Ceramic Resonator Oscillators and the C500 and C166 Microcontroller Families

Microcontrollers
ApNote
AP242401
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators and the
C500 and C166 Microcontroller Families
The microcontrollers of the C500/C166 Family include the active part of the oscillator.
This document explains the ceramic resonator oscillator functionality and gives
recommendations for the right composition of external circuits.
Author : Peter Mariutti / MD AE Munich
04.99, Rel. 01
Edition 1999-04
Published by
Infineon Technologies AG
81726 München, Germany
© Infineon Technologies AG 2006.
All Rights Reserved.
LEGAL DISCLAIMER
THE INFORMATION GIVEN IN THIS APPLICATION NOTE IS GIVEN AS A HINT FOR THE
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INFINEON TECHNOLOGIES COMPONENT ONLY AND SHALL NOT BE
REGARDED AS ANY DESCRIPTION OR WARRANTY OF A CERTAIN FUNCTIONALITY, CONDITION OR
QUALITY OF THE INFINEON TECHNOLOGIES COMPONENT. THE RECIPIENT OF THIS APPLICATION
NOTE MUST VERIFY ANY FUNCTION DESCRIBED HEREIN IN THE REAL APPLICATION. INFINEON
TECHNOLOGIES HEREBY DISCLAIMS ANY AND ALL WARRANTIES AND LIABILITIES OF ANY KIND
(INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL
PROPERTY RIGHTS OF ANY THIRD PARTY) WITH RESPECT TO ANY AND ALL INFORMATION GIVEN
IN THIS APPLICATION NOTE.
Information
For further information on technology, delivery terms and conditions and prices please contact your nearest
Infineon Technologies Office (www.infineon.com).
Warnings
Due to technical requirements components may contain dangerous substances. For information on the types
in question please contact your nearest Infineon Technologies Office.
Infineon Technologies Components may only be used in life-support devices or systems with the express
written approval of Infineon Technologies, if a failure of such components can reasonably be expected to
cause the failure of that life-support device or system, or to affect the safety or effectiveness of that device or
system. Life support devices or systems are intended to be implanted in the human body, or to support
and/or maintain and sustain and/or protect human life. If they fail, it is reasonable to assume that the health
of the user or other persons may be endangered.
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
Contents
Page
1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
Differences between Quartz Crystals and Ceramic Resonators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fundamental Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Different Types of Resonators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Difference of the Start-up and Oscillation Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quartz Crystal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ceramic Resonator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
5
6
7
7
7
3
3.1
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
Oscillator-Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oscillator-Inverter of the C500 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oscillator-Inverter of the C166 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oscillator-Inverter Type_R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oscillator-Inverter Type_LP1 and Type_LP2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oscillator-Inverter Type_RTC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
8
8
8
9
9
4
Fundamental Mode and 3rd Overtone Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5
5.1
5.2
Oscillator Start-up Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Definition of the Oscillator Start-up Time tst_up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Definition of the Oscillator Off Time toff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.2
Irregular Oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to suppress spurious Oscillation at wrong Overtone Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suppression of Fundamental Oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suppression of 5th Overtone Oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suppression of RC and LC Oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
13
13
13
14
7
7.1
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
7.2.4
7.2.5
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
Start-up- and Oscillation Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary Way of Proceeding to determine the Load Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Advanced Way of Proceeding to determine the Load Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stability Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stability Matrix for the Load Capacitors CX1 and CX2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stability Matrix for the series damping Resistor Rx2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stability Matrix for the external feedback Resistor Rf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stability Matrix for a Combination of CX1, CX2, Rx2 and Rf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analysis of Loop Gain (Safety Factor) with Negative Resistance Method . . . . . . . . . .
Principle of the Negative Resistance Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure of a Loop Gain (Safety Factor) Test in the Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
16
17
18
18
19
20
20
21
22
23
8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
Oscillator Circuitry Layout Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Avoid Capacitive Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Avoid Parallel Tracks of High Frequency Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ground Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noise Reduction on Ground of the Load Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Correct Module Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Layout Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
24
24
24
24
24
25
9
Used Short Cuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
10
Recommendations of the Ceramic Resonator Manufacturer Murata . . . . . . . . . . . 28
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C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
11
General Information using the Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
12
12.1
Appendix C500 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C500 Family:
Relation between Device Type, Oscillator-Inverter Type and Recommendation List .
C500 Family: Type_1a Oscillator-Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C500 Family: Type_1a Oscillator-Inverter, List 1a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C500 Family: Type_1b Oscillator-Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C500 Family: Type_1b Oscillator-Inverter, List 1b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C500 Family: Type_2a Oscillator-Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C500 Family: Type_2a Oscillator-Inverter, List 2a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C500 Family: Type_2b Oscillator-Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C500 Family: Type_2b Oscillator-Inverter, List 2b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C500 Family: Type_3b Oscillator-Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C500 Family: Type_3b Oscillator-Inverter, List 3b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C500 Family: Type_5 Oscillator-Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C500 Family: Type_5 Oscillator-Inverter, List 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C500 Family: Type_8 Oscillator-Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C500 Family: Type_8 Oscillator-Inverter, List 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C500 Family: Type_9 Oscillator-Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C500 Family: Type_9 Oscillator-Inverter, List 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
45
13.2
13.2.1
13.3
13.3.1
13.4
13.4.1
13.5
13.5.1
Appendix C166 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C166 Family:
Relation between Device Type, Oscillator-Inverter Type and Recommendation List .
C166 Family: Type_R Oscillator-Inverter (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C166 Family: Type_R Oscillator-Inverter, List R_1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C166 Family: Type_R Oscillator-Inverter (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C166 Family: Type_R Oscillator-Inverter, List R_2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C166 Family: Type_R Oscillator-Inverter (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C166 Family: Type_R Oscillator-Inverter, List R_3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C166 Family: Type_LP1 / Type_LP2 Oscillator-Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C166 Family: Type_LP1 / Type_LP2 Oscillator-Inverter, List LP1/2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
Murata Sales Offices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
12.2
12.2.1
12.3
12.3.1
12.4
12.4.1
12.5
12.5.1
12.6
12.6.1
12.7
12.7.1
12.8
12.8.1
12.9
12.9.1
13
13.1
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AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
AP242401 ApNote - Revision History
Actual Revision : 04.99
Page of
Page of
actual Rev. prev.Rel.
Previous Revision : -Subjects (changes since last release)
is a trademark of Murata
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Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
1
Introduction
This Application Note provides basic knowledge necessary to understand the behavior of a ceramic
resonator in the application. The content concerning the measurements to find the right external
circuits is a general information and is valid for all pierce oscillators using an oscillator-inverter. The
appendix includes recommendations for different members of the C500 and C166 Family. The
cooperation between the IC oscillator and the ceramic resonator is not always working properly
because of a wrong composition of external circuits or using a resonator including capacitors with
wrong values.
Therefore Infineon Technologies (MD AE) and Murata built up a cooperation to support our
customers with the appropriate knowledge to guarantee a problem-free operation of the oscillator.
The effort for the determination of the external circuits of a ceramic resonator oscillator is much
more extensive than for a quartz crystal oscillator. Because of that Murata offers the service to
check the original PCB of the customer and gives a recommendation for the right type of resonator
and right composition of external circuits.
2
Differences between Quartz Crystals and Ceramic Resonators
2.1
Fundamental Differences
The physical base of both components is the piezo electrical effect which transforms electrical
power to vibration. A quartz crystal (also called quartz crystal resonator) consists of a synthetic
single crystal with single polar axes. The basis material of a ceramic resonator is sintered ceramic
powder. This polycrystal material with random polar axis gets a polarization treatment with high
voltage to remain in permanent polarization.
The following table shows the general differences between a quartz crystal and a ceramic
resonator. It claims not to be complete!
Table 1
General Differences between Quartz Crystals and Ceramic Resonators
Ceramic Resonator
Quartz Crystal
1
2
Frequency Tolerance over all
high
low
Mechanical Shock Resistance
very good
good
Tank for Overtone Oscillation
no
yes
Tendency to spurious Oscillation
high
low
Integrated Caps available
yes
no
Drive Level Dependence of R1(DLD)
no
yes
Drive Level free Circuit Design
yes
no
Price Factor (depends on quality)
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The table below is a rough overview about the principle technical differences between a quartz
crystal and a ceramic resonator concerning the frequency tolerance and start-up behavior. The
values in the table are given in ppm (10-6) and refer to the specified frequency of the component.
The included values are rough estimations! For a detailed information please refer to the
specifications of the components.
Table 2
Principal technical Differences between Quartz Crystals and Ceramic Resonators
Ceramic Resonator
Quartz Crystal
± 3000 ppm
± 10 ppm
Initial Frequency Tolerance
± 2000 ... 5000 ppm
± 20 ppm
Temperature Characteristics
± 20 ... 50 ppm/°C
± 0.5 ppm/°C
± 100 ... 350 ppm/pF
± 15 ppm/pF
0.01 ... 0.5 msec
1 ... 10 msec
100 ... 5’000
10´000 ... 500´000
Aging (for 10 years at room temperature)
Load Capacitance Characteristics
Oscillation Rise Time
Quality Factor (Qm)
2.2
Different Types of Resonators
Quartz crystals for a frequency range from 1MHz to 40MHz are offered for fundamental mode and
for 3rd overtone mode. 3rd overtone mode is typically used for a clock frequency higher than
25 MHz because of safety factor and mechanical stability. But up to now quartz crystals are not
offered with integrated load capacitors.
