Application Note Evaluation Board 300W Motor Control Application Kit

Application Note AN 2013-09
V1.0 September 2013
300W Motor Control Application Kit
Mitja Rebec, IFAT IPC APS AE
Ralf Walter, IFAT PMM APS SE DC
Evaluation Board Application Note
300W Motor Control Application Kit
Application Note AN 2013-09
V1.1 September 2013
Edition 2011-02-02
Published by
Infineon Technologies Austria AG
9500 Villach, Austria
© Infineon Technologies Austria AG 2011.
All Rights Reserved.
Attention please!
THE INFORMATION GIVEN IN THIS APPLICATION NOTE IS GIVEN AS A HINT FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INFINEON TECHNOLOGIES COMPONENT ONLY AND SHALL NOT BE REGARDED
AS ANY DESCRIPTION OR WARRANTY OF A CERTAIN FUNCTIONALITY, CONDITION OR QUALITY
OF THE INFINEON TECHNOLOGIES COMPONENT. THE RECIPIENT OF THIS APPLICATION NOTE
MUST VERIFY ANY FUNCTION DESCRIBED HEREIN IN THE REAL APPLICATION. INFINEON
TECHNOLOGIES HEREBY DISCLAIMS ANY AND ALL WARRANTIES AND LIABILITIES OF ANY KIND
(INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL
PROPERTY RIGHTS OF ANY THIRD PARTY) WITH RESPECT TO ANY AND ALL INFORMATION
GIVEN IN THIS APPLICATION NOTE.
Information
For further information on technology, delivery terms and conditions and prices please contact your
nearest Infineon Technologies Office (www.infineon.com).
Warnings
Due to technical requirements components may contain dangerous substances. For information on the
types in question please contact your nearest Infineon Technologies Office. Infineon Technologies
Components may only be used in life-support devices or systems with the express written approval of
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AN-LV-09-2013-V1.1-EN-049
Revision History: 13-09-01, V1.1
Previous Version: 05/2013, V1.0
Subjects: 300W Motor Control Application Kit
Authors:
Mitja Rebec, IFAT IPC APS AE
Ralf Walter, IFAT PMM APS SE DC
We Listen to Your Comments
Any information within this document that you feel is wrong, unclear or missing at all? Your feedback will
help us to continuously improve the quality of this document. Please send your proposal (including a
reference to this document) to: [Ralf.Walter@infineon.com]
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Table of contents
1 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................... 5
1.1
Key Features ...................................................................................................................................... 5
2 300W Motor Control Application Kit .......................................................................................................... 6
2.1
PCB .................................................................................................................................................... 6
2.2
Communication Interface ................................................................................................................... 7
2.3
Dedicated Software for the Onboard 8-bit Microcontroller ................................................................ 7
2.4
Infineon Board Control Graphical User Interface (IBC-GUI).............................................................. 8
2.5
BLDC Motor (BLDCM) ....................................................................................................................... 8
3 Running the 300W Motor Control Application Kit .................................................................................... 9
3.1
Connecting the board to a BLDC Motor, Power Supply and PC ....................................................... 9
3.2
IBC-GUI installation .........................................................................................................................10
3.3
First Running of IBC-GUI .................................................................................................................10
3.4
Using PC GUI...................................................................................................................................10
3.4.1 Establishing communication with USB adapter ........................................................................... 10
3.4.2 Selecting operational modes ........................................................................................................ 11
3.4.3 Setting reference and reading actual board and motor values .................................................... 13
3.4.4 Commands and Statuses ............................................................................................................. 14
3.4.5 Parameters ................................................................................................................................... 15
4 Hardware Description ...............................................................................................................................16
4.1
Power Supply ...................................................................................................................................16
4.2
Two Level Three Phase Inverter ......................................................................................................17
4.2.1 Current Measurement .................................................................................................................. 18
4.3
XC836M and MOSFETs Driver 6ED003L02 ...................................................................................19
4.3.1 Driver 6ED003L02 ........................................................................................................................ 20
4.3.2 Microcontroller XC836M ............................................................................................................... 21
4.4
Digital Outputs .................................................................................................................................22
4.5
Hall Sensors Digital Inputs ...............................................................................................................23
4.6
Communication Port ........................................................................................................................23
5 PCB .............................................................................................................................................................24
5.1
Schematic ........................................................................................................................................24
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5.2
Placement ........................................................................................................................................25
5.3
Bill of Material...................................................................................................................................26
6 Microprocessor Software Description ....................................................................................................27
6.1
Overview ..........................................................................................................................................27
6.2
Motor Control Algorithm ...................................................................................................................29
6.2.1 Unipolar Block Commutation........................................................................................................ 29
6.3
Scheduler .........................................................................................................................................35
6.4
Serial Communication Protocol........................................................................................................36
6.5
Parameters.......................................................................................................................................38
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Overview
Brushless motors are taking over the cordless power-tool industry, with just about every manufacturer either
already selling brushless tools or preparing to do so. Manufacturers claim brushless motors give more
power, require less maintenance and extend the life of cordless tools.
Brushless motors differ from brushed motors in three main ways: computer circuitry replaces the
commutator, the electromagnets are stationary and conventional magnets can move freely.
Relatively new to the power-tool industry, these motors are generating interest among customers and
manufacturers. Complete lines of cordless tools are being developed, and because brushless motors can
generate more power than brushed motors, some tasks previously thought too tough for a cordless tool are
no longer off limits.
In a traditional cordless power tool motor, the power supply (battery) uses carbon brushes to conduct
electricity to the commutator, which acts as an electric switch. The commutator changes the polarity of the
electromagnets, which are attached to a free-spinning shaft and surrounded by fixed magnets, creating the
magnetic field for pushing and pulling against.
Brushless motors eliminate the wasted energy created by the physical connection of carbon brushes in a
brushed motor. Computer circuitry replaces the commutator. Since the electromagnets are stationary,
brushes aren’t needed to deliver power. Conventional magnets spin freely within a ring of electromagnets
because they don’t require an electrical connection, thereby generating power to the tool.
Infineon´s Power Tool Kit is addressing cordless power-tool industry by using simple plug-and-play system.
Customers can easily run a BLDC motor and test the efficiency of Infineon devices mounted on a PCB.
Figure 1.1: Power Tool Demo Board
1.1
Key Features

