Application Note 1kW BLDC Power Tool Kit User Manual

1 kW B LD C Po wer To ol K it User Ma nu al
Application Note
About this document
This Application Note introduces a complete system level solution to drive a BLDC Motor for cordless power
tools. It also describes how to quickly get started integrating this demonstration PCB and take advantage of
Infineon’s SMD technology featuring 40 V OptiMOS™ MOSFETs and XMC1000 series microcontroller.
Scope and purpose
To show the efficiency, present a thermal solution for a power stage with SMD MOSFETs and show how to
implement the control with the microcontroller to drive a BLDC motor equipped with 3 hall sensors. This
enables the power tool manufacturers to minimize time to market.
Intended audience
Battery driven power tool manufacturers who intend to reduce the system cost and improve the efficiency
and increase the power density, which in turn provides longer run time and higher peak power pulse
capability.
Table of Contents
1
1.1
Overview ........................................................................................................................................ 3
Key Features ........................................................................................................................................ 3
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
Power Tool Kit Package content .................................................................................................... 5
PCB....................................................................................................................................................... 5
Communication Interface ................................................................................................................... 6
Dedicated Software for the Onboard 32-bit Microcontroller ............................................................ 7
BLDC Motor (BLDCM)........................................................................................................................... 7
3
3.1
Running the Power Tool Kit............................................................................................................ 8
Connecting the board to a BLDC Motor .............................................................................................. 8
4
4.1
4.2
Hardware Description .................................................................................................................. 11
Power Supply: +5V and 12V_boost ................................................................................................... 11
Power Stage....................................................................................................................................... 11
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Overview
4.3
4.4
4.4.1
4.5
4.5.1
4.6
4.7
Current measurement ....................................................................................................................... 12
Gate Drivers ....................................................................................................................................... 14
Gate driver 2EDL05N06PF features ............................................................................................ 15
Microcontroller .................................................................................................................................. 15
XMC Microcontroller features ..................................................................................................... 17
Hall Sensors Digital Inputs ................................................................................................................ 18
Free MCU pins .................................................................................................................................... 19
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
PCB............................................................................................................................................... 20
Schematic .......................................................................................................................................... 20
Layout and Placement ...................................................................................................................... 21
PCB production ................................................................................................................................. 24
Bill of Material.................................................................................................................................... 26
6
6.1
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.2.6
6.2.7
6.2.8
Software ....................................................................................................................................... 28
Overview ............................................................................................................................................ 28
Features ............................................................................................................................................. 28
Unipolar Block Commutation with active rectification ............................................................. 28
Overcurrent shut down ............................................................................................................... 29
Overtemperature shut down ...................................................................................................... 29
Wrong hall pattern shut down .................................................................................................... 30
Motor soft start ............................................................................................................................ 30
Monitoring input DC voltage ....................................................................................................... 30
Programmable boost converter ................................................................................................. 30
Asymmetric Authentication Feature .......................................................................................... 30
7
XMC microcontroller development platform DAVE ...................................................................... 31
8
8.1
8.1.1
8.1.2
Test Results .................................................................................................................................. 32
Efficiency measurement ................................................................................................................... 32
Determining the Zth ..................................................................................................................... 35
Zth of the complete power inverter stage including copper elements ...................................... 35
9
Properties of integrated Schottky-like diode ............................................................................... 36
10
Conclusion ................................................................................................................................... 38
11
11.1
Accessories................................................................................................................................... 39
ORIGA™ Authentication ..................................................................................................................... 39
12
Useful material and links.............................................................................................................. 40
Application Note
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Overview
1
Overview
Infineon´s Power Tool Kit EVAL_SSO8_1kW_BLDC is as complete system solution implemented with a
3-phase bridge MOSFET power stage and a control PCB featuring Infineon’s low cost 32-bit microcontroller
XMC1302.
This demonstration unit is specifically designed for cordless power tool application by using simple plug and
play system, but it can easily be adopted for any 3-phase brushless DC motor application. Its compact
design, optimized thermal performance and a ready to use firmware allows the user to effectively and
quickly implement this design.
The source code is also provided which can be modified to implement additional features.
In its original shape the overall PCB measures 90 mm x 36 mm and provides test points to all signals from
the microcontroller. This allows the user to monitor the signals of interest. This board can be further split
into 3 parts: control PCB, power PCB, and capacitor PCB. These individual PCBs can then be connected via
ribbon cable and give users the flexibility to physically insert these boards into practically any power tool.
This demonstration board is more than just a reference design. Its unique layout, cooling concept and
utilization of surface mount components will result in the highest power density, reliability, and a low cost
product.
Important Notes:
1. The electrolytic capacitor is provided for filtering, but it is important that the battery wires are kept
as short as possible. Otherwise a large ripple current can flow through this capacitor leading to its
premature failure. If a power supply with long wires is used, it is recommended to connect in
addition a 4700 uF/50 V capacitor as close as possible to the power stage.
2. It is also recommended that UART FTDI communication cable is disconnected from the computer
USB connector when the demo board is powered up.
Figure 1
1 kW BLDC Motor Control Power Tool PCB (EVAL_SSO8_1kW_BLDC)
1.1
Key Features

B6 Inverter for 3-phase BLDC motor

Nominal voltage 20 V

Continuous phase current 50 A
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Overview