Ceramic resonators for the same frequency range are typically used in 3rd overtone mode for a
clock frequency higher than 12MHz. A ceramic resonator used in 3rd overtone mode needs no tank
circuit. The ceramic resonators are also offered with integrated load capacitors. These devices are
called 3 terminal types. The ceramic resonators without integrated capacitors are called 2 terminal
types. See figure below.
The 3 terminal type is used in most low cost applications and the problem during evaluation is, that
it is not possible to vary CX1 and CX2 to lower values than the already integrated ones.
Murata uses for the analysis special resonators without the integrated capacitors but with the same
electrical parameters as the 3 terminal type. This is one of the main reasons why the customer is not
able to perform a complete analysis of the oscillator reliability.
Note: The typical electrical characteristic of the ceramic resonators can differ from type to type.
Therefore for each different type of ceramic resonator an analysis for start-up and oscillation
reliability has to be made.
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2.3
Difference of the Start-up and Oscillation Behavior
Based on the physical difference between quartz crystals and ceramic resonators there are different
analysis methods necessary.
2.3.1 Quartz Crystal
The main problem to characterize the start-up and oscillation reliability is the drive level dependency
(DLD) of R1 and the overall tolerance of the oscillator circuitry. During start-up time the drive level
of the oscillation is very small and is increased up to the maximum. During that time the resistance
of the crystal can reach very high values because crystals show resistance dips depending on the
drive level and temperature. This effect is called drive level dependence. The DLD of a quartz
crystal depends on the quality and can alter during production and during the life time of the crystal.
If the resistance dips of the crystal increase in a range where the loop gain of the oscillator is lower
than one, then the oscillation cannot start.
The test for start-up and oscillation reliability is done with the ’negative resistance’ method. ApNote
2420xx describes how to perform this test
2.3.2 Ceramic Resonator
The ceramic resonator shows no DLD of R1. Therefore R1 depends only on variation in production.
The main problem to characterize the start-up and oscillation reliability of a ceramic resonator is the
tendency to irregular oscillation. This so called ’spurious’ oscillation of the ceramic resonator is
based on the ability to oscillate on 3rd overtone without tank. A tank consists of an additional
external capacitance and inductance to suppress the oscillation in fundamental mode.
The impedance shows a maximum at 3rd overtone for a ceramic resonator running at 3rd overtone.
The impedance at fundamental and 5th overtone is smaller than at 3rd overtone. The 3rd overton
response (main response) is larger than the fundamental and 5th one.
Depending on gain and phase of the oscillator circuit (µC, external circuit and parasitics of the PCB)
spurious oscillation can occur. Therefore most of the evaluation effort has to be spent to check the
tendency to spurious oscillation.
Note: Long wiring tends to support spurious oscillation by increasing inductance!
3 Terminal Type
2 Terminal Type
Figure 1 :
2 Terminal Type and 3 Terminal Type Ceramic Resonators
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3
Oscillator-Inverter
The microcontrollers of the C500/C166 Family include the active part of the oscillator (also called
oscillator-inverter). Based on the history and evolution of the microcontrollers there are different
oscillator-inverters implemented in the C500/C166 Family members. Due to the same reason, the
meaning of XTAL1 and XTAL2 pins is different. In this Application Note and at the C166 Family,
XTAL1 is the oscillator-inverter input while XTAL2 is the output. At the C500 Family it is
recommended to have a closer look to the Data Sheet of each device.
The on-chip oscillator-inverter can either run with an external ceramic resonator and appropriate
external oscillator circuitry (also called passive part of the oscillator) or it can be driven by an
external oscillator. The external oscillator directly connected to XTAL1, leaving XTAL2 open, feeds
the external clock signal to the internal clock circuitry.
The oscillator input XTAL1 and output XTAL2 connect the internal CMOS Pierce oscillator to the
external ceramic resonator. The oscillator provides an inverter and a feedback element. The
resistance of the feedback element is in the range from 0.5 to 1 MΩ.
Depending on the type of oscillator-inverter the gain can be different during and after reset.
The appendix gives separate recommendations for each oscillator-inverter type.
3.1
Oscillator-Inverter of the C500 Family
Based on the history and increasing CPU frequency there are many different oscillator-inverter
types. The oscillator-inverter types differ in gain and frequency. The gain of these types of
oscillator-inverters is the same during reset active and reset inactive. These oscillators are
optimized for operating frequencies in the range from 2.0 (3.5) to 20 (40) MHz. For details refer to
the appendix or Data Sheets.
3.2
Oscillator-Inverter of the C166 Family
The oscillator-inverters of the C166 Family are distinguished in groups of standard oscillatorinverters for frequencies up to 40 MHz, Low Power oscillator-inverters for low power consumption
and Real Time Clock oscillator-inverters for a frequency range of 32.768 kHz ± 50%.
3.2.1 Oscillator-Inverter Type_R
This type of inverter is implemented in most of the current C166 Family derivatives. The gain of the
Type_R oscillator-inverter is high during reset is active and is Reduced by one-third when reset is
inactive. This feature provides an excellent start-up behavior and a reduced supply current for the
oscillator during normal operation mode. The Type_R oscillator-inverter is optimized for an
operating frequency range of 3.5 to 40 MHz.
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3.2.2 Oscillator-Inverter Type_LP1 and Type_LP2
This type of inverter is a Low Power oscillator, version 1 and version 2. Inverter Type_LP2 is the
actual version and will be implemented in new derivatives of the C166 Family with power
management. The Type_LP oscillator-inverter is a high sophisticated module with a high gain but
low power consumption. The gain of the Type_LP oscillator-inverter is the same during reset active
and reset inactive. This oscillator-inverter is optimized for an operating frequency range from
3.5 to 16 MHz. For input frequencies above 25 ... 30 MHz provided by an external oscillator the
oscillator’s output (XTAL2) should be terminated with a 15 pF capacitance and a 3 kΩ resistor in
series to GND.
3.2.3 Oscillator-Inverter Type_RTC
The auxiliary oscillator-inverter is a Real Time Clock oscillator with a low power consumption and it
is optimized for a frequency range of 32.768 kHz ± 50%. This oscillator can only be used with a
quartz crystal because the load capacitance of a ceramic resonator is too high.
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4
Fundamental Mode and 3rd Overtone Mode
The ceramic resonators recommended in the appendix are used in fundamental mode and 3rd
overtone mode. For detailed information have a look at the specification of the ceramic resonator.
As already mentioned a ceramic resonator needs no tank to run in 3rd overtone mode.
The standard external oscillator circuitry for fundamental mode or 3rd overtone mode, see figure
below, includes a ceramic resonator, two low end capacitors CX1 and CX2, a feed back resistor Rf
to reduce gain and a series resistor RX2 to vary gain and phase. The feed back resistor Rf and the
series resistor RX2 are not always used. The need depends on oscillator frequency, the type of
ceramic resonator, and on the application system.
A test resistor RQ may be temporarily inserted to measure the loop gain of the oscillator circuitry.
The principle how to check the start-up reliability will be explained in detail later.
Fundamental Mode or 3rd Overtone Mode:
(2 ... 40 MHz)
to internal
clock circuitry
Rfint
XTAL2
(XTAL1)
XTAL1
(XTAL2)
Rf
RX2
Q
RQ
CX1
CX2
GND
Figure 2
Oscillator Circuitry for Fundamental Mode and 3rd Overtone Mode
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5
Oscillator Start-up Time
Based on small electrical system noise or thermic noise caused by resistors, the oscillation starts
with a very small amplitude. Due to the amplification of the oscillator-inverter, the oscillation
amplitude increases and reaches its maximum after a certain time period tst_up (start-up time).
Typical values of the start-up time for a ceramic resonator are within the range of
0.01 msec ≤ tst_up ≤ 0.5 msec. Theoretically the oscillator-inverter performs a phase shift of 180°,
and the external circuitry performs a phase shift of 180° to fulfill the oscillation condition of an
oscillator. A total phase shift of 360° is necessary.
In reality, the phase shift of the oscillator-inverter depends on the oscillator frequency and is
approximately in the range of 100° to 210°. It is necessary to compose the external components in
a way that a total phase shift of 360° is performed. This can be achieved by a variation of the
external components.
Note: The external hardware reset signal has to be active for a longer time period than the oscillator
start-up time in order to prevent undefined effects.
Note: Because of different gain in some oscillator-inverters during reset active and reset inactive it
is recommended to consider the oscillation in both phases of the reset signal. Further the
application system activity starting after reset is inactive can have an influence on the
oscillator.
5.1
Definition of the Oscillator Start-up Time tst_up
The definition of the oscillator start-up time is not a well defined value in literature. Generally it
depends on the power supply rise time (dVDD/dt) at power on, on the electrical system noise, and
on the oscillation amplitude.
For this Application Note the oscillator start-up time tst_up is defined from VDD/2 to 0.9*VOSC_max of
the stable oscillation, see figure below.