High efficiency Infineon MOSFETs and MCU

Easy plug and play software for fast testing of the board

Suitable for BLDC motors with hall sensors

Voltage, Current (Torque) and Speed control possible
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300W Motor Control Application Kit
Within the 300W Motor Control Application Kit you can find:

Power Tool PCB

USB/Serial communication adapter

USB memory stick including documentation PC and MCU software
The PCB functionality is controlled by using Infineon 8-bit microprocessor (XC863M2FRI), which is already
programmed with dedicated motor control software.
2.1
PCB
The PC board has different functional parts in order to control BLDC motor:

DC/DC converter transforming battery voltage into 5V (MCU supply) and 12V (driver supply).

Two level three phase inverter using six Infineon OptiMOS
Power-MOSFETs BSC016N06NS
(100A, RDS(on)=1.6mΩ). The inverter is equipped with shunt resistor on DC link return path for current
measurement.

Three phase inverter driver IC (6ED003L02) with over-current protection and fault signalization.

8-bit microprocessor (XC836M2FRI).

Hall signal circuitry for running BLDC motors.

Serial communication for programming and controlling the MCU software.

Inputs: Motor Temperature Measurement, Potentiometer, 3 digital inputs.

Outputs: 2 digital outputs.
TM
Two Level Three Phase Converter
VBATT
VDC
Linear
Regulator
Q1
Q3
Q5
U
V
W
+12V
+5V
Q2
Q4



UART
communication
Q6
Temperature Protection
Potentiometer
Digital Inputs
2 Digital
Outputs
+5V
Microprocessor
XC836M
current
protection
drive
signals
ENABLE
+12V
Three Phase Driver
6ED003L02_F2
Q1-Q6
Figure 2.1: PCB Functional Blocks
6
Hall Signals
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Communication Interface
The Communication interface is a link between PC user interface and the board. It was realized with a
commercially available cable from FTDI TTL-232R-5V.
Figure 2.2: FTDI Communication Adapter
2.3
Dedicated Software for the Onboard 8-bit Microcontroller
The 8-bit MCU is already programmed with dedicated software. The software is implementing different
functions:

Block commutation for running BLDC motor with voltage, current or speed control.

Hall auto-tuning in order indentify hall sequence using different motor.

Unlocking the processor for programming using serial communication with user´s software.

Changing and saving parameters to MCU flash permanently.

Enabling/Disabling inputs for controlling motor.
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Infineon Board Control Graphical User Interface (IBC-GUI)
The KIT comes with a GUI used to control MCU software execution using serial communication. IBC-GUI is
a general program used to control Infineon demo or reference boards. In order to control the 300W Motor
Control Application Kit, IBC-GUI must be opened with project file “PowerTool.iproj”. The project file defines
parameter, commands, states, scaling factors and displayed values.
IBC-GUI can perform different tasks:

Displaying and selecting motor operational modes.

Reading and writing (set or clear) microprocessor different statuses.

Real time values reading (current, voltage, frequency, etc.).

Changing and saving parameters (switching frequency, dead time, etc.) to a project file or MCU
permanent memory (FLASH).

Selecting two different microprocessor operational modes: normal and program mode.
Figure 2.3: Infineon Board Control Graphical User Interface (IBC-GUI)
2.5
BLDC Motor (BLDCM)
The 300W Motor Control Application Kit can run every BLDC motor equipped with Hall Sensors.
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Running the 300W Motor Control Application Kit
The 300W Motor Control Application Kit contains: Demo board, FTDI cable and USB memory stick. Running
the KIT can be done in three steps:
1. The demo board must be connected properly to a BLDC motor, power supply and PC.
2. IBC-GUI (provided on USB memory stick) must be installed on the PC.
3. Tuning and running the motor.
3.1
Connecting the board to a BLDC Motor, Power Supply and PC
In order to run the board, connect the DC power supply (+18V, GND), 3 BLDC motor phases (U, V, W),
BLDC motor hall sensors (+5V, GND, H1, H2, H3) and serial communication (GND, T x, Rx). Additionally
connect 2 digital inputs to control power ON/OFF and motor direction by using switches instead of GUI.
When DC power supply is switched ON, the microprocessor starts to send messages using serial
communication, therefore the UART/USB adapter hast to be connected to the PC and the dedicated GUÍ has
to be installed for interpreting received messages.
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Figure 3.1: Board Wirings
3.2
IBC-GUI installation
To install the IBC-GUI, you must run the installation program “Setup.exe”, which is provided on USB memory
stick. The setup program will install USB/UART adapter driver and create a desktop shortcut “Infineon Demo
Board Control”.
3.3
First Running of IBC-GUI
If you run the PC software for the first time, you must select the correct project file. Project files have the
extension “*.iproj”. The project file for Power Tool KIT can be found in application folder
C:\Program Files\Infineon Technologies\Infineon Board Control\Projects\PowerTool.iproj. Double click it or
run “Infineon Demo Board” program and select “File => Open”. When selected, the project file path is written
in the application header.
3.4
Using PC GUI
3.4.1 Establishing communication with USB adapter
If the USB adapter is plugged into PC port, the application will automatically establish communication with it.
If communication is not established automatically you can force the adapter to connect by selecting menu
“Comm => Open Communication” or clicking F5. If the other part of the adapter is connected to functional
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Power Tool PCB, you will see some activity in the PC GUI. Connection status is visible in GUI footer (left
bottom corner of the GUI).
3.4.2 Selecting operational modes
There are three different operational modes that can be selected in order to control the motor. First of all the
hall sequence has to be tuned according to the phase connection sequence. This operation will create the
right commutation table. If the motor phases or hall signals connections change again, this operation must
be repeated. The procedure is the following:
(1)
Select Mode => Hall Sensor Tuning.
(2)
Click button S (Set) for Power Enable command (this will run the selected operational mode).
Power Enable will be colored in red (active).
(3)
Increase the voltage [%] (duty cycle) till the motor rotor start to sweep and angle is changing
(this mode is positioning the rotor in six different angles and hall sensor sequence is saved for
each of those angles).
When all angles are fired you can stop the power by clicking the button R (Reset) for Power Enable.
(4)
(5)
After doing that commutation table is formed in RAM (temporary memory). In order to save the
commutation table to FLASH (permanent memory) you must select menu Flash => Save to Flash.
Figure 3.2: Hall Sensor Tuning
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When the sensors are tuned, the motor can be run by selecting two remaining operational modes: “Voltage
Control” and “Speed Control”. Operational mode will be started and stopped by clicking buttons “S” or
“R” for “Power Enable” command like for hall tuning.