1 kW output power (Test conditions: 100% duty, 50 A RMS per phase; Vsupply=20 V @50 A, open frame/ no
forced air, 26°C room temperature; resulting in 60°C temperature rise above ambient in 1 min)

Operation down to 6 V battery supply

Peak current capability up to 200 A

Overcurrent detection by measuring VDS,ON across the MOSFET on all 3 phases

Duty cycle controlled BLDC motors with 3 hall sensors

2 parallel MOSFETs BSC010N04LSI in SuperSO8 package – 40 V/1.05 mOhm RDS(ON),max with integrated
monolithic Schottky-like diode (low reverse recovery charge (Qrr) and low forward voltage diode drop
(VSD)

Low PCB parasitic inductance

PCB
− 90 mm x 36 mm overall dimensions
− Power stage PCB : L=45 mm x W=36 mm x H=10 mm
− Material - FR4
− 2 layers, 2oz copper (70 m)

Low conduction losses

Low diode losses, and low reverse recovery charge with an integrated Shottky-like diode (MGD)

Low voltage overshoot and low ringing

Accessible signals at the PCB interface

Good thermal dissipation

Temperature sensor

32-bit XMC motor control optimized microcontroller

Provides all connections for power tool functions: hall sensors, speed controller pot, motor direction
switch, UART communication port, debugger connection

High efficiency ~99%

Maximized power density ~ 75 W/cm³

Half bridge gate driver 2EDL05N06PF – 0.5 A peak

Boost converter for gate driver voltage generation – programmed for 12 V (V_boost) but it can be
modified for other gate driver voltages
Application Note
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Power Tool Kit Package content
2
Power Tool Kit Package content
The Power Tool Kit includes following items:

Power Tool demo PCB (programmed and ready to use)

USB/Serial communication adapter (FTDI Cable)

USB memory stick including documentation and software

2 x 15 cm ribbon cable
Figure 2
Power Tool Package
2.1
PCB
The PCB consists of several building blocks:

Linear regulator IFX27001TFV50 DC/DC converter stepping down the battery voltage to +5 V for MCU

Boost circuit used for gate drivers and an Opamp

Temperature sensor for thermal overload shutdown

3-phase full bridge inverter implemented with 2 in parallel Infineon OptiMOS™ Power MOSFETs
BSC010N04LSI (Id=100 A, RDS(on)=1.05 mΩ).

Current measurement by using voltage measurement across the MOSFET when turned ON

3 x Half Bridge gate driver with integrated bootstrap diode

32-bit XMC1302 microcontroller

Hall sensors signal input circuitry for BLDC motor commutation

Serial communication for programming and controlling the MCU

Connector for a direct access to MCU debug pins

10 spare MCU pins which can be configured as input or output pins

Potentiometer input for speed control

L/R motor direction switch
Application Note
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Power Tool Kit Package content
Figure 3
System Block Diagram
2.2
Communication Interface
Communication interface is a link between PC user interface and the board. It was realized with a
commercially available cable from FTDI TTL-232R-5V-WE.
Figure 4
TTL-232R-5V-WE FTDI Cable Connections
Application Note
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Power Tool Kit Package content
2.3
Dedicated Software for the Onboard 32-bit Microcontroller
The XMC microcontroller is already programmed with dedicated software for power drill application. The
following functions are implemented in the software:

Block commutation for running BLDC motor with voltage control

Wrong Hall sensor shut down
2.4
BLDC Motor (BLDCM)
The Power Tool Demo Board can run every BLDC motor equipped with 3 hall sensors.
Application Note
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Running the Power Tool Kit
3
Running the Power Tool Kit
In order to run the BLDC motor, the following connections must be made:
1.
DC power supply (+20 V, GND)
2.
3 BLDC motor phases (U, V, W)
3.
BLDC motor Hall Sensors (+5 V, GND, H1, H2, H3)
3.1
Connecting the board to a BLDC Motor
Figure 5
Control Board Connections
Note: Hall sensors must match respective phases, otherwise the inverter will immediately shut down.
Application Note
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Running the Power Tool Kit
Figure 6
Interface signals between control board and power board
Figure 7
Power Inverter Board Connections
Application Note
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Running the Power Tool Kit
It is recommended that the power connection be made by means of direct soldering to the exposed copper.
Since the thermal conductance is very high, use 450ºC soldering iron with a large solder tip to effectively
transfer the heat to copper parts and solder the connection wires. Ensure that there are no short circuit
connections between phase outputs and battery +/- copper plates. See a sample below.
Figure 8
Power Inverter Board Connections
Application Note
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Hardware Description
4
Hardware Description
4.1
Power Supply: +5 V and 12 V_boost
Figure 9
Power Supply Schematic
The system input voltage range is 6-24 V. The supplied voltage is stepped down to +5 V by using a low
dropout voltage regulator IFX27001TFV50. This +5 V voltage is used to supply MCU, hall sensors,
temperature sensor, and as supply voltage to the boost converter.
The 12 V_boost voltage, which is used for gate drivers 2EDL05N06PF and the LM324 operational amplifier, is
generated by the boost converter built around Q13.
4.2
Power Stage
Figure 10
3 Phase Inverter Schematic
The power stage is designed to drive a BLDC motor up to 1 kW using two BSC010N04LSI MOSFETs in parallel.
The gate resistors have a value of 100 Ohm which can be further modified depending on desired
performance. Higher value of gate resistors will increase switching losses, since the MOSFETs are switching
slower, but at the same time, the slower switching will generate lower voltage overshoots and require lower
filter capacitors value.
If the gate resistors values are reduced, it is possible to reduce the dead time between high and low side
MOSFETs leading to faster switching and lower switching losses, but on the other hand, the parasitic
Application Note
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Hardware Description
inductance of the battery and the circuit parasitic inductance will have more effect and generate higher
voltage overshoot.
Multilayer ceramic caps (10 x 2.2 F/50 V MLCC) are place on top side of the PCB which will filter out high
frequency currents. The number of MLCCs can be further optimized depending on system requirements.
4.3
Current measurement
Figure 11
Current Measurements Schematics
The current measurement is implemented by means of measuring the voltage across the Drain-Source of
the MOSFET. Since the MOSFET behaves like a resistor when in “ON” state, the voltage across it can be
measured and the current through MOSFET can be calculated by using Ohm’s law.
 =