Supply Voltage at
XTAL2 Output
VDD
VDD/2
0.9*VOSC_max
Signal at
VOSC_max
XTAL2 Output
t
tst_up
Figure 3
Oscillator Start-up Time
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5.2
Definition of the Oscillator Off Time toff
Measurement of the oscillator start-up time is normally done periodically. After switching off power
supply, the oscillation continues until the whole reactive power oscillating between inductance and
capacitance is consumed. Therefore the time between switching the power supply off and on (toff)
must not be too short in order to get reproduceable results otherwise the start-up times can differ
very much. toff depends on the composition of the oscillator components.
It is recommended to use an oscillation off time toff ≥ 0.1 sec, see figure below.
VDD
t
toff
toff
Figure 4
Oscillator Off Time
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6
Irregular Oscillation
The tendency of a ceramic resonator to irregular oscillation is based on different effects and can be
classified in two types.
First one is the oscillation at the spurious response of a ceramic resonator. This spurious response
can be at fundamental mode oscillation or at 5th overtone mode oscillation for a ceramic resonator
specified for 3rd overtone mode.
Second one is the oscillation were the ceramic resonator works just as a capacitor RC or LC
oscillation. Replacing the ceramic resonator with a capacitor of approximately the same value as the
static capacitance C0 of the ceramic resonator shows the same oscillation frequency as the ceramic
resonator but this oscillation frequency is not the specified one.
Below are different methods of eliminating the chance of irregular oscillation of a ceramic resonator.
6.1
How to suppress spurious Oscillation at wrong Overtone Modes
Ceramic resonators designed for 3rd overtone mode have more chance of irregular oscillation due
to the existence of both, fundamental and 5th overtone spurious responses.
6.1.1 Suppression of Fundamental Oscillation
In the case of spurious oscillation at fundamental mode the loop gain and phase shift of the
oscillator (active and passive part) are too small at 3rd overtone mode. The countermeasure is to
increase both parameters. This can be done with the following methods:
ì Using smaller values of the load capacitors CX1 and CX2
ì Using a smaller value of the internal feedback resistor Rfint by adding an external feedback
resistor Rf within the range 10 kΩ ≤ Rf ≤ 100 kΩ.
6.1.2 Suppression of 5th Overtone Oscillation
In the case of spurious oscillation at 5th overtone mode the loop gain at 5th overtone can be
decreased with the following methods:
ì Using higher values of the load capacitors CX1 and CX2
ì Adding a series resistor Rx2 (damping resistor, 10 Ω ≤ RX2 ≤ 10 kΩ) or to increase the Rx2
value. Because Rx2 reduces loop gain. Furthermore Rx2 and CX2 work as a low pass filter.
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6.2
Suppression of RC and LC Oscillation
If the ceramic resonator works just as a capacitor then changing the external circuit condition can
disable this irregular oscillation. This can be achieved by:
ì Change the values of the loading capacitors with the relation CX1 = CX2
ì Change the values of the loading capacitors with the relation CX1 ≠ CX2
ì Add a series damping resistor Rx2
ì Add an external feedback resistor Rf
If no solution is found a re-layout of the PCB might be required.
Note: A small inductance of the printed pattern (oscillator) may enable oscillation by creating LC
oscillation at high frequency. In such cases, it appears as if the circuit does not start-up when
powered on, however, a small Rx2 of 10 - 20 Ω may solve the problem.
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7
Start-up- and Oscillation Reliability
The check of the start-up and oscillation reliability of the oscillation circuit is done by a verification
of the oscillation frequency, oscillation wave form, oscillation voltage, starting voltage and loop gain
by variation of temperature and supply voltage. The results of the analysis are summarized in a
table to find an area with stable conditions for a reliable oscillation. The first step is to determine the
values of the load capacitors and in the second step the start-up and oscillation reliability is checked
via the Safety Factor, see chapter 7.3.
This Application Note offers two ways to determine the load capacitance. The ’primary way’ which
is done with a typical sample and the ’advanced way’ which is done with a so called ’worst case
ceramic resonator’ with maximum values of the specified equivalent circuit constants. The
advanced way is only performed if the primary way does not result in an acceptable behavior.
The appendix includes recommendations for the right composition of external circuits relating to
different microcontrollers and ceramic resonators. These recommendations can be used for
standard PCBs in a standard environment. For microcontrollers and ceramic resonators where no
recommendations are available in the appendix the following description shows a possibility to find
the appropriate external circuits for the first prototypes used for evaluation.
Note: The analysis can only be performed for a 2 terminal type ceramic resonator (with no built in
loading capacitors). A 3 terminal type with integrated loading capacitors cannot be applied
for this analysis because a variation of the loading capacitors can only be performed down to
the integrated values and it is not possible to perform the negative resistance method to
check the loop gain. Murata uses special 3 terminal type samples for the analysis were the
load capacitors are not integrated. If you want to perform a 3 terminal type analysis please
contact Murata for help!
Note: It is not easy to find a physical ceramic resonator sample having the specified limit conditions
in an application system, which is the worst in main response and large spurious. It is
possible to simulate the limit conditions in a application system by adding external
components to the ceramic resonator but this costs additional analysis efforts. Because of
knowing the difficulty getting such a device Murata offers the service of analyzing the
customer systems.
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7.1
Primary Way of Proceeding to determine the Load Capacitance
Depending on the available lab equipment there are different strategies to find the appropriate load
capacitors in combination with a ceramic resonator. The primary way to determine load capacitance
is to check the following characteristics with the parameter of CX1 = CX2 variable:
ì Oscillating voltage at XTAL1 and XTAL2 (VPP_XTAL1 and VPP_XTAL2).
ì Oscillating voltage wave form at XTAL1 which should not be distorted in the range of input
threshold (Vdd / 2).The best form is a sine.
ì Starting voltage, the minimum supply voltage that oscillation starts.
ì Start-up time of the oscillation, tst_up.
The results of the analysis are transferred in a table. An example is shown in the table below. The
yellow shaded columns show the range for the recommended values. The matching load
capacitances are the column which gives the best values for the above mentioned characteristics:
ì High oscillation voltage. Both VPP_XTAL1 and VPP_XTAL2 should be large but inside of the
specification. If VPP is to high than EME can be worse.
ì Minimum wave form distortion.
ì Minimum supply starting voltage.
ì Minimum start-up time, tst_up.
Note: The measurements should be performed with an oscilloscope including active probes with a
small capacitive load and high impedance.
Table 3
Table for Load Capacitance Analysis with an Example of measured Values
CX2 = CX1 [pF]
0
10
15
22
33
47
68
82
VPP_XTAL1 [V]
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.1
4.9
4.5
4.2
3.7
VPP_XTAL2 [V]
5.4
5.3
5.1
4.9
4.6
4.3
4.0
3.4
not ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
not ok
not ok
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.7
3.5
4.1
Wave Form
Starting Voltage [V]
Start-up Time [µsec]
210
180
1)
130
100
90
130
2)
160
2)
2002)
1)
The start-up time is not constant!
2)
The oscillation starts at fundamental for about 50 µsec and starts then again in 3rd overtone!
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7.2
Advanced Way of Proceeding to determine the Load Capacitance
If the primary analysis does not result in an acceptable behavior then Murata uses an advanced
analysis to find the right composition of external circuits. This analysis is done with typical and worst
case samples and the evaluation is done via the stability matrix. The principle of the stability matrix
is explained in the next chapter.
The analysis sequence shown below starts with a stability matrix for CX1 and CX2 without a damping
resistor Rx2 and without an external feedback resistor Rf.
If no matching result is found then a stability matrix for CX1 = CX2 and Rx2 has to be generated.
If the result also does not fit then a stability matrix for CX1 = CX2 and Rf has to be done.
In very seldom cases the steps before show no matching result. Then a stability matrix for a
combination of CX1, CX2, Rx2 and Rf has to be generated.
Stability Matrix for CX1 and CX2
OK
Results for CX1 and CX2
FAIL
Stability Matrix for CX1 = CX2 and RX2
OK
Results for CX1,2 and RX2
FAIL
Stability Matrix for CX1 = CX2 and Rf
OK
Results for CX1,2 and Rf
FAIL
Use other combination of RX2 and/or Rf
Stability Matrix for CX1, CX2 with RX2 and/or Rf
Loop gain test (negative resistance analysis)
Figure 5 :
Advanced Way to get the right Composition of external Circuits
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7.2.1 Stability Matrix
The stability matrix (also called stability oscillation area) is an analysis where the desired values are
changed and the results of all analysis are summarized in a table which is called stability matrix. The
stability matrices include the following information:
Table 4
Content of the Stability Matrices
Symbol
Description
Range
CX1, CX2
Values for the load capacitors in pF
0 - 100 pF
RX2
Damping resistor in kΩ
0 - 10 kΩ
Rf
Feed back resistor
10 kΩ - 100 kΩ
Œ
Recommendable values
-----
(ok)
or
(VDD value)
Stable oscillation,
(VDD when oscillation starts)
0 V to VDDmax
no
No oscillation
-----
1st
Fundamental oscillation
-----
3rd
3rd overtone oscillation
-----
5th
5th overtone oscillation
-----
LC
LC oscillation
-----
small
oscillation amplitude is to small
0.3 VDD ≤ VPP_XTAL1 ≤ 0.7 VDD
~
Wave form distortion of oscillation signal
-----
For the stability matrix analysis the supply voltage is increased starting from 0V up to VDDmax in very
small steps. During that time the parameters for the stability matrix are observed and noted in the
stability matrix. For the recommended value (Œ) of the stability matrix also the accuracy of
frequency, the behavior during variation of temperature, and the start-up time should be measured.
