Application Guide for Mobile Communication 2015

Appli ca ti o n Gu ide f o r Mo bi le
Commu n icat i o n
Application Guide
About this document
This Application Guide for Mobile Communication presents recent trends in Radio Frequency applications
including suggestions for using the latest Infineon products. It is a reference book to help mobile phone
design experts to find the right parts easily for building high-performance RF Front Ends. The following
subjects are covered:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Overview of Infineon Technologies AG's RF product portfolio
RF switches in mobile phones and wireless systems
Low Noise Amplifiers for mobile phones
LNAs and FE modules and other RF devices for global navigation satellite systems
RF devices for Wireless Local Area Network, unlicensed LTE and Licensed Assisted Access
RF devices for FM radio and mobile TV
Electrostatic Discharge protection devices for mobile phones
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Infineon Technologies
Infineon Technologies
A Leading Company in RF and Sensors
Infineon Technologies focuses on the three central challenges facing modern society: Energy Efficiency, Mobility and
Security. It offers semiconductor components and system solutions for automotive, industrial, mobile, wireless,
consumer, chip-card and security applications.
Infineon’s products stand out for their reliability, their quality excellence and their innovative and leading-edge
technologies in analog and mixed signal, RF and power, as well as embedded control.
With its technologies and design expertise, Infineon is the market leader in its focused segments. Infineon has more
than 60 years of experience in developing RF products for numerous applications and always plays a leading role in
the market with high performance, yet cost effective products. You can visit our website www.infineon.com to learn
more about the broad product portfolio of Infineon Technologies.
The Infineon business unit - RF and Sensors (RFS) - has evolved over the years from a supplier of standard RF discrete
components such as transistors and diodes to an advanced portfolio of state-of-the-art, innovative and differentiated
products including application specific Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuits (MMICs), millimeter-wave
transceivers, RF power amplifiers, sensors and ESD protection components. Please visit our website
www.infineon.com under the categories “RF & Wireless Control”, “Sensors IC” or “ESD & EMI” to learn more about
Infineon’s latest RF, Sensor and Protection products for your applications.
Infineon’s RFS application guides with three different brochures are an easy-to-use tool primarily meant for engineers
to guide them to the right devices for their system efficiently. These application guides are updated frequently to
include latest applications and trends. Each brochure focuses on one of our major market segments:
1. Application Guide for Mobile Communication:
www.infineon.com/appguide_rf_mobile
2. Application Guide for Industrial Applications:
www.infineon.com/appguide_rf_industrial
3. Application Guide for Protection:
www.infineon.com/appguide_esd_protection
Our application experts worldwide are always ready to support you in designing your systems with our devices. Please
contact Infineon’s Regional Offices or one of Infineon Worldwide Distribution Partners in your area to get all the
support you might need.
Kind Regards,
Dr. Heinrich Heiss
Dr. Chih-I Lin
Head of Technical Marketing
Group Leader of Technical Marketing
& Application Engineering, RFS
& Application Engineering RF Devices, RFS
1
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Infi neon Technologies ............................................................................................................................... 1
1
Infineon’s RF and Protection Devices for Mobile Communication ................................................. 4
2
2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.3.5
2.3.6
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3
2.4.4
2.5
2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3
2.5.4
2.5.5
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems ..................................... 9
Key Challenges of Antenna Switches in Modern Mobile Applications ............................................ 11
MIPI Control Interfaces for Mobile Phone Industry .......................................................................... 13
MIPI RFFE – Mobile Industry Processor Interface for RF Front-End Devices ............................. 14
Specification V1.10 of MIPI Alliance ............................................................................................ 15
High- and Medium-Power RF Switches ............................................................................................ 16
Antenna Switch Modules for Main Path ..................................................................................... 16
Ultra-High Linearity Switches ..................................................................................................... 17
Diversity Antenna Switches ........................................................................................................ 18
Band-selection Switches in a Single-ended Configuration ....................................................... 19
Cross Switches ............................................................................................................................ 20
Band-selection Switches in a Differential Configuration .......................................................... 21
Antenna Tuning Switches ................................................................................................................. 22
Antenna Impedance Matching.................................................................................................... 22
Antenna Aperture Tuning ........................................................................................................... 23
System Approach to Aperture Tuning ........................................................................................ 23
Key Parameters of Antenna Tuning Switches ............................................................................ 25
PIN Diode Switches ........................................................................................................................... 26
Antenna Switch with PIN Diodes and Power Detection with Schottky Diodes ........................ 27
Ultra-Low-Harmonic-Generation Band Switch with PIN Diodes............................................... 28
Antenna Switching with PIN Diodes (I) ....................................................................................... 29
Antenna Tuning with PIN Diodes (II) .......................................................................................... 29
Bypass Path for Low Noise Amplifiers ........................................................................................ 29
3
3.1
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.3
3.4
High-sensitivity Mobile RF Front-End with Low Noise Amplifiers ................................................. 30
Key Challenges of LNAs in Mobile Applications ............................................................................... 32
Single-band LNAs and Multiple-band LNA Banks ............................................................................ 33
Single-band LNAs ........................................................................................................................ 33
Multiple-Band LNA Banks ........................................................................................................... 34
LNA Multiplexer Modules for Carrier Aggregation ............................................................................ 36
LNAs for 3.5 GHz TD-LTE Modems..................................................................................................... 38
4
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.2
4.3
4.4
Global Navigation Satellite Systems ............................................................................................ 39
Key Features of GNSS Front-End Components ................................................................................ 41
Key Features of GNSS Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs)................................................................... 41
Key Features of GNSS Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Filters ...................................................... 41
System Challenges for Modern GNSS Reception in Mobile Devices ................................................ 42
RF Front-End Devices for GNSS......................................................................................................... 45
Integrated Front-End Modules for GNSS .......................................................................................... 47
5
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
Wireless-LAN, Unlicensed LTE (LTE-U) and Licensed Assisted Access (LAA) ................................. 48
Wireless-LAN Applications ................................................................................................................ 48
Key Features of WLAN Rx Front-End Devices ............................................................................. 50
Dual-Band (2.4–6.0 GHz) WLAN (IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n) Front-End .............................................. 51
MIMO Configurations for WLAN (IEEE 802.11b/g/n and IEEE 802.11a/n/ac) Applications ....... 52
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Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Table of Contents
5.1.4
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
WLAN (IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n) Front-End Devices.......................................................................... 53
Unlicensed LTE (LTE-U) and Licensed Assisted Access (LAA) .......................................................... 55
LTE-U and LAA as data rate booster for LTE-A ........................................................................... 55
LTE-U and LAA Front-End Devices .............................................................................................. 57
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
FM Radio and Mobile TV ............................................................................................................... 58
FM Radio with Embedded Antenna .................................................................................................. 59
TV Reception in Mobile Phones ........................................................................................................ 61
TV Reception with Band Selection Switch ....................................................................................... 63
FM and TV Reception in Mobile Phones with Band Selection Switch ............................................. 64
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
ESD and ESD/EMI Interface Protection ......................................................................................... 65
Interface Protection with TVS Protection Diodes ............................................................................ 66
Interface Protection with Integrated ESD/EMI Devices ................................................................... 68
Near-Field Communication............................................................................................................... 69
Surge protection for the battery charger port ................................................................................. 71
Abbreviations.................................................................................................................................................. 72
Alphanumerical List of Symbols ..................................................................................................................... 73
Package Information ...................................................................................................................................... 74
Support Material ............................................................................................................................................. 76
3
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Infineon’s RF and Protection Devices for Mobile Communication
1
Infineon’s RF and Protection Devices for Mobile
Communication
Mobile phones represent the largest worldwide market in terms of both volume and number of applications
on a single platform today. More than 1.5 billion phones are shipped per year worldwide. The major wireless
functions in a mobile phone include a 2G/3G/4G (GSM/EDGE/CDMA/UMTS/WCDMA/LTE/LTE-A/TDSCDMA/TD-LTE) cellular modem, and wireless connectivity systems such as Wireless Local Area Network
(WLAN), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), broadcasting receivers and Near-Field Communication
(NFC).
Moving towards 4G Long-Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-Advanced), the number of LTE bands has exploded
in the last few years. Currently, there are 44 LTE bands worldwide for LTE systems. The following table,
derived from the latest release of 3GPP TS 36.101 V12.7.0 “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (EUTRA) - User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception” in April 2015, shows the LTE band numbers
with up-/down-link frequency ranges and their related multiplexing methods:
Band No.
Band
Definition
Uplink Frequency
Range
Downlink Frequency
Range
FDD/TDD
System
1
Mid-Band
1920-1980 MHz
2110-2170 MHz
FDD
2
Mid-Band
1850-1910 MHz
1930-1990 MHz
FDD
3
Mid-Band
1710-1785 MHz
1805-1880 MHz
FDD
4
Mid-Band
1710-1755 MHz
2110-2155 MHz
FDD
5
Low-Band
824-849 MHz
869-894 MHz
FDD
6
Low-Band
830-840 MHz
875-885 MHz
FDD
7
High-Band
2500-2570 MHz
2620-2690 MHz
FDD
8
Low-Band
880-915 MHz
925-960 MHz
FDD
9
Mid-Band
1749.9-1784.9 MHz
1844.9-1879.9 MHz
FDD
10
Mid-Band
1710-1770 MHz
2110-2170 MHz
FDD
11
Mid-Band
1427.9-1452.9 MHz
1475.9-1500.9 MHz
FDD
12
Low-Band
698-716 MHz
728-746 MHz
FDD
13
Low-Band
777-787 MHz
746-756 MHz
FDD
14
Low-Band
788-798 MHz
758-768 MHz
FDD
15
reserved
reserved
FDD
16
reserved
Reserved
FDD
17
Low-Band
704-716 MHz
734-746 MHz
FDD
18
Low-Band
815-830 MHz
860-875 MHz
FDD
4
Comment
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Infineon’s RF and Protection Devices for Mobile Communication
Band No.
Band
Definition
Uplink Frequency
Range
Downlink Frequency
Range
FDD/TDD
System
19
Low-Band
830-845 MHz
875-890 MHz
FDD
20
Low-Band
832-862 MHz
791-821 MHz
FDD
21
Mid-Band
1447.9-1462.9 MHz
1495.9-1510.9 MHz
FDD
22
High-Band
3410-3500 MHz
3510-3600 MHz
FDD
23
Mid-Band
2000-2020 MHz
2180-2200 MHz
FDD
24
Mid-Band
1626.5-1660.5 MHz
1525-1559 MHz
FDD
25
Mid-Band
1850-1915 MHz
1930-1995 MHz
FDD
26
Low-Band
814-849 MHz
859-894 MHz
FDD
27
Low-Band
807-824 MHz
852-869 MHz
FDD
28
Low-Band
703-748 MHz
758-803 MHz
FDD
29
Low-Band
N/A
716-728 MHz
FDD
30
High-Band
2305-2315 MHz
2350-2360 MHz
FDD
31
Low-Band
452.5-457.5 MHz
462.5-467.5MHz
FDD
32
Mid-Band
N/A
1452-1496 MHz
FDD
33
Mid-Band
1900-1920 MHz
TDD
34
Mid-Band
2010-2025 MHz
TDD
35
Mid-Band
1850-1910 MHz
TDD
36
Mid-Band
1930-1990 MHz
TDD
37
Mid-Band
1910-1930 MHz
TDD
38
High-Band
2570-2620 MHz
TDD
39
Mid-Band
1880-1920 MHz
TDD
40
High-Band
2300-2400 MHz
TDD
41
High-Band
2496-2690 MHz
TDD
42
High-Band
3400-3600 MHz
TDD
43
High-Band
3600-3800 MHz
TDD
44
Low-Band
703-803 MHz
TDD
Comment
Note: FDD: Frequency Division Duplexing; TDD: Time Division Duplexing
The mobile technologies for smartphones have seen phenomenal growth in recent times. The data rate of
mobile devices has increased significantly over the evolution of modern mobile technologies from the first
3G/3.5G technologies (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and Wideband-Code Division
Multiple Access (WCDMA), High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) and Evolved High-Speed Packet Access
(HSPA+)) to 4G LTE-Advanced (LTE-A). The ability of 4G LTE-A to support bandwidths up to 20 MHz and to
have more spectral efficiency by using high order modulation schemes such as Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation (QAM-64) is of particular importance as the demand for higher wireless data speeds continues to
5
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Infineon’s RF and Protection Devices for Mobile Communication
grow rapidly. LTE-A can aggregate up to 5 carriers (up to 100 MHz) to increase user data rates and capacity
for high-speed applications. These new technical features for mobile high-data-rate communication, and
advanced wireless connectivities can be summarized as following:
-
Inter-operation Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) + Time Division Duplexing (TDD) systems
-
Down-/uplink Carrier Aggregation (CA)
-
LTE-U and LAA at 5 to 6 GHz using link aggregation or carrier aggregation
-
Adaptive antenna systems
-
Multiple-Input Multiple Output (MIMO) at RF FEs
-
Device-to-Device (D2D) communication with LTE (LTE-D)
-
High speed wireline connection with USB 3.0, Bluetooth 4.0 etc.
They drive the industry to develop new concepts for Radio Frequency (RF) Front-Ends (FEs) and the antenna
system and digital interface protection. These require microwave semiconductor vendors to offer highly
integrated and compact devices with lower loss rates, and more powerful and linear performance. The key
trends in RF components for mobile phone are:
-
Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuits (MMICs) with smaller form factors
-
Higher levels of integration with control buses
-
Higher RF power capability
-
Ability to handle increased number of bands and modes
-
Better immunity to interfering signals
-
Frequency tunability
-
Higher integration of various functions in one package
As a result of the coexistence of various wireless functions, cross-functional interference becomes much
more complicated. Using our extensive application know-how, knowledge about application trends, and
industry contacts, all our products are designed to fit into their respective applications to meet industry
standards. This simplifies the design and makes choosing the right device easier for the system designers.
All applications described in this document are depicted with simple block diagrams to show the various
building blocks, followed by short descriptions. Infineon's recommended devices for each application are
tabulated together with their most important performance characteristics. More detailed information on
each product including datasheet, application notes, device libraries with Spice models and S-parameter
files, products and application brochures, sample kits etc. is available on Infineon’s website
www.infineon.com/rfandprotectiondevices by clicking on the specific product name.
Infineon product portfolio for mobile phone applications: Infineon offers most of the important building
blocks for RF FE systems. Our product portfolio addresses requirements for these high-performance RF
6
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Infineon’s RF and Protection Devices for Mobile Communication
devices by offering RF MMIC LNAs, RF Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) switches, RF
modules, antenna-tuning devices, RF couplers, RF transistors and diodes, and RF Electro-Static Discharge/
Electromagnetic Interference (ESD/EMI) devices with optimal performance and low power consumption.
Infineon offers products for cellular modems, wireless connectivity functions, broadcasting receivers,
sensors, ESD/EMI interface devices and more. The following block diagrams illustrate the product portfolio
offered by Infineon for mobile communication.