[1]
()
Since the RDS(on) is dependent on temperature, we need to compensate for temperature change.
In Figure 12 below (found in datasheet of BSC010N04LSI) we can see RDS(on) dependency of temperature. Two
curves provided are for a typical and a maximum initial RDS(on) value.
The software which is included in this package, is assuming a linear RDS(on dependency of temperature
(indicated with the red line). The temperature information is obtained from the temperature sensor RT1.
If more accurate current measurements are required, one can create a curve fit formula instead of linear
approximation. Also in effort to reduce the measurement error, we can factor out the variation of initial
RDS(ON) and op-amp offset by initial calibration.
In a calibration process, it is advisable to set a known current on the power supply and cycle through all 3
phases. The readings on microcontroller A/D inputs can be then correlated with this current (suggested
range ~10 A). The provided demonstration board is not calibrated.
Application Note
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Hardware Description
Figure 12
RDS(on) dependency of temperature for BSC010N04LSI
From the graph above (typical curve), we can see that with increased temperature RDS,(on) is increasing. For
example if the temperature rises from 25°C to 100°C, the RDS,(on) will change from 0.8 mOhm to 1.25 mOhm.
In order to compensate for temperature change we can calculate the RDS(on),hot as
[2]
(),ℎ = (), ∗ (1 + (ℎ −  ) )
where α is a temperature coefficient.
Since we have 2 MOSFETs in parallel and assuming a typical RDS(on)=0.9 mOhm at 25°C, and Tj=100°C we can
estimate the RDS(on),hot:
(),ℎ =
0.9 ℎ
2
∗ (1 +
0,45 ℎ
(100°
100°
− 25°)) = 0.60 ℎ
[3]
The current is calculated as
ℎ =

(),ℎ
[4]
Since the measured VDS signal is small due to very low RDS(on) (0.6 mOhm), an op-amp is used to amplify this
signal. The op-amp amplification is set to 30 V/V.
The current information is used to detect overload condition and shut down the inverter.
Application Note
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Hardware Description
4.4
Gate Drivers
Figure 13
Single Gate Driver Block Diagram
Figure 14
Schematic of a 3-Phase Gate Driver Circuit
Application Note
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Hardware Description
4.4.1
Gate driver 2EDL05N06PF features
This demonstration board is using three 2EDL05N06PF Half Bridge gate drivers with integrated bootstrap
diode.
Main features

Output current 500 mA

Thin-film-SOI-technology

Insensitivity of the bridge output to negative transient voltages up to -50 V given by SOI-technology

Ultrafast bootstrap diode

Maximum blocking voltage +600 V

Individual control circuits for both outputs

Filtered detection of under voltage supply

All inputs clamped by diodes

Off line gate clamping function

Asymmetric under voltage lockout thresholds for high side and low side

Qualified according to JEDEC1 (high temperature stress tests for 1000 h) for target applications
4.5
Microcontroller
Figure 15
XMC1302 Microcontroller schematic
The XMC1300 devices are members of the XMC1000 family of microcontrollers based on the ARM®
Cortex™-M0 processor core. The XMC1300 series is suitable for the real-time control needs of the BLDC
motor.
It also controls all input and output signals necessary for the power tool operation.
Application Note
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Hardware Description
Figure 16
XMC1302 Microcontroller Pin out
Figure 17
XMC1302 Microcontroller Block Diagram
Application Note
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Hardware Description
4.5.1
XMC Microcontroller features
CPU Subsystem

CPU Core
− High Performance 32-bit ARM® Cortex™-M0 CPU
− Most of 16-bit Thumb instruction set
− Subset of 32-bit Thumb2 instruction set
− High code density with 32-bit performance
− Single cycle 32-bit hardware multiplier
− System timer (SysTick) for Operating System support
− Ultra low power consumption

Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC)

Event Request Unit (ERU) for programmable processing of external and internal service requests

MATH Co-processor (MATH), consists of a CORDIC unit for trigonometric calculation and a division unit
On-Chip Memories

8 kbytes on-chip ROM

16 kbytes on-chip high-speed SRAM

200 kbytes on-chip Flash program and data memory
Communication Peripherals

Two Universal Serial Interface Channels (USIC), usable as UART, double-SPI, quad-SPI, IIC, IIS and LIN
interfaces
Analog Frontend Peripherals