7.2.2 Stability Matrix for the Load Capacitors CX1 and CX2
This stability matrix is used to find the right values for CX1 and CX2. These are the capacitor values
needed for the calculation of the ceramic resonator load capacitance. For each possible
combination in the stability matrix a measurement and an analysis is performed. Each result is
transferred to the stability matrix. After measurement the result (’Œ’) for the appropriate CX1 and
CX2 values is found when the distance in the stability matrix from stable oscillation to irregular
oscillation is large enough.
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Table 5
Example for a Stability Matrix (C L Characteristics)
CX2\CX1[pF]
0
5
10
15
22
33
47
68
82
100
0
5th
5th
5th
5th
ok
small
small
small
small
small
4.7
5th
5th
5th
ok
ok
ok
ok
small
small
small
10
5th
5th
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
small
small
15
5th
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
small
22
ok
ok
ok
ok
Œ
ok
ok
ok
ok
1st
33
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
1st
1st
47
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
1st
1st
1st
68
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
~
1st
1st
1st
1st
82
ok
ok
ok
~
~
1st
1st
1st
1st
1st
100
ok
ok
~
~
1st
1st
1st
1st
1st
1st
7.2.3 Stability Matrix for the series damping Resistor Rx2
This stability matrix is used to find an appropriate value for Rx2 if the oscillator circuit shows spurious
oscillation and variation of CX1/CX2 does not solve the problem. The way of proceeding is identical
to the stability matrix analysis for CX1 and CX2 described in the chapter above. It is recommended
to use values for Rx2 within the range of 0 Ω ≤ Rx2 ≤ 10 kΩ. The table below shows an example for
a stability matrix with Rx2 characteristics.
Table 6
Example for a Stability Matrix (R x2 Characteristics)
CX2 = CX1 \ Rx2
0.1 kΩ
0.47 kΩ
1 kΩ
2.2 kΩ
5 kΩ
10 kΩ
0 pF
5th
5th
5th
ok
ok
small
10 pF
5th
5th
ok
ok
ok
ok
15 pF
5th
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
22 pF
ok
ok
ok
Œ
ok
ok
33 pF
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
47 pF
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
82 pF
ok
ok
ok
~
~
1st
100 pF
ok
ok
~
~
1st
1st
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7.2.4 Stability Matrix for the external feedback Resistor Rf
This stability matrix is used to find an appropriate value for Rf if the oscillator circuit shows spurious
oscillation and variation of CX1 = CX2 and Rx2 does not solve the problem. The way of proceeding
is identical to the stability matrices described in the chapters above. It is recommended to use
values for Rf within the range of 10 kΩ ≤ Rf ≤ 100kΩ. The table below shows an example for a
stability matrix with Rf characteristics.
Table 7 :
Example for a Stability Matrix (Rf Charcteristics)
10 kΩ
33 kΩ
100 kΩ − 1 MΩ
0 pF
ok
ok
1st
10 pF
ok
ok
1st
15 pF
ok
1st
1st
22 pF
ok
1st
1st
33 pF
ok
1st
1st
47 pF
ok
1st
1st
82 pF
ok
1st
1st
100 pF
ok
1st
1st
CX2 = CX1 \ Rf
7.2.5 Stability Matrix for a Combination of CX1, CX2, Rx2 and Rf
If the stability matrices for CX\CX2, CX=CX2\Rx2 and CX=CX2\Rf do not result in a reliable oscillation
then a stability matrix for a combination of CX1, CX2, Rx2 and Rf has to be performed. Depending on
the results of the stability matrices before, two parameters for instance R x2 and Rf are set to fix
values and the others CX1 and CX2 are used as variables for the analysis in the two dimensional
stability matrix. But this is a very seldom case and is only mentioned for completeness.
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7.3
Analysis of Loop Gain (Safety Factor) with Negative Resistance Method
This well-known method is also used for test of the start-up and oscillation reliability for quartz
crystals. The result of this analysis is the safety factor which gives a feeling about the start-up and
oscillation reliability. This is important to assess loop gain when the tolerances of all concerned
parts of the oscillator get worst case values.
Note: The negative resistance method can only be performed with a 2 terminal type ceramic
resonator else the result includes only values higher or equal than the integrated ones of the
3 terminal type.
Oscillator Circuit
Equivalent Circuit of Oscillator Circuit
Rfint
Microcontroller
-RINV
CL
CS
CX1
CX2
Q
CL
LQ
RL
RQ
RQ
Figure 6 :
Equivalent Circuit for Negative Resistance Methode
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7.3.1 Principle of the Negative Resistance Method
The oscillator can be divided into the on-chip oscillator-inverter and the external circuitry. The
oscillator circuitry can be simplified as shown in figure 6. The load capacitance C L contains CX1, CX2
and the stray capacitance CS. The amplification ability of the oscillator-inverter is replaced with a
negative resistance -RINV and the ceramic resonator is replaced with the load resonance resistance
RL (effective resistance) and the effective reactance LQ. The condition required for oscillation is:
– R INV ≥ R L
The negative resistance has to be large enough to cover all possible variation of the oscillator
circuitry. This condition is necessary to guarantee a problem-free operation of the oscillator. The
negative resistance can be analyzed by connecting a series test resistor RQ to the ceramic
resonator (see fig. 5) used to find the maximum value RQmax that remains the circuit still oscillating.
RL is the resistance of the ceramic resonator at oscillating frequency and creates the power
dissipation. RL can be calculated as shown below. C0is the shunt capacitance of the ceramic
resonator. A typical value of the stray capacitance in a normal system is CS = 5 pF.
Negative Resistance:
– R INV = R L + R Qmax
Load Resonance Resistance:
C0 2
R L = R 1 ⋅ 1 + -------CL
(Effective Resistance)
Load Capacitance:
C X1 ⋅ C X2
- + CS
C L = ----------------------------------( C X1 + C X2 )
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7.3.2 Procedure of a Loop Gain (Safety Factor) Test in the Application
When the values for CX1, CX2, Rx2 and Rf are already qualified then the analysis of the Safety Factor
is performed. This is done with a typical ceramic resonator and by variation of temperature and
supply voltage. For the analysis VDD of the system (oscillator) is periodically switched on and off as
shown in figure 4 of chapter ’Oscillator start-up Time’.
The value of RQ is increased until the oscillation does not start any more. From the state of no
oscillation RQ is then decreased until oscillation starts again. This final value of RQ (RQmax) is used
for further calculations of the Safety Factor SF. The principle how to analyze and calculate the
safety factor is shown in ApNote 2420xx.
The calculation of the Safety Factor for a ceramic resonator requires also the equivalent circuit
constants of the device. Because of knowing the problems to get the real values for the test ceramic
resonator this ApNote offers a minimum value for RQ (RQmin). For a rough estimation of the start-up
reliability used during evaluation it is sufficient when the measured maximum R Q (RQmax) is at least
the value of RQmin shown in the table below. If the primary way results in more different values for
the load capacitors then the configuration with the measured maximum RQ resistor is selected for
the application.
Type
CSA4.00MG
CSA8.00MTZ
CSA10.0MTZ
CSA20.00MXZ040
CSACV20.00MXJ040
CSA40.00MXZ040
CSACV40.00MXJ040
CX1 = CX2 [pF]
RQmin [Ω]
30
1400
100
1400
30
800
100
500
30
600
100
400
5
300
15
300
30
300
5
200
15
100
22
300
Preliminary Values
Table 8
Ceramic Resonator Types and recommended RQmin
Note: The RQmin values in table 8 are only for evaluation systems and show an order of this values.
The Safety Factor of the final board for mass production should be verified by Murata.
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8
Oscillator Circuitry Layout Recommendations
The layout of the oscillator circuit is important for the RF and EMC behavior of the design. The use
of this recommendation can help to reduce problems caused by the layout. This design
recommendation is optimized on EMC and GND noise aspects.
For an optimal layout the following items have to be noted:
8.1
Avoid Capacitive Coupling
The crosstalk between oscillator signals and others has to be minimized. Sensitive inputs have to
be separated from outputs with a high amplitude.
Note: The crosstalk between different layers also has to be analyzed.
8.2
Avoid Parallel Tracks of High Frequency Signals
In order to reduce the crosstalk caused by capacitive or inductive coupling, tracks of high frequency
signals should not be routed in parallel (also not on different layers!).
8.3
Ground Supply
The ground supply must be realized on the base of a low impedance. The impedance can be made
smaller by using thick and wide ground tracks. Ground loops have to be avoided, because they are
working like antennas.
8.4
Noise Reduction on Ground of the Load Capacitors
Noise on the ground track between the load capacitors and the on-chip oscillator ground can have
an influence on the duty cycle. This is important for systems running in direct drive mode (oscillator
frequency is equal to CPU frequency). Therefore the ground connection of the decoupling
capacitance CB (between VDD and VSS of the on-chip oscillator-Inverter) should be between VSS and
system ground connection, to suppress noise from system ground.
