\[email protected] ]ñ(çäjñ(*ð W6ß L$L
jó
Similar pages