12 A/D Converters, includes 2 sample and hold stages and a fast 12-bit analog to digital converter with
adjustable gain

8 channels of out of range comparators (ORC)

3 fast analog comparators (ACMP)

Temperature Sensor (TSE)
Industrial Control Peripherals

Capture/Compare Units 4 (CCU4) for use as general purpose timers

Capture/Compare Units 8 (CCU8) for motor control and power conversion

Position Interfaces (POSIF) for hall and quadrature encoders and motor positioning

Brightness and Color Control Unit (BCCU), for LED color and dimming application
System Control

Window Watchdog Timer (WDT) for safety sensitive applications

Real Time Clock module with alarm support (RTC)

System Control Unit (SCU) for system configuration and control

Pseudo random number generator (PRNG), provides random data with fast generation times
Application Note
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Hardware Description
Input/Output Lines With Individual Bit Controllability

Tri-stated in input mode

Push/pull or open drain output mode

Configurable pad hysteresis
Debug System

Access through the standard ARM serial wire debug (SWD) or the single pin debug

(SPD) interface

A breakpoint unit (BPU) supporting up to 4 hardware breakpoints

A watchpoint unit (DWT) supporting up to 2 watchpoints
4.6
Hall Sensors Digital Inputs
Figure 18
Hall Sensor Input Schematic
Figure 19
Communication Port Schematic
Table 1
Communication Port Pin Out
Connector X7 Pin Number
Name
TTL-232R-5V-WE
FTDI cable connection
5
Receive Input (Rx)
Yellow - RXD
4
Transmit Output
(Tx)
Orange - TXD
1
Ground (GND)
Black - GND
Application Note
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Hardware Description
4.7
Free MCU pins
Since one of the objectives of this reference board is to create a very compact design, the MCU free pins are
directly accessible at the PCB bottom side.
Free MCU pins are : #2,3,4,5,11,12,19,29,30,35
Application Note
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PCB
5
PCB
5.1
Schematic
Figure 20
Complete Schematic
Application Note
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PCB
5.2
Layout and Placement
Figure 21
PCB Top (90 mm x 36 mm)
Figure 22
Gerber File - Copper Top
Application Note
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PCB
Figure 23
PCB Bottom
Figure 24
Gerber file - Copper Bottom
Application Note
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PCB
Figure 25
Top Overlay – Control PCB
Figure 26
Top Overlay – Power PCB
Application Note
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PCB
Direct access to
microcontroller pins
Figure 27
Bottom Overlay – Control PCB
Figure 28
Bottom Overlay – Power PCB
5.3
PCB production
During the PCB production it is important to establish a good connection between the MOSFET and the PCB
copper plane. This will ensure a good heat transfer to the copper plates. This demonstration board is
produced with the solder profile shown below. The results are displayed in x-ray pictures which indicate an
acceptable voids rate of approximetely 5-10%.
Application Note
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PCB
Figure 29
Solder Profile – temperature versus time; Solder Paste type 3: Indium 8.9 Pb-Free
Figure 30
X-ray showing voids distribution of a complete power stage (left); zoomed (right)
Figure 31
Stencil patterns (yellow color); Stencil thickness 120 m
Application Note
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PCB
5.4
Bill of Material
Table 2
BOM
Quantity
Designator
12
C33,15,16,21, Murata
22,25,29,34,3
5,30,8,5
GRM31MR71E2 MURATA 25KA93L
GRM31MR71E225KA93L Capacitor, 1206, 2.2uF, 25V
1206
6
C1, C3, C4,
Murata
C26, C27, C31
GRM31MR71E2 MURATA 25KA93L
GRM31MR71E225KA93L Capacitor, 1206, 2.2uF, 25V
1206
1
C2
NICHICON
TVX1V102MCD
6
C12, C13,
C18, C19,
C23, C24
TDK
C2012X7R1E10 Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors
5K125AB
MLCC - SMD/SMT 0805 1 uF
25volts X7R 10%