8.5
Correct Module Placement
Other RF modules should not be placed near the oscillator circuitry in order to prevent them from
influencing the ceramic resonator functionality.
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8.6
Layout Examples
Connection to
system ground
Microcontroller
Decoupling capacitance CB
on the back side of the PCB
Connection to system VDD
Via to ground island and
system ground
CB
Via to system VDD
VSS
VDD
XTAL2
XTAL1
Single ground island
GND
RX2
2 terminal type
ceramic resonator
Vias to ground island
CX1
CX2
Figure 7
Layout Example for a 2 Terminal Type Ceramic Resonator with R X2
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Connection to
system ground
Microcontroller
Decoupling capacitance CB
on the back side of the PCB
Connection to system VDD
Via to system VDD
Via to ground island and
system ground
CB
VSS
VDD
XTAL1
Single ground island
GND
XTAL2
RX2 can be inserted here
Vias to ground island
3 terminal type
ceramic resonator
Figure 8
Layout Example for a 3 Terminal Type Ceramic Resonator without R X2
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9
Used Short Cuts
C0
C1
CL
CS
CX1, CX2
CB
L1
LQ
Q
- RINV
R1, Rr
: Shunt capacitance of the ceramic resonator (static capacitance).
: Motional capacitance of the ceramic resonator (dynamic capacitance).
Mechanical equivalent is the elasticity of the ceramic element.
: Load capacitance of the ceramic resonator in the system.
: Stray capacitance of the system.
: Load capacitors
: Decoupling capacitance for VDD and VSS on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB).
Depending on the EMC behavior the typ. values are in the range of 22 nF to 100 nF.
: Motional inductance of the ceramic resonator (dynamic inductance).
Mechanical equivalent is the oscillating mass of the ceramic element.
: Effective reactance
: Ceramic resonator
RQ
RQmax
RX2
Rf
Rfint
: Negative resistance: amplification ability of the on-chip oscillator-inverter.
: Series resistance of the ceramic resonator (resonance resistance in other technical
descriptions also called: ’equivalent series resistance, ESR’ or ’transformed
series resistance’). Mechanical equivalent is the molecular friction, the damping
by mechanical mounting system and acoustical damping by the gas filled housing.
: Load resonance resistor (in other technical descriptions also called:
’effective resistance’).
: Test resistor for the test of loop gain and calculation of safety level.
: Maximum value of the test resistor which does not stop the oscillation.
: Resistor which controls the drive level (damping resistor).
: Additional external feedback resistor.
: Internal feedback resistor.
SF
tst_up
toff
: Safety Factor
: Start-up time of the oscillator.
: Oscillator off time for measurement of start-up behavior.
RL
L1
C1
R1
Q
C0
Figure 9
Equivalent Circuit of a Ceramic Resonator
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10
Recommendations of the Ceramic Resonator Manufacturer Murata
The preceding chapters have shown the principle of how to find the appropriate values for the circuit
components of a ceramic resonator oscillator circuitry which ensure a problem-free operation.
Similar tests were done in a cooperation between Infineon Technologies (MD AE) and Murata.
Results are available for different Infineon Technologies microcontrollers. The specialists from
Murata have done the analyses with the aid of the microcontroller development group of Infineon
Technologies. The results of this cooperation are presented in the appendix of this Application Note.
The cooperation will be continued and further results will be added to this Application Note step by
step.
Because of knowing the effort necessary to find the right composition of external circuit and the right
type of ceramic resonator, Murata offers the service to check the original PCB of the customer and
gives a recommendation for the right type of resonator and appropriate external circuits.
Note: The appendix shows recommendations for the appropriate circuit composition of the
oscillator which run in most of all applications but it is recommended to use the service of
Murata because every design can have specific influences on the oscillator (noise, layout
etc.).
11
General Information using the Appendix
The Appendix includes general recommendations for the right composition of external circuits for
the C500 Family and the C166 Family. Each recommendation for the external circuits is only one of
more different possibilities. The decision which composition is the right one, is not ’digital’ (go or no
go) but has to be done in an ’analog’ way which offers more different results which fits to the system.
Depending on the system demands different criteria have to be considered: safety factor (loop
gain), start-up behavior, ceramic resonator specification, frequency, EMC, layout demands etc.
These facts are the base for the trade-off which external circuits fit best to the individual application
system.
The general recommendations in the appendix are based on a safety margin concerning the loading
capacitance variation of +/- 50% or more. This is necessary because the appendix includes general
recommendations and not recommendations fitting to a specific application.
Recommendations for a specific application can only be obtained from an analysis of the respective
system (support offered by Murata).
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12
Appendix C500 Family
All derivatives, steps and oscillator-inverter types of the C500 Family shown in the table below are
included in the recommendations of the following pages. For each type of oscillator-inverter there is
a proposal for the right composition of external circuits referred to different frequencies.
Note: The recommendation lists do not always include values for the whole frequency range of the
oscillator-inverter. Because these general recommendations are based on a safety margin
concerning the loading capacitance variation of +/- 50% or more. An analysis of a specific
application can allow a higher frequency for the oscillator-inverter.
12.1 C500 Family:
Relation between Device Type, Oscillator-Inverter Type and Recommendation List
Table 9
C500 Family Derivatives, Oscillator-Inverter Type and Recommendation List
Device
Step
Inverter
List
SAH-C515C-LM/-8RM
AA
1a
1a
SAF-C515C-8EM
A11
1b
1b
SAF-C505C-LM
AB
2a
2a
SAF-C509-LM
DB
2a
2a
SAB80C517A-N18-T3
MA
2a
2a
SAK-C505CA-4EM
AA
2b
2b
SAB-C504-2EM
BB
3b
3b
SAB-C513A-2RN
BB
5
5
SAB80C517A-N18
LA
8
8
SAB80C537-N T40/110
DB
9
9
29 of 55
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
12.2 C500 Family: Type_1a Oscillator-Inverter
The table below shows the derivatives which are compatible to the recommendation List 1a.
Table 10
C500 Family Derivatives including a Type_1a Oscillator-Inverter compatible to List 1a
Device
SAH-C515C-LM/-8RM
Step
Oscillator Frequency
AA
2 - 10 MHz
12.2.1 C500 Family: Type_1a Oscillator-Inverter, List 1a
The table below contains the recommendation List 1a for the external circuitry using a Type_1a
oscillator-inverter referred to different frequencies and different ceramic resonator types. The
ceramic resonator types with values in parentheses are 3 terminal types (with built in load
capacitors).
Table 11
Recommendation List 1a for external circuitry used with a Type_1a Oscillator-Inverter
Type_1a Oscillator-Inverter: Recommendation List 1a
8 MHz
10 MHz
4 MHz
Rf [Ω]
RX2 [Ω]
30
open
0
CST4.00MGW
(30)
open
0
CSA8.00MTZ
30
open
0
CST8.00MTW
(30)
open
0
CSA10.0MTZ
30
open
0
CST10.00MTW
(30)
open
0
CSAC4.00MGC
30
open
0
(47)
open
0
30
open
0
(47)
open
0
CSACV10.0MTJ
30
open
0
CSTCC10.0MG
(15)
open
0
CSA4.00MG
CSTCC4.00MG0H6
8 MHz
CSACV8.00MTJ
CSTCC8.00MG0H6
10 MHz
30 of 55
Package
Leaded
4 MHz
CX1 = CX2 [pF]
SMD
Frequency Ceramic Resonator Type
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
12.3 C500 Family: Type_1b Oscillator-Inverter
The table below shows the derivatives which are compatible to the recommendation List 1b.
Table 12
C500 Family Derivatives including a Type_1b Oscillator-Inverter compatible to List 1b
Device
SAF-C515C-8EM
Step
Oscillator Frequency
A11
2 - 10 MHz
31 of 55
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
12.3.1 C500 Family: Type_1b Oscillator-Inverter, List 1b
The table below contains the recommendation List 1b for the external circuitry using a Type_1b
oscillator-inverter referred to different frequencies and different ceramic resonator types. The
ceramic resonator types with values in parentheses are 3 terminal types (with built in load
capacitors).
Table 13
Recommendation List 1b for external circuitry used with a Type_1b Oscillator-Inverter
Type_1b Oscillator-Inverter: Recommendation List 1b
2MHz
CSA2.00MG040
100pF
Open
0
CST2.00MG040
(100pF)
Open
0
CSA4.00MG
30pF
Open
0
CST4.00MGW
(30pF)
Open
0
CSA6.00MG
30pF
Open
0
CST6.00MGW
(30pF)
Open
0
CSA8.00MTZ
30pF
Open
0
CST8.00MTW
(30pF)
Open
0
CSA10.0MTZ
30pF
Open
0
CST10.0MTW
(30pF)
Open
0
CSAC2.00MGC040
100pF
Open
0
CSTC2.00MG
(30pF)
Open
2.2k
CSAC4.00MGC
30pF
Open
0
CSTCC4.00MG0H6
(47pF)
Open
0
CSAC6.00MGC
30pF
Open
0
CSTCC6.00MG
(15pF)
Open
0
CSACV8.00MTJ
30pF
Open
0
CSTCC8.00MG
(15pF)
Open
0
CSACV10.0MTJ
30pF
Open
0
CSTCC10.0MG
(15pF)
Open
0
4MHz
6MHz
8MHz
10MHz
2MHz
4MHz
6MHz
8MHz
10MHz
32 of 55
Rf [Ω]
RX2 [Ω]
Package
Leaded
CX1 = CX2 [pF]
SMD
Frequency Ceramic Resonator Type
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
12.4 C500 Family: Type_2a Oscillator-Inverter
The table below shows the derivatives which are compatible to the recommendation List 2a.