“Voltage Control” is used to control the duty cycle or voltage [%] that is exciting motor stator. By
increasing the voltage the motor start to rotate.

“Speed Control” is used to control the frequency of the rotor using the speed feedback obtains from
reading hall sensors. Duty cycle is regulated in order to keep this frequency stable to the selected
one.
Modes and its statuses are shown in a banner bellow the GUI menus as followed: Mode (Status).
Mode: Speed Control, Status: Stopped
Mode: Speed Control, Status: Running
Figure 3.3: Operational Mode in Mode/Status Banner
Name
Remark
Operational Modes
Hall Sensor Tuning
Creating commutation table
Voltage Control
Setting duty cycle
Speed Control
Setting rotor speed
Possible Statuses
Stopped
Motor is stopped, driver is disabled, control algorithm is blocked
Boot
Start
Boot sequence; Bootstrap capacitor is charging before the motor starts
running
All the main motor control variables are initialized
Running
Motor control algorithm is running, block commutation is active
Driver Error
MOSFETs driver current protection is active
Temperature Protection
Motor temperature is too high
Table 3.1: GUI Operational Mode and its Status banner
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3.4.3 Setting reference and reading actual board and motor values
Some important values are sent from microprocessor periodically. Those values are displayed in orange GUI
boxes. There are two values that can be set in microprocessor depending on operational modes: Voltage
(duty cycle) and frequency.
Figure 3.4: Values which can be read or written in real time
Name
Remark
Monitored values
f_ref [Hz]
Ramped reference frequency used as an input to speed PI controller
Angle
Hall sensor combination
f_act [Hz]
Actual frequency calculated from hall signals
I_act [A]
Actual current read from shunt on negative DC link path
Voltage [%]
Duty cycle
Temp
Motor temperature
Poti [%]
Potentiometer
Volt [V]
DC link voltage
Values that can be set
f_ref [Hz]
Reference frequency used in Speed Control operational mode
Voltage [%]
Duty Cycle used in Voltage Control operational mode
Table 3.2: MCU Command and Status Flags
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3.4.4 Commands and Statuses
Behavior of MCU software can be controlled using a set of commands. Using status flags, we can easily
monitor some main errors, warnings or messages that are happening when the MCU software is active.
Figure 3.5: MCU Command and Status Flags
Name
Remark
Command
[0] Power Enable
Enabling/Disabling operational mode (driver, algorithm)
[1] Power Enable by Input
Enabling/Disabling operational mode by external input
[2] Direction by Input
Selecting rotor direction by external input
[3] Speed by Potentiometer
Controlling speed or voltage using potentiometer
[4] Driver Protection En.
Enabling/Disabling driver protection (switching power off when it occurs)
[5] OverTemp. Protection En.
Motor over-temperature protection (switching power off when it occurs)
[6] Output M1
Output M1 ON/OFF
[7] Output M2
Output M2 ON/OFF
Status flags
Input Power
External input for power is ON/OFF
Input Direction
External input for rotor direction is ON/OFF
Input Driver
Driver error output is ON/OFF (this output is normally ON)
Speed Direction
Direction of motor
Motor Stall
Motor is stand still or not
Driver Error
Status of driver error
Table 3.3: MCU Command and Status Flags
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3.4.5 Parameters
MCU parameters are values that can be saved in FLASH and copied to working memory whenever the PCB
start is operational. Those values can be changed and saved to FLASH in order to modify the PCB behavior.
By clicking Read/Write, the GUI will read or write all parameters into MCU working memory. By clicking
Save/Load, the GUI will save or load all parameter in project file. To save this parameters to FLASH
(permanent memory) select menu “Flash => Save To Flash”.
Figure 3.6: MCU Parameters
Name
Remark
Pwm.SwitchDelay [x21ns]
Setting the exact moment when current is sensed from shunt
Pwm.Freq [kHz]
PWM switching frequency
Pwm.DeadTime [x21ns]
Dead time between high side and low side
I.Kp
(NOT USED) Current controller proportional parameter
I.Ki
(NOT USED) Current controller integral parameter
I.KiLimit [%]
(NOT USED) Current controller integral limit parameter
Freq.Max [Hz]
Maximum motor frequency
Freq.Slew [Hz/s]
Frequency ramp
Freq.I_Kp
(NOT USED) Frequency current controller proportional parameter
Freq.I_Ki
(NOT USED) Frequency current controller integral parameter
Freq.I_KiLimit [%]
(NOT USED) Frequency current controller integral limit parameter
Freq.V_Kp
Frequency voltage controller proportional parameter
Freq.V_Ki
Frequency voltage controller integral parameter
Freq.V_KiLimit [%]
Frequency voltage controller integral limit parameter
Adc.Offset
Setting the zero for sensed current
Adc.TmotorMax
Maximum motor temperature (after this error is signalized)
Sys.Commands
Start up command when PCB start working
Sys.Modes
Start up operational mode
Table 3.4: MCU Parameters
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Hardware Description
4.1
Power Supply
V1.1 September 2013
Figure 4.1: Auxiliary Power
The nominal input voltage is 18-24V. This voltage is used to supply the two level three phase inverter.
Supplied voltage is converted to 12V and 5V by using voltage regulators LM7812. 12V is used to supply the
MOSFET drivers and 5V is used to supply MCU and hall sensors.
Name
Remark
Elements
Voltage regulator LM7812
Transforming 18V into 12V
Voltage regulator LM7805CT
Transforming 12V into 5V
Bulk capacitor
1000uF / 35V
Input Signals
Mains power supply
18-24V supplied from battery
Ground
Output Signals
DC link voltage
18V supplying 2 level three phase inverter
DC link voltage sense (U1-1)
5V on MCU is 30.5V on DC link
12V voltage line
Supplying MOSFETs driver
5V voltage line
Supplying MCU, hall sensors, potentiometer, …
Ground (GND)
0V
Table 4.1: Auxiliary Power
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Two Level Three Phase Inverter
Figure 4.2: Schematic Two Level Three Phase Inverter
This inverter stage is designed to drive BLDC motors up to 300W continuously without additional heatsinks
or fans using two MOSFETs in parallel. Higher motor power ratings are possible using an optimized thermal
management (heatsink, fan etc.). There is a shunt on negative DC link path used for current measurement
and driver current protection signal too.
Name
Remark
Parameters
MOSFETs current rating (BSC016N06NS)
100A (package limited)
MOSFETs RDS(ON)
1,6mΩ
MOSFETs VDS
60V
Input Signals
DC Link Voltage
18V
Ground
GND
Gate drive signals for high side MOSFET x 3 (UT, VT, WT) Applied voltage 12V to U, V, W
Gate drive signals for low side MOSFET x 3 (UB,VB,WB)
Applied voltage 12V to COM
Output Signals
Positive shunt voltage (COM)
499mV / 1A supplying operational amplifier
Current protection (ITRIP)
248mV / 1A supplying driver protection input
Phases U, V, W
Table 4.2: Description of the Two Level Three Phase Inverter Circuitry
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4.2.1 Current Measurement
Figure 4.3: Current Measurements
Operational amplifier is adapting and shifting the current signal in a range of MCU analog to digital channel.
The signal´s offset is increased in order to measure negative current as well. The offset is corrected in MCU
by subtracting the transformed value for
. This is done using parameter
“Adc.Offset”.
Name
Remark
Parameters
Operational amplifier (MPC6002)
Input Signals
Positive shunt voltage (COM)
499mV / 1A supplying operational amplifier
Ground
GND
5V power supply
Output Signals
Output voltage (U_I)
This voltage is supplied to ADC MCU input
Table 4.3: Shunt Current Measurements
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4.3
XC836M and MOSFETs Driver 6ED003L02
Figure 4.4: XC836 and MOSFET Driver 6ED003L02
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4.3.1 Driver 6ED003L02
The gate driver (6ED003L02-F) is a two level three phase inverter driver to control power devices such as
MOSFETs. The main features of this device are:

Thin-film-SOI-technology

Insensitivity of the bridge output to negative voltages up to -50V given by SOI-technology

Maximum blocking voltage +180V

Power supply of the high side drivers via boot strap

CMOS and LSTTL compatible input (negative logic)

Signal interlocking of every phase to prevent cross-conduction

Detection of over-current and under-voltage supply

'Shut down' of all switches during error conditions

Externally programmable delay for fault clear after over current detection
Name
Remark
Parameters
ITRIP shut down threshold
0.46V
ITRIP input low pass corner frequency fc
3.386 MHz
Input Signals
Power supply logic VCC
12V supplying driver and MOSFETs gate
Ground
GND
Driver enable (active high)
5V/0V supplied by MCU
6 control signals for low and high side switch
5V/0V supplied by MCU
Current protection (ITRIP)
248mV / 1A supplied by two level three phase
inverter
Output Signals
Gate drive signals for high side MOSFETs x 3 (UT, WT, VT)
12V to U, V, W
Gate drive signals for low side MOSFETs x 3 (UB, WB, VB)
12V to COM
Inverter fault output (/CTRAP) (active low)
5V / 0V
Table 4.4: Description of Driver Section
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4.3.2 Microcontroller XC836M
The Demoboard is controlled by 8-bit Infineon microcontroller XC836M. The XC83x-Series makes the entry
level for Infineon’s 8-bit microcontroller family XC800 with real-time-control capabilities. The vector computer
co-processor (MDU + CORDIC) boosts up standard 8-bit processing performance and supports field oriented
motor control at 8-bit cost. This enables more efficient and intelligent designs for motor control (e.g.
sensorless motors).
Name
Remark
Parameters
XC836M system clock frequency (fSYS)
Internal oscillator runs with 48 MHz important for instruction
execution time. Typical instruction is 2/f SYS = 20,8ns.
Input Signals
Voltage supply 5V
5V DC
Ground (GND)
0V
MOSFETs driver error signal (/CTRAP)
Digital input 0V or 5V supplied by MOSFETs driver circuitry
DC link voltage cense (U1-1)
Analog input from 0V to 5V supplied by power supply circuitry
DC link current cense (U_I)
Analog input from 0V to 5V supplied by 2 level 3 phase inverter
circuitry
Analog input from 0V to 5V supplied by temperature protection
circuitry
Temperature sense (Temp)
Potentiometer input (SPIN)
Analog input from 0V to 5V supplied by speed control circuitry
Digital input (BMI3)
Digital input 0V or 5V supplied by digital inputs circuitry
Digital input (BMI2)
Digital input 0V or 5V supplied by digital inputs circuitry
Hall sensor signals inputs (HALL A,B,C)
Digital inputs 0V or 5V supplied by hall circuitry
Output Signals
Driver Enable Signal (active high)
Enabling/disabling MOSFET driver
Driver control signals (COUT6x and CC6x) Inputs to MOSFET driver
Digital outputs (Mout1,2)
To digital output circuitry
LED digital output (LED)
Communication
Receive Input (RXD)
From Communication Port
Transmit Output (TXD)
To Communication Port
Table 4.5: Description of XC836 Circuitry
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Digital Outputs
Figure 4.5: Digital Outputs
Name
Remark
Input Signals
Digital outputs (Mout1,2)
0V/5V supplied from MCU
Ground (GND)
Output Signals
Digital outputs (OUT1,2)
Optional Output (like LED Control Light)
Ground (GND)
Table 4.6: Digital Outputs
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Hall Sensors Digital Inputs
Figure 4.6: Hall Sensor Inputs
Name
Remark
Input Signals
Hall sensor inputs (PIN 1,2,3)
0V/5V
5V power supply
Ground (GND)
Output Signals
Hall sensor outputs (HALL A,B,C)
0V/5V supplied to MCU
Table 4.7: Hall Sensor Inputs
4.6
Communication Port
Figure 4.7: Communication Port
Pin
Num.
Name
4
Transmit Output (RTS)
3
Receive Input (RXD)
1
Ground (GND)
Table 4.8: Description of Communication Port
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5
PCB
5.1
Schematic
1
2
3
V1.1 September 2013
4
5
6
7
8
2
+18V
LM7812
U2
CD1
100UF/35V
C1
100nF
U1
LM7805CT
+12V
3
Out
1
+5V
Vin
3
+5V
UT
R1
R4
Q1
Q2
BSC016N06NS BSC016N06NS
1
C2
CD2
100nF
220uF/25V
A
C3
+
100nF
CD3
470UF/16V
VT
10
R7
10K
Q3
Q4
BSC016N06NS BSC016N06NS