Mobile Connectivity RF
Radio Block
Cellular RF
Wi-Fi Antenna
Diplexer
Diplexer
2.4 GHz TX
2.4 GHz RX
BT
5 GHz TX
2.5G
Main
Antenna
WiFi/
WiFi/
Bluetooth
Bluetooth
5 GHz RX
GNSS Antenna
Multiband
Transceiver
GNSS
3G/4G
FM Antenna
TV Antenna
Diversity
Antenna
FM TX
FM RX
UHF
VHF 2
VHF 1
FM/ TV
radio
3G/4G
Overview of Infineon’s products for mobile devices
Overview of Infineon’s ESD protection devices
7
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Infineon’s RF and Protection Devices for Mobile Communication
Infineon supports customers with system know-how to design RF front-ends: Infineon provides design-in
support for Infineon’s RF FE and protection products, as well as collaboration with its customers and
partners on the mobile phone RF system level to define the best solution for their requirements. By using
various system-level simulation tools with behavior models, system-level test equipment, and reference
hardware for RF FE total solutions, Infineon can demonstrate and optimize system performance to reduce
time-to-market. The following pictures show one example. The upper graphic illustrates a mobile diversity
receiver simulation environment, and the lower graphic shows the related block diagram and the hardware
implemented for performance verification of the simulation results.
Simulation environment of receiver diversity path
Block diagram and implemented hardware for verification
8
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and
Wireless Systems
Infineon's broad portfolio of Radio Frequency (RF) switches includes high-performance devices with low
Insertion Loss (IL), high isolation and low harmonics generation. Besides RF switches for main and diversity
paths for high-volume production, Infineon uses a proprietary RF-Complementary Metal-OxideSemiconductor (CMOS)-based process on silicon substrate for its RF switches.
These switches can also be built using other technologies such as Silicon-on-Insulator (SoI), Silicon-onSapphire (SoS), Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), or the more classical PIN diodes. However, using CMOS design on
Si substrate offers many advantages, such as integration scale, volume production, reliability and costs,
over its counterparts. The CMOS process also enables biasing and control circuitry to be integrated on the
same die. Control logic interfaces such as General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO), Serial Peripheral Interface
(SPI) or RF Front-End Mobile Industry Processor Interface (RFFE-MIPI) are fully integrated. CMOS-compatible
logic levels eliminate the need for external level shifters. This simplifies the design process, and reduces
external part count.
This technology also ensures that no Direct Current (DC) voltage is present at the RF ports. That means no
external blocking capacitors are required at RF ports in case there is no DC voltage is on the RF traces. For
example, a passive device such as a Surface-Acoustic-Wave (SAW) or a Bulk-Acoustic-Wave (BAW) filter can
be connected directly to our RF switches.
Infineon’s RF CMOS switches are the first on the market to be based purely on standard industrial CMOS
processes that offer low insertion loss, high isolation and low harmonics generation for high-volume
production. They are widely used for band selection/switching or diversity switching at the antenna or
different RF paths within the RF Front-End (FE).
The classical approach of using PIN diodes as switches is obsolete. PIN diodes have high current
consumption and slow switching speeds. They require many external components for complex modern
mobile phone systems. Infineon’s RF CMOS technologies with its high integration capability is thus the
technology of choice for RF switches that are small, inexpensive, have integrated control logic circuits, and
require zero external components. In addition to all the above advantages, CMOS switches offer excellent
Electro-Static Discharge (ESD) robustness.
Infineon offers a wide variety of switches and Antenna Switch Modules (ASMs) ranging from simple switches
such as simple Single-Pole Double-Throw (SPDT) switches to complex high port count configurations, e.g.
Single-Pole Ten-Throw (SP10T) or Double-Pole Fourteen-Throw (DP14T) switches. Their power capability
9
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
ranges from medium (+20 dBm) to high power (+36 dBm). Infineon also has differential RF-switch designs
such as Double-Pole Double-Throw (DPDT) devices.
As for the main path ASM components, Infineon is using its compact Integrated Passive Device (IPD)
technology to integrate harmonic filters for Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) transmission
frequencies in miniature module packages. The main antenna switch must be highly linear to provide high
isolation between transmit and receive chains, with the lowest insertion loss possible.
For architectures that integrate new features such as downlink inter-band carrier aggregation to increase
downstream data rates, ASMs are facing new challenges as they have to route two signals, received in
different frequency bands, simultaneously. The new switches with multiple ports such as the SP7T+SP7T, or
the DP14T, can be used for these kinds of applications.
Infineon’s RF switches are delivered either in discrete Thin Small Leadless Package (TSLP) or Thin Small
Non-leaded Package (TSNP) packaged components or as Chip-Scale-Packages (CSPs) with a pin pitch much
smaller than 180 µm for module manufacturers.
Infineon also supports chip-set makers' reference designs with dedicated products whose RF performance
and control interface will meet chip-set requirements. Infineon products make it easy to use and fast to
design customer systems.
Infineon also has devices in its RF switch portfolio that are suitable for inter-band and intra-band carrier
aggregation. Infineon offers system know-how that can help customers select the best products with
respect to filters and Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs). The devices support carrier aggregation from a control
logic point-of-view. Devices such as BGSF1717MN26 have a fixed Truth Table (TT), matching the definition of
a mobile phone chip set. Other devices such as BGS15MA12 use a TT with direct mapping, meaning that
each RF path has only one bit in the MIPI command.
Please visit our website www.infineon.com/rfswitches for more details on RF switches for mobile phone and
all wireless applications, or contact your local Infineon or sales representative.
10
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.1
Key Challenges of Antenna Switches in Modern Mobile Applications
Smartphones today can operate across several cellular bands including GSM/ EDGE/ CDMA/ UMTS/ WCDMA/
LTE/ LTE-A/ TD-SCDMA/ TD-LTE. The design of the RF FE part in modern mobile phones is becoming
increasingly complex and demanding due to the increasing number of frequency bands and modes in which
the phone needs to operate. One of the main components of a RF FE is the antenna switch that selects which
Transmitter (TX)/Receiver (RX) path can be connected to the antenna. The RF switch has to satisfy high
linearity requirements. This section presents some of the main challenges of antenna switches in mobile
applications.
2G
Main
Antenna
Multi-Mode
Transceiver
3G/4G
Diversity
Antenna
3G/4G
Typical RF FE in a mobile phone
Insertion Loss (IL)
IL is an important parameter since the RF switch is placed between the antenna and the radio. Any increase
of IL results in an increased system Noise Figure (NF) in the receiver path and wastes transmit power, which
reduces connectivity distance and battery lifetime.
11
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
High Isolation (Iso)
Isolation between ports is the measure of the signal suppression in excess of the IL between the “off” ports.
High isolation in switches is desired to minimize the interference or leakage from other ports.
Compression Point (P1dB or P0.1dB)
Compression Point is a measure of high power capability for RF front-end switches. The P0.1dB specifies the
input power level at the switch in dBm at which the IL of the switch increases by 0.1 dB compared to the
value in the linear region with small signal operation. This value confirms the power handling capability of
the switch. Infineon’s switches are measured up to an input power of 30 to 40 dBm without observable
deterioration in the IL.
Harmonic Generation (2nd Harmonics H2 and 3rd Harmonics H3)
Harmonic generation is an important parameter for the characterization of a RF switch. RF switches for
mobile phones have to deal with high RF levels, up to 36 dBm, even with strongly mismatched conditions.
Harmonics are generated with this high RF power at the input of the switch. These harmonics (e.g. 2nd and
3rd) can disturb other reception bands or cause interference in other RF applications (Global Positioning
System (1575.42 MHz) (GPS), Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)) within the same mobile phone or in
mobile phones nearby.
Intermodulation Distortion (IMD2 and IMD3)
IMD is the linearity parameter of the device under multi-tone conditions. The intermodulation between each
frequency component generates undesired outputs at the sum and difference frequencies of the input tones
and at multiples of those sum and difference frequencies. The intermodulation products increase the spread
of the signal spectrum which leads to adjacent channel interference.
Digital Control Interface
Traditionally, switches are controlled through the parallel GPIO scheme, which involves a set of parallel
control lines with pre-defined “high” and “low” logic. This is mainly used for all low-complexity RF switches.
More and more designs are moving from this parallel interface to a serial one, such as Serial Peripheral
Interface (SPI). Mobile chipset companies formed the Mobile Industry Processor Interface (MIPI) alliance,
aiming to standardize communication between all major components in mobile devices with structured
register commands. Meanwhile all companies are adopting MIPI and requiring RF switches used in their
mobile devices to be MIPI-compatible.
12
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.2
MIPI Control Interfaces for Mobile Phone Industry
The MIPI Interface (Mobile Industry Processor Interface) contains 20 standardized interfaces for mobile
phone device platforms such as:
- RFFE, a two-wire serial bus for control of RF Front-End components, e.g. LNAs or RF-Switches
- SoundWire, a Two-wire time-division bus supporting multiple clocks, also audio clocks for audio
broadcast, e.g. microphones or speaker.
- SensWire (Sensor IF), a 2-pin interface that is backward compatible to I2C standard and is
comparable to SPI for sensors, e.g. pressure sensors.
An overview about MIPI interfaces in a Mobile platform is pictured below.
IEEE 1149.7
LLI/M-PCIe
UniPort/SSIC
PTI
WLAN, WiGig
Debug Connectors
SD Card Connector
Application Processor
GbT/SPP
BT, GNSS,
FM, NFC
SUMbus
LLI/M-PCIe
LLI/M-PCIe
UniPort/SSIC
UniPort/SSIC
WIP
WIP
Modem
SPMI
Audio Codec
USB 2.0
DSI
Display
CSI
Camera
UFS
Mass Storage
Companion
Or Bridge Chip
D-PHY or M-PHY
D-PHY based
eTrack
RF Frontend
ETPS
M-PHY based
Power
Management
RFIC
RFFE
13
BIF
Battery
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.2.1
MIPI RFFE – Mobile Industry Processor Interface for RF Front-End Devices
MIPI RFFE is the common control interface in Mobile Phone Devices due to the becoming higher complexity
of their RF Front-End systems. There are more and more band used, 2x Rx CA is currently implemented and
3x CA Rx and 2x CA Tx is in preparation for the next generation of Mobile Phones. Therefore, to reduce
control line complexity and RF IC pin count the MIPI RFFE interface is mostly used and will have more and
more priority in future
RFFE is a flexible two-wire serial bus, designed primarily for control of RF Front-End components, that
allows for very simple to complex Slave devices. One bus master can write and read up to 15 devices, such
as power amplifiers, sensors, switch modules, and antenna tuners. RFFE includes a group trigger function
for timing-critical events and provisions for low current consumption and low EMI. Below, a typical MIPI bus
structure is shown below.
Single LNA /
LNA Bank
Signal Path
MIPI-RFFE Bus
ASM / Diversity
Switch
Antenna
Tuning
RFIC
Sensor
14
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.2.2
Specification V1.10 of MIPI Alliance
The MIPI RFFE Bus can support a speed of 32 kHz to 26 MHz or even 52 MHz in future. The VIO voltages
support 1.2 and/or 1.8 Volts. The bus protocol is a Single-ended signalling for a clock line, along with a
bidirectional data line, in a point-to-multipoint configuration. The structure (picture below) is defined with
one Master (RFIC) and up to 15 slaves as LNAs, switches or antenna tuners.
RFFE
Slave
0x2
RFFE
Slave
0xF
RFFE
Master
MIPI RFFE
protocol(example)
RFFE
Slave
0x1
RFFE
Slave
0x3
...
VIO
...
Clock
...
Data
Up to 15 slaves
(4 bit adresses)
SCLK
SDATA
SEC
Sequence
Start
condition
MIPI RFFE Specifications:
-
MIPI RFFE commands/ protocols (Register Write, Register0 Write, …)
Registers: e.g. Register 0, PM_Trig, Product_ID, Manufcaturer_ID and MAN_USID Register
Timing information and VIO voltage levels for 1.2V and 1.8V bus mode
Trigger functionality, Programmable USID
MIPI RFFE ID’s: USID, BSID, GSID, Product ID and Manufacturer ID
The MIPI RFFE specification defines the basic functionality of the RFFE Bus but it also provides the degree of
freedom to specify additional registers, customer related features and default values. Please refer to MIPI
Alliance for more details about the MIPI interface standards: http://www.mipi.org/about-mipi/mipiinterfaces-mobile-platform
15
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.3
High- and Medium-Power RF Switches
2.3.1
Antenna Switch Modules for Main Path
ANT Switch with GSM Filter
Mobile Phone
Antenna
2G
Transceiver
IC
Antenna Tuner
3G/4G
Transceiver
IC
Duplexer
RF CMOS antenna switch module
Antenna Switch Modules for Main Antenna
Product
Type
App.
Note
Vdd
[V]
Vctrl1)
[V]
IL2)
[dB]
Iso.3)
[dB]
Pin,max4)
[dBm]
Ctrl.5)
Int.
Package
BGSF18DM20
SP8T
AN247
AN284
2.85
…
4.7
1.6…
3.5
0.6 / 0.7 (TRx)/ 1.0
/ 1.0 (Tx)
40/35
32(TRX)/
36 (TX)
SPI
VCCN-20-1
BGSF110GN26
SP10T
AN306
2.4…
3.3
1.35
…Vdd
0.5 / 0.58(TRx)/
0.9 / 1.0 (Tx)
40/25
30(TRX)/
36 (TX)
GPIO
TSNP-26-2
BGSF1717MN26
CA
2x SP7T
on
request
2.4…
5.5
1.05…1.
95
0.5 / 0.6(TRx)/
0.9 / 1.0 (Tx)
38/27
30(TRX)/
36 (TX)
RFFE
MIPI
TSNP-26-3
Notes:
1) Digital Control Voltage (logic high);
4) Maximum input power;
2) IL = Insertion Loss at 1.0/ 2.0 GHz;
5) Control Interface;
3) Isolation at 1.0/ 2.0 GHz from RFin to RF port;
6) Please visit www.infineon.com/rfswitches for alternative devices.
Carrier-Aggregation-Capable Antenna Switch Modules for Main Antenna
Product
BGSF1717MN26
Notes:
Type
CA
2x SP7T
App.
Note
Vdd
[V]
Vctrl1)
[V]
IL2)
[dB]
Iso.3)
[dB]
Pin,max4)
[dBm]
Ctrl.5)
Int.
Package
on
request
2.4…
5.5
1.05…1.
95
0.5 / 0.6(TRx)/
0.9 / 1.0 (Tx)
38/27
30(TRX)/
36 (TX)
RFFE
MIPI
TSNP-26-3
1) Digital Control Voltage (logic high);
4) Maximum input power;
2) IL = Insertion Loss at 1.0/ 2.0 GHz;
5) Control Interface;
3) Isolation at 1.0/ 2.0 GHz from RFin to RF port;
6) Please visit www.infineon.com/rfswitches for alternative devices.
16
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.3.2
Ultra-High Linearity Switches
The high-power handling capability, ultra-high linearity, excellent insertion loss and high isolation
performance of the BGS1xPN9 product family combined with a tiny package size meet the most stringent
linearity requirements of GSM/LTE/CDMA handset and data-card switching applications. The linearity
performance achieved by these devices makes them well-suited for use in Simultaneous Voice and LTE (SVLTE), WCDMA, CDMA and carrier aggregation applications. The devices can also be used in a variety of other
applications that require high-power RF switching.