Table 14
C500 Family Derivatives including a Type_2a Oscillator-Inverter compatible to List 2a
Device
Step
Oscillator Frequency
SAF-C509-LM
DB
3.5 - 16/20 MHz
SAF-C505C-LM
AB
2 - 20 MHz
SAB80C517A-N18-T3
MA
3.5 - 18/24 MHz
33 of 55
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
12.4.1 C500 Family: Type_2a Oscillator-Inverter, List 2a
The table below contains the recommendation List 2a for the external circuitry using a Type_2a
oscillator-inverter referred to different frequencies and different ceramic resonator types. The
ceramic resonator types with values in parentheses are 3 terminal types (with built in load
capacitors).
Table 15
Recommendation List 2a for external circuitry
used with a Type_2a Oscillator-Inverter
Type_2a Oscillator-Inverter: Recommendation List 2a
CX1 = CX2 [pF]
Rf [Ω]
RX2 [Ω]
CSA2.00MG040
100pF
Open
0
CST2.00MG040
(100pF)
Open
0
30
open
0
CST4.00MGW
(30)
open
0
CSA8.00MTZ
30
open
0
CST8.00MTW
(30)
open
0
CSA12.0MTZ
30
open
0
(30)
open
0
CSA16.00MXZ040
15
open
0
CST16.00MXW0C3
(15)
open
0
18 MHz
CSA18.00MXZ040
10
open
0
20 MHz
CSA20.00MXZ040
10
open
0
24 MHz
CSA24.00MXZ040
5 or 7
open
0
CST24.00MXW0H1
(5)
open
0
2MHz
4 MHz
8 MHz
12 MHz
CSA4.00MG
CST12.00MTW
16 MHz
34 of 55
Package
Leaded
Frequency Ceramic Resonator Type
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
2MHz
CSAC2.00MGC040
100pF
Open
0
CSTC2.00MG
(30pF)
Open
2.2k
30
open
0
(47)
open
0
30
open
0
(47)
open
0
30
open
0
CSTCV12.0MTJ0C4
(22)
open
0
16 MHz
CSACV16.00MXJ040
7
open
0
18 MHz
CSACV18.00MXJ040
7
open
0
20 MHz
CSACV20.00MXJ040
5
open
0
CSTCV20.00MXJ0H1
(5)
open
0
CSACV24.00MXJ040
5
open
0
CSTCV24.00MXJ0H1
(5)
open
0
4 MHz
CSAC4.00MGC
CSTCC4.00MG0H6
8 MHz
CSACV8.00MTJ
CSTCC8.00MG0H6
12 MHz
24 MHz
CSACV12.0MTJ
35 of 55
SMD
Table 15
Recommendation List 2a for external circuitry
used with a Type_2a Oscillator-Inverter (continued)
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
12.5 C500 Family: Type_2b Oscillator-Inverter
The table below shows the derivatives which are compatible to the recommendation List 2b.
Table 16
C500 Family Derivatives including a Type_2b Oscillator-Inverter compatible to List 2b
Device
SAK-C505CA-4EM
Step
Oscillator Frequency
AA
2 - 16/20 MHz
36 of 55
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
12.5.1 C500 Family: Type_2b Oscillator-Inverter, List 2b
The table below contains the recommendation List 2b for the external circuitry using a Type_2b
oscillator-inverter referred to different frequencies and different ceramic resonator types. The
ceramic resonator types with values in parentheses are 3 terminal types (with built in load
capacitors).
Table 17
Recommendation List 2b for external circuitry used with a Type_2b Oscillator-Inverter
Type_2a Oscillator-Inverter: Recommendation List 2a
Rf [Ω]
RX2 [Ω]
CSA4.00MG
30
open
0
CST4.00MGW
(30)
open
0
CSA8.00MTZ
30
open
0
CST8.00MTW
(30)
open
0
CSA12.0MTZ
30
open
0
CST12.00MTW
(30)
open
0
CSA16.00MXZ040
15
open
0
CST16.00MXW0C3
(15)
open
0
CSA18.00MXZ040
15
open
0
CST18.00MXW0H3
(15)
open
0
CSA20.00MXZ040
15
open
0
CST20.00MXW040
(15)
open
0
CSAC4.00MGC(M)
30
open
0
CSTCC4.00MG0H6
(47)
open
0
CSACV8.00MTJ
30
open
0
CSTCC8.00MG0H6
(47)
open
0
CSACV12.0MTJ
30
open
0
CSTCV12.0MTJ0C4
(22)
open
0
16 MHz
CSACV16.00MXJ040
10
open
0
18 MHz
CSACV18.00MXJ040
10
open
0
20 MHz
CSACV20.00MXJ040
7
open
0
8 MHz
12 MHz
16 MHz
18 MHz
20 MHz
4 MHz
8 MHz
12 MHz
37 of 55
Package
Leaded
4 MHz
CX1 = CX2 [pF]
SMD
Frequency Ceramic Resonator Type
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
12.6 C500 Family: Type_3b Oscillator-Inverter
The table below shows the derivatives which are compatible to the recommendation List 3b.
Table 18
C500 Family Derivatives including a Type_3b Oscillator-Inverter compatible to List 3b
Device
SAB-C504-2EM
Step
Oscillator Frequency
BB
3.5 - 40 MHz
38 of 55
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
12.6.1 C500 Family: Type_3b Oscillator-Inverter, List 3b
The table below contains the recommendation List 3b for the external circuitry using a Type_3b
oscillator-inverter referred to different frequencies and different ceramic resonator types. The
ceramic resonator types with values in parentheses are 3 terminal types (with built in load
capacitors).
Table 19
Recommendation List 3b for external circuitry used with a Type_3b Oscillator-Inverter
Type_3b Oscillator-Inverter: Recommendation List 3b
Rf [Ω]
RX2 [Ω]
100pF
Open
0
(100pF)
Open
0
100pF
Open
0
CST4.00MGW040
(100pF)
Open
0
CSA8.00MTZ040
100pF
Open
0
CST8.00MTW040
(100pF)
Open
0
CSA12.0MTZ
30pF
Open
0
CST12.0MTW
(30pF)
Open
0
CSA16.00MXZ040
30pF
Open
0
CST16.00MXW040
(30pF)
Open
0
CSA20.00MXZ040
22pF
Open
0
CST20.00MXW0H4
(22pF)
Open
0
CSA24.00MXZ040
15pF
Open
0
CST24.00MXW040
(15pF)
Open
0
32 MHz
CSA32.00MXZ040
10pF
Open
0
40 MHz
CSA40.00MXZ040
7pF
Open
0
3.5 MHz
CSAC3.50MGC040
100pF
Open
0
CSTC3.50MG
(30pF)
Open
3.3k
CSAC4.00MGC040
100pF
Open
0
CSTCC4.00MG0H6
(47pF)
Open
680
CSACV8.00MTJ040
100pF
Open
0
CSTCC8.00MG0H6
(47pF)
Open
0
30pF
Open
0
(22pF)
Open
0
3.5 MHz
CSA3.50MG040
CST3.50MGW040
4 MHz
8 MHz
12 MHz
16 MHz
20 MHz
24 MHz
4 MHz
8 MHz
12 MHz
CSA4.00MG040
CSACV12.0MTJ
CSTCV12.0MTJ0C4
39 of 55
Package
Leaded
CX1 = CX2 [pF]
SMD
Frequency Ceramic Resonator Type
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
12.7 C500 Family: Type_5 Oscillator-Inverter
The table below shows the derivatives which are compatible to the recommendation List 5.
Table 20
C500 Family Derivatives including a Type_5 Oscillator-Inverter compatible to List 5
Device
SAB-C513A-2RN
Step
Oscillator Frequency
BB
3.5 - 12 MHz
40 of 55
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
12.7.1 C500 Family: Type_5 Oscillator-Inverter, List 5
The table below contains the recommendation List 5 for the external circuitry using a Type_5
oscillator-inverter referred to different frequencies and different ceramic resonator types. The
ceramic resonator types with values in parentheses are 3 terminal types (with built in load
capacitors).
Table 21
Recommendation List 5 for external circuitry used with a Type_5 Oscillator-Inverter
Type_5 Oscillator-Inverter: Recommendation List 5
Rf [Ω]
RX2 [Ω]
100
open
0
(100)
open
0
CSA8.00MTZ
30
open
0
CST8.00MTW
(30)
open
0
CSA10.0MTZ
30
open
0
(30)
open
0
30
open
0
CST12.00MTW
(30)
open
0
CSAC4.00MGC(M)040
100
open
0
CSTCC4.00MG0H6
(47)
open
0
30
open
0
(47)
open
0
CSACV10.0MTJ
30
open
0
CSTCC10.0MG
(15)
open
0
CSTCC10.0MG0H6
(47)
open
0
30
open
0
(22)
open
0
CSA4.00MG040
CST4.00MGW040
8 MHz
10 MHz
CST10.00MTW
12 MHz
4 MHz
8 MHz
CSA12.0MTZ
CSACV8.00MTJ
CSTCC8.00MG0H6
10 MHz
12 MHz
CSACV12.0MTJ
CSTCV12.0MTJ0C4
41 of 55
Package
Leaded
4 MHz
CX1 = CX2 [pF]
SMD
Frequency Ceramic Resonator Type
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
12.8 C500 Family: Type_8 Oscillator-Inverter
The table below shows the derivatives which are compatible to the recommendation List 8.