805
2
C6, C7
United ChemiCon
EKMGG350ELL
100ME
5x11 mm
6
C10, C11,
C14, C17,
C20, C38
Kemet
C0603C104K5R Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors
ACTU
MLCC - SMD/SMT 50volts 0.1uF
X7R 10%
2
D14, D15
Infineon
Technologies
BAT 165 E6327 Schottky Diodes & Rectifiers
SOD-323
Med-Power AF 750 mA Schottky
Diode 40 V
3
D17, D20,
D22
ON
MM3Z5V1T1G
SEMICONDUCT
OR
ZENER DIODE, 200 mW, 5.1 V
SOD-323
1
D18
ON
1SMA5931BT3
SEMICONDUCT G
OR
Zener Diodes 18 V 1.5 W
DO214AC
1
IC1
Infineon
Technologies
IFX27001TFV50 LDO Voltage Regulators Linear
Voltage Regulator
PG-TO252-3
1
IC2
Infineon
Technologies
XMC1302XMC1302 ARM® Cortex™-M0 32T038X0200_AA bit Microcontroller
SOP50P64
0X120-38N
1
L1
Bourns
CM453232820KL
1812
12
Q1, Q2, Q3,
Q4, Q5, Q6,
Q7, Q8, Q9,
Q10, Q11,
Q12
Infineon
Technologies
BSC010N04LSI MOSFET 40 V 1.05 mOhm 100 A
ATMA1
PGTDSON-8
FL
1
Q13
Infineon
Technologies
BSS670S2LH63 N-Channel Small Signal
27XT
MOSFET 55 V/650 mOhm
PG-SOT-23
12
R7,8,9,10,11,
KOA
RK73H1JTTD1
603
Application Note
Manufacturer
Manufacturer
Part Number
26
Description
Footprint
NICHICON - TVX1V102MCD –
Capacitor, 1000uF, 35V
Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors - Leaded 35 V 10uF 5X11
Fixed Inductors 82uH 10%
Wirewound
Thick Film Resistors - SMD 1/10
13 mm x
31.5 mm
Axial
603
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1 kW BLDC Power Tool Kit User Manual
PCB
Quantity
Designator
Manufacturer
12,22,23,24,2
5,26,27
Manufacturer
Part Number
000F
Description
Footprint
watts 100 Ohm 1%
3
R37,R46,R55
KOA
RK73H1JTTD7
501F
Thick Film Resistors - SMD 1/10
watt 7.5 kOhm 1%
603
7
R39,50,40,43, KOA
32,53,47
RK73H1JTTD1
002F
Thick Film Resistors - SMD 1/10
watts 10 kOhm 1%
603
3
R73,R74,R75
KOA
RK73H1JTTD1
500F
Thick Film Resistors - SMD 1/10
watts 150 Ohm 1%
603
6
R33,42,51,70, KOA
71,72
RK73H1JTTD2
201F
Thick Film Resistors - SMD 1/10
watt 2.2 kOhm 1%
603
1
R38
KOA
RK73H1JTTD1
601F
Thick Film Resistors - SMD 1/10
watt 1.6 kOhm 1%
603
3
R34,44,52
KOA
RK73H1JTTD2
203F
Thick Film Resistors - SMD 1/10
watt 220 kOhm 1%
603
1
R35
KOA
RK73H1JTTD3
302F
Thick Film Resistors - SMD 1/10
watt 33 kOhm 1%
603
1
R41
KOA
RK73H1JTTD2
002F
Thick Film Resistors - SMD 1/10
watt 20 kOhm 1%
603
6
R36,13,14,15, KOA
28,29,30
RK73H1JTTD1
003F
Thick Film Resistors - SMD 1/10
watt 100 kOhm 1%
603
1
R36
KOA
RK73H1JTTD1
003F
Thick Film Resistors - SMD 1/10
watt 100 kOhm 1%
603
1
RT1
Microchip
Technology
MCP9700TE/TT
Board Mount Temperature
Sensors Lin Active Therm 10
mV / C
SOT-23-3
1
U1
Texas
Instruments
LM324PWR
Operational Amplifiers Quad
GP Opamp
TSSOP-14
3
U2, U3, U4
Infineon
2EDL05N06PF
EiceDRIVER™ high voltage gate
driver IC
SOIC127P
600X1758N-2
3
Dulling Elektro 9015_006
& Metal GmBH
Copper plate U-Teil 6
custom
made
4
Dulling Elektro 9015_007
& Metal GmBH
Copper plate U -Teil 7
custom
made
2
X1, X4
Samtec Inc
HTSW-102-07L-S
CONN HEADER 2POS .100" T/H
GOLD
vertical,
single row
1
X3
Samtec Inc
HTSW-103-07G-S
CONN HEADER 3POS .100" T/H
GOLD
vertical,
single row
1
X7
Samtec Inc
HTSW-106-07G-S
CONN HEADER 6POS .1" T/H
GOLD
vertical,
single row
1
X8
Samtec Inc
HTSW-105-07G-S
CONN HEADER 5POS .100" T/H
GLD
vertical,
single row
Application Note
27
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1 kW BLDC Power Tool Kit User Manual
Software
6
Software
6.1
Overview
The motor control software is based on a voltage control block commutation algorithm of the BLDC motor.
The microcontroller reads 3 hall switch patterns in order to determine the correct switching sequence for
the phase commutation. Other input variables such as phase current, temperature, supply voltage, and a
wrong hall pattern sequence are also being monitored by the microcontroller. According to their values, the
microcontroller takes an action and controls the power inverter stage accordingly.
This demonstration board is already programmed with dedicated software for cordless power drill and is
ready for use.
6.2
Features