Ultra-High Linearity Switches
Product
Type
App.
Note
Vdd
[V]
Vctrl1)
[V]
IL2)
[dB]
Iso.3)
[dB]
Pin,max4)
[dBm]
Ctrl.5)
Int.
Package
BGS12PL6
SPDT
AN319
2.4…3.6
1.4 – Vdd
0.36 / 0.46
37 / 27
+36
GPIO
TSLP-6-4
BGS12PN9
SPDT
1.8 – 3.3
1.35…Vdd
0.3 / 0.34
38 / 30
+35
GPIO
TSNP-9-2
BGS13PN9
SP3T
1.8 – 3.3
1.35…Vdd
0.34 / 0.38
35 / 28
+35
GPIO
TSNP-9-2
Notes:
on
request
on
request
1) Digital Control Voltage (logic high);
4) Maximum input power;
2) IL = Insertion Loss at 1.0/ 2.0 GHz;
5) Control Interface;
3) Isolation at 1.0/ 2.0 GHz from RFin to RF port;
6) Please visit www.infineon.com/rfswitches for alternative devices.
17
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.3.3
Diversity Antenna Switches
The recent trend of smartphone and tablet users to download more and more data anytime and anywhere
increases the demand for more bandwidth and for an additional receiver channel called the diversity path.
To select the right receive band, a diversity switch with low insertion loss and excellent RF performance is
one method of choice. Nowadays, diversity switches covering up to 7 or more different UMTS/LTE bands are
becoming more and more popular in smartphones and tablets.
LTE LNA
B38 SAW
PCB Trace
Diversity
Switch
B39 SAW
Diversity
Antenna
B38 SAW
B39 SAW
RF IC
Diplexer
B40 SAW
B40 SAW
Example of TD-LTE band for diversity path
RF CMOS Switches for Diversity Antenna
Vdd
[V]
Vctrl1)
[V]
IL2)
[dB]
Isolation3)
[dB]
Pin,max4)
[dBm]
Ctrl.5)
Int.
2.4…3.6
1.4…Vdd
0.4/0.5
32/25
21
GPIO
TSLP-7-6
AN175
2.4…3.6
1.4… Vdd
0.4/0.5
32/25
21
GPIO
TSLP-7-6
SPDT
AN332
1.8…3.5
1.35…Vdd
0.25 / 0.28
40 / 32
30
GPIO
TSNP-6-2
BGS14AN16
SP4T
AN331
2.85…4.7
1.5…Vdd
0.34 / 0.55
40 / 30
30
GPIO
TSNP-16-6
BGS15AN16
SP5T
2.85...4.7
1.5…Vdd
0.34 / 0.55
40 / 30
32
GPIO
TSNP-16-6
BGS16MN14
SP6T
AN368
2.5…5.5
MIPI
0.3 / 0.4
42 / 37
32
BGS18MN14
SP8T
AN366
2.5…5.5
MIPI
0.3 / 0.5
40 / 32
32
BGS110MN20
SP10T
AN333
2.5…5.5
MIPI
0.4
37
32
Product
Type
BGS12AL7-4
SPDT
BGS12AL7-6
SPDT
BGS12SN6
Notes:
App.
Note
AN175
AN206
AN230
AN259
1) Digital Control Voltage (logic high);
4) Maximum input power;
2) IL = Insertion Loss at 1.0/ 2.0 GHz;
5) Control Interface;
RFFE
MIPI
RFFE
MIPI
RFFE
MIPI
Package
TSNP-14
TSNP-14-3
TSNP-20-1
3) Isolation at 1.0/ 2.0 GHz from RFin to RF port;
6) Please visit www.infineon.com/rfswitches for alternative devices.
Carrier-Aggregation-Capable RF CMOS Switches for Diversity Antenna
Product
Type
App.
Note
Vdd
[V]
Vctrl1)
[V]
IL2)
[dB]
Isolation3)
[dB]
Pin,max4)
[dBm]
Ctrl.5)
Int.
BGS15MA12
SP5T
on
request
2.2…5.5
MIPI
interface
0.28 / 0.35
34 / 27
27
RFFE
MIPI
Notes:
1) Digital Control Voltage (logic high);
4) Maximum input power;
2) IL = Insertion Loss at 1.0/ 2.0 GHz;
5) Control Interface;
3) Isolation at 1.0/ 2.0 GHz from RFin to RF port;
6) Please visit www.infineon.com/rfswitches for alternative devices.
18
Package
aTSLP-12-4
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.3.4
Band-selection Switches in a Single-ended Configuration
The number of LTE bands to support in a mobile phone is increasing rapidly worldwide. A simple way to
support more bands in a mobile phone is to implement the band selection function by adding a RF CMOS
switch to the existing transceiver/diversity Integrated Circuits (ICs). The following two examples show band
selection with a SPDT switch in a single-ended configuration.
UMTS
PCS or IMT
GSM850 RX
Transceiver IC
GSM900 RX
GSM1800 RX
GSM1900 RX
GSM850/900 TX
PA
LPF
GSM1800/1900 TX
UMTS Cell
PCS
UMTS
SPDT
Switch
PCS or IMT
IMT
Application 1: PCS/IMT band switching with CMOS SPDT switch
Diversity Switch
Diversity
Antenna
Duplexer
SPDT
Switch
PA
DPT
TX
Transceiver
IC
Duplexer
SPDT
Switch
DPDT
RX
LNA
Application 2: LTE Band-1/Band-4 switching with CMOS SPDT switch
RF CMOS Switches
App.
Note
Product
Type
BGS12AL7-4
SPDT
BGS12AL7-6
SPDT
BGS12PL6
SPDT
AN319
BGS12SN6
SPDT
AN332
Notes:
AN175
1) Digital Control Voltage (logic high);
4) Maximum input power;
Vdd
[V]
Vctrl1)
[V]
IL2)
[dB]
Isolation3)
[dB]
Pin,max4)
[dBm]
Ctrl.5)
Int.
Package
2.4…3.6
1.4…3.6
0.4 / 0.5
32 / 25
21
GPIO
TSLP-7-4
2.4…3.6
1.4…3.6
0.4 / 0.5
32 / 25
21
GPIO
TSLP-7-6
2.4…3.6
1.4 – Vdd
0.36 / 0.46
37 / 27
36
GPIO
TSLP-6-4
1.8…3.3
1.35… Vdd
0.25 / 0.28
40 / 28
30
GPIO
TSNP-6-2
2) IL = Insertion Loss at 1.0/ 2.0 GHz;
5) Control Interface;
3) Isolation at 1.0/ 2.0 GHz from RFin to RF port;
6) Please visit www.infineon.com/rfswitches for alternative devices.
19
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.3.5
Cross Switches
The following figure shows a typical application for a cross switch in a mobile phone. With this device you
can always select the best performing antenna for optimizing transmit power for an up-link (UL) or
improved receive sensitivity for a down link (DL).
2G
Main
Antenna
3G/4G
Multi-Mode
Transceiver
Diversity
Antenna
3G/4G
Example of cross switches
Cross Switches for Antenna Selection
Product
Type
App.
Note
Supply VDD
[V]
Vctrl1)
[V]
BGSX22GN10
DPDXT
on
request
1.8 – 3.3
1.35…VDD
Notes:
1) Digital Control Voltage (logic high);
2) IL = Insertion Loss at 1.0/ 2.0 GHz;
4) 0.1 dB compression point;
5) Maximum input power;
7) Please contact your local Infineon or sales representatives for further products.
IL2)
[dB]
Isolation3)
[dB]
Pin,max5)
[dBm]
Ctrl.6)
Int.
Package
0.35 / 0.5
25 / 22
36
GPIO
TSNP-10-1
3) Isolation at 1.0/ 2.0 GHz;
6) Control Interface;
20
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.3.6
Band-selection Switches in a Differential Configuration
The following figure shows the transceiver with differential inputs of the band-selection function with a
DPDT switch in a differential configuration.
Diversity Switch
B3L
Diversity
Antenna
Differential
Input
B1&B8
DPDT
B3L
B1
B7L
High Band
Transceiver
IC
DPDT
B20L
B20L
Low Band
Example of band-selection switches in a differential configuration
RF CMOS DPDT Switches
Product
Type
App.
Note
Supply
[V]
Vctrl1)
[V]
IL2)
[dB]
Isolation3)
[dB]
Pin,max4)
[dBm]
Ctrl.5)
Int.
Package
BGS22WL10
DPDT
AN302
2.4…3.6
1.2…VDD
0.33/0.39
38/28
30
GPIO
TSLP-10-1
BGS22W2L10
DPDT
AN308
2.4…3.6
1.2…VDD
0.22/0.39
35/27
24
GPIO
TSLP-10-1
Notes:
1) Digital Control Voltage (logic high);
4) Maximum input power;
2) IL = Insertion Loss at 1.0/ 2.0 GHz;
5) Control Interface;
3) Isolation at 1.0/ 2.0 GHz from RFin to RF port;
6) Please visit www.infineon.com/rfswitches for alternative devices.
21
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.4
Antenna Tuning Switches
With a global increase for data transfer rate requirements in mobile communications, the need for higher
bandwidth is ever increasing. To counter this need, more and more frequency bands are being defined by
the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) consortium. Consequently, the LTE-Advanced standard
specifies 44 LTE frequency bands which can be used to transfer mobile signals. Due to these stringent
requirements, a mobile phone antenna should be able to achieve good performance in several frequency
bands. Hence there is a growing need to tune an antenna according to the selected frequency band. This is
where antenna tuning concept gains importance. In addition, antenna tuning improves antenna radiation
efficiency as well as the Total Radiated Power (TRP). This reduces the stress on the antenna driving
hardware on the transmitter side and increases sensitivity on the receiver side. Antenna tuning devices
based on Infineon’s CMOS switch technology in mobile phones allow the use of smaller antennas and/or
broader frequency range. There are two types of antenna tuning: antenna aperture tuning and antenna
impedance matching.
2.4.1
Antenna Impedance Matching
Antenna impedance matching is carried out at the antenna feed point as shown in the figure below. Using
this type of antenna tuning, forward power to the antenna can be optimized by matching the antenna input
impedance to 50 ohms. This improves antenna performance by optimizing forward power to the antenna,
but has no effect on the antenna characteristics (resonant frequency and radiation efficiency). Hence this
type of antenna tuning is generally not preferred.
Antenna impedance matching
22
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.4.2
Antenna Aperture Tuning
More widely used antenna tuning technique is antenna aperture tuning. This type of antenna tuning
effectively changes the characteristics of the antenna and in-turn improves antenna radiation efficiency and
the Total Radiated Power (TRP). Hence this kind of antenna tuning is key focus of Infineon and is shown in
the figure below.
Antenna aperture tuning
2.4.3
System Approach to Aperture Tuning
At Infineon, complete antenna-tuning solutions are provided to the customers, using our antenna-tuning
switches. There are two approaches that are used for antenna tuning. The more common approach is to use
antenna S-parameters. Another more recently introduced approach uses antenna dimensions to tune the
antenna. These approaches are explained in the following sections in detail. There are two ports on a
standard mobile phone Planar Inverted F antenna (PIFA), namely the Feed port and the Tuning port as
shown in the figure below. The antenna-tuning switch with matching elements (capacitor/inductor) is
placed on the tuning port of the antenna.
System diagram for antenna aperture tuning
23
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
Aperture tuning using antenna S-parameters
In this approach, the two port antenna S-parameters are used to tune the PIFA antenna. The S-parameters
are measured and then imported into the circuit simulator. Using these S-parameters, the tuning circuit is
created as shown in the circuit diagram below.
Aperture tuning using antenna dimensions
In this approach the customer provides the antenna dimensions. The antenna layout is created and
simulated using a 3D Electro-Magnetic (EM) simulator. S-parameters are then extracted and the antennatuning circuit is created using the same approach that was described in the previous section. The only major
difference between this approach and the previous approach is that here, the antenna S-parameters are
extracted from the EM simulations and circuit elements are co-simulated with the EM simulation as shown
below.
24
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.4.4
Key Parameters of Antenna Tuning Switches
Since antenna-tuning switches are a modified version of standard switches, the basic design challenges of
standard switches apply to antenna-tuning switches as well. In addition there are some special
characteristics that are important for mobile phone antenna tuning. These are explained in this section.
On Resistance (RON)
The Ron of an antenna-tuning switch is one of its main differentiating features. The lower the Ron is, the better
the switch performs. As an antenna-tuning switch is directly connected to the antenna, higher Ron means
higher loss and lower quality factor (Q-factor). Infineon’s antenna-tuning switches have very low Ron, ranging
from 0.4 ohm to 1.6 ohm in each RF port.
Off Capacitance (COFF)
COFF is also one of the key features of an antenna-tuning switch. A higher COFF results in a large highfrequency band loss and also results in self-resonances. Thus for better performance, a lower COFF is
important for an antenna-tuning switch. Infineon’s antenna tuning switches have a very low COFF, in the
range of 120 fF – 200 fF.
Maximum RF Voltage (VRF)
Depending on the antenna design, the impedance of the antenna varies with frequency. High impedance of
the antenna results in a high VRF across the antenna-tuning switch. Generally, the voltage generated is much
higher than the specified VRF for a standard switch. Hence Infineon’s antenna-tuning switches have higher
VRF handling capacity to cater to the special requirements for antenna tuning. Infineon’s antenna-tuning
switches are therefore rated up to 36 V to handle such high-stress conditions.
RF CMOS Switches for Antenna Tuning
Product
Type
App.
Note
Supply
[V]
Vctrl1)
[V]
IL2)
[dB]
Isolation3)
[dB]
Ron4)
[Ω]
COFF5)
[fF]
Pin,max6)
[dBm]
Package
BGSA11GN10
Dual
SPST
on
request
1.8…3.6
0…2.85
0.16/0.25
23/17
0.79
250
39
TSNP10-1
BGSA12GN10
SPDT
on
request
1.8…3.6
0…2.85
0.25/0.32
30/23
1.6
120
39
TSNP10-1
BGSA13GN10
SP3T
on
request
1.8…3.6
0…2.85
0.2…0.8/0.29.
.0.44
26/20
0.8/1.4/1.6
300/160/1
20
39
TSNP10-1
BGSA14GN10
SP4T
on
request
1.8…3.6
0…2.85
0.26/0.37
31/25
1.6
120
39
TSNP10-1
Notes:
1) Digital Control Voltage;
2) IL = Insertion Loss at 1.0 / 2.0 GHz (depending on RF Port);
4) In ON state (RF1 / RF2 / RF3);
5) In OFF state (RF1 / RF2 / RF3);
7) Please visit www.infineon.com/rfswitches for alternative devices.
