Ballast design for 54W T5 fluorescent lamp (voltage mode preheating) with controller IC ICB2FL03G 600V CoolMOS™

Ballast Design for 54W T5 Fluorescent Lamp
(Voltage Mode Preheating) with Controller IC
ICB2FL03G & 600V CoolMOS™
Application Note
Rev. 1.1, 2012 -04 -10
Power Management & Multimarket
Edition 2012-04-10
Published by
Infineon Technologies AG
81726 Munich, Germany
© 2012 Infineon Technologies AG
All Rights Reserved.
Legal Disclaimer
The information given in this document shall in no event be regarded as a guarantee of conditions or
characteristics. With respect to any examples or hints given herein, any typical values stated herein and/or any
information regarding the application of the device, Infineon Technologies hereby disclaims any and all warranties
and liabilities of any kind, including without limitation, warranties of non-infringement of intellectual property rights
of any third party.
Information
For further information on technology, delivery terms and conditions and prices, please contact the nearest
Infineon Technologies Office (www.infineon.com).
Warnings
Due to technical requirements, components may contain dangerous substances. For information on the types in
question, please contact the nearest Infineon Technologies Office.
Infineon Technologies components may be used in life-support devices or systems only with the express written
approval of Infineon Technologies, if a failure of such components can reasonably be expected to cause the failure
of that life-support device or system or to affect the safety or effectiveness of that device or system. Life support
devices or systems are intended to be implanted in the human body or to support and/or maintain and sustain
and/or protect human life. If they fail, it is reasonable to assume that the health of the user or other persons may
be endangered.
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
Revision History
Page or Item
Subjects (major changes since previous revision)
Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Reviewed and updated
Rev. 1.0, 2010-09-28
First edition
Trademarks of Infineon Technologies AG
AURIX™, C166™, CanPAK™, CIPOS™, CIPURSE™, EconoPACK™, CoolMOS™, CoolSET™,
CORECONTROL™, CROSSAVE™, DAVE™, DI-POL™, EasyPIM™, EconoBRIDGE™, EconoDUAL™,
EconoPIM™, EconoPACK™, EiceDRIVER™, eupec™, FCOS™, HITFET™, HybridPACK™, I²RF™,
ISOFACE™, IsoPACK™, MIPAQ™, ModSTACK™, my-d™, NovalithIC™, OptiMOS™, ORIGA™,
POWERCODE™; PRIMARION™, PrimePACK™, PrimeSTACK™, PRO-SIL™, PROFET™, RASIC™,
ReverSave™, SatRIC™, SIEGET™, SINDRION™, SIPMOS™, SmartLEWIS™, SOLID FLASH™, TEMPFET™,
thinQ!™, TRENCHSTOP™, TriCore™.
Other Trademarks
Advance Design System™ (ADS) of Agilent Technologies, AMBA™, ARM™, MULTI-ICE™, KEIL™,
PRIMECELL™, REALVIEW™, THUMB™, µVision™ of ARM Limited, UK. AUTOSAR™ is licensed by AUTOSAR
development partnership. Bluetooth™ of Bluetooth SIG Inc. CAT-iq™ of DECT Forum. COLOSSUS™,
FirstGPS™ of Trimble Navigation Ltd. EMV™ of EMVCo, LLC (Visa Holdings Inc.). EPCOS™ of Epcos AG.
FLEXGO™ of Microsoft Corporation. FlexRay™ is licensed by FlexRay Consortium. HYPERTERMINAL™ of
Hilgraeve Incorporated. IEC™ of Commission Electrotechnique Internationale. IrDA™ of Infrared Data
Association Corporation. ISO™ of INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION. MATLAB™ of
MathWorks, Inc. MAXIM™ of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. MICROTEC™, NUCLEUS™ of Mentor Graphics
Corporation. MIPI™ of MIPI Alliance, Inc. MIPS™ of MIPS Technologies, Inc., USA. muRata™ of MURATA
MANUFACTURING CO., MICROWAVE OFFICE™ (MWO) of Applied Wave Research Inc., OmniVision™ of
OmniVision Technologies, Inc. Openwave™ Openwave Systems Inc. RED HAT™ Red Hat, Inc. RFMD™ RF
Micro Devices, Inc. SIRIUS™ of Sirius Satellite Radio Inc. SOLARIS™ of Sun Microsystems, Inc. SPANSION™
of Spansion LLC Ltd. Symbian™ of Symbian Software Limited. TAIYO YUDEN™ of Taiyo Yuden Co.
TEAKLITE™ of CEVA, Inc. TEKTRONIX™ of Tektronix Inc. TOKO™ of TOKO KABUSHIKI KAISHA TA. UNIX™
of X/Open Company Limited. VERILOG™, PALLADIUM™ of Cadence Design Systems, Inc. VLYNQ™ of Texas
Instruments Incorporated. VXWORKS™, WIND RIVER™ of WIND RIVER SYSTEMS, INC. ZETEX™ of Diodes
Zetex Limited.
Last Trademarks Update 2011-11-11
Application Note
http://www.infineon.com/smartlighting
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Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Product Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Features PFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Features Lamp Ballast Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Pinning and Picture of the Demo Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Parameters of the Demo Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Description of Normal Start-up Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2
2.1
2.2
VCC Chip Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Operation with Half-Bridge not Working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Operation with Half-Bridge Working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3
3.1
PFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
THD Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4
4.1
4.2
Ignition Regulator – Control during Ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Operation Close to Different Saturation Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Bus Voltage Breakdown during Ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5
5.1
5.2
Filament Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
LVS Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
RES Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.6.1
6.6.2
6.6.3
6.6.4
6.7
6.7.1
6.7.2
6.8
Detection of Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surge Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inverter Overcurrent Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PFC Overcurrent Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bus Overvoltage Protection 109% – 105% Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bus Undervoltage Protection in Run Mode with 75% Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EOL Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EOL1 (Overload) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EOL2 (Rectifier Effect) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switched Rectifier Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Rectifier Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Capacitive load (Cap Load) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cap Load 1 (Idling Detection / Current Mode Preheating) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cap Load 2 (Overcurrent / Operation Below Resonance) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emergency Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
24
25
26
27
27
27
28
28
30
31
32
32
33
33
7
7.1
7.1.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
Advice for Design, Layout and Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deactivation of Lamp Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deactivation of Lamp Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deactivation of the PFC Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RFPH pin (Preheating Frequency) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RTPH Pin (Preheating Time) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PFCVS Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35
35
35
35
35
36
36
Application Note
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Application Note – ICB2FL03G
Table of Contents
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
RES Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VCC Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LVS Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LSCS Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Advice for Board Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
38
39
39
39
8
8.1
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3
8.2.4
8.2.5
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3
8.3.4
8.3.5
8.3.6
8.3.7
8.3.8
8.3.9
8.3.10
8.4
8.5
8.6
Annex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Built-In Customer Test Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample Calculation: EOL for 54W T5 Design (Excel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample Calculation – Start-up Network for 54W T5 Design (Excel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inductor L1 of the Boost Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shunt Resistors for Ignition Voltage R24, R25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ballast Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VCC does not reach 10.5 V (VVCCOff) or 14 V (VVCCOn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VCC Hiccup between 14 V (VVCCOff) and 10.5 V (VVCCOn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No LSGD Pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No HSGD Pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No PFCGD Pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The IC Starts without a High-Side Filament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The IC Starts without a Low-Side Filament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The IC Stops within tPRERUN after Ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The IC Stops about tPRERUN after Ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The IC Stops about 3 s after Ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BOM Schematic Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Burst Measurements according to EN 61547 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interference Suppression according to EN 55015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41
41
42
42
44
44
45
46
48
48
48
48
48
49
49
49
49
50
50
51
53
53
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Application Note
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Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
List of Figures
List of Figures
Figure 1-1
Figure 1-2
Figure 1-3
Figure 1-4
Figure 1-5
Figure 2-1
Figure 2-2
Figure 3-1
Figure 3-2
Figure 4-1
Figure 4-2
Figure 4-3
Figure 5-1
Figure 6-1
Figure 6-2
Figure 6-3
Figure 6-4
Figure 6-5
Figure 6-6
Figure 6-7
Figure 6-8
Figure 6-9
Figure 6-10
Figure 6-11
Figure 6-12
Figure 6-13
Figure 6-14
Figure 7-1
Figure 7-2
Figure 7-3
Figure 7-4
Figure 8-1
Figure 8-2
Figure 8-3
Figure 8-4
Figure 8-5
Figure 8-6
Figure 8-7
Figure 8-8
Figure 8-9
Schematic for 54W T5 demo board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Pinning of IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Top and Bottom Views of the Demo Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Start-up Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
PFCGD Start-up Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
dv/dt at VCC and RES Pins @ Start-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Example of Self-Generated UVLO after Counter Skip Preheat > 7 = Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
DCM and CritCM Mode of the PFC Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
THD Correction: PFC On-time Extension over Input Half-Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Normal Ignition Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Ignition voltage @ different levels of saturation of the resonant choke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Ignition Regulator at BUS Voltage Breakdown during Ignition Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Startup without High-side Filament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Surge Detection; Surge Pulse of 1100 V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Inverter Overcurrent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
PFC Overcurrent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Bus Overvoltage Hysteresis (Start-up) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
EOL1 (Overload) Detection; EOL1 Test Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
EOL2 Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
EOL2 (Rectifier Effect) Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
EOL2 Power Difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Compensation Circuit for better EOL2 Symmetry @ High Lamp Currents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Switched Rectifier Effect according to EN 61347-2-3 (VDE 0712-33) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Hard Rectifier Effect according to EN 61347-2-3 (VDE 0712-33). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Cap Load 1 Detection in Designs with Current Mode Preheating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Cap Load 2 Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Emergency Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Status at the RFPH Pin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
IC Turn-Off and Turn-On via the PFCVS Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
IC Turn-Off and Turn-On via the RES Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Simplified Diagram of GND Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Built-In Customer Test Mode – Acceleration Preheating & Ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Built-In Customer Test Mode – Acceleration Pre-Run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Built-In Customer Test Mode – Acceleration EOL2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Excel-based EOL Calculation Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Excel-based Start-up Network Calculation Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Bill of Material for Demo Board 1x54W T5 Single Lamp with Voltage Mode Preheating . . . . . . . . 51
Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Interference Suppression according ti EN 55015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Application Note
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6
Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
List of Tables
List of Tables
Table 1-1
Table 8-1
Operational characteristics of the 54W T5 demo board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Operational characteristics of the demo board 54W T5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Application Note
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Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
Product Highlights
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lowest count of external components
650 V half-bridge driver with Coreless Transformer Technology
Supports customer in-circuit test mode for reduced tester time
Supports multi-lamp designs (in series connection)
Integrated digital timers up to 40 seconds
Numerous monitoring and protection features for highest reliability
Very high accuracy of frequencies and timers over the whole temperature range
Very low standby losses
Features PFC
•
•
•
•
Discontinuous mode PFC for load ranges 0 to 100 %
Integrated digital compensation of PFC control loop
Improved compensation for low THD of AC input current, also in DCM operation
Adjustable PFC current limitation
Features Lamp Ballast Inverter
•
•
•
•
•
•
Adjustable detection of overload and rectifier effect (EOL)
Detection of capacitive load operation
Improved ignition control allows for operation close to magnetic saturation of inductors
Restart with skipped preheating at short interruptions of line voltage (for emergency lighting)
Parameters adjustable by resistors only
Pb-free lead plating; RoHS-compliant
Application Note
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Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
Introduction
1
Introduction
The fluorescent lamp ballast Controller ICB2FL03G is designed to control a boost converter as an active power
factor correction (PFC) filter in critical/discontinuous conduction mode (CritCM/DCM) and in half-bridge topologies
as a lamp inverter. The intelligent control concept enables designers to develop cost-effective ballasts for
fluorescent lamps (FL) that fulfill the requirements of a high-performance T5 lamp ballast as well as multi-lamp
topologies (series connection), T8 and T4 designs. A state machine controlling the operating modes, a completely
integrated digital control loop for the PFC output voltage and low tolerances for reference voltages and operating
frequency over the whole temperature range are a result of the advanced mixed signal technology with only few
components required externally. Combined with a high-voltage level shift driver with Coreless Transformer
Technology for the half-bridge inverter, the IC offers a significant number of exceptional features for FL ballasts.
The FL ballast controller ICB2FL03G has improved and extended functionality to enable high-quality single or
multi-lamp ballasts (series connection) with a low number of external components. It helps to save system costs
and to easily achieve class A2 of the energy efficiency index (EEI) for fluorescent lamp ballasts.
Further information and the data sheet can be found at: http://www.infineon.com/smartlighting
Unless otherwise specified, all values given in this Application Note are typical values.
1.1
Functional Description
The functional description is given based on the circuit diagram of a lamp ballast for the T5 fluorescent lamps
(Figure 1-1).
R41
R42
R43
R44
21
2
C40
R18 R19
C11
R12
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
C12
C13
1
GND
3
2
1
1
L22
2
K2
1
2
3
2 K3
1
C22
Q3
S
G
R27
3
2
1
21
1
D
LSCS
1
GND
14 C14
2
2
C20
2
2
Q2
3
C21
9
5
7
L2
C17
C16
LSGD
R36
R24 R25
GND
R61
GND
R21 R22 R23
D9
GND
G
R26
R20
4
GND
1
D
PFCCS
GND
R11
PFCVS
15
13
2
6
16
C15
L21
D6
8
C10
DR12
PFCGD
R16
HSGND
11
1
S
G
Q1
HSGD
HSVCC
RES
R155
RFRUN
R2
GND
VCC
GND
8
2
4
3
S
LVS
ICB2FL03G
R14
GND
RTPH
PFCZCD
RFPH
7
R1
GND
10
D4
R13
L1
C2
D3
R35
IC1
1
1
R34
D5
12
7
1
9
4
9
3
L101
2
3
2
C3
D2
2
2
K1
D1
C4
2
3
3
C1
1
2
4
D
2
1
F1
1
1
1
1
R45
GND
2
2
2
1
C19
C23
GND GNDGND GND
R30
GND
D7
D82
D8
GND
GND
Figure 1-1 Schematic for 54W T5 demo board
The schematic shows the circuit of the demo board with the reference name of each component for a single lamp
design with voltage mode preheating. This schematic supports all protection functions of the IC.