R2
R5
Q5
Q6
BSC016N06NS BSC016N06NS
R3
WT
R6
10
3
10
GND
+
Vin
2
1
GND
2
M7
+ CD5
1000UF/35V
2
D1
1
+18V
10
10
R8
10K
10
R9
10K
U
V
A
W
C4
22nF/630V
GND
18V->12V->5V
UB
R10
R11
+18V
51K
Q7
Q8
BSC016N06NS BSC016N06NS
R13
R16
10
R19
U1-1
VB
R17
10K
+18V
10K
R23
5mR
GND
GND
2
1
C6
10nF
Power Stage
10K
Q13
W
V
U
R24
ITRIP
Battery Voltage Tset
V
V
Q15
10K
U
U
10K
Q14
120R
W
W
GND
OUT1 R63
1
1K
R75
R69
Mout1
1K
C29
100nF
Temp
B
Q16
28050
Temp
10K
3
R74
10K
P1
10
COM
R22
120R
B
R18
10
R21
10K
C5
100nF
R12
10K
GND
+5V
Q11
Q12
BSC016N06NS BSC016N06NS
R15
WB
10
1K
+18V
Power IN
Q9
Q10
BSC016N06NS BSC016N06NS
R14
10
R20
10
R72
10K
10UF/50V
OUT1
OUT2
3
2
1
GND
U3
DATA-OUT
OUT2 R64
R39
1K
MI
10K
1
R37
10K
2
1
C10
100nF
R70
Mout2
1K
3
Header 2
Q17
28050
C
+5V
R73
10K
Program Control
GND
U1-1
1
Temp
2
U_I
3
SPIN
4
CTRAP 5
BM3 6
BM2 7
BM1 8
DR_EN9
MI
10
CLK 11
C11
100nF
Output Control
12
13
14
AN7/P2.7
AN6/P2.6
AN5/P2.5
AN4/P2.4
AN3/P2.3
AN2/P2.2/CCPOS2_1
AN1/P2.1/CCPOS1_1
AN0/P2.0/CCPOS0_1
P0.6
P0.5
P0.4
VDDP
P1.3/CC61
P1.2/COUT61
P0.7/TXD
P3.2/SPD_0/RXD
P3.0
P3.1
P0.3
P0.2/CCPOS0_2
P0.1/CCPOS0_1
P0.0/CCPOS0_0
P1.5/CC62
P1.4/COUT62
VDDC
VSSP
P1.0/COUT60
P1.1/CC60
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
RXD
TXD
Mout1
Mout2
LED R34
HALL-C
HALL-B
HALL-A
C7
100nF
1K
LED
LED1
R28
10K
R29
10K
R30
10K
R31
10K
R32
10K
470R
!VT R36
2
3
4
5
6
7
470R
!WT R38
C8
470R
!UB R40
100nF
+5V
R41 470R
XC836-2FRI
GND
JP2
100nF
R52
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
SPIN
20K
C16
10nF
SP_IN
HALL_IN
GND
Speed Control
D
JP3
TXD R68
RXD
R71
4
3
2
1
+5V
1K
1K
470R
R60
10K
C12
BM3
BM2
BM1
1
2
9
100nF
1OUT
1IN1IN+
GND
Current Measurement
C23
100nF
VCC
2OUT
2IN2IN+
R48
MCP6002
8
7
6
5
U_I
100
R54
R55
22K
10K
R58
R59
200K
C19
100pF
+12V
4
10
HO2
VS2
ITRIP
23
22
VT
R50
V
RCIN
C18
10uF/50V
HO3
VS3
LO1
COM
13
C25 100nF
20
EN
C24
100nF
VSS
LO2
COM
LO3
19
18
WT
16
UB
15
VB
14
WB
R62
W
5R1
D
Infineon Technologies Austria AG
Siemensstr. 2
9500 Villach
Austria
Power Tool Kit
Sheet:
Date:
File:
Figure 5.1: Schematic
C
24
Mosfet Driver
COM
+5V
5
24
U
10K
GND
3
FLT
VB3
C17
100nF
R61
220K
+5V
U5
1
2
3
4
DATA-IN
X-IN
R42
5R1
EN ITRIP
+12V
12
C28 C26 C27
100nF100nF100nF
C9
10uF/50V
27
26
1K
R57
DR_EN
GND
Program
8
11
GND
R65
R66
1K
R67
1K
1K
+5V
HO1
VS1
C13
10uF/50V
R49
CTRAP
HALL-A
HALL-B
HALL-C
P3
5
4
3
2
1
28
R44
10K
10nF 10nF 10nF
C20 C21 C22
HALL Input
VB1
VB2
MCU
R51
R53
1K
R56
1K
1K
HIN1
HIN2
HIN3
LIN1
LIN2
LIN3
5R1
R45
R46
R47
1K1K1K
100nF
VCC
+5V
C14
JP1
27R
R27
!VB
!WB R43
+5V
HALL
C15
27R
R26
D4
RS1M
27R
RS1M
U4
6ED003L02-F
1
470R
!UT R35
470R
+5V
R33
10K
R25
D3
RS1M
+5V
+5V
P2
D2
+12V
+
P4
Temperature Protection
UT
CD4
GND
6
1 of 1
Drawn By: RW
5/23/2013
Revision: 1.1
300W_Demo_IFX_1.SchDoc
7
8
Evaluation Board Application Note
300W Motor Control Application Kit
5.2
Placement
Figure 5.2: Placement
25
Application Note AN 2013-09
V1.1 September 2013
Evaluation Board Application Note
300W Motor Control Application Kit
5.3
Bill of Material
Table 5.1: Bill of Material
26
Application Note AN 2013-09
V1.1 September 2013
Evaluation Board Application Note
300W Motor Control Application Kit
6
Microprocessor Software Description
6.1
Overview
Application Note AN 2013-09
V1.1 September 2013
Motor control software task is to get information or commands from user and control the motor according to
them.
The core of the software is motor control algorithm calculating duty cycle according to different control
schemes. Fast motor control respond is obtained by reading analogue values like DC link current, voltage,
etc. using A/D converter and calculating duty cycle calculation every second PWM period. Before running
motor control algorithm, there is a sequence of operations that ensure safe motor start/stop (control
parameters initialization, charging bootstrap capacitors, switching patterns configuration …). This sequence
is controlled by the scheduler. User can control software behavior using serial communication.
Above described software function are distributed among different MCU events and main loop according to
their priority of execution:

Main function is the start up function initializing all the peripheral, activating other units and jumping
into never endless loop with the lowest priority (Can be overrun by any other unit).

Scheduler is split between main loop and timer T1 event because there are some parts of it that
require higher priority. This event is triggered every 1ms.

Serial communication has its own event which is triggered when the message is received. Sending
messages is done in main loop periodically.

Motor control algorithm is linked to timer T12 event (part of CCU6) executing it periodically every
second PWM period.
27
Evaluation Board Application Note
300W Motor Control Application Kit
Figure 6.1: MCU Software Flow Chart
28
Application Note AN 2013-09
V1.1 September 2013
Evaluation Board Application Note
300W Motor Control Application Kit
Application Note AN 2013-09
V1.1 September 2013
Table 6.1 represents a description of events and its priority starting from 1 as the highest priority. High
priority tasks can interrupt low priority tasks. Tasks with the same priority have to wait for the first one started
to be finished.
Priority
MCU unit, event, trigger
Description
Capture/Compare Unit 6 - Timer
nd
T12, Period Match Event, every 2
PWM period
1
2
Timer T1, Period Match Event,
every 1ms
2
UART, Message received event
Lowest
Main function, Main Loop




The CCU6 unit is made up of a Timer T12 Block with
three compare channels and a Timer T13 Block. The
T12 channels can jointly generate control signal patterns
to drive AC-motors or inverters. T13 is used for current
measurement synchronized with T12, its duty cycle and
A/D converter in order to sense the current in the right
moment. T12 event is executed every two PWM periods
and is used to execute motor control algorithm and
consequently to obtain and set T12 duty cycles for each
compare channel.
This timer is set to trigger event every 1 ms. Within this
event high priority scheduler part of algorithm is
executed.
This event is triggered by a received message from PC
using serial communication.
Main loop is a never endless loop that is running only
when the other events are not running. Within this loop
several tasks are executed:
Sending messages to PC using serial communication.
Low priority scheduler.
Write parameters to MCU permanent memory (FLASH).
Other
Table 6.1: MCU Software Events Priority Description
6.2
Motor Control Algorithm
The 300W Motor Control Application Kit was designed to run Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM). When rotating,
BLDCM induces trapezoidal voltage waveform. Therefore a modulation is needed, which creates a square
voltage waveform. This is called Block Commutation Control.
6.2.1 Unipolar Block Commutation
The trapezoidal commutation method is the simplest way to control BLDC motors and easy to implement the
control aspects of it. For proper commutation and for motor rotation, the rotor position information is very
crucial. Only with the help of rotor position information, the electronic switches in the inverter bridge will be
switched correctly to ensure proper direction of current flow in respective coils. Three hall sensors are used
in general as position sensor. Each hall sensor is typically placed 120° apart and senses the position of the
rotor field. Position information is needed to keep the angle between the rotor and stator magnetic field
between 60° and 120° in order to get the maximum torque.
29
Application Note AN 2013-09
Evaluation Board Application Note
300W Motor Control Application Kit
V1.1 September 2013
[+Vv,-Vw]
HC
HC
2
[+Vu,-Vw]
Ro
to
rF
ie
ld
Vv
[-Vu,+Vv]
1
is
Vu
Ls
HC0
HC3
α
Rs
E
VDC/2
St
ato
rF
iel
d
[+Vu,-Vv]
Vw
[-Vu,+Vw]
HC
HC
4
5
[-Vv.+Vw]
Figure 6.2: BLDC Motor Vector Diagram and phase circuit
The Inverter can switch among six different voltage vectors. Stator magnetic field is proportional to stator
current. The current is the consequence of the difference between DC and BEMF voltage (1).
(1)
(2)
Rotor field is produced by permanent magnets. Stator field is attracting rotor field with torque defined by
stator field magnitude and the angle between them (3), therefore the rotor will move toward stator field.
(3)
Hall combination (HC1) is triggering the right voltage vector (+Vu,-Vu) in order to achieve maximum torque
possible. When angle between rotor and stator field is reduced to 60° and hall combination change to (HC0),
the successive stator voltage vector (-Vv,+Vw) is activated and the angle is again 120°. This is called
commutation because the current is commutating from one phase to another.
30
Application Note AN 2013-09
Evaluation Board Application Note
300W Motor Control Application Kit
+Vu , -Vv
T1
T3
D3
T5
D5
VDC
Ru
T2
Rv
+
T4
D4
T6
Ru
Lw
D6
Rv
Lu
Lv
D3
T5
D5
T2
D2
T4
D4
T6
D6
Rw
Lw
-
-
Lv
D2
Rw
+
-
Lu