25
3) Isolation at 1.0 / 2.0 GHz;
6) Maximum input power;
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.5
PIN Diode Switches
An alternative device compared to CMOS or GaAs switch is the high-performance PIN diode available from
Infineon Technologies. For less complex RF circuits such as triple- and quad-band GSM/EDGE phones, PIN
diodes are a good choice. PIN diodes can be used for switching in mobile phones if there is a requirement for
much lower IMD generation. The following sections describe some switch solutions based on Infineon’s PINswitch diodes for cost-effective phones or base stations.
Low-barrier Schottky power-detection diodes are used for precise output power control after the power
amplifier. This helps the transceiver IC to monitor the correct information about any mismatches between
the mobile phone antenna and the environment, and to adjust the signal power accordingly.
Key Features of PIN Diodes:
Insertion Loss (IL) and Isolation
IL is dependent on the low impedance state of the diode in forward bias. Isolation is a measure of the PIN
diode switch’s performance in its open state. In a series diode switch, this is primarily dependent on the
junction capacitance. These parameters are determined by the forward bias current and reverse voltage.
Infineon’s diodes have low capacitance and low resistance which are optimized for applications where ultralow resistance is required.
Switching Time
The carrier life time in a PIN diode dominates the switching speed, i.e., the time required to switch the diode
from a low-impedance forward bias state to a high-impedance reverse bias state.
26
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.5.1
Antenna Switch with PIN Diodes and Power Detection with Schottky
Diodes
PIN Diode
Power Detector
Power Detector
λ/4
λ/4
PIN Diode
PA
PIN Diode
PA
PIN Diode
TX GSM BB IC
RX GSM
RX DCS
RX PCS
BB IC TX DCS
RF PIN Diode Switches
Product1)
Application
Note
rF2)
[Ω]
@IF
[mA]
rF2)
[Ω]
@IF
[mA]
CT3)
[pF]
@VR
[V]
CCL4)
[ns]
Package
BAR90-02EL
BAR90-02ELS
TR146
AN197
1.3
3.0
0.8
10.0
0.25
1.0
750
TSLP-2-19
TSSLP-2-3
BAR64-02EL
AN058
12.5
1
2.1
10
0.23
20
1550
TSLP-2-19
AN058
12.5
1
2.1
10
0.23
20
1550
SOT23
AN058
12.5
1
2.1
10
0.23
20
1550
SOT323
BAR64-04
BAR64-05
BAR64-06
BAR64-04W
BAR64-05W
BAR64-06W
Notes:
1) D = Dual; T = Triple; Q = Quadruple;
2) at 100 MHz;
3) at 1 MHz;
4) The charge carrier life time between the forward bias of IF = 10 mA and reverse bias of IR = 6 or 3 mA;
5) Please visit www.infineon.com/rf-pin-diodes for alternative devices.
RF Schottky Diodes for Power Detectors
Product
Application
Note
CT1)
[pF]
@VR
[V]
VF
[mV]
@IF
[mA]
VF
[mV]
@IF
[mA]
IR
[µA]
@VR
[V]
BAT62-02V
AN185
0.35
0
580
2
-
-
< 10
40
SC79
BAT15-02EL
BAT15-02ELS
on
request
4
TSLP-2-19
TSSLP-2-3
Notes:
0.26
0
230
1
1) at 1 MHz;
2) Please visit www.infineon.com/rf-mixer-detector-schottky-diodes for alternative devices.
27
320
10
<5
Package
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.5.2
Ultra-Low-Harmonic-Generation Band Switch with PIN Diodes
ANT
ICTRL1
ICTRL2
Port2 TX/RX
Port1 TX/RX
PIN Diodes
PIN Diodes
RF PIN Diode Switches
Product1)
Application
Note
rF2)
[Ω]
@IF
[mA]
rF2)
[Ω]
@IF
[mA]
CT3)
[pF]
@VR
[V]
CCL4)
[ns]
Package
BAR64-02EL
AN058
12.5
1
2.1
10
0.23
20
1550
TSLP-2-19
AN058
12.5
1
2.1
10
0.23
20
1550
SOT23
AN058
12.5
1
2.1
10
0.23
20
1550
SOT323
BAR64-04
BAR64-05
BAR64-06
BAR64-04W
BAR64-05W
BAR64-06W
Notes:
1) D = Dual; T = Triple; Q = Quadruple;
2) at 100 MHz;
3) at 1 MHz;
4) The charge carrier life time between the forward bias of IF = 10 mA and reverse bias of IR = 6 or 3 mA;
5) Please visit www.infineon.com/rf-pin-diodes for alternative devices.
28
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-/Medium-Power Switches for Mobile Phones and Wireless Systems
2.5.3
Antenna Switching with PIN Diodes (I)
ANT 1
ANT
RX
ANT 2
RX
PIN Diode
PIN Diode
STUB
PIN Diode
Antenna selection
2.5.4
Antenna effective length modification
Antenna Tuning with PIN Diodes (II)
ANT
ANT
LPF
RX
LPF
RX
LNA (opt.)
LNA (opt.)
PIN Diodes
PIN Diodes
Tunable antenna with moderate IMD generation
2.5.5
Tunable antenna with low IMD generation
Bypass Path for Low Noise Amplifiers
LNA
PIN Diodes
RF PIN Diode Switches
Product1)
Application
Note
rF2)
[Ω]
@IF
[mA]
rF2)
[Ω]
@IF
[mA]
CT3)
[pF]
@VR
[V]
CCL4)
[ns]
Package
BAR90-02EL
BAR90-02ELS
TR146
AN197
1.3
3.0
0.8
10.0
0.25
1.0
750
TSLP-2-19
TSSLP-2-3
Notes:
1) D = Dual; T = Triple; Q = Quadruple;
2) at 100 MHz;
3) at 1 MHz;
4) The charge carrier life time between the forward bias of IF = 10 mA and reverse bias of IR = 6 or 3 mA;
5) Please visit www.infineon.com/rf-pin-diodes for alternative devices.
29
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-sensitivity Mobile RF Front-End with Low Noise Amplifiers
3
High-sensitivity Mobile RF Front-End with Low Noise
Amplifiers
Infineon Technologies is one of the leading companies for Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) with broad product
portfolio. The LNAs and LNA banks are based on Infineon’s Silicon Germanium Carbon (SiGe:C) bipolar
technology and include built-in Electro-Static Discharge (ESD) protection of 2kV Human Body Model (HBM)
even at the input pins.
A block diagram of a 2G (Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)/ Enhanced Data Rates for GSM
Evolution (EDGE)) and 3G/4G modem (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)/ Long-Term
Evolution (LTE)) for a smartphone Radio Frequency (RF) Front-End (FE) is shown below. It consists of a
broadband antenna, a band-selecting antenna switch, 3G/4G duplexers, high/low band power amplifiers,
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) filters and 3G/4G LNAs. The LNAs are located in the diversity and main antenna
paths of the phone, and they can increase data rates, for example, by doubled data rate compared to
solutions without LNAs under very weak signal strength environment. High linearity assures optimal signal
reception even with poorly isolated antennas and long line losses between antennas and transceivers.
Infineon’s Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) LNAs and LNA banks with their excellent low
noise figure enhance the sensitivity of the RF modem by about 3 dB and offer system layout flexibility by
suppressing noise contribution from losses of signal lines and from the SAW filters as well as the receiver.
ANT Switch
2G
Transceiver
IC
ANT
Power Detector
PA
Antenna Tuner
3G/4G
Transceiver
IC
Duplexer
LNA
Block diagram of a 2G/3G/4G modem
30
SAW
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-sensitivity Mobile RF Front-End with Low Noise Amplifiers
With the improved system noise figure on the receive path, Infineon’s new LTE LNAs can almost double
smartphone data rates and improve the user experience. The product family consists of single-band LNA
BGA7x1N6 and quad-band LNA Banks BGM7xxxx4L12 families. These products have ultra-low Noise Figure
(NF), the exact gain and high linearity needed to help smartphone designers to overcome the challenges of
LTE or 4G.
There are three single-band LTE LNAs and six quad-band LNA bank families to address the required band
configurations required for different world regions. Each letter in the series name denotes a different
frequency band: L for low-band (0.7 GHz to 1.0 GHz); M for mid-band (1.7 GHz to 2.2 GHz); and H for highband (2.3 GHz to 2.7 GHz). For example, BGM7MLLM4L12 stands for a device that has two low-band LNAs
(LNA 2 and LNA3), and two integrated mid-band LNAs (LNA 1 and LNA 4). They are shipped in RoHScompliant TSNP-6-2 or TSLP-12-4 plastic packages.
The previous generation of the single-band LNA BGA7x1N7 and multiple-band LNA families, BGA735N16 and
BGA748N16, have the bypass function to switch the gain of the LNA from 15 dB to about -7 dB. It helps the RF
designers to implement RF FEs with more dynamic range in the input signal.
Please visit www.infineon.com/rfmmic for more details on LNA solutions for mobile phone applications, or
contact your local Infineon representative.
31
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-sensitivity Mobile RF Front-End with Low Noise Amplifiers
3.1
Key Challenges of LNAs in Mobile Applications
Motivated by increasing demand for mobile broadband services with higher data rates and better quality of
service, modern mobile technology has seen tremendous growth in recent years from 2G to 3G/3.5G HighSpeed Packet Access (HSPA), Evolved High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA+), 3.9G LTE and recently 4G LTEAdvanced. LTE-Advanced can support data rates of up to 1 Gbps. Such higher requirements are met by using
advanced Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) techniques and wider bandwidths up to 100 MHz enabled
by Carrier Aggregation (CA). LTE-Advanced can support up to 5 bands of carrier aggregation by three
component carrier aggregation scenarios: Intra-band contiguous, intra-band non-contiguous and interband non-contiguous aggregation. They present new challenges to RF FE designers, such as interference
from co-existing bands and harmonic generation. Smart LTE LNAs with the following features can address
these requirements to achieve outstanding performance.
Low Noise Figure (NF): An external LNA or LNA module boosts the sensitivity of the system by reducing the
overall NF. In addition due to the size constraint, the modem antenna and the receiver FE cannot always be
placed close to the transceiver Integrated Circuit (IC). The path loss in front of the integrated LNA on the
transceiver IC increases the system NF significantly. An external LNA physically close to the antenna can help
to eliminate the path loss and reduce the system NF. The sensitivity can be improved by several dB, which
means a significant increase in the connectivity range.
High Linearity (1-dB compression point P1dB and 3rd-order intercept point IP3): An increased number of bands
at the receiver input creates strong interference, leading to high requirements in linearity characteristics
such as high input 1-dB compression point, 2nd intermodulation (IMD2) products and input IP3 performance.
Low Power Consumption: Power consumption is even more important in today’s smartphones. The latest
LTE-Advanced uses enhanced MIMO techniques with up to 8 streams for downlink and 4 streams for uplink.
Infineon’s LNAs and LNA modules have low supply current and an integrated on/off feature that reduces
power consumption and increases standby time for cellular handsets or other portable battery-operated
wireless applications.
High Integration and Simple Control Interface: The demand for size and cost reduction and performance
enhancement with ease of use and low parts count has become very important in existing and future
generation smartphones. Our MMIC LNAs are highly integrated with input and output either matched or prematched, built-in temperature and supply voltage stabilization, and a fully ESD-protected circuit design to
ensure stable operation and a simple control interface.
32
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-sensitivity Mobile RF Front-End with Low Noise Amplifiers
3.2
Single-band LNAs and Multiple-band LNA Banks
3.2.1
Single-band LNAs
LTE LNAs
Diversity Switch
B8&B40
BGA7H1N6
Diversity / Main
Antenna
B1&B2&B3 BGA7M1N6
3G/4G
Transceiver
IC
Antenna Tuner
B5,8
&B17&B29
BGA7L1N6
PCB Trace
(high insertion loss)
Three Single-band LNAs implemented in the diversity path
Single-band LTE-A MMIC LNAs
Application
note
Product
AN351
AN364
AN404
AN350
AN371
AN405
AN349
AN365
AN406
TR1183
BGA7L1N6
BGA7M1N6
BGA7H1N6
Notes:
Freq. Range
[MHz]
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
728-960
13.0
0.9
-6
-1
1.5…3.3
4.9
1805-2200
13.0
0.7
-3
7
1.5…3.3
2300-2690
13.0
0.7
-4
6
1.5…3.3
Package
TSNP-6-2
4.9
TSNP-6-2
4.9
TSNP-6-2
Please visit www.infineon.com/ltelna for alternative devices.
Single-band 3G/4G MMIC LNAs with Bypass Function
Freq. Range
[MHz]
Gain2)
[dB]
NF 2)
[dB]
IP-1dB2)
[dBm]
IIP32)
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current2)
[mA]
Package
BGA6L1BN61) 4)
700−1000
16.1/-1.8
0.6/1.8
-5/+8
+2/+23
1.5…3.3
5.6/0.09
TSNP-6-2
1) 4)
Product
BGA6H1BN6
1800-2700
14.3/-2.8
0.8/2.8
-6/+12
+3/+25
1.5…3.3
5.5/0.09
TSNP-6-2
1)
700-800
15.3/-9.9
1.1/9.9
-7/-12
-8/-2
2.8
4.8/0.5
TSNP-7-1
1)
700−1100
16/-8
1.05/9.9
-6/-10
-8/-1
2.8
4.8/0.5
TSNP-7-1
1)
BGA711N7
1800−2650
17.0/-8
1.1/8.0
-8/-2
-2/+7
2.8
3.6/0.5
TSNP-7-1
BGA777N71)
2300−2700
16.0/-7.0
1.2/6.9
-10/-2
-2/+7
2.8
4.2/0.5
TSNP-7-1
BGA713N7
BGA751N7
Notes:
1) LNA with two gain modes (high-gain/low-gain);
2) Values in high-gain (HG) / low-gain (LG) mode;
3) Please visit www.infineon.com/ltelna for alternative devices.
4) On request
33
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-sensitivity Mobile RF Front-End with Low Noise Amplifiers
3.2.2
Multiple-Band LNA Banks
LNA Bank
BPF
LNA1
from Duplexer
LNA2
3G/4G
Transceiver
IC
LNA3
LNA4
Quad-band LNA bank implemented in the main path
Quad-band LTE-A LNA Banks (Product Details on Request)
Freq. Range
[MHz]
Product
BGM7MLLH4L12
1)
BGM7LMHM4L121)
BGM7HHMH4L121)
BGM7MLLM4L121)
BGM7LLHM4L121)
BGM7LLMM4L121)
Notes:
1805-2200
728-960
728-960
2300-2690
728-960
1805-2200
2300-2690
1805-2200
2300-2690
2300-2690
1805-2200
2300-2690
1805-2200
728-960
728-960
1805-2200
728-960
728-960
2300-2690
1805-2200
728-960
728-960
1805-2200
1805-2200
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
Package
13.02)
0.62)
32)
5
1.5…3.32)
5.02)
TSLP-12-4
13.0
0.8
1
8
1.5…3.3
5.5
TSLP-12-4
13.02)
0.62)
32)
52)
1.5…3.32)
5.02)
TSLP-12-4
13.0
0.7
2
9
1.5…3.3
5.5
TSLP-12-4
13.0
0.7
2
8
1.5…3.3
5.5
TSLP-12-4
13.0
0.7
2
5
1.5…3.3
5.0
TSLP-12-4
1) On request;
2) Based on preliminary datasheet
3) Please visit www.infineon.com/ltelna for alternative devices;
34
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-sensitivity Mobile RF Front-End with Low Noise Amplifiers
Triple-band 3G/4G MMIC LNA Bank with Bypass Function
Product
Freq. Range
[MHz]
Gain2)
[dB]
NF 2)
[dB]
IP-1dB2)
[dBm]
IIP32)
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current2)
[mA]
Package
BGA735N161)
700-1000
1450−2000
2100−2700
16.5/-7.8
1.1/7.8
-6/-10
-11/-1
2.8
3.7/0.65
TSNP-16-1
Notes:
1) LNA with two gain modes (high-gain/low-gain);
2) Values in high-gain/low-gain mode;
3) Please visit www.infineon.com/ltelna for alternative devices.