After switching on the mains, the filter capacitor C2 and the bulk capacitor C10 are charged to the peak voltage of
the mains supply. The capacitors C12 and C13, which support the IC supply voltage VCC, are charged via the
startup resistors R11 and R12. The current consumption of the IC at this stage is typically below 90 μA until the
supply voltage has reached typ. 10.6 V. Above this level the current consumption is typ. 120 μA, and a current
source of typically 21.3 μA at the RES pin is activated, which detects a connected low-side filament. As long as
the voltage level at the RES pin is below 1.6 V, the filament is assumed to be undamaged. A resistor R36 is placed
on the path of the measured current to adjust the voltage drop and – in conjunction with the capacitor C19 – filters
the alternating voltage on the filament during run mode. A current is fed through the resistors R34 and R35 to the
high-side filament and through the resistors R41, R42, R43 and R44 to the LVS pin. A filament is detected if the
current is above typ. 12 μA. If the measured current at the LVS pin is too small, this fault generates a higher current
Application Note
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Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
Introduction
level of typically 42.6 μA at the RES pin. The following points are checked in the sequence below before the IC
activates the driver outputs.
•
•
•
Connected filaments
VCC > VVCCOn (14.0 V)
Bus voltage between 12.5 % and 105 %
Inverter section
With the first pulse the low side MOSFET Q3 of the half-bridge is turned on. Then the floating capacitor C14, which
supplies the high-side control logic like a battery, is charged from capacitor C13 via R30 and the diode D6. The
resistor R30 prevents activation of the overcurrent protection at the LSCS pin. This means that the high-side
MOSFET Q2 can already be turned on with the next half cycle. The capacitor C16 together with the diodes D7 and
D8 acts as a charge pump at the output of the half-bridge inverter. The continuous recharging of C16 with the
inverter frequency shifts energy for the supply voltage VCC of the IC to C13. A surplus of energy is dissipated by
the zener diode D9. In addition, C16 is used to limit the voltage slew rate and to produce zero voltage switching
conditions.
During operation C16 is recharged without losses in the deadtime periods of MOSFET Q2 and Q3 by the inductively
driven current of the load circuit. Consequently, the succeeding turn-on of the MOSFET occurs at zero voltage. At
turn-off, C16 limits the voltage slew rate in such a way that the MOSFET channel is already turned off before the
drain-to-source voltage has reached considerable levels. The inverter therefore creates negligible switching
losses in normal operation. The load circuit of the inverter consists of a series resonant circuit with the resonance
inductor L2 and the resonance capacitor C20. The lamp is connected in parallel to the resonance capacitor. This
example shows voltage-controlled preheating. This means that the resonance-inductor L2 has two additional
windings. Each of those windings drives a current in the filament via the band-pass consisting of L21/C21 and
L22/C22. The band-pass filter ensures that the current in the filaments is only flowing during the preheat phase. By
reducing the frequency during run mode, the heating current is almost completely blocked by the band-pass. The
load circuit also contains a capacitor C17. This capacitor is charged to half the value of the bus voltage – operating
the lamp symmetrically to the ground potential of the rectified mains supply is possible as a result.
PFC
The MOSFET Q1 of the PFC boost converter starts the operation simultaneously with the inverter. This circuit
consists of the inductor L1, diode D5, MOSFET Q1 together with the bulk capacitor C10. Such a boost converter can
transform the input voltage to any arbitrary higher output voltage. Using a suitable control method this converter
is used as an active harmonic filter and for correction of the power factor. The input current follows the same
sinusoidal waveform as the AC mains supply voltage. At the output of the PFC preconverter a feedback-controlled
DC voltage is available at capacitor C10 for the application. The PFC stage is operated with a controlled turn-on
time without input voltage sense. A turn-on time set by the control unit is followed by a turn-off time, which is
determined by the duration until the current in the inductor and hence in the diode too has reached the level zero.
This point of time is detected by the voltage level at the zero current detector winding on the inductor L1 and is fed
to the IC via the resistor R13 and the PFCZCD pin. The result is a gapless triangularly shaped current through
inductor L1 (so-called critical conduction mode), which is sustained for a turn-on time in the range of 24.0 μs down
to 270 ns. A further reduction of the energy flow extends the turn-off time of the PFC MOSFET, causing triangularly
shaped currents with gaps (discontinuous conduction mode). Such a control method allows stable operation of the
boost converter over a large range of input voltage as well as output power. The current into the PFCZCD pin is
used to perform THD correction for optimized THD.
The IC includes a couple of protection features for the PFC preconverter. The overcurrent is sensed at the PFCCS
pin. The bus voltage, overvoltage and undervoltage are monitored at the PFCVS pin as well as the open loop
detection. The ICB2FL03G includes the error amplifier with entire compensation built up by a digital PI regulator
and a self-calibrating notch filter to suppress the voltage ripple of the bulk capacitor.
Application Note
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Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
Introduction
Startup
The inverter starts at a frequency of 135 kHz. The frequency is reduced within 10 ms in 15 steps to the preheating
frequency, which is adjustable by the resistor R22. The duration of preheating can be selected between zero and
2500 ms by the resistor R23. Subsequently, the frequency is further reduced in 127 steps and a time period of
40 ms to the run frequency fRUN, which is adjustable by the resistor R21. The ballast should be designed in such a
way that during the preheating phase the voltage across the lamp is low and at the same time the current in the
filaments is large.
In the ignition phase following the preheating period the frequency of the inverter should be at – or at least close
to – the resonance frequency of the resonant circuit in order to reach a voltage sufficient for ignition of the lamp.
After successful ignition and frequency reduction to the run frequency the current in the lamp should reach its
nominal value and the current in the filaments should become minimal. During the ignition period a high voltage
at the lamp and a large current in the resonant circuit are generated due to the unloaded resonant circuit. The
current in the resonant circuit is monitored by the resistors R24 and R25. As soon as the voltage at pin LSCS
exceeds a level of 0.8 V, the operating frequency is controlled by the integrated ignition regulator, which works
stable close to magnetic saturation of the resonant choke. If the level of 0.8 V at pin LSCS is not crossed any more,
the operating frequency of the inverter decreases with the typical step width of the ignition phase towards the run
frequency. As a result of this measure the ignition phase is extended from 40 ms up to 235 ms with a lamp not
willing to ignite, while the voltage at the lamp remains on the level of the ignition voltage. If the run frequency is
not achieved within 235 ms after finishing the preheating period, the IC switches to the failure mode. In such a
situation the gate drives will be shut down, the current consumption of the IC will be reduced to max. 170 μA and
the detection of the filaments and the input voltage will be activated. A restart is initiated dependent on the failure
counter directly or either by lamp removal or after a new cycle of turn-off and turn-on of the mains voltage. After
successful ignition a fixed pre-run time of typ. 625 ms is implemented to block several protection functions until
stable lamp operation can be guaranteed.
Protection functions
Numerous protection functions complement the basic functions of the ICB2FL03G. As soon as the level at pin
LSCS exceeds the voltage threshold of 0.8 V for longer than 500 ns, it is recognized as a risky operating condition
as it can occur during lamp removal in a running device or during transients in the mains voltage, and the IC
switches to the failure mode. During run mode of the inverter a deviation from the typical zero voltage switching is
recognized as an operation with capacitive load. Under such operating conditions, peak currents occur during turnon of the MOSFETs due to switched charging of the charge pump capacitor C16. The IC distinguishes between
two different types of capacitive load as follows:
•
•
Cap load 1 (idling detection / current mode preheating) Section 6.7.1
Cap load 2 (overcurrent / operation below resonance) Section 6.7.2
Finally, dangerous operating conditions can arise when the fluorescent lamp reaches the end of lifetime or under
operating conditions leading to thermal instability of the lamp. As a consequence, the lamp voltage becomes
unsymmetrical or increases. To detect such operating conditions, the resistors R41, R42, R43, R44, R45 and the
capacitor C40 measure the lamp voltage by evaluating the current through these resistors at the pin LVS. The turnoff threshold for EOL1 (End of Life 1) is at 210 μAPP with a duration of 620 μs. The rectifier effect with
unsymmetrical lamp voltage is called EOL2 (End of Life 2) and the turn-off threshold is at +/- 42 μA with a duration
of typ. 2500 ms. Due to intelligent failure differentiation, the ICB2FL03G is able to detect a surge at the input
voltage without latching this failure.
The IC controls the operating frequency of the inverter during the different operating sequences, such as soft start,
preheat, ignition, pre-run and run mode. During the different operating sequences only some of the protection
features are active at first. All the protection features are active during run mode only. The integrated circuit
ICB2FL03G has a unique combination of features that make design of high-quality lamp ballast with a low number
of external components possible.
Application Note
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Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
Introduction
1.2
Pinning and Picture of the Demo Board
The following section shows the pinning of the IC and a picture of the demo board described in this document.
1
16
HSGD
LSCS
2
15
HSVCC
VCC
3
14
HSGND
13
RES
LVS
ICB2FL03G
LSGD
GND
4
PFCGD
5
PFCCS
6
PFCZCD
7
12
1
1
10
PFCVS
8
9
RTPH
RFPH
RFRUN
PG-DSO-16
(150mil)
Pin
Symbol
Function
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
LSGD
LSCS
VCC
GND
PFCGD
PFCCS
PFCZCD
PFCVS
RFRUN
RFPH
RTPH
LVS
RES
HSGND
HSVCC
HSGD
Low side Gate drive (inverter)
Low side current sense (inverter)
Supply voltage
Low side Ground
PFC Gate drive
PFC current sense
PFC zero current detector
PFC voltage sense
Set R for run frequency
Set R for preheat frequency
Set R for preheating time
Lamp voltage sense
Restart after lamp removal
High side ground
High side supply voltage
High side Gate drive (inverter)
Figure 1-2 Pinning of IC
The pinning and a short pin description is given in Figure 1-2. A detailed pin description can be found in the data
sheet.
Figure 1-3 Top and Bottom Views of the Demo Board
Figure 1-3 shows a picture of the demo board for the 54W T5 design with voltage mode preheating. Please visit
the Infineon Smart Lighting website (http://www.infineon.com/smartlighting) for further information.
1.3
Parameters of the Demo Board
Table 1-1 gives an overview of the operational characteristics of the demo board.
Table 1-1
Operational characteristics of the 54W T5 demo board
Value
Unit
Comment
VIN
230
VACRMS
(180 V - 270 V)
IIN
257
mARMS
@ 230 V input voltage
PIN
59.1
WRMS
@ 230 V input voltage (EEI = A2 CELMA efficiency class)
VBUS
410
VRMS
fPH
106.4
kHz
fRUN
45.5
kHz
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Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
Introduction
Table 1-1
Operational characteristics of the 54W T5 demo board (cont’d)
Value
Unit
tPH
1000
ms
VLamp
118
VRMS
ILamp
460
mARMS
VIGN
> 620
VRMS
n
> 93
%
PF
> 0.99
ATHD
<4
1.4
Comment
With lamp after 30 min. operation in run mode @ 230 VACRMS
@ 230 VACRMS input voltage
%
@ 230 VACRMS input voltage
Description of Normal Start-up Steps
This section describes the normal start-up procedure from phase 1 (UVLO) to phase 8 (run mode). Figure 1-4
shows a measurement and diagram from the start-up procedure. Dependent on the voltage at the RES pin, the
current consumption of the IC can be higher due to IRES1 to IRES4.
Frequency /
Lamp Voltage
VLamp
135 kHz
VBus (Elko)
VVCC_Pin3
Frequency
100 kHz
50 kHz
42 kHz
1
60ms
8
VRFPH_Pin10
(DAC)
2
35ms
3
80ms
4
11ms
5
Lamp Voltage
0 - 2500 ms
6
40 - 237ms
7
625 ms
0 kHz
Rated BUS
Voltage VBUS
8
Mode /
Time
100 %
Rated BUS Voltage
95 %
U IN_peak
Mode /
Time
2
Chip Supply
Voltage VCC
3
VCC = 17.5 V
4
1
5
6
7
Chip Supply Voltage
VCC = 14.0 V
V CC = 10.5 V
VCC = 0 V
UVLO
Monitoring
Start Up Soft Start
Preheating
Ignition
Pre-Run
Mode /
Time
Run Mode
into normal Operation
Figure 1-4 Start-up Procedure
The current consumption of the IC in Phase 1 (UVLO) is IVCCqu1. The current fed via the high ohmic VCC start-up
resistors (R11 and R12) charges the VCC capacitor and delivers this quiescent current. After reaching a first
threshold of VVCCOff the IC goes into monitoring mode and checks for connected cathodes. The current
consumption in this Phase 2 is IVCCqu2 and has to be also delivered via the start-up resistors. The voltage at the
VCC pin rises up to VVCCOn and the IC becomes active and starts inverter switching (provided that both cathodes
are present). Phase 3, also called start-up, activates the whole IC and leads to a current consumption of IVCCSupply.
The internal reference starts up within the first 130 μs and the IC checks the level of the bus voltage. If the bus
voltage is in the specified range of 12.5 % and 105 %, the LSGSD switches on several times to charge the HSVCC
capacitor via R30 and D6. After reaching the HSVCC turn-on threshold of VHSVCCOn the HSGD also starts working
(HSGD and LSGD alternating) and supplies the IC via a charge pump, and the VCC voltage rises to the voltage
clamped by D9. The inverter works with a start-up frequency of fStartUp. To prevent the IC reaching the UVLO
threshold of VVCCOff when all gate drives become active at the same time, the PFC section starts working with a
delay of about 200 μs (see also Figure 1-5). After reaching a bus voltage of 95 % the IC enters soft start, phase 4.
In this phase the IC shifts the frequency down to the adjusted preheating frequency. This frequency shift can be
seen at the signal at the RFPH pin when the voltage rises from GND to 2.5 V (Figure 1-4).