Unipolar Block Commutation with active rectification

Overcurrent shut down

Over temperature shut down

Wrong hall pattern shut down

Motor soft start

Monitoring input DC voltage

Programmable boost converter
6.2.1
Unipolar Block Commutation with active rectification
In a unipolar voltage control, while the low side switch (LS) is ON, the PWM pulses are applied to the high
sided switch (HS). In addition, the Synch_FET is turned ON when the body diode of the Synch_FET is
conducting. In this way the diode losses are minimized. The dead time between HS and LS MOSFETs should
be set depending on turn-on and turn-off time of the HS which is directly related to the value of the gate
resistors. In this particular example the dead time is set to 2 s (using Rg=100 Ohm).
The Figure 32 below shows active components while energizing phases U and V, and Figure 32/Figure 33
shows control signals for commutation of all 3 phases.
Application Note
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Software
Figure 32
Unipolar voltage switching with synchronous rectification for a single phase
Figure 33
Unipolar voltage switching with synchronous rectification for all 3 phases
6.2.2
Overcurrent shut down
Each phase current is monitored by measuring and amplifying the drain-source voltage of the low side
MOSFET during its ON state. This voltage is evaluated and temperature compensated by XMC
microcontroller (refer to RDS(on) vs. temperature diagram). The current threshold is set to 150 A. If the phase
current exceeds 150 A, the inverter will shut down and stay in de-energized state until the next power cycle.
6.2.3
Overtemperature shut down
The temperature sensor is placed in vicinity of high side MOSFET of W-phase. When temperature of 80°C is
reached the inverter will shut down until the temperature sensor cools down to 50°C. When 50°C is reached,
the inverter will automatically turn ON again and resume the operation.
Application Note
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1 kW BLDC Power Tool Kit User Manual
Software
6.2.4
Wrong hall pattern shut down
If the hall patterns do not match the expected sequence (wrong connection), the power stage will shut down
to prevent the MOSFET overstress. Each time this condition is encountered, the unit needs to be reset.
6.2.5
Motor soft start
In order to prevent high inrush current, the motor control regulates the rate of duty cycle i.e. voltage
increment applied to the motor.
6.2.6
Monitoring input DC voltage
The input DC voltage is monitored by the XMC microcontroller A/D input which reads the voltage across the
resistive voltage divider connected across the battery terminals. The operating voltage range is 6-24 V.
6.2.7
Programmable boost converter
The boost converter regulates the gate driver voltage to 12 V. The XMC microcontroller A/D input reads the
boost voltage and regulates it accordingly. The boost converter output voltage of 12 V is also used for
Opamp voltage supply.
6.2.8
Asymmetric Authentication Feature
XMC1302 support Infineon’s Asymmetric Authentication Solution ORIGA™. The authentication chip normally
will be embedded in the battery and it can be used to detect and authenticate genuine batteries before
charging or operating the tool. ORIGA™ single wire interface (SWI) can be connected to P0.15 and this device
can operate in 2 wire mode (SWI and GND). The complete host code is already integrated in the XMC1302
library (would require recompilation with compiler directive). If this feature is implemented, the motor will
not start in the event of authentication failure. This authentication feature benefits the user by providing
safe reliable operating and charging environment.
For ORIGA™ hardware and more information, please visit http://www.infineon.com/origa
Application Note
30
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XMC microcontroller development platform DAVE™
7
XMC microcontroller development platform DAVE™
Further Information:
http://www.infineon.com/dave
Figure 34
Block diagram of XMC microcontroller
DAVE™ software is a free development platform which reduces software development time for XMC
microcontrollers. It includes a complete free tool chain including a GNU compiler, debugger, and a data
visualization tool.
DAVE™ Apps are application components for a wide range of use which makes it easy to fully utilize flexible
peripherals. A resource solver ensures conflict free mapping of chip resources.
Application Note
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Test Results
8
Test Results
8.1
Efficiency measurement
For the efficiency measurement following setup is used:
Figure 35
Measurement Setup
Test setup description:
A regulated power supply is used to provide the voltage to the demo board. The supplied current and
voltage is fed to the power analyzer. At the output of the DEMO PCB, all 3 phase voltages and currents are
fed to the power analyzer.
In order to apply the load, another LOAD BLDC motor is used to break the BLDC MOTOR. These two motors
are interconnected with a mechanical coupling. When the BLDC motor spins, the load motor acts as a
generator and induces voltage which is rectified with a 3 phase diode bridge. This output voltage is further
filtered with a DC link cap. A DC electronic load is connected at the output of the 3 phase diode bridge. By
applying different setting on the electronic load, different loading conditions can be achieved.
In effort to improve the efficiency of the power stage, Infineon has developed a MOSFET with integrated
monolithic Schottky-like diode which reduces the diode forward voltage drop losses and also diode reverse
recovery losses. In order to show the benefits of this technology, two equivalent measurements are
performed.
The Table 3 shows the measurements without the Schottky-like diode, and the Table 4 shows the
measurements with the Schottky-like diode.
The details of measurements are shown below.
Table 3
Efficiency measurement with BSC010N04LS in block commutated BLDC motor drive
Input Power
[W]
Output Power
[W]
Efficiency
[%]
Power Losses
[W]
833
825
99.0
8.0
968
953
98.5
15.0
1099
1076
97.9
23.0
1172
1142
97.4
30.0
Application Note
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1 kW BLDC Power Tool Kit User Manual
Test Results
Table 4
Efficiency measurement with BSC010N04LSI in block commutated BLDC motor drive
Input Power
[W]
Output Power
[W]
Efficiency
[%]
Power Losses
[W]
832.24
825.83
99.2
6.4
975.34
962.56
98.7
12.8
1100.6
1080.81
98.2
19.8
1229.3
1202.63
97.8
26.7
The table below shows the difference in power loss between BSC010N04LS and BSC010N04LSI.