Quad-band 3G/4G MMIC LNA Bank with Bypass Function
Product
BGA748L161)
Notes:
Freq. Range
[MHz]
700-1000
700-1000
1450−2000
2100−2700
Gain2)
[dB]
NF2)
[dB]
IP-1dB2)
[dBm]
IIP32)
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current2)
[mA]
Package
16.6/-8.0
1.1/8.0
-8/+2
-7/+15
2.8
4.0/0.75
TSNP-16-1
1) LNA with two gain modes (high-gain/low-gain);
2) Values in high-gain/low-gain mode;
3) Please visit www.infineon.com/ltelna for alternative devices.
35
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-sensitivity Mobile RF Front-End with Low Noise Amplifiers
3.3
LNA Multiplexer Modules for Carrier Aggregation
Beside the single-band LNAs and quad-band LNA banks, there are three LNA Multiplexer Modules (LMMs):
BGM15LA12, BGM15MA12 and BGM15HA12. Each device consists of a SP5T switch and a broadband LNA.
With the five input pins the LMM can support five individual bands for single-carrier operation as well as
carrier aggregation mode. Each input of BGM15LA12 can support different low-bands (0.7 GHz to 1.0 GHz);
BGM15MA12 can support different mid-bands (1.7 GHz to 2.2 GHz); BGM15HA12 can support different highbands (2.3 GHz to 2.7 GHz). All these devices are programmable using RFFE MIPI. They are shipped in
Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS)-compliant ATSLP-12-1,-2,-3 plastic packages.
Time-division duplexing (TDD)-mode LTE systems combined with Frequency-Division Duplexing (FDD)-mode
LTE systems are steadily gaining importance. As end users continue to download more and more data
anytime and anywhere, there is an increasing need for more bandwidth and an additional receiver channel
called the “diversity path” in smartphones. In most current mobile phones, there is a second antenna for the
diversity path. Diversity exploits the multipath propagation phenomenon of microwaves in order to enhance
the reception of cellular signals. The diversity antenna is usually located far from the main antenna and the
transceiver IC. The received signal therefore undergoes signal losses along the path from the diversity switch
to the transceiver IC. It is necessary to use a LNA / LNA bank / LNA multiplexer module closer to the diversity
switch to overcome this and enhance the sensitivity of the system. The LNAs/LNA banks/LNA multiplexer
modules improve the receiver performance significantly by reducing the noise from the long route line
between the diversity antenna and the transceiver IC, and compensating for the losses incurred due to the
band-pass filter and NF of the transceiver.
36
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-sensitivity Mobile RF Front-End with Low Noise Amplifiers
SAW
DRx
Antenna
Switch
B40
LNA
B41
Diversity/
Main
Antenna
RX HB port
B38
Infineon BGM15HA12
B7
Infineon
BGS15MA
B3
RX MB port
B39
Infineon BGM15MA12
B20
RX LB port
B12/17
Infineon
BGS15MA
B5/26
Infineon BGM15LA12
B8
LNA multiplexer module implemented in the diversity path
LNA Multiplexer Modules for LTE-Advanced Applications
Product
Application
note
Freq. Range
[MHz]
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
Package
BGM15LA121)
AN3731)
700-1000
15.0
1.1
-2.5
6.0
2.2-3.3
4.8
ATSLP-12-1
1700-2200
15.5
1.2
-9
6.0
2.2-3.3
4.7
ATSLP-12-2
2300-2700
14.4
1.2
-4
6.0
2.2-3.3
4.9
ATSLP-12-3
BGM15MA121)
BGM15HA121)
Notes:
1) On request;
AN3741)
TR11801)
AN3751)
TR11811)
2) Please visit www.infineon.com/ltelna for alternative devices.
37
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
High-sensitivity Mobile RF Front-End with Low Noise Amplifiers
3.4
LNAs for 3.5 GHz TD-LTE Modems
TD-LTE Bd 42 / 43
3.4 – 3.8 GHz
BPF
SPDT
Switch
LNA
Balun
TD-LTE
Power Detector
Transceiver IC
PA
BPF
Balun
RF MMIC LNAs
Product
Application
Note
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
Package
BGB707L7ESD
TR171
14.3
1.3
-8
-5
2.8
5.4
TSLP-7-1
Note:
Please visit www.infineon.com/rf-mmic for alternative devices.
RF Transistor LNAs
Product
Application
Note
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
Package
BFP840FESD
TR1129
17.5
1.1
-13
-3
3.0
15
TSFP-4
BFP843F
AN315
18
1.2
-11
-3
3.0
14
TSFP-4
BFR843EL3
AN307
AN328
16
1.1
-11
-1
3.0
12
TSLP-3-9
Note:
Please visit www.infineon.com/lna up to 12 GHz for alternative devices.
RF CMOS TX/RX Switches
Product
Type
App.
Note
BGS12PL6
SPDT
AN319
Notes:
1) Digital control voltage;
3) 0.1dB compression point;
5) Control Interface;
Supply
[V]
Vctrl1)
[V]
IL2)
[dB]
Isolation
[dB]
P-0.1dB3)
[dBm]
Pin,max4)
[dBm]
Ctrl.5)
Int.
Package
2.4…3.6
1.4…3.6
0.77
22
38
35
GPIO
TSLP-6-4
2) IL = Insertion Loss;
4) Maximum input power;
6) Please visit www.infineon.com/rfswitches for alternative devices.
38
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Global Navigation Satellite Systems
4
Global Navigation Satellite Systems
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) are among the fastest growing businesses in the electronic
industry. Today, GNSSs include much more than the well-known GPS (Global Positioning System), which
was introduced for civilian use more than a decade ago. Nations around the world are working on their own
navigation satellite systems for strategic reasons and to offer improved user experience. Today, three GNSS
systems are operational: the United States GPS, the Russian GLobal Orbiting Navigation Satellite System
(GLONASS), and the Chinese Beidou System. The Galileo positioning system being developed by the
European Union is expected to provide initial public service by 2016 and full functionality by 2020 using 24
operational satellites for commercial applications.
From a civilian usage point, additional systems added to GNSS bring with them the advantages of increased
satellite signal reception, increased coverage, higher precision, and the facility for additional features such
as Search And Rescue (SAR). The most important market segments since 2008 are Personal Navigation
Devices (PNDs) and GNSS-enabled mobile phones. The architecture and the performance of the Radio
Frequency (RF) Front-End (FE) must be optimal in order to fulfill the strict requirements of the GNSS system.
The main challenges for the growing GNSS-enabled mobile phone market are to achieve high sensitivity and
high immunity defined by government regulations against interference of cellular signals for safety and
emergency reasons. This means GNSS signals must be received at very low power levels (down to less than 160 dBm) in mobile phones in the vicinity of co-existing high-power cellular signals. In addition, portable
and mobile phones must have excellent Electro-Static Discharge (ESD) robustness and low power
consumption to ensure long battery usage time.
Infineon Technologies is the market leader in GNSS Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) for navigation applications
in Personal Navigation Devices (PND) and cellular products. Infineon offers a complete product portfolio to
all customers designing high-performance flexible RF front-end solutions for GNSSs:
-
Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs): Infineon offers a wide range of products such as high-performance
Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs) as well as cost-effective and high-end RF
transistors
-
Front-End Modules (FEMs): Infineon offers the world’s smallest GNSS FEMs with LNAs and band-pass
filter(s) integrated into a single tiny package with well-optimized performance for navigation
features in mobile phones
-
Transient Voltage Suppression (TVS) Diodes: Infineon devices can protect GNSS antennas reliably up
to 20 kV
-
RF Switches: Infineon switches allow for diversity architecture with active antennas
39
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Global Navigation Satellite Systems
Infineon’s GNSS LNA and FEM products have low Noise Figure (NF), high gain, high linearity, high levels of
ESD protection, and low power consumption to satisfy the increasing requirements of GNSS systems.
Infineon offers LNAs optimized for high linearity and high gain. Our latest GNSS LNA products covering all
current GNSS systems include BGA924N6 and BGA824N6 with very low NF and high Out-of-Band (OoB) 3rdorder intercept point (IP3) to enhance interference immunity.
BGA925L6 and BGA825L6 are two of the smallest GNSS LNAs in the world. They have low NF and high OoB
performance, and they work under extreme jamming conditions. BGA725L6 is one of the smallest GNSS
LNAs with high gain and low noise.
Designed for various GNSS antenna positions in mobile phones, various GNSS FEM products are released
with the following two topologies:
-
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW)-Filter/LNA Topology: Enables flexibility in the placement of the GNSS
antenna without degrading the GNSS performance.
-
Notch Filter/SAW-Filter/LNA Topology: With an additional integrated notch filter in front of the GNSS
FEM, the GNSS is enhanced to reject mobile jammer signals, especially for LTE Band-13, to ensure
GNSS reception even with weak GNSS and high jammer signal conditions.
All Infineon GNSS FEM products offer an ESD robustness higher than 6 kV at the RF input pin, tested with the
IEC61000-4-2 contact discharge standard.
Please visit www.infineon.com/gnss and www.infineon.com/rf-nav.frontend for more details on products
for navigation in mobile phones and portable devices, or contact your local Infineon representative.
40
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Global Navigation Satellite Systems
4.1
Key Features of GNSS Front-End Components
4.1.1
Key Features of GNSS Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs)
Low Noise Figure & High Gain
The power levels of satellite signals received by a GPS/GNSS receiver are as low as -160 dBm. Such systems
must be very sensitive. An external LNA with low NF and high gain is required to boost the sensitivity of the
system and Time-To-First Fix (TTFF).
High Linearity
In modern mobile phones, GNSS signals coexist with strong interfering cellular signals. The cellular signals
can mix to produce intermodulation products in the GNSS receiver frequency band. To enhance interference
immunity of the GNSS systems, LNAs with high linearity characteristics e.g. IP3 and P1dB are required.
Low Current Consumption
Power consumption is an important feature in many GNSS systems that are mainly battery-operated mobile
devices. Infineon’s LNAs have an integrated power on/off feature which provides for low power
consumption and increased stand-by time for GNSS handsets. Moreover, the low current consumption (3.6
mA) makes Infineon’s LNAs suitable for portable technology such as GNSS receivers and mobile phones.
4.1.2
Key Features of GNSS Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Filters
Low Insertion Loss
The pre-filter should not contribute to losses in the system since it is the first block after the antenna in the
receiver chain. Losses in the pre-filter will impact the NF of the receiver system significantly. Infineon’s SAW
filters introduce an insertion loss of only 1 dB in the pass band.
High Out-of-Band Rejection
The strong cellular signals that coexist in a mobile phone can drive the GNSS LNA into saturation. These
signals can be filtered out with a pre-filter and post-filter to prevent interference in later stages. The SAW
filter should have high OoB rejection. Infineon’s SAW filters have high OoB rejection of about 34 dB.
High Linearity Capability
It has been verified that both the LNA and the SAW filter can introduce OoB intermodulation products of
mobile signals that are within the GNSS bands. Therefore it is a key requirement for a GNSS SAW filter to
have high linear surface acoustic resonators, especially at the input stage resonators of the SAW filter.
41
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Global Navigation Satellite Systems
4.2
System Challenges for Modern GNSS Reception in Mobile Devices
GNSS receivers for mobile or handheld devices are always at risk of strong interference from high-power
cellular signals. Due to the coexistence of GNSS and cellular services, there is a strong coupling of the Digital
Cellular Service (DCS)/ Personal Communications Services (PCS) and cellular (Global System for Mobile
Communication (GSM)/ Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)/3G/ Long-Term Evolution (LTE)) signals to the
GPS receiver. The performance of a standard integrated GNSS receiver chip cannot meet the specifications
required for modern-day systems. An external RF FE is essential to achieve this required performance. The
most important prerequisites for the FE of a GNSS receiver are low NF and sufficient amplification of the
desired signal together with high attenuation of the jammer signals. We need an external LNA with low NF
and high gain preceded by a band-pass filter with low Insertion Loss (IL) and high OoB attenuation to
achieve this.
GNSS receiver sensitivity enhancement with an external LNA
In the circuit chain of a receiver, the NF of the first stage LNA dominates the overall system NF. Consider a
GNSS receiver IC with NF of 2.3 dB.
By adding Infineon’s LNA BGA824N6 with NF 0.6 dB and Gain 17 dB to the front of the receiver IC, the NF Fsys
of the receiver system can be expressed by using Friis Formula:
sys = LNA +
receiver −1
LNA
Using the above equation, sys = 1.16. Therefore, sys = 10 log sys = 0.66 dB.
The sensitivity of the GNSS system can thus be improved by 1.6 dB through the external LNA. The NF of the
system is dominated by the NF and gain of the first stage LNA. Adding a LNA with very low NF and excellent
linear performance improve the overall receiver sensitivity, which leads to low TTFF and more GNSS
coverage in real field applications for the end user.
Noise Figure degradation due to high power of jammer signal
High power interfering jammer signals may leak into the GNSS receiver and affect the receiver’s sensitivity
by overdriving the receiver’s LNA. This presents a major challenge to RF FE designers to maintain the
receiver’s sensitivity for weak incoming GNSS signals. It is important to use an external LNA with very good
noise performance in the presence of strong interfering signals. The LNA needs to exhibit outstanding OoB
P1dB performance against jammer signals so that it is not desensitized. The following figure shows the NF
degradation of Infineon’s LNA BGA824N6 due to high-power incoming jammer signals.
42
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Global Navigation Satellite Systems
1,4
1,2
Noise figure Degradation [dB]
1
0,8
0,6
1555MHz
0,4
1570MHz
1580MHz
0,2
1606MHz
0
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
Jammer Power at 1710 MHz [dBm]
Noise figure desensitization effect caused by jammer signal
Out-of-band interference
Because GNSS and cellular systems coexist in a compact area in a mobile phone, coupling from cellular
transmitter to GNSS receive path results in OoB intermixing of cellular signals in FE devices. For example,
GSM 1712.7 MHz and UMTS 1850 MHz produce third-order intermodulation products at GPS frequencies.
This effect desensitizes the GPS receiver and decreases its performance. OoB measurements are used to
quantify this. The OoB IIP3 can be calculated as follows.
Out-of-band Input 3 = 1IN + [2IN − (3out_GPS − at GPS )]⁄2
The following figure demonstrates the OoB IP3 measurement.