Application Note
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Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
Introduction
After reaching the preheating frequency the IC stays in this preheating phase (Phase 5) for the adjusted
preheating time. At the end of the preheating time the IC enters ignition mode (Phase 6) and begins reducing the
frequency down to the adjusted run frequency. This can also be seen on the signal at the RFPH pin. The voltage
at this pin falls until the voltage at the LSCS pin reaches the threshold of 0.8 V. Then the ignition regulator begins
regulating the ignition voltage to this maximum level, also during magnetic saturation of the resonant choke. While
regulating the ignition voltage, the voltage at the RFPH pin remains at the achieved level between 2.5 V and GND.
After successful ignition during tNOIgnition (limited duration of the ignition phase) the IC enters the pre-run mode,
Phase 7, and the voltage at the RFPH pin falls to GND. The pre-run mode is a safety mode (with limited protection
functions active for tPRERUN) in order to prevent a malfunction of the IC due to an instable system – e.g., the lamp
parameters are not in a steady state condition. In this phase the ignition regulator is also active in order to re-ignite
the lamp if the lamp shows very poor ignition behavior. After a duration of tPRERUN the IC disables the ignition
regulator and switches to the run mode (Phase 8) and all protection functions become active.
14 V
VLSGD_Pin2
VPin18-Pin17
(HSVCC)
VVCC_Pin3
10,1 V
VPFCGD_Pin5
tPFCGD_Delay = 235 µs
LSGD Switch on at 14 V at
VCC_Pin3
tPFCGD_Delay
HSGD switch on at 10,1 V at
HSVCC_Pin18-Pin17
Figure 1-5 PFCGD Start-up Delay
A detailed evaluation of the start-up is shown in Figure 1-5. After reaching the VVCCOn threshold the IC enters
power-up mode and starts LSGD switching with a short internal delay. The LSGD turns on several times to charge
the HSVCC. In this time the voltage at the VCC pin breaks down a little bit because the IC current consumption is
now higher than the current fed from the high ohmic start-up resistors R11 and R12. The VCC capacitors C12 and/or
C13 must be large enough to store the energy needed for charging the HSVCC capacitor C14 to the VHSVCCOn
threshold without reaching the UVLO threshold at VCC. After reaching the VHSVCCOn threshold (typ. 10.4 V) the
HSGD starts working too, and the VCC supply is now generated from the working half-bridge via the charge pump
and the energy provided is high enough to increase the VCC voltage up to the clamped limit of the external Z-diode
D9. The PFCGD starts working with a delay of about 235 μs. This delay is implemented in the IC to ensure a stable
VCC supply before the current consumption of the IC becomes higher due to the additional working PFCGD. This
feature prevents UVLO during the start-up process. Section 8.3 provides advice on how to react to malfunctions
in the functional sequence described here.
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Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
VCC Chip Supply
2
VCC Chip Supply
The high ohmic resistors (R11 and R12) for the startup supply have to be connected to the bus electrolytic capacitor
to ensure an IC supply during start-up mode, latch mode and short interruption of the input voltage (emergency
lighting feature according to VDE 0108). The IC logic implements an ability for self-generated reset. The condition
for reset is an active IC with a current consumption of about IVCCSupply with inactive gate drives. This results in a
falling VCC voltage down to the VVCCOff threshold, also called UVLO (Undervoltage Lockout), which resets the IC
via the VCC. At this self-generated UVLO the IC goes into active mode with inactive gate drives. Without a working
half-bridge there is no supply via the charge pump and the VCC capacitor discharges down to VVCCOff (UVLO
threshold), leading to a restart of the IC.
Please refer to Sections 3.2 and 3.3 of the Data Sheet for further information to functional restrictions in cases in
which the start-up resistors or an external supply can provide too much current, and the IC cannot discharge the
VCC capacitor. In latched failure mode the IC has a current consumption of IVCCLatch and this current has to be
delivered by the start-up resistors. The current out of the RES pin has to be considered for calculation of the
start-up resistors together with IVCCLatch.
2.1
Operation with Half-Bridge not Working
Without an active inverter section the start-up resistors have to supply the IC with a minimum current of IVCCLatch.
Please note that this current must be possible at the minimum input voltage. (This range is necessary for correct
restart after internally generated UVLO and correct function of the hiccup mode). A maximum current of 2 mA is
a good design proposal for correct IC function at self-generated UVLO.
For the start-up of the IC supply it is important to check the voltage level at the RES pin. Due to the capacitor and
resistor at the RES pin, the dv/dt at this pin is limited and, for example, might be slower than the VCC dv/dt at
external supply or with low-ohmic start-up resistors. The voltage VRES must reach the filament detection level
before the IC supply voltage VCC reaches the VVCCOn threshold. Otherwise, removed filaments cannot be detected
correctly because the filament detection status is checked between VVCCOff and VVCCOn.
VLamp
VVCC_Pin(3)
VRES_Pin12
monitoring of cathodes
VVCCOff
monitoring of cathodes
VVCCOn – VRES > 1,6 V
Æ no Power-up
Disconnected cathodes
VVCCOff
VVCCOn – VRES < 1,6 V
Æ Power-up
Connected cathodes
Figure 2-1 dv/dt at VCC and RES Pins @ Start-up
Figure 2-1 shows two oscillograms with the signals at the VCC and RES pins when connecting the input voltage.
The left oscillogram shows the signals when the cathodes are open and the voltage at the RES pin rises to > 1.6 V.
This voltage level must be reached while the IC monitors the cathodes for correct filament detection. The right
oscillogram shows that the IC goes into power-up when the cathodes are connected.
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VCC Chip Supply
2.2
Operation with Half-Bridge Working
With continuous working of the inverter section (LSGD and HSGD) the IC is supplied mainly via the charge pump
(C16, D7 and D8) connected to the half-bridge. With this solution of a VCC supply during run mode, the IC can
generate an UVLO by itself by stopping the inverter.
An example of a self-generated UVLO is shown in Figure 2-2. To understand the following explanation, the state
diagram in the Data Sheet (Section 3.3) must be viewed. Removing the board supply VIN in run mode leads to
discharging of the bus electrolytic capacitor. After VBUS reaches the 75 % threshold the IC detects bus
undervoltage and goes into “Fault U” failure handling with deactivation of the gate drives and entry to the powerdown mode. After about 750 ms the state machine exits the decision block “Counter Skip Preheat > 7” with “Y”
and then goes into active mode with inactive gate drives. As a consequence, the VCC capacitor is discharged to
the VVCCOff threshold (red circle). This UVLO resets the IC logic.
VLamp
VBus (Elko)
UVLO
VVCC_Pin3
VLSGD_Pin2
VIN removed
HB stops working after
reaching V BUS = 75 %
Figure 2-2 Example of Self-Generated UVLO after Counter Skip Preheat > 7 = Y
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PFC
3
PFC
The control of the PFC starts with a fixed operating frequency and increasing on-time, and changes over into
critical conduction mode (CritCM) operation (also called borderline/transition conduction mode) as soon as a
sufficient signal level at the pin PFCZCD is available. The benefit of this feature is to save external components
for the compensation and for the synchronization with the AC input voltage. The dynamic response and the
suppression of the superimposed ripple of the bus voltage fulfill even high requirements. Finally, during light load
conditions the PFC control changes the operating mode from CritCM to DCM (discontinuous conduction mode)
which provides stable operation even down to no load.
A detailed description of the digital control loop for PFC can be found in the Data Sheet (Section 2.4.3)
VLamp
VPFC_Drain-Source
Preheat Phase
DCM-Mode
PreRun Phase
CritCM-Mode
VPFC_Gate-Source
IPFC_Drain
Lamp ignition
Figure 3-1 DCM and CritCM Mode of the PFC Stage
Figure 3-1 shows an oscillogram of the two operating modes DCM and CritCM of the PFC. The bottom left of the
oscillogram shows the DCM waveforms under light load in the preheating phase. The bottom right illustrates the
CritCM waveforms during run mode with a higher load.
3.1
THD Correction
Figure 3-2 shows two oscillograms at different input voltages. The bottom thirds of the oscillograms show the
PFCGD on-time over one input voltage half-wave. When the input voltage is decreasing, the on-time of the
PFCGD increases and has its maximum at the minimum of the input voltage. The oscillogram on the left side
shows the on-time at 180 VAC input voltage and the oscillogram on the right side is taken at an input voltage of
230 VAC. The oscillograms demonstrate the excellent performance of the PFC stage. In both cases the THD is
below 4 % and no gap in current flowing near the input voltage minimum is visible. For proper THD correction in
other designs it is necessary to modify the resistance at the PFCZCD pin in respect to the ratio and value of the
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PFC
PFC choke and the MOSFET size. A good way to find an optimum is to calculate RZCD with Equation (3.1) in a
first step.
Calculation of RZCD
(3.1)
In a second step a potentiometer can be used to evaluate the optimal value for best THD optimization.
VBUS
VIN
VPFCGD_pin5
IIN (200mA/Div)
Thd < 4% in both measurements
tON_PFCGD over time
7,5 µs/vertical Div
2 ms/horizontal Div
VIN = 180 VAC
tON_PFCGD over time
7,5 µs/vertical Div
2 ms/horizontal Div
VIN = 230 VAC
Figure 3-2 THD Correction: PFC On-time Extension over Input Half-Wave
Figure 3-2 shows the waveform of the input current with a THD-optimized resistor at the PFCZCD pin. The overall
THD for the input current harmonics is < 4 % with a gapless input current (magenta waveform). The bottom third
of the oscillogram shows the on-time of the PFC MOSFET. Near to the zero-crossing of the input voltage, the
on-time is increased by the IC via the signal at the PFCZCD pin for THD optimization.
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Ignition Regulator – Control during Ignition
4
Ignition Regulator – Control during Ignition
After entering the ignition mode, the frequency decreases from the preheating frequency to the run frequency. This
frequency shift (generated by the internal digital logic) can be measured at the RFPH pin. The voltage is 2.5 V
during preheating mode and decreases down to GND potential. When the adjusted ignition voltage is reached for
the first time, the digital frequency control stays at its working point and an analog regulator takes over the ignition
voltage regulation in respect to the adjusted frequency of the digital logic. The digital logic readjusts the frequency
only when the working point leaves the regulation area of the analog regulator. After lamp ignition, the resonant
circuit is damped by the lamp and the IC reduces the frequency down to the adjusted run frequency (Figure 4-1).
The ignition regulator is also active in the pre-run phase to improve the ignition of lamps with bad ignition behavior.
begin ignition
Run-frequency reached
VLamp
ILamp
Fr
eq
ue
nc
y
red
VHB-Shunt
uc
tio
n
VRFPH_Pin10 (DAC)
Lamp ignition
Figure 4-1 Normal Ignition Phase
If the voltage at the RFPH pin (DAC) reaches 0 V during the ignition phase without successful lamp ignition, the
sequence control enters the pre-run phase with the ignition regulator still activated. This can be caused due to very
high EMI at the LSCS pin, or due to a calculation of the resonant circuit and/or LSCS shunt resistors, that the
ignition frequency is close to or below the run frequency. Several heavy bus voltage breakdowns during ignition
can cause this behavior too. The ignition timeout timer cannot be set and the ignition voltage can stay about
625 ms longer than the maximum ignition time at the lamp.
4.1
Operation Close to Different Saturation Levels
Figure 4-2 shows four oscillograms taken with chokes of different saturation levels. The top-left oscillogram was
taken with the standard choke of the demo board, the other ones use modified chokes with a smaller current
capability and saturation effects. The ignition voltage is approximately constant over the saturation behavior of the
lamp choke and best ignition voltage regulation (also at high temperatures of the lamp choke) is possible.
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Ignition Regulator – Control during Ignition
VLamp
VBUS
VHB-Shunt
VRFPH_Pin10 (DAC)
Current (green signal )
CH 3: 1,47 A / Div
VIgnition
fIgnition
= 805 VRMS
= 69,2 kHz
ISat = 2,34 Apeak (Standard)
VIgnition
fIgnition
= 825 V RMS
= 70,5 kHz
ISat = 2,11 Apeak
VLamp
VBUS
VHB-Shunt
VRFPH_Pin10 (DAC)
Current (green signal )
CH 3: 1,47 A / Div
VIgnition
fIgnition
= 843 V RMS
= 75,5 kHz
ISat = 1,81 Apeak
VIgnition
fIgnition
= 758 V RMS
= 86,6 kHz
ISat = 1,41 Apeak
Figure 4-2 Ignition voltage @ different levels of saturation of the resonant choke
These oscillograms demonstrate the performance of the ignition regulator at different levels of saturation. Actually,
at relatively low saturation levels the ignition voltage is a little bit higher than with the standard choke. Even at very
high saturation levels the ignition voltage breakdown is only about 5 %. Consequently, this ignition control concept
is very suitable for designs working close to the magnetic saturation of the resonant choke and enables best
ignition voltage regulation, also at higher temperatures of the ballast components. Due to the thermal behavior of
the ferrite, the ability of the ignition regulator to work with saturated chokes offers a great advantage for restarts
with a warmed-up ballast – for example, after a certain running time.
4.2
Bus Voltage Breakdown during Ignition
The following measurements of the ignition regulator at bus voltage breakdown were taken with small
modifications to the demo board. The resonant capacitor C20 was mounted in a direction to realize current mode
preheating. The demo board was prepared with 10 Ω substitution resistors for each cathode. This results in very
high power consumption during ignition mode. The input voltage was also reduced to 170 VAC to provoke bus
voltage breakdown during ignition mode because of the limited power that can be transferred by the PFC stage.
Figure 4-3 shows two oscillograms taken under these conditions to demonstrate that the ignition voltage control
concept is also very suitable for current mode preheating ballasts in which the load during ignition becomes very
high.