Table 5
Figure 36
Efficiency summary of BSC010N04LS vs. BSC010N04LSI
Output Power
[W]
Δ Power Losses
[W]
Efficiency Gain
[%]
825
1.6
0.2
953
2.2
0.2
1076
3.2
0.3
Phase voltage (yellow trace) and phase current (green trace) waveforms
The temperature measurements are performed on BSC010N04LSI and BSC010N04LS with the infrared
camera.
As previous efficiency tables indicates, we expect a longer run time with the MOSFET with integrated
monolithic Schottky-like diode BSC010N04LSI.
Test conditions: full power; 100% duty, Iphase=50 A(rms), Vbat=20 V , no forced air, room temperature;
Application Note
33
Revision 2.0, 2014-10-09
1 kW BLDC Power Tool Kit User Manual
Test Results
Figure 37
Temperature rise at full power with BSC010N04LSI
Figure 38
Temperature rise at full power with BSC010N04LS
Application Note
34
Revision 2.0, 2014-10-09
1 kW BLDC Power Tool Kit User Manual
Test Results
8.1.1
Determining the Zth
8.1.2
Zth of the complete power inverter stage including copper elements
As mentioned in earlier chapter, it is essential to establish a good thermal connection between the MOSFET
and the PCB. This ensures a good thermal connection between a MOSFET and cooling copper plates.
In order to determine how a system behaves thermally, we refer to a Zth diagram.
The Zth diagram provides the information of how much power we are able to dissipate for a specified
duration and what will be the resultant temperature of the MOSFET at the end of power pulse.
The Zth diagram below is shown for this system.
Figure 39
Zth diagram of the power inverter
Note: The Zth diagram above should not be confused with the MOSFET Zth diagram. For power pulses less
than 0.1 s, please refer to MOSFET data sheet Zth diagram.
Application Note
35
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1 kW BLDC Power Tool Kit User Manual
Properties of integrated Schottky-like diode
9
Properties of integrated Schottky-like diode
The efficiency measurements and the temperature graphs show that the BSC010N04LSI has about 20%
power loss reduction or 20% longer running time as compared to BSC010N04LS under the same loading
conditions. This efficiency gain is due to integrated monolithic Schottky-like diode.
If we take a closer look at the diode forward voltage graph, we can see that the BSC010N04LSI diode has a
lower forward voltage drop, and also lower recovery charge which account for higher efficiency.
Figure 40
BSC010N04LSI
BSC010N04LS
Forward characteristics of reverse diode for BSC010N04LSI and BSC010N04LS
The positive effect of the integrated Schottky-like diode has also some drawbacks.
Some of the parameters of interest are: Leakage current, RDS(on), and avalanche capability.
The summary is shown in the table below.
Table 6
Comparison of parameters of interest for BSC010N04LS and BSC010N04LSI
Parameter
Description
Test conditions
BSC010N04LS
BSC010N04LSI
IDSS
Zero gate voltage drain
current
VGS=0, VDS=32 V, Tj=25°C
1 mA
500 mA
RDS(on),max
Drain-source on-state
resistance
VGS=10 V, ID=50 A
1.00 mOhm
1.05 mOhm
EAS
Avalanche energy, single
pulse
ID=50 A, RGS=25 Ohm
330 mJ
230 mJ
Nevertheless, in power tool application the advantage of integrated diode outweighs its drawbacks.
Application Note
36
Revision 2.0, 2014-10-09
1 kW BLDC Power Tool Kit User Manual
Properties of integrated Schottky-like diode
Leakage current:
In most designs the relevance of leakage current, which is important for a stand by operation, is minimized
since the power trigger switch separates battery from the circuit and the stand by current is virtually
reduced to zero. In the ON state during normal operation this leakage current is negligible compared to the
load current.
The leakage current is greatly reduced at lower voltages.
For BSC010N04LSI at 10 V, the voltage which a MOSFET will experience in a half bridge configuration
connected to 20 V source, is 5 A.
The leakage current increases with the temperature. The leakage current graph as a function of applied
voltage and temperature is given below.
Figure 41
Leakage current versus Drain-Source voltage
RDS(on) :
In case of BSC010N04LSI, the RDS(on) is increased by 5% which increases conduction losses. Nevertheless,
despite the slightly increased conduction losses, the power loss reduction due to integrated monolithic
Schottky-like diode is greater.
Avalanche:
The avalanche rating of a MOSFET becomes important only if the breakdown voltage V(BR)DSS is exceeded.
This demonstration board has very low voltage overshoot due to low reverse recovery charge Qrr of the
integrated monolithic Schottky-like diode, and a low PCB layout parasitic inductance.
It is not recommended to exceed the maximum breakdown voltage V(BR)DSS of a MOSFET at any time. The
avalanche energy contained in a voltage overshoot is difficult to quantify, thus it present a risk to exceed the
maximum avalanche EAS rating of a MOSFET if the V(BR)DSS is exceeded.
Application Note
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Conclusion
10
Conclusion
The presented demonstration board provides a plug and play solution for driving BLDC motors in cordless
power tool applications. The optimized size allows a quick integration in cordless power drills. With Infineon
developed dedicated software, and a free software development platform DAVE™, the user is able to
integrate additional functions.
The generated Zth diagram for the inverter power stage allows the designer to determine the MOSFET
temperature for a given condition. This can be very useful especially for motor start up and locked rotor
conditions.
It was shown that in BLDC motor power inverter, the body diode plays a key role. The power loss and
temperature measurements show an improvement of up to 20% of BSC010N04LSI MOSFET with integrated
Schottky-like diode.
The Infineon’s patented Schottky-like diode MOSFET technology, enables the tool manufacturers to
implement their solution with a cost effective packages such as SuperSO8 and achieve more motor torque,
higher current operation, and up to 20% saving in power losses which is directly proportional to longer
operation time in the application.
Application Note
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1 kW BLDC Power Tool Kit User Manual
Accessories
11
Accessories
11.1
ORIGA™ Authentication
This demonstration board can in addition be equipped with an authentication hardware and software which
ensures usage of OEM batteries only.
For more information and implementation of the ORIGA™ go to http://www.infineon.com/origa
Application Note
39
Revision 2.0, 2014-10-09
1 kW BLDC Power Tool Kit User Manual
Useful material and links
12