Table 22
C500 Family Derivatives including a Type_8 Oscillator-Inverter compatible to List 8
Device
SAB80C517A-N18
Step
Oscillator Frequency
LA
3.5 - 18 MHz
42 of 55
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
12.8.1 C500 Family: Type_8 Oscillator-Inverter, List 8
The table below contains the recommendation List 1b for the external circuitry using a Type_8
oscillator-inverter referred to different frequencies and different ceramic resonator types. The
ceramic resonator types with values in parentheses are 3 terminal types (with built in load
capacitors).
Table 23
Recommendation List 8 for external circuitry used with a Type_8 Oscillator-Inverter
Type_8 Oscillator-Inverter: Recommendation List 8
8 MHz
12 MHz
Rf [Ω]
RX2 [Ω]
30
open
0
CST4.00MGW
(30)
open
0
CSA8.00MTZ
30
open
0
CST8.00MTW
(30)
open
0
CSA12.0MTZ
30
open
0
(30)
open
0
CSA4.00MG
CST12.00MTW
16 MHz
CSA16.00MXZ040
7
open
0
18 MHz
CSA18.00MXZ040
7
open
0
4 MHz
CSAC4.00MGC(M)
30
open
0
CSTCC4.00MG0H6
(47)
open
0
CSACV8.00MTJ
30
open
0
CSTCC8.00MG
(15)
open
0
CSACV12.0MTJ
30
open
0
CSTCV12.0MTJ0C4
(22)
open
0
CSACV16.00MXJ040
5
open
0
CSTCV16.0MXJ0C1
(5)
open
0
CSACV18.00MXJ040
5
open
0
CSTCV18.0MXJ0C1
(5)
open
0
8 MHz
12 MHz
16 MHz
18 MHz
43 of 55
Package
Leaded
4 MHz
CX1 = CX2 [pF]
SMD
Frequency Ceramic Resonator Type
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
12.9 C500 Family: Type_9 Oscillator-Inverter
The table below shows the derivatives which are compatible to the recommendation List 9.
Table 24
C500 Family Derivatives including a Type_9 Oscillator-Inverter compatible to List 9
Device
SAB80C537-N T40/110
Step
Oscillator Frequency
DB
3.5 - 16 MHz
12.9.1 C500 Family: Type_9 Oscillator-Inverter, List 9
The table below contains the recommendation List 9 for the external circuitry using a Type_9
oscillator-inverter referred to different frequencies and different ceramic resonator types. The
ceramic resonator types with values in parentheses are 3 terminal types (with built in load
capacitors).
Table 25
Recommendation List 9 for external circuitry used with a Type_9 Oscillator-Inverter
Type_9 Oscillator-Inverter: Recommendation List 9
8 MHz
12 MHz
Rf [Ω]
RX2 [Ω]
30
open
0
CST4.00MGW
(30)
open
0
CSA8.00MTZ
30
open
0
CST8.00MTW
(30)
open
0
CSA12.0MTZ
30
open
0
(30)
open
0
CSA4.00MG
CST12.00MTW
16 MHz
CSA16.00MXZ040
10
open
0
4 MHz
CSAC4.00MGC(M)
30
open
0
CSTCC4.00MG0H6
(47)
open
0
CSACV8.00MTJ
30
open
0
CSTCC8.00MG
(15)
open
0
CSACV12.0MTJ
30
open
0
CSTCV12.0MTJ0C4
(22)
open
0
CSACV16.00MXJ040
5
open
0
CSTCV16.0MXJ0C1
(5)
open
0
8 MHz
12 MHz
16 MHz
44 of 55
Package
Leaded
4 MHz
CX1 = CX2 [pF]
SMD
Frequency Ceramic Resonator Type
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
13
Appendix C166 Family
All derivatives, steps and oscillator-inverter types of the C166 Family shown in the table below are
included in the recommendations of the following pages. For each type of oscillator-inverter there is
a proposal for the right composition of external circuits referred to different frequencies. Depending
on the technology of the devices there are different recommendation lists for one inverter type.
Note: The recommendation lists do not always include values for the whole frequency range of the
oscillator-inverter. Because these general recommendations are based on a safety margin
concerning the loading capacitance variation of +/- 50% or more. An analysis of a specific
application can allow a higher frequency for the oscillator-inverter.
13.1 C166 Family:
Relation between Device Type, Oscillator-Inverter Type and Recommendation List
Table 26
C166 Family Derivatives, Oscillator-Inverter Type and Recommendation List
Device
Step
Inverter
List
AA, BA, BB
Type_R
R_1
SAx-C165-LF
CA
Type_R
R_2
SAx-C165-LM
CA
Type_R
R_2
SAx-C167-LM
BA, BB, BC, BD
Type_R
R_3
SAx-C167S-4RM
AA,BA, BB, DA, DB
Type_R
R_3
SAx-C167SR-LM
BA, BB, CA, CB, DA, DB
Type_R
R_3
SAx-C167CR-LM
BA, BB, BE, CA, CB, DA, DB
Type_R
R_3
SAx-C167CR-4RM
AA, AB, AC, DA, DB
Type_R
R_3
SAx-C167CR-16RM
AA
Type_R
R_3
SAx C161RI-L16F / L16M
AA
Type_LP1
LP1/2
SAx C161RI-L16F / L16M
BA, BB
Type_LP2
LP1/2
BA, BB, BC
Type_LP2
LP1/2
SAx-C163-16F25F
SAx C164CI
45 of 55
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
13.2 C166 Family: Type_R Oscillator-Inverter (1)
The table below shows the derivatives which are compatible to the recommendation List R_1.
Table 27
C166 Family Derivatives including a Type_R Oscillator-Inverter compatible to List R_1
Device
SAx-C163-16F25F
Step
Oscillator Frequency
AA, BA, BB
3,5 - 24 (40) MHz
46 of 55
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
13.2.1 C166 Family: Type_R Oscillator-Inverter, List R_1
The table below contains the recommendation List R_1 for the external circuitry using a Type_R
oscillator-inverter referred to different frequencies and different ceramic resonator types. The
ceramic resonator types with values in parentheses are 3 terminal types (with built in load
capacitors).
Table 28
Recommendation List R_1 for external circuitry used with a Type_R Oscillator-Inverter
Type_R Oscillator-Inverter: Recommendation List R_1
Rf [Ω]
RX2 [Ω]
CSA2.00MG040
100
Open
680
CST2.00MG040
(100)
Open
680
CSA4.00MG040
100
Open
220
CST4.00MGW040
(100)
Open
220
CSA8.00MTZ040
100
Open
0
CST8.00MTW040
(100)
Open
0
CSA12.0MTZ
30
Open
0
CST12.0MTW
(30)
Open
0
CSA16.00MXZ040
30
Open
0
CST16.00MXW040
(30)
Open
0
CSA20.00MXZ040
22
Open
0
CST20.00MXW0H4
(22)
Open
0
24 MHz
CSA24.00MXZ040
10
Open
0
32 MHz
CSA32.00MXZ040
7
Open
0
40 MHz
CSA40.00MXZ040
5
Open
0
CST40.00MXW040
(5 )
Open
0
CSAC2.00MGC040
100
Open
680
CSTC2.00MG
(30)
Open
6.8 k
CSAC4.00MGC040
100
Open
220
CSTCC4.00MG0H6
(47)
Open
680
CSACV8.00MTJ040
100
Open
0
CSTCC8.00MG0H6
(47)
Open
0
30
Open
0
(22)
Open
0
2 MHz
4 MHz
8 MHz
12 MHz
16 MHz
20 MHz
2 MHz
4 MHz
8 MHz
12 MHz
CSACV12.0MTJ
CSTCV12.0MTJ0C4
47 of 55
Package
Leaded
CX1 = CX2 [pF]
SMD
Frequency Ceramic Resonator Type
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
13.3 C166 Family: Type_R Oscillator-Inverter (2)
The table below shows the derivatives which are compatible to the recommendation List R_2.
Table 29
C166 Family Derivatives including a Type_R Oscillator-Inverter compatible to List R_2
Device
Step
Oscillator Frequency
SAx-C165-LF
CA
3,5 - 24 (40) MHz
SAx-C165-LM
CA
3,5 - 24 (40) MHz
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Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
13.3.1 C166 Family: Type_R Oscillator-Inverter, List R_2
The table below contains the recommendation List R_2 for the external circuitry using a Type_R
oscillator-inverter referred to different frequencies and different ceramic resonator types. The
ceramic resonator types with values in parentheses are 3 terminal types (with built in load
capacitors).