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Ignition Regulator – Control during Ignition
VLamp
VBUS
VHB-Shunt
VRFPH_Pin10 (DAC)
fIgnitioin over time
10 kHz/vertical Div; Offset 40 kHz
10 ms/horizontal Div
fIgnitioin over time
3 10 kHz/vertical Div; Offset 40 kHz
10 ms/horizontal Div
1
VIN
VIgnitnion
= 170 VRMS
= 818 VRMS
ISat = 2,34 ARMS
2
4
VIN
VIgnitnion
= 170 V RMS
= 708 V RMS
ISat = 1,41 ARMS
Figure 4-3 Ignition Regulator at BUS Voltage Breakdown during Ignition Phase
The left oscillogram shows the ignition voltage without saturation effects of the resonance inductor. The ignition
frequency over time is illustrated in the bottom third of the oscillograms. After entering the ignition mode, the
frequency decreases from about 107 kHz down to 70 kHz. At this point the frequency is regulated by the analog
ignition voltage regulator to the maximum ignition voltage level. The oscillogram shows that there is no influence
of the heavy bus voltage breakdown on the ignition voltage. The ignition regulator can compensate the bus voltage
breakdown of about 25 % from 400 V down to 300 V completely.
The oscillogram on the right shows the behavior in the same application under the same conditions but with heavy
saturated choke – see Figure 4-2, bottom right. The digital logic reduces the inverter frequency down to about
75 kHz, then the ignition voltage reaches the adjusted ignition voltage and the analog regulator takes over the
voltage control (Point 1). Due to the high bus voltage breakdown the analog regulator reaches the end of its
working area and the digital logic compensates for this by reducing the inverter frequency again (Point 2 to
Point 3). After this, the analog regulator takes over the regulation as seen at Point 1. At Point 4 the working area
of the analog regulator is left again and the digital frequency control reduces the frequency. From this point
onward, the analog ignition control regulator takes over and almost entirely eliminates the high bus voltage ripple
of about 150 V.
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Filament Detection
5
Filament Detection
The high-side filament is detected via the LVS pin while the low-side filament is monitored via the RES pin. For
proper filament detection the LVS and RES circuits have to be dimensioned correctly because they act together
and not independently of each other. The RES pin acts as a current source and in order of the voltage at this pin
(generated with a resistor R36, connected via the low-side filament to GND) the IC detects the filaments. The
current flowing out of the RES pin depends on the voltage level VRES and the status of the high-side filament.
When there is no current or a current below the filament detection limit flowing into the LVS pin, the current out of
the RES pin is doubled and, as a consequence, the voltage at this pin rises and reaches the level for detecting
missing filaments. In this way, the result from the high-side filament detection is mirrored at the RES pin. If the lowside filament at the RES pin is not inserted, the voltage at this pin rises and also reaches the level for detecting
missing filaments because there is no GND connection.
5.1
LVS Pin
This pin has the function of detecting the high-side cathode before the IC starts and lamp removal in failure mode.
In the run mode the pin detects the EOL1 (overload) and EOL2 (rectifier effect) conditions. This is realized by
analyzing the amplitude and the DC offset of the lamp voltage via an equivalent current into the pin. If the functions
are not needed, the LVS pin can be deactivated by connecting the pin directly to GND. In this case EOL1 and
EOL2 detection via this pin is not possible. A deactivated LVS pin can be reactivated when the voltage at this pin
goes higher than VLVSEnable1 during run mode. For correct functioning of the LVS pin, the resistors for filament
detection have to be connected directly after the line rectifier to ensure that the short input voltage interruption can
be detected with the LVS pin. The charge of the preheating capacitor C21 must be covered by the capacitor in the
EOL network C40 in such a way that no fail detection of inserted cathode occurs. If the capacitor in the preheating
circuit C21 has a high capacitance and C40 is relatively low, a transient current flows via C21 and L21 that can be
high enough to lead to high-side filament detection. An internal voltage of 5 V can be used for calculation of the
LVS current before startup (not specified in the Data Sheet – see also Section 8.3.6). This means that the current
flowing into the LVS pin can be calculated with the voltage over the LVS series resistor (between R41 and R42)
related to GND subtracted by 5 V and divided by the value of R41. The safest solution is to design the LVS network
in such a way that the voltage at C40 stays below 5 V without a connected HS filament.
Calculation of ILVSstartup:
(5.1)
Figure 5-1 shows an oscillogram with the waveforms for start-up without a connected high-side filament. The
voltage across C40 in reference to GND is below 5 V (green signal). Due to the internal voltage of 5 V there is no
current flowing into the LVS pin and no wrong high-side filament detection can occur. If this voltage rises above
5 V + ILVSSink multiplied by the value of R41, wrong high-side filament detection can provoke a single start-up of the
IC. In this case the value of C40 or R41 can be increased. If possible, decreasing the capacitance in the preheating
circuit can help to reduce the current flowing into the LVS pin. A third option is to reduce the feeding voltage by
the divider R1, R2, DR12 from the rectified AC input voltage.
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Filament Detection
VLamp
VBUS
VC40-GND
VVCC_Pin3
HS-Filament open,
LS-Filament 10 Ω
230VAC input voltage
5V
Figure 5-1 Startup without High-side Filament
During run mode there is no high-side filament detection via the LVS pin.
A step-by-step tutorial for dimensioning of the EOL1 and EOL2 thresholds is given in Section 8.2.1 of this
document.
5.2
RES Pin
To deactivate the filament detection for high-side and low-side filaments the RES pin can be connected directly to
GND. As explained in Chapter 5, this pin is a current source and detects if the filaments are present via the voltage
drop at R36. The current out of the RES pin is affected by the LVS status during start-up and the actual voltage at
this pin. During run mode, this pin detects the low-side filament. When this filament is broken or removed, the
voltage will rise to 5 V. The voltage passes the VRES3 threshold for detecting a missing low-side filament.
For current mode preheating designs an additional series resistor to the RES pin (for example 330 Ω) is
recommended to avoid destroying the ESD structure if the voltage at the RES pin rises to higher levels. This
voltage spike can occur in current mode preheating designs during lamp removal and depends on the resonant
circuit and RES pin wiring.
For reliable filament detection during start-up, the voltage VRES has to reach the filament detection level until the
chip supply voltage VCC reaches the turn-on threshold of VVCCOn (see also Figure 2-1).
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Detection of Failures
6
Detection of Failures
This chapter provides advice in the event of failures along with examples for evaluating the failure detection
functions. Detailed descriptions of the failure conditions can be found in the Data Sheet. Chapters 3 and 4 of the
Data Sheet show tables and flow charts indicating which protection feature is active in which operating mode and
how the IC will react to each particular failure.
6.1
Surge Detection
The ICB2FL03G implements a special detection for surge events. Bus overvoltage followed by inverter
overcurrent is detected as a surge, which leads to a restart without latching this failure. Figure 6-1 shows two
oscillograms with the signals under surge conditions. For these oscillograms the half-bridge MOSFETs were
replaced by 500 V types to provoke an earlier avalanche breakdown in the case of bus overvoltage. In the original
mounting with 600 V MOSFETs the surge voltage must be so high that other components can become destroyed
before the half-bridge breakdown initiates surge detection.
Surge
Surge
VLamp
VBUS
VLSCS_Pin1
Restart with preheating
after 200 ms
VPFCGD_Pin5
Inverter Overcurrent
PFC-Overvoltage
Figure 6-1 Surge Detection; Surge Pulse of 1100 V
The left oscillogram shows one single surge event with a higher resolution and the right one shows three surge
events for explanation of the flow diagram. Directly after bus voltage rising due to the surge pulse, the PFC stage
detects PFC overvoltage and stops the PFCGD. At a bus voltage of about 620 V the half-bridge MOSFET breaks
down due to the avalanche effect. This results in a high current spike at the LSCS pin. The IC detects this
overcurrent during overvoltage and stops the inverter gate drives (see Chapter 3.3 in the Data Sheet: “Fault A”).
This signal combination does not increment the “Fault Counter” and leads to an IC restart after about 200 ms with
preheating. This can be seen in the right oscillogram.
It is important that the time constant of the low-pass filter at this PFCVS pin (generated by the voltage divider and
C11) is small enough that the voltage can rise fast enough to the 109 % threshold during surge conditions.
Otherwise the surge condition cannot be clearly detected.
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Detection of Failures
6.2
Inverter Overcurrent Protection
The inverter overcurrent protection via the LSCS pin detects two different thresholds dependent on the actual
operation mode. The first threshold of VLSCSOvC2 is only active during preheating and run modes. In all other modes
the detection threshold of VLSCSOvC1 is active for inverter overcurrent protection. Overshooting these thresholds
results in a single restart of the IC. After a second detection within 40 s the IC goes into latched fault mode. This
means that an input voltage interruption or a lamp removal is necessary for a new start-up of the IC.
VLamp
VDrain_LS-FET
VLSCSCS_Pin1
VPFCGD_Pin5
Inverter
Overcurrent
Figure 6-2 Inverter Overcurrent
Figure 6-2 shows an oscillogram with a generated inverter overcurrent. A series resistor of 1 kΩ was inserted in
series with the LSCS pin for this measurement. The overcurrent signal is generated by a waveform generator and
is overlaid directly at the LSCS pin via a diode.
The half-bridge (blue signal) stops immediately after detecting inverter overcurrent: Fault F. With a short delay of
about 100 μs the PFCGD stops working too. This delay is caused by the digital logic. About 200 ms after turning
off and incrementing the failure counter, the IC starts another start-up. If a second inverter overcurrent or another
Fault F failure occurs within 40 s, the IC goes into latched fault mode.
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Detection of Failures
6.3
PFC Overcurrent Protection
Figure 6-3 shows an oscillogram of the demo board start-up. The green waveform shows the voltage at the
PFCCS pin (across the PFC shunt resistor of 1 Ω). In the beginning, the PFC starts in soft start mode and with a
short turn-on time. The turn-on time is increased continuously because the bus voltage is below the nominal value
(red area of the oscillogram).
VLamp
VBUS
VPFCCS_Pin6
VPFCGD_Pin5
CurrentLimitation
PFC Shunt resistor = 1 Ω
--> 1 V = 1 A
Figure 6-3 PFC Overcurrent
The current through the PFC inductor increases and after reaching the PFC overcurrent threshold of VPFCCSOff the
PFCGD turns off cycle by cycle. This working point is shown in the blue area of the oscillogram and is not handled
as an operation fault. This feature protects the PFC stage against overload.
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Detection of Failures
6.4
Bus Overvoltage Protection 109% – 105% Threshold
Depending on the input voltage, a short bus overvoltage can occur during start-up, which is fully covered by the
bus overvoltage protection. Figure 6-4 shows an oscillogram explaining the functionality of the bus overvoltage
protection. Start-up activates the inverter gate drives and the PFC gate drive with a short delay. Then the bus
voltage rises and reaches the 109 % threshold. The PFC gate drive stops immediately as long as the bus voltage
is above the 105 % threshold and the PFC gate drive is activated again, and the bus voltage goes to the nominal
value. If the bus voltage is > 109% for longer than 625 ms, the IC goes into power-down and stops working. The
IC restarts automatically without preheating when the bus voltage is below the 105 % threshold.
VLamp
VBUS
VLSGD_Pin2
VPFCGD_Pin5
Startup
VBUS = 105%
VBUS = 109%
Figure 6-4 Bus Overvoltage Hysteresis (Start-up)
An additional description of the overvoltage detection in run mode can be found in Section 6.1. The surge
detection described there is a combined detection of bus overvoltage and inverter overcurrent during pre-run or
or run mode.
6.5
Bus Undervoltage Protection in Run Mode with 75% Threshold
This failure protection is described in Section 6.8 because it is used for the emergency lighting feature. Bus
undervoltage can also occur in other operation modes. This results in running with lower bus voltage until the IC
detects this failure condition after entering run mode.
6.6
EOL Detection
This section gives a short introduction on how the EOL (End of Life) tests with high accuracy can be done on our
demo board. More information and a description of the normative measurement can be found in EN61347-2-3
(VDE 0712-33). The names EOL1 and EOL2 are defined by Infineon Technologies AG. A lamp
overvoltage/overload is called EOL1 and the rectifier effect according to the standard is called EOL2. The standard
contains also circuit descriptions that are necessary for performing the EOL tests on the ballast. An additional
description on how this detection works can be found in Section 2.5 of the Data Sheet. The EOL conditions are
monitored via the LVS pin. A step-by-step guide with a detailed explanation for basic calculation of the LVS
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Detection of Failures
network is given in Section 8.2.1. Due to some omissions in the calculations, an experimental adjustment in the
circuit may be necessary.
For the following measurements the demo board was supplied with 230 VDC because under DC supply there is no
influence of the AC ripple on the measurement. When the tests are done with an AC supply it is important that the
measurement field covers at least a full input voltage half-wave and an integer multiple of it. Otherwise, due to the
AC ripple, the measurement cannot be reproduced. In this case the resolution of the oscilloscope must be high
enough to record all high-frequency waveforms with good accuracy.
6.6.1
EOL1 (Overload)
Figure 6-2 shows an oscillogram after EOL1 detection and an example of an EOL2 test setup.
C21
C17
VLamp
L2
K2
K1
VEOL_Resistor
IEOL_Resistor
EOL1 Test
circuit
REOL1
K6
VLamp
VLamp
K5
Rsub
= 538 VPP
= 188 VRMS
Rsub
R36
EOL1 Detection
RES-Pin
Figure 6-5 EOL1 (Overload) Detection; EOL1 Test Setup
The test was done with a series resistor to the lamp. The resistance of the series resistor was increased until the
IC detected the lamp overvoltage and entered the failure analysis flow. The measured EOL1 shutdown voltage
was 538 VPP. This value matches very well with the calculated value (Section 8.2.1). There is an internal counter
which counts up when the EOL1 event is present and counts down when the EOL1 event is not detected. If the
EOL1 threshold is not reached in every cycle, the time to turn off the IC can be longer than 620 μs.
6.6.2
EOL2 (Rectifier Effect)
Figure 6-6 shows an example test setup for the EOL2 test. A complete description can be found in the standard
EN61347-2-3 (VDE 0712-33). When the current flows via D1, a positive rectifier effect is simulated (EOL2+).
Current flowing via D2 simulates a negative rectifier effect (EOL2). The level of the positive or negative
superimposed lamp voltage can be adjusted with REOL2. The higher the value of this resistor, the higher the EOL2
voltage because the resonant circuit of the demo board works like a constant current source for the lamp current.