D6
Ru
Lu
-
T6
T3
Rv
Lv
-
D4
+
T4
+
D2
D1
VDC
+
Rw
Lw
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Eu
Ev
Ew
Eu
Ev
Ew
Eu
Ev
Ew
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Figure 6.3: BLDC motor current commutation
Commutation table defines the right relationship between hall combinations (HCx) and voltage vectors (V1,
V2) for both rotation directions.
Hall Combination
HC0
Voltage vector for different rotation direction
CCW
CW
+Vv , -Vw
-Vv , +Vw
HC1
+Vv , -Vu
-Vv , +Vu
HC2
+Vw , -Vu
-Vw , +Vu
HC3
+Vw , -Vv
-Vw , +Vv
HC4
+Vu , -Vv
-Vu , +Vv
HC5
+Vu , -Vw
-Vu , +Vw
Table 6.2: BLDC motor commutation table
31
-
T2
T1
+
VDC
D1
-
D5
-
T5
-
D3
+
T3
+Vu , -Vw
+
D1
Commutation
+
T1
V1.1 September 2013
Application Note AN 2013-09
Evaluation Board Application Note
300W Motor Control Application Kit
0°
60°
120°
V1.1 September 2013
180°
240°
330°
360°
IGBTs status
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Phase currents
Phase voltages
VU
U
EU
VV
V
EV
VW
EW
W
IU
IV
IW
HC0
HC1
HC2
HC3
HC4
HC5
Figure 6.4: BLDC motor switching pattern
BLDC motor static characteristic is obtained combining equations (1), (2) and (3). Current transient (di/dt)
and torque fluctuation sin ∝ are neglected.
(4)
Motor speed is a function of phase voltage and load torque. By increasing the voltage also speed will
increase. Voltage control is done using PWM technique by changing duty cycle. PWM is applied only on one
high side switch per time for 120°. Low side switch is switched ON for 120° too but without using PWM. This
is calling unipolar switching.
32
Application Note AN 2013-09
Evaluation Board Application Note
300W Motor Control Application Kit
High Side Switch ON
T1
D1
T3
D3
T5
V1.1 September 2013
High Side Switch OFF
D5
D1
T3
D3
T5
D5
T2
D2
T4
D4
T6
D6
VDC
D4
T6
Ru
Rv
Rw
Ru
-
+
Lw
Lu
Lv
+
Ew
Eu
Ev
-
+
Ev
+
Eu
Rw
Lw
-
Lv
Rv
-
Lu
D6
+
T4
+
D2
+
T2
-
VDC
T1
Ew
+
-
Figure 6.5: BLDC motor unipolar switching
As mentioned before the main control parameter is the duty cycle. This can be calculated selecting from
three available motor control techniques (Figure 6.7).
1. Voltage control – phase voltage can be changed from 0% to 100% (VDC/2).
2. Speed regulation – phase voltage is regulated using PI controller. Input parameter is reference
speed.
3. Current (Torque) regulation – phase voltage is regulated using PI controller. Input parameter is
reference current.
The single shunt current measurement must be done when high side switch is OFF (Figure 6.5). This is the
moment when the current is flowing through the shunt back into the power source. Therefore A/D converter
must be synchronized with PWM and its duty cycle as visible on (Figure 6.6). T13 duty cycle is equal PWM
period value (T12PER) and T13 period value is three times PWM period. Those values will assure that the
current is sensed on right moment.
33
Application Note AN 2013-09
Evaluation Board Application Note
300W Motor Control Application Kit
1st current
sensing
OFF
ON
2nd current
sensing
T12 and
duty cycle
Period
Match
Event
V1.1 September 2013
ON
T13 and
duty cycle
OFF
T12PER
3*T12PER
Figure 6.6: BLDC motor current measurement using a single shunt
34
OFF
Application Note AN 2013-09
Evaluation Board Application Note
300W Motor Control Application Kit
V1.1 September 2013
1. Voltage Control
VREF
Control Techniques Selector
VREF
PI Controler
2. Speed Regulation
fREF
εf
+
-
VREF_I
KI
VREF
+
+
KI_LIMIT
Z-1
KP
fACT
VREF_P
PI Controler
3. Current Regulation
εI
IREF
+
-
VREF_I
KI
VREF
+
+
KI_LIMIT
Z-1
KP
VREF_P
Duty
Cycle
IACT
fACT
Current
Calcul.
Duty
Cycle
BLDCM
Commutation
Table
3 phase
inverter
Speed
Calculation
Hall
Combination
Figure 6.7: BLDC motor block commutation control techniques
35
Application Note AN 2013-09
Evaluation Board Application Note
300W Motor Control Application Kit
6.3
V1.1 September 2013
Scheduler
There are some procedures that must be run before the main motor control algorithm is started. Those
procedures ensure safe motor start up conditions. Scheduler is controlling procedures to be executed one
after another sequentially.
The Scheduler is split in two parts: high and low priority. High priority scheduler is linked to a timer executing
every 1ms. Low priority scheduler is linked to main loop executing when no other task is running. High
priority scheduler is taking care of parameters and MCU register initialization, bootstrap capacitor charging
and speed ramp generation. Low priority scheduler is controlling start/stop of the motor.
6.4
Serial Communication Protocol
UART settings are:

192000 Baud rate

8-bit data

1 start bit

1 stop bi
Communication protocol is a set of communication rules applied to serial communication messages. Each
message is made out of 9 bytes. The last byte is a check sum of first 8 bytes. There are two different
message types:

Message with fixed parameters:
Certain parameters are mapped to byte 1 - 7. This mapping is fixed and depends on byte 0 value.
This message is sent both directions. MCU sent it periodically every 10ms. It can be also sent by
user to MCU in order to control the motor real time.
Byte 0
Byte 1
<b7-b4> <b3-b0>
<b7-b0>
2
0xE
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte 4
Byte 5
Byte 6
Byte 7
Byte 8
<b7-b0> <b15-b8> <b7-b0> <b15-b8> <b7-b0> <b15-b8> <b7-b0>
ACM Software
VDC
4
Mode
fREF
fACT
SVM Angle
6
State
IREF
IACT
VACT
8
Control Bits
10
Status Bits
PWM period
Check
Sum
BLDCM Software
2
0xE
Temperature
Potentiometer
VDC
4
Mode
fREF
fACT
Hall Combination
6
State
IREF
IACT
VACT
8
Control Bits
Hall Index
10
Status Bits
Table 6.3: Serial message with fixed parameters, MCU to PC
36
Check
Sum
Application Note AN 2013-09
Evaluation Board Application Note
300W Motor Control Application Kit
Byte 0
Byte 1
<b7-b4> <b3-b0>
<b7-b0>
0
Mode
2
0xE
Byte 2
Byte 3
V1.1 September 2013
Byte 4
Byte 5
Byte 6
Byte 7
<b7-b0> <b15-b8> <b7-b0> <b15-b8>
Control
Bits Set
fREF
4
IREF
6
VREF
Byte 8
<b7-b0>
Control
Bits Clear
Check
Sum
Table 6.4: Serial message with fixed parameters, PC to MCU

Message with indexed parameters:
Parameters that can be saved into FLASH are indexed and are reachable by setting the correct
index in bytes 2-3. Value can be read/write by setting or reading
byte 4-5.
Byte 0
Byte 1
<b7-b4> <b3> <b2> <b1-b0>
0 = byte
1 = word
1
0 = read
1 = write
0xF
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte 4
Byte 5
<b7-b0> <b15-b8> <b7-b0> <b15-b8>
Index
(if byte)
Value
Table 6.5: Serial message with indexed parameters, PC to MCU
37
(if word)
Value
Byte 6
Byte 7
Byte 8
<b7-b0>
Check
Sum
Application Note AN 2013-09
Evaluation Board Application Note
300W Motor Control Application Kit
6.5
V1.1 September 2013
Parameters
Parameters are values that influence motor and its control behavior. There are two types of parameters:
permanent and variable parameters. Permanent parameters are saved in a permanent MCU memory
(FLASH). Each of them is identified and reachable by its index using communication message (Error!
Reference source not found.). Variable parameters reflect the current state of the motor control or it can be
controlled by them using communication message (Table 6.3). MCU receives recalculated parameter by
Infineon PC user interface according to coefficient K in Table 6.7 and equation (5).
(5)
Length
Min
Max
K
Byte
Mode
Name [Unit]
0
4
1
Operational mode
Description
Byte
Status
0
255
1
Status of the operational mode
Byte
Command Bits
0
255
1
Commands sent to MCU in order to activate some
functionality
Byte
Status Bits
0
255
1
Statuses of the program that is running
Word
fREF [Hz]
-300
300
10
Reference current frequency
Word
fACT [Hz]
-300
300
10
Actual current frequency
Word
IACT [A]
0
2
Actual DC link current
Word
IREF [A]
0
2
Reference DC link current
Word
VREF [%]
0
100
Word
Hall Sensors
0
5
Word
VDC [V]
0
420
327.67 Reference DC phase voltage or duty cycle
1
Hall sensors combination
DC link voltage
Table 6.6: Variable parameters
38
Application Note AN 2013-09
Evaluation Board Application Note
300W Motor Control Application Kit
Index Length
Group.Name [Unit]
Def.
Min
V1.1 September 2013
Max
K
Description
Fine tuning of shunt current
sensing moment.
Switching frequency
0
Byte
Pwm.SwitchDelay [x21ns]
63
-128
127
1
1
Byte
Pwm.Frequency [kHz]
15
5
25
1
2
Byte
Pwm.DeadTime [x21ns]
20
10
255
1
Dead time between half bridge
devices
3
Word
I.Kp
0
0
32767
1
Proportional part of PI controller for
current control loop
4
Word
I.Ki
10
0
32767
1
7
Byte
I.Ki_Limit [%]
100
0
100
1.27
8
Word
Freq.Max [Hz]
300
0
300
10
10
Word
Freq.Slew [Hz/s]
4
0.1
100
10
12
Word
FreqI.Kp
0
0
32767
1
14
Word
FreqI.Ki
5
0
32767
1
16
Byte
FreqI.Ki_Limit [%]
100
0
100
1.27
17
Word
FreqV.Kp
0
0
32767
1
19
Word
FreqV.Ki
5
0
32767
1
21
Byte
FreqV.Ki_Limit [%]
100
0
100
1.27
22
Byte
Adc.Offset [x 21ns]
62
-128
127
1
Tuning the zero of current sensing
23
Word
Adc.TmotorMax
32767
0
65535
1
Maximum motor temperature
before the motor switch off
25
26
Byte
Byte
Sys.Commands
Sys.Modes
0
2
0
0
255
4
1
1
Startup values of the commands
Startup mode
Table 6.7: Permanent parameters saved or can be saved to Flash
39
Integral part of PI controller for
current control loop
Integral part limit of PI controller for
current control loop
Absolute aloud maximum
frequency
Ramp for the frequency when
increasing or decreasing
Proportional part of PI controller for
speed control loop which output is
reference current
Integral part of PI controller for
speed control loop which output is
reference current
Integral part limit of PI controller for
speed control loop which output is
reference current
Proportional part of PI controller for
speed control loop which output is
duty cycle
Integral part of PI controller for
speed control loop which output is
duty cycle
Integral part limit of PI controller for
speed control loop which output is
duty cycle