A GSM signal of frequency f1IN = 1713 MHz and power P1IN = -20 dBm and UMTS signal of frequency f2IN = 1851
MHz and power P2IN = -20 dBm are used. The 3rd-order intermodulation product, 2×f1IN – f2IN, is located at the
GPS band.
Using the above equation, the OoB IIP3 can be calculated as
3 = −20 + [−20 − (−64.8 − 15.81) )]⁄2 = 10.3 dBm,
(Note: 1) Gain at GPS is from BGA925L6.)
which is well above the specified value for mobile GNSS applications, e.g. about +7 dBm.
43
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Global Navigation Satellite Systems
Out-of-band IIP3 measurement
LTE Band 13 interference
The 2nd harmonic of LTE band-13 (700 MHz) is located in the GNSS band at 1575 MHz. The following block
diagram depicts the interference measurement of LTE band-13 with the GNSS band of 1575 MHz.
H2 of LTE band
13 1575.52 MHz
-80 dBm
LTE band 13
787.76 MHz
+25 dBm
3G/4G
Transceiver
IC
9 dB worst case
Isolation
GNSS
Receiver IC
H2 of LTE band
13 1575.52 MHz
H2 of LTE band
13 1575.52 MHz
-89 dBm
In this example, considering a worst-case isolation of 9 dB between the both antennas, jammer frequency
fLTE = 787.76 MHz, and the power of the second harmonic fH2 = 1575.52 MHz is -89 dBm at the GPS antenna.
Infineon MMICs and FEMs provide very high OoB signal rejection along with high input compression points.
As an example, BGM1043N7 shows a rejection of -70 dBc. Please refer to Infineon’s application note AN287
for more information.
44
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Global Navigation Satellite Systems
4.3
RF Front-End Devices for GNSS
GPS: 1575.42 MHz
GLONASS: 1598.0625 – 1609.3125 MHz
Galileo & Beidou (北斗): 1559.052 – 1591.788 MHz
BPF
LNA
Amp
BPF
Mixer
BPF
Signal
Processing
ESD Diode
LO
GNSS Receiver
RF MMIC LNAs
Application
Note
Gain1)
[dB]
NF1)
[dB]
IP-1dB1)
[dBm]
IIP31)
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current1)
[mA]
Package
AN265
AN266
AN267
AN274
15.8
15.5
15.6
14.5
0.7
1.0
0.8
2.0
-7
-9
-9
-5
1.7
-5
-5
-2
1.5…3.6
5.0
TSLP-6-2
AN297
AN304
AN3182)
AN325
AN326
AN334
17.1
15.9
-17.0
15.4
16.4
0.6
1.7
-0.6
2.0
0.9
-5.7
-5.3
--7
-5.2
-8.7
6.5
-1.1
-+2
-4.9
-7.1
BGA725L6
AN280
19.9
0.7
-15
-6
1.5…3.6
3.9
TSLP-6-2
BGA524N6
AN346
19.6
0.6
-12
-8
1.5…3.6
2.5
TSNP-6-2
Package
Product
BGA925L6
BGA825L6
BGA824C2)
BGA824N6
Notes:
1.5…3.6
1.5…3.6
5.0
5.2
-3.9
4.1
4.0
TSLP-6-3
FWLP-6-1
TSNP-6-2
1) Supply voltage at 2.8 V and frequency at 1575 MHz;
2) on request;
3) Please visit www.infineon.com/gnss for alternative devices.
RF Transistor LNAs
Application
Note
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
AN120
19.7
0.8
-17
0
1.8
9.6
BFP640ESD
BFP640FESD
AN194
16.5
0.8
-16
+1
2.1
7.5
BFP640F
AN128
15.2
0.9
-13
0
2.1
8.0
TSFP-4
BFP405
AN149
15.3
1.6
-23
-5
1.8
2.6
SOT343
Product
BFP740ESD
BFP740FESD
BFR740L3RH
Note:
SOT343
Please visit www.infineon.com/lna up to 12 GHz for alternative devices.
45
TSFP-4
TSLP-3-9
SOT343
TSFP-4
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Global Navigation Satellite Systems
TVS Diodes for Antenna ESD Protection
Product
Application
VRWM
[V]
ESD1)
[kV]
VCL2)
[VCL]@[A]
Rdyn3)
[Ω]
IPP4)
[A]
VCL5)
[V]
CT6)
[pF]
Protected
Lines
Package
ESD108-B1-CSP0201
ESD119-B1-W01005
med. PRF
AN392
±5.5
±25
±20@±16
±31@±30
0.76
1
2.5
8.5
11
0.25
1
WLL-2-1
WLL-2-2
ESD105-B102EL/02ELS
med. PRF
±5.5
±25
±14@±16
±20@±30
0.35
2
5
8.5
11
0.3
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
ESD101-B102EL/02ELS
med. PRF
AN327
±5.5
±12
±18@±8
±30@±16
1.5
-
-
0.10
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
ESD103-B102EL/02ELS
high PRF
AN327
±15
±10
±36@±8
±48@±16
1.8
-
-
0.10
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
Notes:
1) Electrostatic discharge as per IEC61000-4-2, contact discharge;
2) TLP clamping voltage for 100 ns pulse length;
3) Dynamic resistance (ON-resistance) evaluated with TLP measurement (100 ns pulse length);
4) Maximum peak pulse current according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
5) Clamping Voltage at IPP,max according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
6) Typical capacitance at 1 MHz (unless specified), 0 V, I/O vs. GND;
7) Please visit www.infineon.com/protection/low-cap.esd-diodes for alternative devices.
46
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Global Navigation Satellite Systems
4.4
Integrated Front-End Modules for GNSS
GPS: 1575.42 MHz
GLONASS: 1598.0625 – 1609.3125 MHz
BPF
LNA
BPF
Amp
Mixer
BPF
Signal
Processing
FEM
ESD
Diode
GNSS Receiver
LO
RF MMIC FEMs (DC and In-Band Parameters)
Product
Application
Note
BGM1043N7
AN283
AN286
AN287
AN294
BGM1034N7
Notes:
AN268
AN269
FEM Conf.
Gain1)
[dB]
NF 1)
[dB]
IP-1dB 1)
[dBm]
IIP3 1)
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current1)
[mA]
SAW+LNA
15.1
14.8
14.6
14.8
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.6
-6.3
-7.2
-6.5
-6.5
-6.0
-6.4
-6.4
-5.9
1.5…3.6
4.4
4.1
4.2
4.1
SAW+LNA
17.0
1.7
-13.1
-8.7
1.5…3.6
4.2
IMD2 3)
[dBm]
IIP3 4)
[dBm]
Package
1) Supply voltage at 2.8 V and frequency at 1575 MHz.
RF MMIC FEMs (Out-of-Band Parameters)
Jammer signal rejection [dBc] 1)
1800 MHz
2400 MHz
IP-1dB 2)
[dBm]
49
49
44
52
43
50
47
47
49
31/33
31/33
30/32
30/32
-50
-32
-70
-84
63
63
64
64
TSNP-7-10
56
50
63
22
-5)
65
TSNP-7-10
Product
Application
Note
900 MHz
BGM1043N7
AN283
AN286
AN287
AN294
BGM1034N7
AN268
AN269
Notes:
1) Rejection is defined as [Gain at 1575 MHz] – [Attenuation at stop band frequency];
2) IP-1dB is measured at 900 and 1710 MHz;
3) IMD2 is measured at 1575 MHz with fin = 787.5 MHz with Pin = +15 dBm;
4) IIP3 is measured with f1 = 1713 MHz and f2 = 1850 MHz with P1/P2 = +10 dBm;
5) On request;
6) All Infineon GNSS FEM products offer ESD robustness higher than 6 kV at RF input pin according to IEC61000-4-2 contact discharge standard;
7) Please visit our www.infineon.com/rf-nav.frontend for alternative devices.
TVS Diodes for Antenna ESD Protection
Product
Application
VRWM
[V]
ESD1)
[kV]
VCL2)
[VCL]@[A]
Rdyn3)
[Ω]
IPP4)
[A]
VCL5)
[V]
CT6)
[pF]
Protected
Lines
Package
ESD108-B1-CSP0201
ESD119-B1-W01005
med. PRF
AN392
±5.5
±25
±20@±16
±31@±30
0.76
1
2.5
8.5
11
0.25
1
WLL-2-1
WLL-2-2
ESD105-B102EL/02ELS
med. PRF
±5.5
±25
±14@±16
±20@±30
0.35
2
5
8.5
11
0.3
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
ESD101-B102EL/02ELS
med. PRF
AN327
±5.5
±12
±18@±8
±30@±16
1.5
-
-
0.10
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
ESD103-B102EL/02ELS
high PRF
AN327
±15
±10
±36@±8
±48@±16
1.8
-
-
0.10
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
Notes:
1) Electrostatic discharge as per IEC61000-4-2, contact discharge;
2) TLP clamping voltage for 100 ns pulse length;
3) Dynamic resistance (ON-resistance) evaluated with TLP measurement (100 ns pulse length);
4) Maximum peak pulse current according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs); 5) Clamping Voltage at IPP,max according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
6) Typical capacitance at 1 MHz (unless specified), 0 V, I/O vs. GND;
7) Please visit www.infineon.com/protection/low-cap.esd-diodes for alternative devices.
47
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Wireless-LAN, Unlicensed LTE (LTE-U) and Licensed Assisted Access (LAA)
5
Wireless-LAN, Unlicensed LTE (LTE-U) and Licensed Assisted
Access (LAA)
5.1
Wireless-LAN Applications
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) or Wi-Fi is one of the most important connectivity functions in
notebooks, smartphones, and tablet PCs. Wi-Fi conforming to IEEE 802.11b/g/n at 2.4 GHz has been widely
implemented over many years. Today Wi-Fi is not only used for high-data-rate access to the internet, but
also in different applications such as home entertainment with wireless high-quality multimedia signal
transmission such as Wireless High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) in TV sets and DVD players, etc.
The crowded WLAN networks running at 2.4 GHz often have a lot of interference; as a result, Wi-Fi
applications running at 5 to 6 GHz per IEEE 802.11a/ac/n are becoming more common. [email protected]
devices such as home networking notebooks, mass data storage drives, and printers often now use 5-6 GHz
Wi-Fi for high-speed wireless connections.
With the arrival of new wireless devices such as tablets, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) devices, game
consoles, ebooks etc., the requirements for wireless data quality have become more stringent than ever.
New WLAN standards are being developed to cater to these high-throughput requirements by using
i)
ii)
iii)
Higher-order modulation schemes
Wider channel bandwidth
Multiple data streams
The 802.11ac is an extension of 802.11n, providing a minimum of 500 Mbps single link and up to 1 Gbps
overall throughput, running in the 5 GHz band. The draft 802.11ad provides up to 7 Gbps throughput using
approximately 2 GHz of spectrum at 60 GHz over a short range. The following table shows the evolution of
IEEE 802.11 standards.
48
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Wireless-LAN, Unlicensed LTE (LTE-U) and Licensed Assisted Access (LAA)
Summary of 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac/ad standards
Standard
802.11
802.11b
802.11g
Frequency Range
Data Rate
[GHz]
[Mbps]
2.4 – 2.5
2.4 – 2.5
2.4 – 2.5
2
11
54
Count of
Channels
Channel Bandwidth
Modulation Scheme
MIMO
Streams
[MHz]
1)
20
DSSS, FHSS
1
1)
20
DSSS
1
20
OFDM, DSSS
1
OFDM
4
14
14
1)
14
1)
802.11n
2.4 – 2.5
54
up to 14
20, 40
802.11a
5.1 – 5.9
54
422)
20
802.11n
5.1 – 5.9
up to 422)
20, 40
OFDM
802.11ac
5.1 – 5.9
up to 422)
20, 40, 80, 160
256QAM
802.11ad
57 - 64
Notes:
1) Three non-overlapping channels;
600
(4x4 MIMO)
1300
(3 streams)
up to 7000
50,100, 250 MHz
--
up to 4 GHz
2) Twelve non-overlapping channels.
49
OFDM
64QAM
16QAM
1
4
up to 8,
MU-MIMO
--
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Wireless-LAN, Unlicensed LTE (LTE-U) and Licensed Assisted Access (LAA)
5.1.1
Key Features of WLAN Rx Front-End Devices
Key performance metrics for any WLAN application are speed of data transfer, and coverage. These factors
are greatly influenced by transmitted power, receiver sensitivity, noise, and interference.
Low Noise Figure
A Wi-Fi router has to receive relatively weak signals from Wi-Fi enabled devices such as mobile phones.
Therefore, it should have high sensitivity to detect a weak signal in the presence of strong interfering signals.
The sensitivity of the receiver can be improved by using a low-noise amplifier as the first block of the
receiver Front-End (FE) to reduce the Noise Figure (NF) of the overall system.
High Linearity
WLAN systems are subject to co-channel interference and also interference from strong co-existing cellular
signals. High linearity characteristics such as Input 3rd Intercept Point (IIP3) and input compression point are
required to improve an application's ability to distinguish between desired signals and spurious signals
received close together.
Infineon offers a wide Radio Frequency (RF) product portfolio for Wi-Fi, including:
-
Discrete transistors & Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs)
Power detection diodes
RF Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) and pin diode switches
For these kinds of high-data-rate wireless communication systems, it is essential to ensure the quality of the
link path. Major performance criteria of this equipment must be met with regard to sensitivity, signal
strength, and interference immunity with enough link budgets.
In addition, Infineon also offers RF Electro-Static Discharge (ESD) protection diodes. The ESD protection
diode series, ESD108-B1-CSP0201 and ESD103-B1-02EL/02ELS, have a line capacitance value of only 0.2 pF
and 0.1 pF respectively and can protect the system from ESD strikes up to 8 kV contact discharge according
to the IEC-61000-4-2 standard.
50
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Wireless-LAN, Unlicensed LTE (LTE-U) and Licensed Assisted Access (LAA)
5.1.2
Dual-Band (2.4–6.0 GHz) WLAN (IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n) Front-End
2.4 GHz LNA
Dual-Band WLAN:
2.4 – 6 GHz
RX Diplexer
RXg
RXa
SPDT
Switch
5 GHz LNA
Transceiver
IC
TXg
2.4 GHz PA
ESD
Diode
TX Diplexer
Power
Detector 5 GHz PA
TXa
WLAN Application Example 1: Dual-band (2.4–6.0 GHz) WLAN (IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n) FE
RXg
2.4 GHz LNA w. bypass
Dual-Band WLAN:
2.4 – 6 GHz
SPDT
Switch
ESD
Diode
RXa
5 GHz LNA w. bypass
TX Diplexer
2.4/5 GHz
WLAN
Transceiver
IC
TXg
2.4 GHz PA
Power
Detector
5 GHz PA
TXa
WLAN Application Example 2: Dual-band (2.4-6.0 GHz) WLAN (IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n/ac) FE
51
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Wireless-LAN, Unlicensed LTE (LTE-U) and Licensed Assisted Access (LAA)
5.1.3
MIMO Configurations for WLAN (IEEE 802.11b/g/n and IEEE 802.11a/n/ac)
Applications
IEEE 802.11n at 2.4 GHz and at 5 GHz bands introduced the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) topologies
in advanced high-data-rate WLAN applications. MIMO exploits multipath propagation known as spacedivision multiplexing. The transmitter IC multiplexes a data stream into multiple spatial streams, and
transmits each spatial stream through separate antennas to corresponding antennas on the receiving end.