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Detection of Failures
D1
K6
Rsub
S1
K2
D2
K1
REOL2
Rsub
K5
Figure 6-6 EOL2 Test Setup
This failure condition is allowed for a duration of 2.5 s until the IC goes into failure analysis flow. So for the exact
measurement of the EOL2 thresholds it is important to increase the value of REOL2 very slowly. The EOL2 power
can be calculated by multiplying the RMS values of the current through REOL2 and the voltage over this resistor.
Figure 6-7 shows an example of a measurement for EOL2+ (left) and EOL2 (right) detection.
VLamp
VEOL_Resistor
IEOL_Resistor
EOL2 positive rectifier effect
VLamp
VEOL_Resistor
IEOL_Resistor
PEOL
=
=
=
=
12,6 VMean
19 V RMS
323 mARMS
6,14 WRMS
EOL2 negative rectifier effect
VLamp
VEOL_Resistor
IEOL_Resistor
PEOL
= -9,5 VMean
= 17,9 V RMS
= 314 mARMS
= 5,6 WRMS
Figure 6-7 EOL2 (Rectifier Effect) Detection
The measured values for EOL2 detection are +6.1 W and -5.6 W. The calculated values from Section 8.2.1 are
5.3 W for EOL2+ and 5.3 W for EOL2, a little bit lower than the measured values. This is due to some omissions
in the calculations and the influence of the voltage drop of the diode (D1 or D2 of the test circuit), which generates
a higher RMS value of the voltage via the EOL2 resistor for the measured values. This means that an experimental
adjustment in the circuit may be necessary. Please note that parasitic inductivity of the resistors have to be low.
The difference between the positive and negative thresholds is due to the internal IC design. There is an internal
series resistor of about 5 kΩ to an internal voltage source of about 600 mV at the LVS pin (not specified in the
Data Sheet). The internal signal processing of the IC generates an internal potential at the LVS pin of about
800 mV at +42 μA and about 400 mV at -42 μA. Due to these differences the positive lamp voltage shift for EOL2
must be higher than the negative to reach the EOL2 turn-off current at the LVS pin. The EOL2 power results from
the lamp current multiplied by the EOL2 lamp voltage shift. Consequently, the difference between positive and
negative EOL2 rises with the lamp current because the EOL2 lamp voltage shift needed for the same EOL2 power
is smaller and the influence of the voltage at the LVS pin becomes higher. Figure 6-14 shows a theoretical
example of this effect for a designed EOL2 power rating of 6 W.
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Detection of Failures
real EOL2 Pow er considering ULVS
EOL2 difference considering ULVS
6,8
difference [%]
real EOL2 Power [W]
6,6
6,4
6,2
6
5,8
5,6
0
200
400
600
800
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
0
200
ILamp [m A]
EOL2+ pow er
400
600
800
ILamp [m A]
EOL2- pow er
target
difference EOL2+ [%]
difference EOL2- [%}
target
Figure 6-8 EOL2 Power Difference
When the symmetry between the positive and negative EOL2 power must be as good as possible, an additional
compensation circuit can feed an additional current into the LVS pin to correct the offset/asymmetry between the
positive and negative EOL2 thresholds. Figure 6-9 shows an example of such a compensation circuit.
LVS-Pin
R2
R1
IC internal
RLVS_Int.
R3
VLVS_Int.
VLampDC_EOL2n
R4
VCC
R6
R5
C1
Figure 6-9 Compensation Circuit for better EOL2 Symmetry @ High Lamp Currents
The reference names of R1, R2, R3 and C1 are referenced to the small schematic in Figure 8-4 and these
components are a part of the standard BOM without compensation at the LVS pin. Only three resistors connected
to the IC supply voltage are necessary (shown in red) for the compensation circuit. For this design, good matching
between the positive and negative EOL2 threshold can be achieved with R4 = 2.2 MΩ, R5 = 680 kΩ and
R6 = 470 kΩ. Due to the high-ohmic values of the resistors there are no high losses in this compensation circuit.
Please note that this circuit can influence the filament detection via the current into the LVS pin before start-up.
6.6.3
Switched Rectifier Effect
Figure 6-10 shows two oscillograms of the IC behavior when the switched rectifier effect (according to
EN61347-2-3; VDE 0712-33) occurs during run mode. Applying this test to the ballast leads to an EOL1 detection
because the peak lamp voltage rises to the EOL1 detection limit and the duration to turn off is much shorter than
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Detection of Failures
for EOL2 detection. There is an internal counter which counts up when the EOL1 event is present and counts down
when the EOL1 event is not detected. If the EOL1 threshold is not reached in every cycle, the time to turn off the
IC can be longer than 620 μs (e.g. the amplitude is close to the detection limits). After detecting EOL1 the IC goes
into power-down mode with a typical current consumption of IVCCLatch. In this mode, the maximum LVS current for
the safe operating area is limited to max. 210 μA. Due to this failure condition the voltage at C40 in reference to
GND can rise to high values and a voltage limitation at C40 might be necessary to limit the current flowing into the
LVS pin.
VRRectifier
IRRectifier
VC40_GND
VVCC_Pin
1 restart with preheating
Activating switched rectifier
1 restart with preheating
Activating switched rectifier
Detection EOL1
Detection EOL1
Normative Test with 3 ms ON- and
3 ms OFF-Time;
Switch position B
Positive in Run-Mode
Normative Test with 3 ms ON- and
3 ms OFF-Time;
Switch position A
Negative in Run-Mode
Figure 6-10 Switched Rectifier Effect according to EN 61347-2-3 (VDE 0712-33)
The left oscillogram shows the signals when the switched rectifier effect is applied in the negative direction and
the right one shows the behavior for the positively switched rectifier effect.
Result: The requirements of the standard are fulfilled.
6.6.4
Hard Rectifier Effect
Figure 6-11 shows two oscillograms with the IC behavior when the hard rectifier effect (according to EN 613472-3; VDE 0712-33) occurs during run mode.
Applying this test in run mode leads to EOL1 detection due to the same reasons as explained in Section 6.6.3.
VLamp
ILamp
VC40_GND
VVCC_Pin
Activating Hard rectifier
1 restart with preheating
Activating Hard rectifier
Detection EOL1
Positive in Run-mode
1 restart with preheating
Detection EOL1
Negative in Run-mode
Figure 6-11 Hard Rectifier Effect according to EN 61347-2-3 (VDE 0712-33)
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The left oscillogram shows the signals when the hard rectifier effect is applied in the positive direction while the
oscillogram on the left side shows the hard rectifier effect when applied in the negative direction.
Result: The requirements of the standard are fulfilled.
6.7
Capacitive load (Cap Load)
This section is intended to give an understanding of the effects that take place when the ballast works under
capacitive load conditions. To help the explanation, two oscillograms show the signals under cap load 1 and
cap load 2. Further information on this can be found in the Data Sheet (Section 2.6).
6.7.1
Cap Load 1 (Idling Detection / Current Mode Preheating)
This protection feature is only necessary in current mode preheating topologies, where the half-bridge goes into
idling operation when the lamp is disconnected during run mode. In current mode preheating designs, the resonant
capacitor (C20) is connected “behind” the lamp cathodes, so the cathodes are in series with the resonant capacitor.
Removing the lamp and the cathodes results in an open load condition with direct charging and discharging of the
snubber C16 by the MOSFET, and the half-bridge switches into cap load 1 operation.
Cap Load 1 turn off
VHSGND_Pin17
VLSCS_Pin1
VLSGD_Pin2
Cap Load 1
Modification for Current Mode
Preheating Topology :
C20 mounted in position of C 24
C21 and C 22 removed
+50 mV
Operating with substitution
resistors:
Cathode = 8,2 Ω
Lamp
= 250 Ω
HS-cathode and Lamp resistance
opened for CapLoad 1 operation.
Figure 6-12 Cap Load 1 Detection in Designs with Current Mode Preheating
Figure 6-12 shows an oscillogram in cap load 1 operation with a modified demo board for current mode
preheating topologies. The modification to the demo board is described beside the oscillogram. The horizontal red
line indicates the VLSCSCap1 threshold and the red circle indicates the area where the signal of the LSCS pin should
reach this threshold during normal operation. Only a high current spike at the moment of turning on the LS-FET is
present in this oscillogram. This leads to “Fault F” detection after about 2500 ms.
In current mode preheating designs there is a higher probability of overload detection during ignition mode. In
current mode designs the voltage at the RES pin can increase to very high levels when removing the lamp during
ignition and run modes. Please check Section 5.2 for information on how the circuit at the RES pin can be
modified for this ballast topology.
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6.7.2
Cap Load 2 (Overcurrent / Operation Below Resonance)
Cap load 2 operation can only occur in designs when the run frequency is below the resonance frequency of the
unloaded resonance circuit. Cap load 2 operation is detected if the voltage at the LSCS pin is below VLSCSCap3 for
longer than tLSCSCap2 directly before the HSGD is turned on, or if it exceeds a threshold of VLSCSCap2 for longer than
tLSCSCap3 during on-switching of the HSGD. The duration for detecting this failure is 620 μs.
RLamp open
Cap Load 2 turn off
VHSGND_Pin17
VLSCS_Pin1
VLSGD_Pin2
Normal operating
Cap Load 2
Operating with substitution
resistors:
Cathode = 8,2 Ω
Lamp
= 250 Ω
-100 mV
Figure 6-13 Cap Load 2 Detection
Figure 6-13 shows an oscillogram under Cap load 2 operation. The red circle shows the relevant area for
detecting cap load 2.
6.8
Emergency Detection
The ICB2FL03G supports emergency detection requirements (according to VDE 0108). To fulfill this standard, it
is necessary that the illumination returns immediately after short input voltage interruptions. The ICB2FL03G
detects short interruptions of the input voltage via the LVS pin together with the value of the bus voltage, and
restarts within a specific time frame directly with lamp ignition without a prior preheating phase.
Please check the advice given in Section 2 and Section 5.1 on designing the ballast in such a way that correct
emergency detection functionality is guaranteed. In the event of an input voltage interruption, the IC supply has to
be connected to the bus voltage. Figure 6-14 shows an oscillogram that demonstrates the functionality of this
feature. The oscillogram shows the following sequences: start from connecting the input voltage to run mode
followed by input voltage interruption of about 250 ms with direct lamp ignition without preheating and then an input
voltage interruption of about 3 s in run mode.
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Detection of Failures
VLamp
VBUS
VVCC_Pin
Preheat
UVLO
Skip PH
Startup
VIN fail
VIN ok
Figure 6-14 Emergency Detection
The bottom left of the oscillogram shows the phase from turning on the input voltage to the preheating phase. The
bottom right of the oscillogram shows an input voltage interruption in run mode (VIN fail) for about 250 ms. After
reaching 75 % of the rated bus voltage the IC detects bus undervoltage, sets the “skip preheating” flag and stops
the inverter. The current consumption falls to a minimum value and the IC checks the presence of the cathodes 7
times in an interval of tTIMER1. When the input voltage is present again (VIN ok), checked via the current to the LVS
pin, and the counter skip preheating is < 7, the IC restarts without preheating. In the top right of the oscillogram
there is a second interruption of the input voltage for longer than 700 ms and the IC goes into a self-generated
reset (via UVLO). This resets the “skip preheating” flag and the IC will start with preheating after a new input
voltage detection. For an external supply it must be ensured that the IC can perform this UVLO.
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Advice for Design, Layout and Measurements
7
Advice for Design, Layout and Measurements
This section gives some advice on ballast design with the ICB2FL03G. It also provides some additional technical
information on the IC function and advice for measurements.
7.1
Deactivation of Lamp Section
7.1.1
Deactivation of Lamp Section
For evaluation of the PFC stage without the lamp section, the lamp circuit can be easily deactivated. In a first step,
the voltage level at the LSCS pin must be higher than VLSCSCap1 to prevent detection of cap load 1. A voltage
divider from VCC with a level of about 200 mV at the LSCS pin is the easiest way for realizing this. Without the
lamp section, the VCC supply cannot be realized via the charge pump, so an external supply is necessary (please
note the information in the Data Sheet, Section 3.3, for restrictions at the external supply). The LVS and RES pins
can be directly connected to GND to deactivate the lamp protection functions. With these modifications, the pins
and assembly around HSGD, HSVCC, HSGND and LSGD can remain unconnected for full PFC functionality
without a lamp section.
7.2
Deactivation of the PFC Section
For evaluation of the lamp circuit without the PFC stage, the PFC stage can be easily deactivated. To prevent any
failure detection of the deactivated PFC section, a voltage level at the PFCVS pin of between VPFCVS95 and
VPFCVSLOW is necessary. If the voltage at PFCVS is < VPFCVS95, the IC restarts 80 ms after activation of the halfbridge and the PFCGD. A level > VPFCVSLOW prevents the IC going into startup and no pulse out of the gate drives
is visible. The easiest way is to set this voltage with an external DC supply or a combination of Z-diode, resistor
and voltage divider connected to the VCC voltage of the IC. With this modification, the pins and assembly around
AUX, PFCZCD PFCGD and PFCCS can remain unconnected for full inverter functionality without a PFC section.
If the voltage at PFCCS is between VPFCCSOff and VPFCCS_max (6 V), the PFCGD is inactive and there is no EMI
influence of this gate drive.
7.3
RFPH pin (Preheating Frequency)
The resistor at the RFPH pin sets the preheating frequency. This pin is also very helpful for evaluating the device
because the voltage level indicates the status of the digital logic during preheating phase. Figure 7-1 shows an
oscillogram for a description of the signals at this pin. The voltage at this pin was filtered by a 16 kHz low-pass
filter in the oscilloscope. This can be done because there is no interest in fast signal changes. During the soft start
phase the voltage at the RFPH pin rises to 2.5 V in 16 steps and the inverter frequency is reduced from fStartUp
down to the adjusted preheating frequency. Reaching a level of 2.5 V indicates entry into the preheating phase.