Useful material and links
DAVE™ - Free Development Platform for Code Generation:
http://www.infineon.com/dave

OptiMOS™ 40V/60V Webpage:
http://www.infineon.com/optimos5-40v60v

Product Brief OptiMOS™ 40V/60V:
http://www.infineon.com/dgdl/Infineon+-+Product+Brief+-+Power+MOSFETs++OptiMOS+5+40V+and+60V.pdf?folderId=db3a304314dca38901154c20869c1b30&fileId=db3a3043353fdc
16013543568a1731a7

Video OptiMOS™ 5 40V/60V
http://www.edge-cdn.net/index.php?ct=1353&vid=163276&setlang=en

ORIGA™ – Battery Authentication - Webpage
http://www.infienon.com/origa

XMC 1000 Webpage
http://www.infineon.com/xmc1000

EiceDRIVER™ Compact Webpage
http://www.infineon.com/eicedriver-compact
Revision History
Major changes since the last revision
Page or Reference
--
Application Note
Description of change
First Release
40
Revision 2.0, 2014-10-09
Trademarks of Infineon Technologies AG
AURIX™, C166™, CanPAK™, CIPOS™, CIPURSE™, CoolMOS™, CoolSET™, CORECONTROL™, CROSSAVE™, DAVE™, DI-POL™, EasyPIM™, EconoBRIDGE™,
EconoDUAL™, EconoPIM™, EconoPACK™, EiceDRIVER™, eupec™, FCOS™, HITFET™, HybridPACK™, I²RF™, ISOFACE™, IsoPACK™, MIPAQ™, ModSTACK™,
my-d™, NovalithIC™, OptiMOS™, ORIGA™, POWERCODE™, PRIMARION™, PrimePACK™, PrimeSTACK™, PRO-SIL™, PROFET™, RASIC™, ReverSave™,
SatRIC™, SIEGET™, SINDRION™, SIPMOS™, SmartLEWIS™, SOLID FLASH™, TEMPFET™, thinQ!™, TRENCHSTOP™, TriCore™.
Other Trademarks
Advance Design System™ (ADS) of Agilent Technologies, AMBA™, ARM™, MULTI-ICE™, KEIL™, PRIMECELL™, REALVIEW™, THUMB™, µVision™ of ARM
Limited, UK. AUTOSAR™ is licensed by AUTOSAR development partnership. Bluetooth™ of Bluetooth SIG Inc. CAT-iq™ of DECT Forum. COLOSSUS™,
FirstGPS™ of Trimble Navigation Ltd. EMV™ of EMVCo, LLC (Visa Holdings Inc.). EPCOS™ of Epcos AG. FLEXGO™ of Microsoft Corporation. FlexRay™ is
licensed by FlexRay Consortium. HYPERTERMINAL™ of Hilgraeve Incorporated. IEC™ of Commission Electrotechnique Internationale. IrDA™ of Infrared
Data Association Corporation. ISO™ of INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION. MATLAB™ of MathWorks, Inc. MAXIM™ of Maxim
Integrated Products, Inc. MICROTEC™, NUCLEUS™ of Mentor Graphics Corporation. MIPI™ of MIPI Alliance, Inc. MIPS™ of MIPS Technologies, Inc., USA.
muRata™ of MURATA MANUFACTURING CO., MICROWAVE OFFICE™ (MWO) of Applied Wave Research Inc., OmniVision™ of OmniVision Technologies, Inc.
Openwave™ Openwave Systems Inc. RED HAT™ Red Hat, Inc. RFMD™ RF Micro Devices, Inc. SIRIUS™ of Sirius Satellite Radio Inc. SOLARIS™ of Sun
Microsystems, Inc. SPANSION™ of Spansion LLC Ltd. Symbian™ of Symbian Software Limited. TAIYO YUDEN™ of Taiyo Yuden Co. TEAKLITE™ of CEVA, Inc.
TEKTRONIX™ of Tektronix Inc. TOKO™ of TOKO KABUSHIKI KAISHA TA. UNIX™ of X/Open Company Limited. VERILOG™, PALLADIUM™ of Cadence Design
Systems, Inc. VLYNQ™ of Texas Instruments Incorporated. VXWORKS™, WIND RIVER™ of WIND RIVER SYSTEMS, INC. ZETEX™ of Diodes Zetex Limited.
Last Trademarks Update 2011-11-11
www.infineon.com
Edition 2014-10-09
Published by
Infineon Technologies AG
81726 Munich, Germany
© 2015 Infineon Technologies AG.
All Rights Reserved.
Do you have a question about any
aspect of this document?
Email: [email protected]
Document reference
ANEVAL_201410_PL11_001
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