Doubling the number of spatial streams from one to two effectively doubles the data rate. However,
increased power consumption due to the presence of multiple transmitter and receiver chains presents a
major challenge in optimizing the battery life of the device. Infineon’s products offer very low power
consumption, thus optimizing the battery life of the device.
The following block diagram illustrates a dual-band WLAN MIMO FE. Please refer to the previous sections for
the corresponding products for each function block.
2.4 GHz LNA
RX Diplexer
RXg
WLAN: 2.4 / 5 GHz
RXa
SPDT
Switch
5 GHz LNA
TXg
2.4 GHz PA
ESD
Diode
TX Diplexer
.
.
.
n = 1, 2, 3…
Power
Detector 5 GHz PA
.
.
.
TXa
nx n
2.4/5 GHz
WLAN
Transceiver
IC
RXg
WLAN: 2.4 / 5 GHz
RXa
TXg
TXa
WLAN MIMO Application Example: Dual-band WLAN 2.4 & 5 GHz IEEE 802.11b/g/n and 802.11a/n/ac NxN
MIMO FE with dual-band antennas, dual-band TX and RX paths using dual-band LNAs
52
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Wireless-LAN, Unlicensed LTE (LTE-U) and Licensed Assisted Access (LAA)
5.1.4
WLAN (IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n) Front-End Devices
RF MMIC LNAs
Application
Note
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
Package
BGA6H1BN61)
1800-2700
14.3/-2.8
0.8/2.8
-6/+12
+3/+25
1.5…3.3
5.5/0.09
TSNP-6-2
BGA7H1N6
AN365
13.0
0.7
2
5
1.5…3.6
4.9
TSNP-6-2
BGA777N7
AN370
16.4/-7.0
1.2/7.0
-9/-1
-3/+5
2.8
4.4/0.5
TSNP-7-1
BGB741L7ESD
AN207
TR102
17.5
18.7
1.5
1.1
-4.0
-6.7
-1.2
+2
3.0
10.0
10.8
TSLP-7-1
BGA622L7
AN089
12.6
1.3
-15
-4
2.8
5.4
SOT343
AN207
12
2.0
-1
8.5
3.0
6
TSLP-7-1
13.3
2.3
-6
-4.3
2.8
3.2
TSLP-7-1
Product
2.4 GHz LNA
5 GHz LNA
BGB741L7ESD
1)
BGB707L7ESD
Notes:
TR1012
1) On request;
2) Please visit www.infineon.com/rf-mmic for alternative devices.
RF CMOS Switches
Type
App.
Note
Supply
[V]
Vctrl1)
[V]
IL2)
[dB]
Isolation
[dB]
P-0.1dB3)
[dBm]
Pin,max4)
[dBm]
Ctrl.5)
Int.
Package
BGS12AL7-4
BGS12AL7-6
SPDT
AN175
2.4…3.6
1.4…3.6
0.5
25
> 21
21
GPIO
TSLP-7-4
TSLP-7-6
BGS13SN9
SP3T
on
request
1.8…3.3
1.35…Vdd
0.33 / 0.35
30 / 27
>30
30
GPIO
TSNP-9-2
1.8…3.3
1.4…3.3
0.3/0.56)
32/306)
>30
30
GPIO
TSNP-6-2
Product
2.4 GHz Switches
2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Broadband Switches
BGS12SN6
Notes:
SPDT
AN332
1) Digital Control Voltage;
3) 0.1 dB compression point;
6) Value at 2.4 GHz/5 GHz;
2) IL = Insertion Loss;
4) Maximum input power;
5) Control Interface;
7) Please visit www.infineon.com/rfswitches for alternative devices.
RF Schottky Diodes for Power Detectors
Application
Note
CT2)
[pF]
@VR
[V]
VF
[mV]
@IF
[mA]
VF
[mV]
@IF
[mA]
IR
[µA]
@VR
[V]
BAT62-02V
AN185
0.35
0
580
2
-
-
< 10
40
SC79
BAT15-02EL
BAT15-02ELS
on
request
4
TSLP-2-19
TSSLP-2-3
Product1)
Notes:
0.26
0
230
1
1) D = Dual; T = Triple; Q = Quadruple;
2) at 1 MHz;
3) Please visit www.infineon.com/rf-mixer-detector-schottky-diodes for alternative devices.
53
320
10
<5
Package
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Wireless-LAN, Unlicensed LTE (LTE-U) and Licensed Assisted Access (LAA)
RF Transistor LNAs
Application
Note
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
Package
BFP842ESD
AN322
19.3
0.8
-9.9
2.6
3.0
11.9
SOT343
BFR840L3RHESD
AN339
20.8
1.38
-18.6
-7.2
3.0
9.0
TSLP-3-9
BFR740L3RH
AN173
18.0
0.7
-10
+1
3.0
14.7
TSLP-3-9
BFR840L3RHESD
AN281
AN290
15.1
1.0
-8
+2
3.0
9.4
TSLP-3-9
BFR740L3RH
AN170
14.3
1.3
-5
+4
3.0
12.9
TSLP-3-9
Product
2.4 GHz LNA
5 GHz LNA
2.4 GHz & 5 GHz Broadband LNA
BFR843EL3
AN307
18.5/13.3
1.0/1.3
-12.1/-7.5
-1.9/2.8
3.0
12.2
TSLP-3-9
BFR840L3RHESD
AN292
18.5/15
1.1/1.4
-15/-12.6
-5.5/0.3
3.0
9.4
TSLP-3-9
Note:
Please visit www.infineon.com/lna up to 12 GHz for alternative devices.
TVS Diodes for Antenna ESD Protection
Product
Application
VRWM
[V]
ESD1)
[kV]
VCL2)
[VCL]@[A]
Rdyn3)
[Ω]
IPP4)
[A]
VCL5)
[V]
CT6)
[pF]
Protected
Lines
Package
ESD108-B1-CSP0201
ESD119-B1-W01005
med. PRF
AN392
±5.5
±25
±20@±16
±31@±30
0.76
1
2.5
8.5
11
0.25
1
WLL-2-1
WLL-2-2
ESD105-B102EL/02ELS
med. PRF
±5.5
±25
±14@±16
±20@±30
0.35
2
5
8.5
11
0.3
1
ESD101-B102EL/02ELS
med. PRF
AN327
±5.5
±12
±18@±8
±30@±16
1.5
-
-
0.10
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
ESD103-B102EL/02ELS
high PRF
AN327
±15
±10
±36@±8
±48@±16
1.8
-
-
0.10
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
Notes:
1) Electrostatic discharge as per IEC61000-4-2, contact discharge;
2) TLP clamping voltage for 100 ns pulse length;
3) Dynamic resistance (ON-resistance) evaluated with TLP measurement (100 ns pulse length);
4) Maximum peak pulse current according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
5) Clamping Voltage at IPP,max according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
6) Typical capacitance at 1 MHz (unless specified), 0 V, I/O vs. GND;
7) Please visit www.infineon.com/protection/low-cap.esd-diodes for alternative devices.
54
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Wireless-LAN, Unlicensed LTE (LTE-U) and Licensed Assisted Access (LAA)
5.2
Unlicensed LTE (LTE-U) and Licensed Assisted Access (LAA)
5.2.1
LTE-U and LAA as data rate booster for LTE-A
Unlicensed Long-Term Evolution (LTE-U) and Licensed Assisted Access (LAA) are new concepts to increase
the available RF bandwidth of mobile users to achieve much higher data rates than are possible with
common LTE bands. For the Frequency-Division Duplexing (FDD) mode with the traditional LTE bands up to
2.7 GHz, intra- and inter-band carrier aggregation is used with up to 5 channels and a maximum 100 MHz
bandwidth. However, this technology requires quite complex RF FE architecture, and suffers from
performance degradation. On the other hand, LTE-U and LAA can make use of the 5- to 6-GHz ISM
(Industrial, Science and Medicine) bands and can easily use much a higher bandwidth (up to 160 MHz) with a
simple RF FE. This additional available bandwidth can be combined with the common LTE bands at lower
frequencies. The first figure below shows how these solutions work together with the LTE FDD operation by
using carrier aggregation or link aggregation. The second picture shows one of the first proposals by mobile
phone makers in 3GPP for a 5-GHz LAA downlink to support common FDD up-/downlinks.
Carrier Wi-Fi Deployment
Wi-Fi 2.4 & 5 GHz
Link Aggregation
Licensed LTE
400 MHz to 3.8 GHz
in Mobile Phone
LTE-U Small Cell Deployments
LTE-U 5 GHz
Carrier Aggregation
Licensed LTE
400 MHz to 3.8 GHz
in Mobile Phone
LTE FDD operation supported by LAA and LTE-U techniques using link or carrier aggregation
55
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Wireless-LAN, Unlicensed LTE (LTE-U) and Licensed Assisted Access (LAA)
Constituted
FDD Band
5GHz Band
Block diagram of a 5-GHz LAA to support common FDD operation using carrier aggregation
Nevertheless, this technology must co-exist with the WLAN IEEE802.a/ac standard. Various implementations
in the system are under investigation by 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) members to monitor and
control the usage of the channels in 5 to 6 GHz to avoid link collision between WLAN and LTE-U or LAA. One
method to avoid link collision is for a system to listen to a channel for at least 3 ms to make sure that it is
free for use before the radio link is established and packages can be sent out.
56
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Wireless-LAN, Unlicensed LTE (LTE-U) and Licensed Assisted Access (LAA)
5.2.2
LTE-U and LAA Front-End Devices
RF MMIC LNAs
Application
Note
Product
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
Package
BGB741L7ESD
AN207
12
2.0
-1
8.5
3.0
6
TSLP-7-1
BGB707L7ESD
TR10121)
13.3
2.3
-6
-4.3
2.8
3.2
TSLP-7-1
Notes:
1) On request;
2) Please visit www.infineon.com/rf-mmic for alternative devices.
RF CMOS Switches
Product
Type
App.
Note
Supply
[V]
Vctrl1)
[V]
IL2)
[dB]
Isolation
[dB]
P-0.1dB3)
[dBm]
Pin,max4)
[dBm]
Ctrl.5)
Int.
Package
BGS12SN6
SPDT
AN332
1.8…3.3
1.4…3.3
0.3/0.56)
32/306)
>30
30
GPIO
TSNP-6-2
Notes:
1) Digital Control Voltage;
3) 0.1 dB compression point;
6) Value at 2.4 GHz/5 GHz;
2) IL = Insertion Loss;
4) Maximum input power;
5) Control Interface;
7) Please visit www.infineon.com/rfswitches for alternative devices.
RF Schottky Diodes for Power Detectors
Product1)
Application
Note
CT2)
[pF]
@VR
[V]
VF
[mV]
@IF
[mA]
VF
[mV]
@IF
[mA]
IR
[µA]
@VR
[V]
BAT62-02V
AN185
0.35
0
580
2
-
-
< 10
40
SC79
BAT15-02EL
BAT15-02ELS
on
request
4
TSLP-2-19
TSSLP-2-3
Notes:
0.26
0
230
1
320
10
<5
Package
1) D = Dual; T = Triple; Q = Quadruple;
2) at 1 MHz;
3) Please visit www.infineon.com/rf-mixer-detector-schottky-diodes for alternative devices.
RF Transistor LNAs
Product
Application
Note
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
Package
BFR840L3RHESD
AN281
AN290
15.1
1.0
-8
+2
3.0
9.4
TSLP-3-9
BFR740L3RH
AN170
14.3
1.3
-5
+4
3.0
12.9
TSLP-3-9
Note:
Please visit www.infineon.com/lna up to 12 GHz for alternative devices.
TVS Diodes for Antenna ESD Protection
Product
Application
VRWM
[V]
ESD1)
[kV]
VCL2)
[VCL]@[A]
Rdyn3)
[Ω]
IPP4)
[A]
VCL5)
[V]
CT6)
[pF]
Protected
Lines
Package
ESD108-B1-CSP0201
ESD119-B1-W01005
med. PRF
AN392
±5.5
±25
±20@±16
±31@±30
0.76
1
2.5
8.5
11
0.25
1
WLL-2-1
WLL-2-2
ESD105-B102EL/02ELS
med. PRF
±5.5
±25
0.35
2
5
8.5
11
0.3
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
ESD101-B102EL/02ELS
med. PRF
AN327
±5.5
±12
±18@±8
±30@±16
1.5
-
-
0.10
1
ESD103-B102EL/02ELS
high PRF
AN327
±15
±10
±36@±8
±48@±16
1.8
-
-
0.10
1
Notes:
±14@±16
±20@±30
1) Electrostatic discharge as per IEC61000-4-2, contact discharge;
2) TLP clamping voltage for 100 ns pulse length;
3) Dynamic resistance (ON-resistance) evaluated with TLP measurement (100 ns pulse length);
4) Maximum peak pulse current according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
5) Clamping Voltage at IPP,max according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
6) Typical capacitance at 1 MHz (unless specified), 0 V, I/O vs. GND;
7) Please visit www.infineon.com/protection/low-cap.esd-diodes for alternative devices.
57
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
FM Radio and Mobile TV
6
FM Radio and Mobile TV
Frequency Modulation (FM) radio has a long history, starting from its development in 1933. Today, FM radio
is an integral part of almost all mobile phones. The headset cable can serve as an antenna for FM reception.
Its size (~75 cm) is ideal to have good reception. Nevertheless, no FM reception is possible when the headset
is not available.
There is a clear market trend to be able to use FM radio without the headset cable, meaning that the
antenna has to be integrated inside the phone. However, there are space constraints on the antenna design.
Shrinking the size of the antenna introduces a high loss in the system which reduces the receiver's
sensitivity. The major FM topologies widely used in the market are:
-
FM Receiver (RX) only (Application 1): Only the FM radio receive function is implemented
-
FM Transmitter (TX) and RX (Application 2): The FM path is used for both FM radio reception and FM
signal transmission, streaming music from the mobile phone to other FM receivers such as car radio
and home hi-fi systems
Infineon’s low noise amplifiers (LNAs) for mobile FM applications include Monolithic Microwave Integrated
Circuits (MMICs) BGB707L7ESD, BGB717L7ESD, and BGB719N7ESD, as well as low-cost transistors such as
BFR340F. They solve the problem of the short FM antenna in mobile phones through better impedance
match between the FM antenna and the FM receiver. Therefore, they can keep the system signal-to-noise
ratio as good as with a headset.
BGB707L7ESD offers the flexibility to match various antenna and receiver input impedances. The highly
integrated BGB719N7ESD is the compact solution that offers the best performance for high-ohmic antenna
and 50-Ohm receiver input impedance. The integrated active biasing enables consistent stable operation
with varying temperature and process variations. It is used in all kinds of mobile devices such as mobile
phones, personal digital assistant (PDAs), portable FM radio, MP3 players etc.