The logic stays in this phase for the time adjusted by the resistance at the RTPH pin. On reaching the end of the
preheating time, the logic enters the ignition phase and the voltage at the RFPH pin begins decreasing down to
the GND potential in 127 steps within 40 ms while at the same time reducing the inverter frequency down to the
run frequency adjusted by the resistance at the RFRUN pin. Decreasing stops when the ignition control becomes
active and goes on when the lamp ignites.
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Advice for Design, Layout and Measurements
VLamp
VRFPH_Pin10
Timeout ignition
Begin Preheating
Begin Soft-Start
No Lamp;
Both cathodes were replaced by a
10 Ω substitution resisor.
Begin ignition
Figure 7-1 Status at the RFPH Pin
This measurement was done only with cathode substitution resistors and no ignition is possible. In this case the
logic detects ignition time-out after tNOIgnition and generates a single restart after 200 ms.
7.4
RTPH Pin (Preheating Time)
The preheating time can be adjusted with a resistor between 0 Ω and 25 kΩ (equivalent to a preheating time of
0 to 2.5 s) at the RTPH pin. The voltage at this pin is also linear to the resistance at the RTPH pin (0 – 2.5 V). The
preheating time tRTPH is divided into 127 counter steps, each with a duration of about 20 ms and an equivalent
voltage step at the RTPH pin of about 20 mV. Depending on the voltage at the RTPH pin, the preheating time can
fluctuate up to 20 ms when the voltage at this pin is close to these voltage steps.
7.5
PFCVS Pin
This pin senses the bus voltage and has protection against open loop protection if the bus voltage falls below
12.5 % of the rated level. This protection function can also be used for switching the IC off and on with a
microcontroller. When using this pin for IC shutdown it is important that the voltage drops very quickly below a level
of 12.5 % to prevent the PFC regulation from increasing the bus voltage to higher levels for compensation. A level
higher than 12.5 % leads to a new IC startup without preheating for a restart time < tTIMER1 and with preheating if
the turn-off phase is longer than tTIMER1.
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Advice for Design, Layout and Measurements
VLamp
VVCC_Pin3
Restart without preheating
VPFCGD_Pin5
VPFCVS_Pin8
PFCVS < 12,5 %
PFCGD -> Off
Inverter -> Off
PFCVS > 12,5 %
Figure 7-2 IC Turn-Off and Turn-On via the PFCVS Pin
Figure 7-2 shows an example of a measurement to explain the logic flow in the case of turning off the ballast via
the PFCVS pin. The PFCGD stops working directly after switching the PFCVS signal to a level < 12.5 %. With a
delay of about 200 μs the inverter stops working too because of reaching the 75 % threshold for bus voltage and
the IC detects “Fault U – bus undervoltage” (see Section 3.3 of the Data Sheet). Within a time of tTIMER1 the IC
restarts without preheating when the level at the PFCVS pin is > 12.5 %. After this time the IC goes into power-up
because the lamp detection is ok and VCC is > VVCCOn. This results in a current consumption of IVCCSupply and, due
to the level < 12.5 % at the PFCVS pin, the gate drives remain off. This combination generates a UVLO (resets
the whole IC) followed by monitoring and a new power-up. This flow continues until the voltage at the PFCVS pin
becomes > 12.5 % again and the IC restarts with preheating.
This method of turning off the IC is only suitable when the IC is in run mode because in other modes the 75 %
threshold for the bus voltage is not active. A turn-off signal in phases out of the run mode leads to operation of the
IC without a PFC section and to a resulting lower BUS voltage with a higher ripple until the run mode is reached.
Then the ballast turns off when activating the 75 % threshold after the pre-run phase.
It is important that the time constant at the PFCVS pin (generated by the voltage divider and C11) is small enough
that the voltage reaches the 109 % threshold quickly enough during surge conditions, otherwise the surge
condition cannot be clearly detected.
7.6
RES Pin
This pin is needed for filament detection and can be disabled by setting it to GND. When the voltage at this pin
rises higher than VRES3 the IC detects an open filament, handled as “Fault F”. This protection function can also be
used for switching the IC off and on with a microcontroller. This implementation only works in run mode, and the
minimum duration of turn-off should be 400 ms for correct functionality.
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Advice for Design, Layout and Measurements
VLamp
VVCC_Pin3
VRES -> OK
VPFCGD_Pin5
Restart after Lamp
inserted for min 100 ms
VRES > VRES3
VRES_Pin12
Inverter + PFCGD -> Off
Figure 7-3 IC Turn-Off and Turn-On via the RES Pin
Figure 7-3 shows an example of a measurement to explain the logic flow in the case of turning off the ballast via
the RES pin. About 700 μs after reaching a level > VRES3 at the RES pin, the IC detects “Fault F” and the inverter
and the PFC stop working. The “Fault Counter” increments by 1 and after a first delay of about 200 ms a decision
according to the “Fault Counter” has to be taken. This is the reason for the minimal duration of the turn-off time in
this solution. If the “Fault Counter” > 2, for example after a second turn of within 40 s, the logic waits for lamp
removal (VRES > VRES3) of min. 100 ms until a restart can happen. If the voltage at the RES pin falls to a level within
the area for correct lamp detection, the IC cannot start because the lamp has not been removed for longer than
100 ms. So an additional turn-off signal with a minimum turn-off time of 100 ms is necessary for restarting the
ballast. This can be avoided with the minimum turn-off time of 400 ms mentioned before.
The IC starts with a delay of about 100 ms after reaching the filament detection level at the RES pin.
7.7
VCC Pin
The ICB2FL03G is very robust against EMI and shows best functionality also under high EMI influence. A ceramic
capacitor with a capacity of several 10 nF (10 nF or 47 nF) is recommended to cover the load jumps for gate driver
operation. The signals at this pin are very suitable for evaluating and distinguishing the states in the state diagram
(see Data Sheet Sections 3.2 and 3.3).
If there are extremely high spikes at the VCC pin it might be necessary to modify the capacitance at this pin in
order to improve EMI stability. EMI problems via VCC can be evaluated very easily. To evaluate this situation, the
signal at the VCC pin and a signal of the half-bridge (for example HSGND) are necessary. If the half-bridge stops
working and immediately after this the voltage at the VCC pin breaks down to VVCCOff followed by a restart after
reaching the VVCCON threshold, an EMI problem at the VCC pin can be the reason. All failures covered by the
protection functions of the IC which lead to a restart have a minimum duration of tTIMER1 until a new restart can be
achieved.
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Advice for Design, Layout and Measurements
For correct emergency functionality it is necessary that the IC supply via the startup resistors is connected to the
bus voltage and is designed in such a way that the supply current in latched fault mode is guaranteed (please see
also Section 2 in this document for further information).
7.8
LVS Pin
The LVS pin is necessary for high-side filament detection before startup and for EOL detection in run mode. This
function can be disabled by connecting the LVS pin to GND. This connection should be as short as possible to
prevent unintentional reactivation. Reactivation of the deactivated LVS pin is possible when the voltage at the LVS
pin reaches a level of VLVSEnable1 for a typical duration of 1 μs (not specified in the Data Sheet).
7.9
LSCS Pin
For correct working of the adaptive deadtime, the –50 mV threshold must be achieved in all working points (for
min. tLSCSCap3), otherwise the adaptive deadtime cannot be detected properly and wobbling of the deadtime will be
the consequence. Also the +50 mV threshold must be reached in normal operation to prevent cap load 1
detection.
For some dimming applications it can happen that the +50 mV threshold for cap load 1 detection cannot be
reached at low dimming levels. Infineon Technologies AG provides a special IC (ICB2FL02G) with deactivated
cap load 1 detection to cover all dimming solutions (please contact Infineon Technologies AG for further
information or visit http://www.infineon.com/smartlighting).
The maximum voltage level at this pin should not be limited below 1.6 V because half-bridge shootthrough
detection and correction is realized at the LSCS pin.
7.10
Advice for Board Layout
For greater robustness while evaluating the board, high ohmic resistors (for example 18 kΩ) from the MOSFET
gate to FET source are suggested to prevent destruction of the components if there is a broken gate resistor or
broken conductor path on the PCB.
Figure 7-4 shows a simplified circuit diagram with the power path shown in bold. This figure helps to differentiate
between the signal and power GND. The blue path is the signal GND, to which the resistors for sensing voltages
or adjusting IC parameters should be connected. Wires where high current is flowing should be connected to the
GND potential shown by the heavy lines. If possible, connect all signal GND lines radiating to the IC GND and all
power GND lines radiating to the electrolytic condensator GND.
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Advice for Design, Layout and Measurements
RFPH
RTPH
RES
HSVCC
HSGND
LSGD
LSCS
VCC
GND
PFCVS
HSGD
ICB2FL03G
RFRUN
LVS
PFCZCD
PFCGD
PFCCS
Signal GND
Figure 7-4 Simplified Diagram of GND Flow
The demo board provides a good example of an effective layout for this circuit.
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Annex
8
Annex
8.1
Built-In Customer Test Mode
The Built-In Customer Test Mode is implemented to reduce time for the ballast end test dramatically. More
information on this test can be found in Chapter 2.8.3 of the Data Sheet. The requested signal levels and the timing
diagram for activating the test mode can also be found there. The following three figures show the benefit of testing
time with the accelerated clock. The left oscillograms show the normal sequence without acceleration while the
right oscillograms show the accelerated sequences. Additional acceleration can be realized by reducing the
preheating time via R23 temporally for the ballast end test. A UVLO at VCC resets the test mode acceleration.
VLamp
VRFPH_Pin10 (DAC)
VRES_Pin12
VRFRUN_Pin9
Ignition=220 ms
Ignition=112 ms
Preheating=1,04 s
Preheating =272 ms
Starting only with cathode
substitution resistors of 4,8 Ω for
each cathode
For the right oscillogram :
Preheating accelerated by ~3,8
Ignition accelerated by ~2
Sequence=1,26 s
Normal Sequence
Sequence=384 ms
Accelerated Sequence (Test Mode)
Figure 8-1 Built-In Customer Test Mode – Acceleration Preheating & Ignition
Figure 8-1 shows a comparison between the preheating and ignition phases. Acceleration of about a factor 4 for
the preheating phase and of about a factor 2 for the time until time-out ignition can be seen in these oscillograms.
VLamp
VRFPH_Pin10 (DAC)
VRES_Pin12
VRFRUN_Pin9
Ignition+PreRun+EOL1=700 ms
Ignition+PreRun+EOL1=87 ms
Preheating=1,04 s
Preheating=272 ms
Starting only with EOL1 from the
beginning of ignition
For the right oscillogram :
Ignition Phase = 42 ms
Æ PreRun+EOL1 = 45 ms
Æ PreRun ~44 ms
Æ EOL1 ~1 ms
Sequence=1,74 s
Normal Sequence
Sequence=359 ms
PreRun accelerated by ~15
Accelerated Sequence (Test Mode)
Figure 8-2 Built-In Customer Test Mode – Acceleration Pre-Run
Figure 8-2 shows acceleration of about a factor 15 for the pre-run phase. The minimum duration of the ignition
phase is 42 ms for this IC. This time must be subtracted from the time of ignition+pre-run+EOL1 because it is not
affected by the acceleration. EOL1 has a duration of 620 μs and also has to be subtracted before calculating the
acceleration of the pre-run phase.
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Annex
VLamp
VRFPH_Pin10 (DAC)
VRES_Pin12
VRFRUN_Pin9
Ignition+PreRun+EOL2=125 ms
Preheating=1,04 s
Ignition+PreRun+EOL2=3,15 s
Preheating=272 ms
Starting only with EOL2 from the
beginning of ignition
For the right oscillogram :
Ignition Phase = 42 ms
Æ PreRun+EOL2 = 83 ms
Æ PreRun ~44 ms
Æ EOL2 ~39 ms
Sequence=4,19 s
Normal Sequence
Sequence=397 ms
EOL2 accelerated by ~62
Accelerated Sequence (Test Mode)
Figure 8-3 Built-In Customer Test Mode – Acceleration EOL2
Figure 8-3 shows the acceleration of about 62 for the time until EOL2 detection. With values of about 700 ms and
86 ms for the ignition and pre-run phases, the measurement in Figure 8-2 shows that a normal time of 2450 ms
for detecting EOL2 can be calculated. The accelerated time for EOL2 detection is about 39 ms.
8.2
Calculations
The following section describes some necessary calculations for the demo board design (according to the design
used for this Application Note 1 x 54 W T5 with voltage mode preheating).
8.2.1
Sample Calculation: EOL for 54W T5 Design (Excel)
Figure 8-4 shows a picture of the “EOL calculation Excel sheet” that supports the design of the EOL network.
Contact us at http://www.infineon.com/smartlighting to obtain the tool.
A step-by-step guide for using this Excel sheet is given in this section. Design-relevant data can be entered in the
green fields and the orange-colored fields indicate that the value will be calculated via implemented formulas. Due
to some omissions in the calculations an experimental adjustment in the circuit may be necessary.
A description of the planned design data can be entered in the first green field at the top of the page. After this,
the nominal values for lamp voltage and lamp current can be entered in the parameter section. Also necessary
are the inputs for operation frequency, max. allowed EOL power and the factor for the allowed lamp voltage. After
entering these values, the peak-peak lamp voltage for EOL1 and the DC offset of the lamp voltage for EOL2 can
be calculated with the currents from the Data Sheet for the EOL1 and EOL2 detection thresholds.
The EOL2 resistors R1 and R2 can be calculated with negligence of the influence of C1 and R3 because C1 blocks
the DC current in a steady state (run mode). The ratio between R2 and R1 has an influence on the necessary
voltage strength of C1. For major designs a resistance of about 50 kΩ to 70 kΩ for R2 is suitable, so a selection of
R1 values regarding this resistance is helpful. It can also be helpful to separate the resistance for R1 into several
resistors (in this example 3 x 68 kΩ). This segmenting reduces the voltage drop for each separated resistor of R1.
The selected values for R1 and R2 can be entered in the two green fields.