Table 30
Recommendation List R_2 for external circuitry used with a Type_R Oscillator-Inverter
Type_R Oscillator-Inverter: Recommendation List R_2
Rf [Ω]
RX2 [Ω]
CSA2.00MG040
100
Open
680
CST2.00MG040
(100)
Open
680
CSA4.00MG040
100
Open
470
CST4.00MGW040
(100)
Open
470
CSA8.00MTZ040
100
Open
0
CST8.00MTW040
(100)
Open
0
CSA12.0MTZ040
100
Open
0
CST12.0MTW040
(100)
Open
0
CSA16.00MXZ040
30
Open
0
CST16.00MXW040
(30)
Open
0
CSA20.00MXZ040
22
Open
0
CST20.00MXW0H4
(22)
Open
0
24 MHz
CSA24.00MXZ040
10
Open
0
32 MHz
CSA32.00MXZ040
7
Open
0
40 MHz
CSA40.00MXZ040
5
Open
0
CST40.00MXW040
(5)
Open
0
CSAC2.00MGC040
100
Open
680
CSTC2.00MG
(30)
Open
10k
CSAC4.00MGC040
100
Open
470
CSTCC4.00MG0H6
(47)
Open
1.5k
CSACV8.00MTJ040
100
Open
0
CSTCC8.00MG0H6
(47)
Open
470
30
Open
470
(22)
Open
470
2 MHz
4 MHz
8 MHz
12 MHz
16 MHz
20 MHz
2 MHz
4 MHz
8 MHz
12 MHz
CSACV12.0MTJ
CSTCV12.0MTJ0C4
49 of 55
Package
Leaded
CX1 = CX2 [pF]
SMD
Frequency Ceramic Resonator Type
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
13.4 C166 Family: Type_R Oscillator-Inverter (3)
The table below shows the derivatives which are compatible to the recommendation List R_3.
Table 31
C166 Family Derivatives including a Type_R Oscillator-Inverter compatible to List R_3
Device
Step
Oscillator Frequency
SAx-C167-LM
BA, BB, BC, BD
3,5 - 24 (40) MHz
SAx-C167S-4RM
AA,BA, BB, DA, DB
3,5 - 24 (40) MHz
SAx-C167SR-LM
BA, BB, CA, CB, DA, DB
3,5 - 24 (40) MHz
SAx-C167CR-LM
BA, BB, BE, CA, CB, DA, DB
3,5 - 24 (40) MHz
SAx-C167CR-4RM
AA, AB, AC, DA, DB
3,5 - 24 (40) MHz
SAx-C167CR-16RM
AA
3,5 - 24 (40) MHz
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Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
13.4.1 C166 Family: Type_R Oscillator-Inverter, List R_3
The table below contains the recommendation List R_3 for the external circuitry using a Type_R
oscillator-inverter referred to different frequencies and different ceramic resonator types. The
ceramic resonator types with values in parentheses are 3 terminal types (with built in load
capacitors).
Table 32
Recommendation List R_3 for external circuitry used with a Type_R Oscillator-Inverter
Type_R Oscillator-Inverter: Recommendation List R_3
Rf [Ω]
RX2 [Ω]
CSA2.00MG040
100
Open
680
CST2.00MG040
(100)
Open
680
CSA4.00MG040
100
Open
0
CST4.00MGW040
(100)
Open
0
CSA8.00MTZ040
100
Open
0
CST8.00MTW040
(100)
Open
0
CSA12.0MTZ040
100
Open
0
CST12.0MTW040
(100)
Open
0
CSA16.00MXZ040
30
Open
0
CST16.00MXW040
(30)
Open
0
CSA20.00MXZ040
22
Open
0
CST20.00MXW0H4
(22)
Open
0
24 MHz
CSA24.00MXZ040
10
Open
0
32 MHz
CSA32.00MXZ040
7
Open
0
40 MHz
CSA40.00MXZ040
5
Open
0
CST40.00MXW040
(5)
Open
0
CSAC2.00MGC040
100
Open
680
CSTC2.00MG
(30)
Open
10k
CSAC4.00MGC040
100
Open
0
CSTCC4.00MG0H6
(47)
Open
680
CSACV8.00MTJ040
100
Open
0
CSTCC8.00MG0H6
(47)
Open
0
30
Open
220
(22)
Open
220
2 MHz
4 MHz
8 MHz
12 MHz
16 MHz
20 MHz
2 MHz
4 MHz
8 MHz
12 MHz
CSACV12.0MTJ
CSTCV12.0MTJ0C4
51 of 55
Package
Leaded
CX1 = CX2 [pF]
SMD
Frequency Ceramic Resonator Type
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
13.5 C166 Family: Type_LP1 / Type_LP2 Oscillator-Inverter
The table below shows the derivatives which are compatible to the recommendation List LP1/2.
Table 33
C166 Family Derivatives including a Type_LP1 / Type_LP2 Oscillator-Inverter compatible to
List LP1/2
Device
Step
Oscillator Frequency
SAx C161RI-L16F / L16M
AA
3,5 - 16 MHz
SAx C161RI-L16F / L16M
BA, BB
3,5 - 16 MHz
SAx C164CI
BA, BB, BC
3,5 - 16 MHz
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AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
13.5.1 C166 Family: Type_LP1 / Type_LP2 Oscillator-Inverter, List LP1/2
The table below contains the recommendation List LP1/2 for the external circuitry using a Type_LP1
or Type_LP2 oscillator-inverter referred to different frequencies and different ceramic resonator
types. The ceramic resonator types with values in parentheses are 3 terminal types (with built in
load capacitors).
Table 34
Recommendation List LP1/2 for external circuitry used with a Type_LP1 or Type_LP2
Oscillator-Inverter
Type_LP1 or Type_LP2 Oscillator-Inverter: Recommendation List LP1/2
4 MHz
8 MHz
12 MHz
2 MHz
4 MHz
8 MHz
12 MHz
Rf [Ω]
RX2 [Ω]
CSA2.00MG040
100
Open
0
CST2.00MG040
(100)
Open
0
30
Open
0
CST4.00MGW
(30)
Open
0
CSA8.00MTZ
30
Open
0
CST8.00MTW
(30)
Open
0
CSA12.0MTZ
30
Open
0
CST12.0MTW
(30)
Open
0
CSAC2.00MGC040
100
Open
0
CSTC2.00MG
(30)
Open
2.2 k
CSAC4.00MGC
30
Open
0
CSTCC4.00MG
(15)
Open
0
CSACV8.00MTJ
30
Open
0
CSTCC8.00MG
(15)
Open
0
CSACV12.0MTJ
30
Open
0
(22)
Open
0
CSA4.00MG
CSTCV12.0MTJ0C4
53 of 55
Package
Leaded
2 MHz
CX1 = CX2 [pF]
SMD
Frequency Ceramic Resonator Type
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
14
Murata Sales Offices
For more information on Murata products
please call your local Murata sales office.
Japan
Murata International Division
1-18-1 Hakusan, Midori-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 226-0006, Japan
Phone: +81-45-931-7111 Fax: +81-45-931-7105 E-mail: [email protected]
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Phone: +33-1-4094-8300 Fax: +33-1-4094-0154 E-mail: [email protected]
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Via Sancarlo 1, 20040 Caponago, Milano, Italy
Phone:+39-2-95743000
Fax: +39-2-9574-0168 / 2292E-mail: [email protected]
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Aldershot Hampshire, GU13 8UN U.K.
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Phone +31-23-5698410
Fax: +31-23-5698441
E-mail: [email protected]
54 of 55
AP242401 04.99
Ceramic Resonator Oscillators of the
C500 / C166 Microcontroller Family
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Isenrietstrasse 19, CH-8617 Mönchaltorf Switzerland
Phone: +41-1-948-1314
Fax: +41-1-948-1769
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Unit No.G-3, Park Trade Centre, Block 4, Lot 2 Investment Street,
Madrigal Business Park Alabang, Muntinlupa City, Metro Manil Phillipines.
Phone: +63-2-850-4854
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Room 1403, Chia Hsin Building 96, Chung-Shan N. Rd., Sec, 2, Taipei Taiwan, R.O.C.
Phone: +886-2-562-4218 Fax: +886-2-536-6721 E-mail:[email protected]
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No. 62. Thaniya Building, 3rd Floor Silom Road, Bangkok, 10500 Kingdom of Thailand
Phone: +66-2-236-3512 / 3491Fax: +66-2-238-4873
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Phone: +66-2-266-0750
Fax: +66-2-266-0752
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Room 707-712, Miramar Tower, 1-23 Kimberly Road, Tsimshatsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Phone: +852-2376-3898
Fax: +852-2375-5655
E-mail:[email protected]
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Murata Mfg.Co., Ltd. Seoul Branch
14th Floor Haesung 2 Bldg., 942-10, Taechi-Dong, Kangnam_Ku, Seoul, Korea
Phone: +82-2-561-2347
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No. 11 Tianzhu Road Tianzhu Airport Industry Zone Shunyi County,
Beijing 101312 the People’s Republic of China
Phone: + 86-10-6456-8822 Fax:+86-10-6456-9945 E-mail:[email protected]
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Room No.506, West Tower Sun plaza 88 Xianxia Road, Changning District Shanghai,
200335 P.R.C.
Phone: +86-21-6270-0611 / 2 / 3Fax: +86-21-6270-0614
55 of 55
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