The first field in the EOL1 calculation area calculates the actual max. lamp voltage for EOL1 detection without C1
and R3. This value must be lower than the voltage calculated in the parameter section in the first steps. If this
condition is true, R3 and C1 are necessary for reducing the amplitude of the AC current to the LVS pin (indication
in the result field). The following calculations are necessary for dimensioning these two components; the influence
of C1 for R3 calculation will be neglected. The voltage across R2 is calculated with the nominal EOL1 detection
current (ILVSSourceAC) multiplied by the calculated value of R2. The voltage across R1 is the difference between the
max. allowed peak-peak lamp voltage (ULamp_pp) and the voltage across R2 (UR2pp). This voltage drop results in a
current through R1 (IR1pp) that is higher than the threshold for EOL1 detection of ILVSSourceSC. This current difference
Application Note
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Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
Annex
(IR3pp) must be fed via C1 and R3 to GND. The field “R3 calculated” shows the calculated value for the needed
resistance. If the selected value for R3 is higher, the EOL1 detection reacts earlier and if the selected value for R3
is smaller, the EOL1 detection is triggered at a higher lamp voltage than defined in the parameter section. To
reduce the influence of C1 on the EOL1 threshold, the capacitance should be as high as possible and in no case
smaller than the calculated value C1_min. After entering the selected value for C1 in the green field, the values for
the resistors and the capacitor in the EOL detection network for this design will be summarized at the top of the
page.
EOL: Demoboard 1x54W T5 - VM - 180VAC to 270VAC - ICB2FL03G
LVS
This sheet supports designing the EOL circuit with the FL-Controller ICB2FL03G.
Please fill out the green fields top down. The result is listed in the next line.
The design is: R1=204kȍ, R2=68kȍ, R3=6,8kȍ and C1=100nF.
Please note, that it can be necessary to split R1 because of the limited power dissipation.
In this Design the calculated EOL2 Power is about 5,3W+/5,3W- and the calculated EOL1 threshold is about 486Vpp.
C1
R3
short
Lamp voltage (Lamp data)
ULamp[RMS]
VRMS
118,00
Lamp current (Lamp data)
ILamp[RMS]
mARMS
460,00
Operation frequency
fRUN
kHz
max. allowed EOL Power (DC)
PEOLDC_max
W
Factor for allowed Lamp Voltage
ULamp_Fact
EOL1 threshold (Overvolage)
ILVSSourceAC
>620μs (Datasheet)
>2500ms (Datasheet)
EOL2 threshold (Rectifier)
ILVSDC
ULamp_pp
Lamp voltage (DC offset)
ULamp_DC
calculation
R1
Parameter
Lamp voltage (peak-peak)
comment
R2
unit
45,00
5,00
1,50
μApp
±μARMS
210,00
42,00
U Lamp _ pp = U Lamp ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ U Lamp _ Fact
VPP
500,63
PEOLDC _ max
VDC
10,87
VDC
0
10,87
kȍ
258,80
kȍ
204,00
kȍ
54,80
U Lamp _ DC =
I Lamp
EOL2 calculation (Rectifier Effect)
DC voltage across R 1 and R2
R1 and R2 calculated
Values
R1calc+R2calc
R1calc + R 2 calc =
U Lamp _ DC
I LVSDC
Select R1 in respect to the voltage strength of C 1. R1 >> R2
R1 selected
R1
R2 calculated
R2calc
R2 selected
R2
R1 and R2 real
R1+R2
R1 + R2
EOL Power (DC) calculated
PEOLDC+_calc
PEOLDC _ max = (R1 + R2 ) ⋅ I LVSDC ⋅ I Lamp
W
5,26
EOL Power (DC) calculated
PEOLDC-_calc
= (R1 + R2 ) ⋅ I LVSDC ⋅ I Lamp
W
5,26
Vpp
0
57,12
R2 = R1calc + R2calc − R1
PEOLDC _ max
EOL1 calculation (Lamp Overvoltage)
Actual max voltage
ULamp_pp_EOL1
Result
U Lamp _ pp _ EOL2 = I LVSSourceAC ⋅ (R1 + R2 )
kȍ
68,00
kȍ
272,00
ULamp_pp_EOL1 too small, R3 and C1 requiered!
Voltage across R 2
UR2pp
Voltage across R 1
UR1pp
Current through R1
IR1pp
U R 2 pp = I LVSSourceA C ⋅ R 2
Vpp
14,28
U R1 pp = U Lamp _ pp − U R 2 pp
Vpp
486,35
μApp
2384,08
μApp
2174,08
I R1 pp =
Current through R3
IR3pp
R3 calculatet
R3calc
C1 neglected
U R1 pp
R1
I R 3 pp = I R1 pp − I LVSSourceAC
R 3 calc =
U R 2 pp
6,57
I R 3 pp
R3 selected
R3
C1 calculated
Select C1 as high as possible in
respect of the high side
preheating Capacitor!
C1 selected
C1_min
C1 should affect the
current less than 1%
C1
select C1 as high as possible under consideration of the results of
Startup calculation sheet (C40)
EOL1 max voltage calculated
ULamp_pp_EOL1_calc.
>
kȍ
100
2 ⋅ π ⋅ f RUN ⋅ R 3
U Lamp _ pp _ EOL2 =
I LVSSourceAC ⋅ (R2 ⋅ R1 + R3 ⋅ R1 + R2 ⋅ R3 )
R3
kȍ
6,80
nF
52,01
nF
100,00
Vpp
486
Figure 8-4 Excel-based EOL Calculation Tool
Contact us at http://www.infineon.com/smartlighting to obtain the tool.
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Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
Annex
8.2.2
Sample Calculation – Start-up Network for 54W T5 Design (Excel)
Figure 8-5 shows a calculation example for the start-up network to the LVS pin.
Startup-LVS: Demoboard 1x54W T5 - VM - 180VAC to 270VAC - ICB2FL03G
This sheet supports designing the LVS-startup-circuit with the FL-Controller ICB2FL03G.
Please fill out the green fields top down. The result is listed in the next line.
The design is: R1=470kȍ, R2=470kȍ, DR12=110kȍ, R34=150kȍ, R35=150kȍ and C40=220nF.
Parameter
short
comment
calculation
unit
Vpeak
176,0
VDC
410,0
max. value from Datasheet
μA
18,0
VLVS_Int
typical value, not tested in End-Test
VDC
5,0
R41
R41
R2 (from EOL-calculation)
kȍ
68,0
R42
R42
R1 (from EOL-calculation)
kȍ
68,0
R43
R43
kȍ
68,0
R44
R44
kȍ
68,0
R45
R45
kȍ
6,8
with HS-filament inserted, filament must be detected in the whole input voltage range - C40 and R45 neglected
Resistor [email protected] REOL_DC
R
=R +R +R +R
kȍ
272,0
Voltage across R EOL_DC
VREOL_DC
V
Voltage Ratio
nvoltage
Minimal Input voltge
VIN_min
BUS-voltage
VBUS
Current for filament detection
ILVSSink
Internal voltage source LVS
DC-voltage or peak-voltage for AC-supply
Values
R3 (from EOL-calculation)
EOL_DC
actual VDR12 without R34+R35
VDR12_1
def. VDR12 at min. input voltage
VDR12_min_def
R34 and R35 calculated
R34_cal+R35_cal
for lamp detection
41
42
43
44
V REOL _ DC = I LVSSink ⋅ R EOL _ DC
nvoltage =
2,3
VBUS
V IN _ min
V DR12 _ 1 = V LVS _ Int + V REOL _ DC
should be about 6V higher than V DR12_1
R34 _ cal + R35 _ cal =
4,9
V DR12 _ min_ def − V DR12 _ 1
V
9,9
V
16,0
kȍ
339,1
150,0
I LVSSink
R34 selected
R34
kȍ
R35 selected
R35
kȍ
150,0
R34 and R35 selected
R34+R35
kȍ
300,0
worst case, R 41 to GND instead of LVS-Pin (for calculation of voltage divider R 1 , R 2 and DR 12 for V DR12_min )
R from [email protected] RStartup_DC
R
=R +R +R
kȍ
572,0
Necessary voltage at DR 12
VDR12_min
V
15,3
Ratio of R1+2 to DR12
nR1+2_to_DR12
must be smaller than calculated value
Startup_ DC
34
DR12 selected
DR12
DR12+Startup_DC
EOL _ DC
V DR12 _ min = V LVS _ Int + I LVSSink ⋅ RStartup_ DC
n R1+ 2 _ to _ DR12 =
parallel circuit DR12, RStartup_DC
35
11,5
VIN _ min
V DR12 _ min
take care to R 1 and R2
DR12+ Startup_ DC =
DR12 ⋅ RStartup_ DC
kȍ
110,0
kȍ
92,3
DR12 + R Startup_ DC
R1 _ cal + R2 _ cal = R3+ Startup_ DC ⋅ (n R1+ 2 _ to _ DR12 − 1)
Resistor R1+R2
R1_cal+R2_cal
kȍ
969,3
R1 selected
R1
kȍ
470,0
R2 selected
R2
kȍ
470,0
R1 and R2 selected
R1+R2
kȍ
940,0
V
15,7
V
36,6
22,0
must be smaller than calculated value
UDR12 at minimum input votlage VDR12_min_input
V DR12 _ min_ input =
UDR12 at maximum input voltage VDR12_max_input
V DR12 _ max_ input =
V IN _ min ⋅ DR12+ Startup_ DC
R1 + R2 + DR12+ Startup_ DC
V BUS ⋅ DR12+ Startup_ DC
R1 + R2 + DR12+ Startup_ DC
without filament, prevent IC startup
worst case, R41 open (not connected to LVS-Pin); At maximum input voltage, VC40-to-GND must be < VLVS_Int
C21 defined
C21
nF
VDR12_max_input votlage
VDR12_temp
V
43,0
min. value for C 40
C40_cal
nF
189,0
nF
220,0
C 40 _ cal =
selected value for C40
C40
VDR12 _ temp ⋅ C 21
V LVS _ Int
selected value must be higher than calculated value
Figure 8-5 Excel-based Start-up Network Calculation Tool
Contact us at http://www.infineon.com/smartlighting to obtain the tool.
8.2.3
Inductor L1 of the Boost Converter
The inductivity of the boost inductor is typically designed to operate within a specified voltage range above a
minimum frequency in order to obtain easier RFI suppression. It is well known that in critical conduction mode
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Annex
(CritCM) there is a minimum operating frequency at low input voltages and another minimum at maximum input
voltage. In state-of-the-art CritCM PFC controllers the lowest value of these two criteria is used.
At minimum AC input voltage:
(8.1)
At maximum AC input voltage:
(8.2)
With the new control principle for the PFC preconverter a third criterion that covers the maximum on-time
tPFCON_max is necessary.
At maximum on-time:
(8.3)
With the assumed conditions the lowest value out of LA, LB, LC is 1.58 mH.
The selected value is: L1 = 1.58 mH
8.2.4
Shunt Resistors for Ignition Voltage R24, R25
The selected lamp type 54W T5 requires an ignition voltage of VIGN = > 620 VRMS. The board is designed for an
ignition voltage of VIGN = 800 VRMS (1130 Vpeak). In this application example the resonant inductor is evaluated as
L2 = 1.46 mH and the resonant capacitor as C20 = 4.7nF. With these inputs the ignition frequency fIGN can be
calculated in a first step:
Calculation of ignition frequency fIGN:
(8.4)
The second solution of this equation (with the minus sign) leads to a result of 50163 Hz, which is on the capacitive
side of the resonant rise. This value is not a solution because the operating frequency approaches from the higher
frequency level.
In the next step, the current through the resonant capacitor C20 must be calculated when reaching a voltage level
of 800 Vpeak.
Calculation of resonant capacitor current IC20:
(8.5)
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Finally, the resistors R24 and R25 can be calculated with IC20 and the ignition regulating value at the LSCS pin of
about 0.8 V.
Calculation of R24 and R25:
(8.6)
The selected values are: R24 = R25 = 0.68Ω (= 0.34 Ω).
8.2.5
Ballast Parameters
The following formulas give advice on calculating relevant ballast parameters.
Calculation of start-up resistors R11 and R12:
(8.7)
The selected values are: R11 = R12 = 470 kΩ
Calculation of PFCVS resistor R20:
(8.8)
The selected value is: R20 = 10 kΩ
Calculation of PFCVS resistors R14 and R15:
(8.9)
The selected values are: R14 = R15 = 820 kΩ
Calculation of low pass capacitor C11 (corner frequency fC1 = 10 kHz):
(8.10)
The selected value is: C11 = 2.2 nF
Calculation of PFC shunt resistors R18 and R19:
(8.11)
The selected values are: R18 = 1 Ω and R19 = not assembled
Calculation of run frequency resistor R21 for fRUN = 45 kHz:
(8.12)
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The selected value is: R21 = 11 kΩ
Calculation of preheating frequency resistor R22 for fPH = 105 kHz:
(8.13)
The selected value is: R22 = 8.2 kΩ
Calculation of preheating time resistor R23 for tPH = 1000ms:
(8.14)
The selected value is: R23 = 10 kΩ
The gate drive resistors R16, R26 and R27 are recommended to be equal to or greater than 10 Ω (selected: 10 Ω).
Calculation of bootstrap current limitation resistor R30:
(8.15)
The factor of 2 is used in order to keep away from the limit value.
The selected value is: R30 = 33 Ω
Calculation of LS filament sense resistor R36:
(8.16)
The selected value is: R36 = 56 kΩ
Calculation of low pass capacitor C19:
(8.17)
The capacitor C19 provides a low pass filter together with resistor R36 in order to suppress AC voltage drops at the
LS filament. With an estimation of the AC voltage of about 10 Vpeak-to-peak at the LS filament during run mode for
fRUN = 45kHz, suppression by a factor of at least FLP = 300 is necessary.
The selected value is: C19 = 22 nF.
Note: The voltage at the RES pin must reach the filament detection level until VCC reaches the VVCCOn threshold
(see Section 8.3.7).
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8.3
Troubleshooting
This section gives some advice on finding and handling typical start-up problems in designs with the ICB2FL03G.
Please check the function in the sequence described in Figure 1-4. If these checks do not solve the problem,
please take a look at Section 8.3.1 to Section 8.3.10. If these checks also do not solve the problem, please
contact Infineon Technologies AG for further support.
Depending on the voltage at the RES pin, the current consumption of the IC can be higher due to IRES1 to IRES4.
8.3.1
VCC does not reach 10.5 V (VVCCOff) or 14 V (VVCCOn)
If VCC does not reach the VVCCOff threshold (also called the UVLO threshold), the current consumption of the IC
is too high or the current through the VCC start-up resistors is too low. The minimum current required, fed across
the start-up resistors, is IVCCqu1 until VVCCOff is reached and IVCCqu2 until VVCCOn is reached. Another powerconsuming device at VCC may be the reason for preventing VCC rising to VVCCOff.
•
•
•
Remove any other consumer at VCC.
Check the bus voltage and calculate the minimum current across the start-up resistors.
Check if a wrong Z-diode D9 is mounted that limits the voltage at VCC.
8.3.2
VCC Hiccup between 14 V (VVCCOff) and 10.5 V (VVCCOn)
If VCC reaches the VVCCOn threshold and then goes down to VVCCOff repeatedly (called hiccup operation), the
following reasons may apply. There can be a problem in detection of the bus voltage or in the VCC supply via the
charge pump.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Is the bus voltage in the specified range of 12.5 % and 105 % (~0.39 V and 2.57 V at PFCVS pin)?
Is the voltage divider for bus voltage sensing broken?
Are the LSGD and HSGD working during VCC breakdown? Otherwise check the next two subcategories.
Are the diodes of the charge pump correctly mounted (D7 and D8)?
Check the ratio of C12 and C14
Is the charge pump design strong enough? Note: Layout and components have to handle the peak currents.
Calculation of charge pump
(8.18)
8.3.3
No LSGD Pulse
When all start-up conditions are ok, the first pulse out of the IC is normally visible at the LSGD pin. If the VCC is
above the VVCCOn threshold and the bus voltage is in the specified range between 12.5 % and 105 %, a filament
detection problem can cause this behavior.
•
•
•
The bus voltage must be smaller than the min. value of VPFCVSLow (105 %) before start-up.
Set both LVS pins temporarily to GND to disable the high-side filament detection.
Set the RES pin temporarily to GND to disable the high- and low-side filament detection.
If this solves the problem, a redesign of the LVS path and the resistor R36 is necessary (see Section 8.2) for
correct operation with filament detection.
8.3.4
No HSGD Pulse
If there is no HSGD pulse after a number of initial LSGD pulses, a problem with the HSVCC supply may be the
reason.
•
•
The bus voltage must be smaller than min. value of VPFCVSLow (105 %) before start-up.
Check if VCC breaks down to VVCCOff while charging the HSVCC capacitor C14 – a higher capacitance at the
VCC pin might be helpful.
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•
•
•
Check if the HSVCC reaches a level of min. VHSVCCOn (max. value); does C14 have the right value?
Check if R30 and D6 are mounted in the right way.
Check if the VLSCSOvC1 threshold is reached; increasing R30 might be helpful.
8.3.5
No PFCGD Pulse
If there is no PFCGD pulse after 300 μs of correct inverter working, there can only be a problem in the monitoring
of the bus voltage or the connecting tracks to MOSFET.
•
•
The bus voltage must be smaller than the min. value of VPFCVSLow (105 %) before start-up.
The bus voltage must be smaller than the min. value of VPFCVSRUp (109 %) during run mode.
A bus overvoltage hysteresis is implemented. If the 109 % threshold is reached in run mode, the PFCGD turns off
immediately and the bus voltage must undershoot the 105 % threshold for reactivating the PFCGD.
8.3.6
The IC Starts without a High-Side Filament
If the IC starts without a high-side filament, a startup current flows into the LVS pin. If a current of min. value of
ILVSSINK flows into the LVS pin, the IC interprets this as a present high-side filament. Due to a less than optimum
design, this current can flow via other components if no filament is present. If the capacitor in the preheating circuit
C21 has a high capacitance and C40 is relatively low, a transient current flows via C21 and L21, that is high enough
to lead to a high-side filament detection.
•
•
Measure the peak voltage between C40 and R41 in reference to GND before VCC reaches VVCCOn, subtract
5 V1) and calculate the current flowing into the LVS pin with the value of R41 (further information can be found
in Section 5.1)
Try a capacitor with a higher capacitance for C40, this reduces the voltage across R41 and leads to a lower
transient current into the LVS pin.
Another reason can be that the VCC rise is too fast, and the voltage at the RES pin cannot reach the filament
detection level until VCC reaches the VVCCOn threshold. Also check the EOL calculation in Section 8.2.1.
8.3.7
The IC Starts without a Low-Side Filament
If the IC starts without a low-side filament, a component at this pin leads to a limited voltage at this pin.
•
•
Is the capacitance of C19 too high?
The voltage at the RES pin must be higher than VRES1 before VCC reaches the VVCCOn threshold.
Another reason can be that the VCC rise is too fast and the voltage at the RES pin cannot reach the filament
detection level until VCC reaches the VVCCOn threshold (see also Section 8.2).
8.3.8
The IC Stops within tPRERUN after Ignition
The Protection Function Matrix in Section 4 of the Data Sheet shows in which operating mode special fault
detection becomes active. If the IC stops within tPRERUN after ignition, some basic parameters of the circuit will not
be in the specified area because in pre-run mode only a few fault detection functions are active. The following list
gives an overview of which conditions must be fulfilled for correct IC operation.
•
•
•
•
•
Voltage at VCC must be > VVCCOff
Bus voltage must be > 12.5 %
Voltage at the PFCCS pin must be < VPFCCSOff
Voltage at the RES pin must be < VRES1
Voltage at the LSCS pin must be < VLSCSOvC1
1) The Data Sheet specifies the voltage VLVSClamp = 6.5 V at ILVS =300 µA. An internal comparator threshold of 5 V (see also
Section 5.1) can be used for calculation of the start-up current.
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Annex
8.3.9
The IC Stops about tPRERUN after Ignition
When the IC stops about 625 ms after ignition a failure of a short duration (several μs) can be the reason. The
following list gives an overview of what conditions must be fulfilled for correct IC operation.
•
•
•
•
•
Voltage at RES pin < VRES3
Bus voltage > 75 %
EOL1 (overvoltage); set the LVS pin temporarily to GND to verify if this is the problem.
Cap. load 2; check the waveform at the LSCS pin and compare it with Section 2.6.2 in the Data Sheet.
Voltage at LSCS pin < VLSCSOvC2
8.3.10
The IC Stops about 3 s after Ignition
If the IC stops about 3 s after ignitionm a failure of lengthy duration (2500 ms) can be the reason. The following
list gives an overview of what conditions must be fulfilled for correct IC operation.
•
•
EOL2 (rectifier effect); set the LVS pin temporarily to GND to verify if this is the problem.
Cap. load 1; Check the waveform at the LSCS pin and compare it with Section 2.6.1 in the Data Sheet.
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Annex
8.4
BOM Schematic Layout
The documentation of the demo board can be found in this section.
BOM: Demoboard 1x54W T5 - VM - 180VAC to 270VAC - ICB2FL03G
ICB2FL03G
Input voltage = 180VAC to 270VAC
VBUS = 410 VRMS
Package
F1
Fuse 1A fast
Wickmann
Typ 370
K1/1
K1/2
K1/3
K2/1
K2/2
K2/3
K3/1
K3/2
K3/3
IC1
Q1
Q2
Q3
D1…4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
DR12
D82
AC Input
AC Input
PE
not connected
High Side Filament
High Side Filament
Low Side Filament
Low Side Filament
not connected
ICB2FL03G
IPD60R1k4C6
IPD60R1k4C6
IPD60R1k4C6
S1M
MURS160T3
BYG20J
BYG22D
BYG22D
BZV55-C16
110k
0
L101
L1 PFC
L2
L 21
L 22
2x68mH/0.6A
1.58mH
1.46mH
100μH/760mA
100μH/760mA
Epcos
Epcos
Epcos
Epcos
Epcos
B82732F2601B001
B78326P7373A005
B78326P7374A005
B82144B1104J000
B82144B1104J000
C1
C2
C3
C4
C10
C11
C12
C13
C14
C15
C16
C17
C19
C20
C21
C22
C23
C40
220nF/X2/305V
33nF/630V/MKT
3,3nF/Y2/300V
220nF/X2/305V
10μF/450V
2,2nF/50V
100nF/50V
1μF/25V
68nF/50V
22nF/630V/MKT
1nF/630V/MKT
100nF/630V/MKP
22nF/50V
4,7nF/1600V/MKP
22nF/400V/MKP
22nF/400V/MKP
10nF/50V
220nF/50V
Epcos
Epcos
Epcos
Epcos
Epcos
X7R
X7R
X7R
X7R
Epcos
Epcos
Epcos
X7R
Epcos
Epcos
Epcos
X7R
X7R
B32922C3224M000
B32521N8333K000
B32021A3332K000
B32922C3224M000
B43888C5106M000
WAGO 250-203
WAGO 250-203
WAGO 250-203
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Infineon
Fairchild
ON Semi
Philips
Philips
Philips
NXP
(1000V/1A/2μs)
(600V/1A/75ns)
(600V/1,5A/75ns)
(200V/1A/25ns)
(200V/1A/25ns)
B32621A6223K000
B32529C8102K000
B32612A6104K008
B32612-J1472J008
B32620A4223J000
B32620A4223J000
SO-16
D-Pack
D-Pack
D-Pack
DO-214AC
SMB
SOD124
DO214
DO214
SOD-80C
.1206
.2512
EFD25/13/9
EFD25/13/9
RM5
RM5
R1
R2
R11
R12
R13
R14
R15
R16
R18
R19
R20
R21
R22
R23
R24
R25
R26
R27
R30
R34
R35
R36
R41
R42
R43
R44
R45
R61
470k
470k
470k
470k
33k
820k
820k
10
1
not assembled
10k
11k
8.2k
10k
0.68
0.68
10
10
33
150k
150k
56k
68k
68k
68k
68k
6,8k
0
Package
.1206
.1206
.1206
.1206
.1206
.1206
.1206
.0805
.1206
.1206
.0805
.0805
.0805
.0805
.1206
.1206
.0805
.0805
.1206
.1206
.1206
.1206
.0805
.1206
.1206
.1206
.1206
.0805
RM15
RM10
RM10
RM15
single ended
.0805
.0805
.1206
.0805
RM10
RM5
RM15
.0805
RM15
RM7,5
RM7,5
.0805
.0805
More information:
http://www.infineon.com/smartlighting
http://www.infineon.com/CoolMOS
http://www.epcos.com
Email:
[email protected]
Figure 8-6 Bill of Material for Demo Board 1x54W T5 Single Lamp with Voltage Mode Preheating
Application Note
http://www.infineon.com/smartlighting
51
Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
Annex
R41
R42
R43
R44
21
2
C40
GND
PFCCS
R18 R19
C11
R12
GND
GND
GND
C13
1
1
2
2
GND
3
2
1
1
D
Q3
R27
2
K2
1
2
3
2 K3
1
C22
2
G
1
21
L22
3
R36
R24 R25
GND
R61
GND
R21 R22 R23
C12
1
1
R20
GND
GND
D9
GND
LSCS
2
C20
GND
14 C14
2
3
C21
9
5
7
L2
C17
C16
LSGD
L21
S
PFCVS
4
GND
1
D
6
2
R11
8
2
4
3
D6
8
C10
DR12
PFCGD
R16
Q2
R26
13
1
S
G
Q1
HSGND
15
C15
G
16
RES
R155
HSGD
HSVCC
11
R2
GND
RFRUN
GND
1
S
LVS
ICB2FL03G
R14
GND
RTPH
PFCZCD
RFPH
7
R1
GND
10
D4
R35
IC1
R13
L1
C2
D3
D5
12
R34
1
7
VCC
3
L101
9
4
9
2
C3
2
3
2
K1
D2
2
C4
2
C1
1
3
3
D1
D
2
2
4
1
F1
1
1
1
1
R45
GND
2
2
2
1
C19
C23
GND GNDGND GND
R30
GND
D7
D82
D8
GND
GND
Figure 8-7 Schematic
Figure 8-8 Layout
Application Note
http://www.infineon.com/smartlighting
52
Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
Annex
8.5
Burst Measurements according to EN 61547
Table 8-1 shows the results of the standard test for burst stability.
Table 8-1
Operational characteristics of the demo board 54W T5
L
N
PE
L-N
L-PE
N-PE
L-N-PE
U [V]
+
4400
4400
4400
4400
4400
4400
4400
U [V]
-
4400
4400
4400
4400
4400
4400
4400
8.6
Interference Suppression according to EN 55015
Figure 8-9 shows the results of the standard test for interference suppression.
120
110
EN 55015 QP
EN 55015 AV
shielded QP
shielded AV
100
90
80
dBµV
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0,001
0,01
0,1
1
10
100
f / MHz
Figure 8-9 Interference Suppression according ti EN 55015
Application Note
http://www.infineon.com/smartlighting
53
Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
Application Note – ICB2FL03G
Terminology
Terminology
Acronyms
Explanation
ATHD
Input current - Total Harmonic Distortion
BOM
Bill of material
CritCM
Critical Conduction Mode
DCM
Discontinuous Conduction Mode
EEI
Energy Efficiency Index
EOL1
End of Life 1 (Inverter Overload)
EOL2
End of Life 2 (Rectifier Effect)
FL
Fluorescent Lamp
fPH
Preheating frequency
FRUN
Run frequency
HSVCC
IC Supply Voltage (High Side)
ILamp
Lamp current
n
efficiency
PF
Power factor
PFC
Power Factor Correction
THD
Total Harmonic Distortion
tPH
Preheating time
UVLO
Undervoltage Lockout (Restart after VCC hysteresis)
VBUS
Electrolytic condensator voltage
VCC
IC Supply voltage (Low Side)
VIGN
Ignition voltage
VIN
Board Input voltage
VLamp
Lamp voltage
Application Note
http://www.infineon.com/smartlighting
54
Rev. 1.1, 2012-04-10
w w w . i n f i n e o n . c o m
Published by Infineon Technologies AG
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