Putting Infineon’s Electro-Static Discharge (ESD) protection diode from the ESD108-B1-CSP0201 and
ESD103-B1-02EL/02ELS series in front of the LNA increases the system’s ESD robustness up to 8 kV contact
discharge (IEC61000-4-2) at the RF input. The diode has a parasitic capacitance of only 0.2 pF.
Infineon’s Single-Pole Double-Throw SPDT switch BGS12 series can be used to switch between the headset
and the embedded antenna in Application 1 or between transmit and receive FM functions in Application 2.
Please visit www.infineon.com/fmradio for more details on the latest product and application information
for FM radio.
58
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
FM Radio and Mobile TV
6.1
FM Radio with Embedded Antenna
Application 1: for only FM Reception
Headset as FM
Antenna
Embedded
FM Antenna
76 – 108 MHz
ESD
Diode
RX
FM Receiver IC
SPDT
Switch
LNA
ESD
Diode
Application 1: FM reception only
Headset as FM
Antenna
SPDT
Switch
Embedded
FM Antenna
76 – 108 MHz
ESD
Diode
RX
FM Transceiver IC
SPDT
Switch
LNA
TX
ESD
Diode
Application 2: FM transmit/receive function block
59
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
FM Radio and Mobile TV
RF MMIC LNAs
Application
Note
Product
on
BGA729N63)
request
Gain4)
[dB]
NF 4)
[dB]
IP-1dB4)
[dBm]
IIP34)
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current4)
[mA]
Package
16.3/-4
1.1/4.3
-15/+5
-6/+17
1.5…3.3
6.0/0.5
TSNP-6-2
BGB719N7ESD
AN2551)
TR10622)
13.5
14.5
1.2
1.7
-6
-11
-14
-16
3.0
3.0
2.8
2.8
TSNP-7-6
BGB707L7ESD
AN1771)
AN1812)
12.0
15.0
1.0
1.3
-5
-10
-12
-6
3.0
2.8
3.0
4.2
TSLP-7-1
BGB717L7ESD
AN1761)
12.0
1.0
-5
-12
3.0
3.0
TSLP-7-1
BGB741L7ESD
2)
16.1
1.2
-8.9
0.3
3.0
6.0
TSLP-7-1
Notes:
TR130
1) For high-ohmic antenna;
2) For 50-Ω antenna;
3) LNA with two gain modes (high-gain/low-gain);
4) Values in high-gain (HG) / low-gain (LG) mode;
5) Please visit www.infineon.com/ltelna for alternative devices.
RF Transistor LNAs
Application
Note
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
Package
AN2001)
AN2052)
15.5
15.6
1.4
1.9
-27
-25
-16
-16
1.8
1.8
2.9
3.0
TSFP-4
BFP460
AN2032)
AN2042)
14.9
17.1
1.1
1.2
-26
-24
-17
-16
1.8
2.6
3.0
4.2
SOT343
BFP540ESD
AN2022)
13.5
1.0
-26
-16
1.8
3.0
SOT343
Product
BFR340F
Notes:
1) For high-ohmic antenna;
2) For 50-Ω antenna;
3) Please visit www.infineon.com/rf-transistors for alternative devices.
RF CMOS Switches
Product
Type
App.
Note
Supply
[V]
Vctrl1)
[V]
IL2)
[dB]
Isolation
[dB]
P-0.1dB3)
[dBm]
Pin,max4)
[dBm]
Ctrl.5)
Int.
Package
BGS12AL7-4
BGS12AL7-6
SPDT
AN175
2.4…3.6
1.4…3.6
0.3
50
> 21
21
GPIO
TSLP-7-4
TSLP-7-6
BGS12SN6
SPDT
AN332
1.8…3.3
1.4…3.3
0.2
40
>30
30
GPIO
TSNP-6-2
BGS13SN9
SP3T
on
request
1.8…3.3
1.35…Vdd
0.33 / 0.35
30 / 27
>30
30
GPIO
TSNP-9-2
Notes:
1) Digital Control Voltage;
3) 0.1 dB compression point;
5) Control Interface;
2) IL = Insertion Loss;
4) Maximum input power;
6) Please visit www.infineon.com/rfswitches for alternative devices.
TVS Diodes for Antenna ESD Protection
Product
Application
VRWM
[V]
ESD1)
[kV]
VCL2)
[VCL]@[A]
Rdyn3)
[Ω]
IPP4)
[A]
VCL5)
[V]
CT6)
[pF]
Protected
Lines
Package
ESD108-B1-CSP0201
ESD119-B1-W01005
med. PRF
AN392
±5.5
±25
±20@±16
±31@±30
0.76
1
2.5
8.5
11
0.25
1
WLL-2-1
WLL-2-2
ESD105-B102EL/02ELS
med. PRF
±5.5
±25
±14@±16
±20@±30
0.35
2
5
8.5
11
0.3
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
ESD101-B102EL/02ELS
med. PRF
AN327
±5.5
±12
±18@±8
±30@±16
1.5
-
-
0.10
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
ESD103-B102EL/02ELS
high PRF
AN327
±15
±10
±36@±8
±48@±16
1.8
-
-
0.10
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
Notes:
1) Electrostatic discharge as per IEC61000-4-2, contact discharge;
2) TLP clamping voltage for 100 ns pulse length;
3) Dynamic resistance (ON-resistance) evaluated with TLP measurement (100 ns pulse length);
4) Maximum peak pulse current according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
5) Clamping Voltage at IPP,max according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
6) Typical capacitance at 1 MHz (unless specified), 0 V, I/O vs. GND;
7) Please visit www.infineon.com/protection/low-cap.esd-diodes for alternative devices.
60
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
FM Radio and Mobile TV
6.2
TV Reception in Mobile Phones
Mobile phones today are all-in-one devices. They have not only wireless functions for voice and data but
also entertainment features. Mobile TV is one of the most fascinating features. It brings live news and
entertainment programs onto the phone display and enables people not to miss their favorite programs.
Infineon’s mobile TV LNAs BGB741L7 are especially designed for the mobile TV reception with 50- or 75-Ohm
interfaces, while our RF transistors offer cost-effective solutions to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and
therefore the quality of the TV reception. Those LNAs together with Infineon’s ESD protection diode from the
ESD108-B1-CSP0201 and ESD103-B1-02EL/02ELS series improve systems' ESD performance up to 8 kV
contact discharge (IEC61000-4-2) at the antenna input. The parasitic capacitance is only 0.2 pF.
Analog TV/DVB-T/CMMB
T-DMB/ISDB-T/DVB-H
40 – 860 MHz
Silicon-Tuner
GSM
Rejection
Filter
ESD
Diode
LNA
Diplexer
RF MMIC LNAs
Product
Application
Note
Gain2)
[dB]
NF 2)
[dB]
IP-1dB2)
[dBm]
IIP32)
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current2)
[mA]
Package
BGA729N61)
on
request
16.3/-4
1.1/4.3
-15/+5
-6/+17
1.5…3.3
6.0/0.5
TSNP-6-2
BGB707L7ESD
AN232
13.0
1.5
-7
-11
3.0
2.9
TSLP-7-1
BGB741L7ESD
AN206
15.0
1.5
-8
-3
2.8
5.4
TSLP-7-1
Notes:
1) LNA with two gain modes (high-gain/low-gain);
2) Values in high-gain (HG) / low-gain (LG) mode;
3) Please visit www.infineon.com/rf-mmic for alternative devices.
RF Transistor LNAs
Note:
Product
Application
Note
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
Package
BFP640ESD
BFP540ESD
BFR380L3
AN218
AN142
AN221
16.5
14.2
10.5
0.83
1.5
2.2
-11.6
-21
-2
+9.3
-13
+7
3.0
5.0
3.3
7.3
3.3
16.8
SOT343
SOT343
TSLP-3-1
Please visit www.infineon.com/rf-transistors for alternative devices.
61
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
FM Radio and Mobile TV
TVS Diodes for Antenna ESD Protection
Product
Application
VRWM
[V]
ESD1)
[kV]
VCL2)
[VCL]@[A]
Rdyn3)
[Ω]
IPP4)
[A]
VCL5)
[V]
CT6)
[pF]
Protected
Lines
Package
ESD108-B1-CSP0201
ESD119-B1-W01005
med. PRF
AN392
±5.5
±25
±20@±16
±31@±30
0.76
1
2.5
8.5
11
0.25
1
WLL-2-1
WLL-2-2
ESD105-B102EL/02ELS
med. PRF
±5.5
±25
±14@±16
±20@±30
0.35
2
5
8.5
11
0.3
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
ESD101-B102EL/02ELS
med. PRF
AN327
±5.5
±12
±18@±8
±30@±16
1.5
-
-
0.10
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
ESD103-B102EL/02ELS
high PRF
AN327
±15
±10
±36@±8
±48@±16
1.8
-
-
0.10
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
Notes:
1) Electrostatic discharge as per IEC61000-4-2, contact discharge;
2) TLP clamping voltage for 100 ns pulse length;
3) Dynamic resistance (ON-resistance) evaluated with TLP measurement (100 ns pulse length);
4) Maximum peak pulse current according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
5) Clamping Voltage at IPP,max according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
6) Typical capacitance at 1 MHz (unless specified), 0 V, I/O vs. GND;
7) Please visit www.infineon.com/protection/low-cap.esd-diodes for alternative devices.
62
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
FM Radio and Mobile TV
6.3
TV Reception with Band Selection Switch
Analog TV/DVB-T/CMMB
T-DMB/ISDB-T/DVB-H
40 – 860 MHz
LPF
UHF
LNA
SPDT
Switch
ESD
Diode
Tuner IC
LPF
VHF
RF MMIC LNAs
Product
Application
Note
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
Package
BGB707L7ESD
AN232
13.0
1.5
-7
-11
3.0
2.9
TSLP-7-1
BGB741L7ESD
AN206
15.0
1.5
-8
-3
2.8
5.4
TSLP-7-1
Notes:
Please visit www.infineon.com/rf-mmic for alternative devices.
RF Transistor LNAs
Note:
Product
Application
Note
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
Package
BFP640ESD
AN218
16.5
0.83
-11.6
+9.3
3.0
7.3
SOT343
BFP540ESD
AN142
14.2
1.5
-21
-13
5.0
3.3
SOT343
BFR380L3
AN221
10.5
2.2
-2
+7
3.3
16.8
TSLP-3-1
Please visit www.infineon.com/rf-transistors for alternative devices.
RF CMOS Switches
Product
Type
App.
Note
Supply
[V]
Vctrl1)
[V]
IL2)
[dB]
Isolation
[dB]
P-0.1dB3)
[dBm]
Pin,max4)
[dBm]
Ctrl.5)
Int.
Package
BGS12AL7-4
BGS12AL7-6
SPDT
AN175
2.4…3.6
1.4…2.8
0.35
> 32
> 21
21
GPIO
TSLP-7-4
TSLP-7-6
BGS12SN6
SPDT
AN332
1.8…3.3
1.35…3.3
0.25
> 40
>30
30
GPIO
TSNP-6-2
Notes:
1) Digital Control Voltage;
3) 0.1 dB compression point;
5) Control Interface
2) IL = Insertion Loss;
4) Maximum input power;
6) Please visit www.infineon.com/rfswitches for alternative devices.
TVS Diodes for Antenna ESD Protection
Product
Application
VRWM
[V]
ESD1)
[kV]
VCL2)
[VCL]@[A]
Rdyn3)
[Ω]
IPP4)
[A]
VCL5)
[V]
CT6)
[pF]
Protected
Lines
Package
ESD108-B1-CSP0201
ESD119-B1-W01005
med. PRF
AN392
±5.5
±25
±20@±16
±31@±30
0.76
1
2.5
8.5
11
0.25
1
WLL-2-1
WLL-2-2
ESD105-B102EL/02ELS
med. PRF
±5.5
±25
±14@±16
±20@±30
0.35
2
5
8.5
11
0.3
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
Notes:
1) Electrostatic discharge as per IEC61000-4-2, contact discharge;
2) TLP clamping voltage for 100 ns pulse length;
3) Dynamic resistance (ON-resistance) evaluated with TLP measurement (100 ns pulse length);
4) Maximum peak pulse current according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
5) Clamping Voltage at IPP,max according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
6) Typical capacitance at 1 MHz (unless specified), 0 V, I/O vs. GND;
7) Please visit www.infineon.com/protection/low-cap.esd-diodes for alternative devices.
63
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
FM Radio and Mobile TV
6.4
FM and TV Reception in Mobile Phones with Band Selection Switch
Analog TV/DVB-T/CMMB/
T-DMB/ISDB-T/DVB-H
SP3T
40 – 860 MHz
LPF
Switch
UHF
LNA
Tuner IC
LPF
VHF
ESD
Diode
FM
Tuner IC
LPF
RF MMIC LNAs
Product
Application
Note
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
Package
BGB707L7ESD
AN232
13.0
1.5
-7
-11
3.0
2.9
TSLP-7-1
BGB741L7ESD
AN206
15.0
1.5
-8
-3
2.8
5.4
TSLP-7-1
Notes:
Please visit www.infineon.com/rf-mmic for alternative devices.
RF Transistor LNAs
Note:
Product
Application
Note
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
Package
BFP640ESD
AN218
16.5
0.83
-11.6
+9.3
3.0
7.3
SOT343
BFP540ESD
AN142
14.2
1.5
-21
-13
5.0
3.3
SOT343
BFR380L3
AN221
10.5
2.2
-2
+7
3.3
16.8
TSLP-3-1
Please visit www.infineon.com/rf-transistors for alternative devices.
RF CMOS Switches
Product
Type
App.
Note
BGS13SN9
SP3T
on
request
Notes:
1) Digital Control Voltage;
3) 0.1 dB compression point;
5) Control Interface
Supply
[V]
Vctrl1)
[V]
IL2)
[dB]
Isolation
[dB]
P-0.1dB3)
[dBm]
Pin,max4)
[dBm]
Ctrl.5)
Int.
Package
1.8…3.3
1.35…Vdd
0.33 / 0.35
30 / 27
>30
30
GPIO
TSNP-9-2
2) IL = Insertion Loss;
4) Maximum input power;
6) Please visit www.infineon.com/rfswitches for alternative devices.
TVS Diodes for Antenna ESD Protection
Product
Application
VRWM
[V]
ESD1)
[kV]
VCL2)
[VCL]@[A]
Rdyn3)
[Ω]
IPP4)
[A]
VCL5)
[V]
CT6)
[pF]
Protected
Lines
Package
ESD108-B1-CSP0201
ESD119-B1-W01005
med. PRF
AN392
±5.5
±25
±20@±16
±31@±30
0.76
1
2.5
8.5
11
0.25
1
WLL-2-1
WLL-2-2
ESD105-B102EL/02ELS
med. PRF
±5.5
±25
±14@±16
±20@±30
0.35
2
5
8.5
11
0.3
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
Notes:
1) Electrostatic discharge as per IEC61000-4-2, contact discharge;
2) TLP clamping voltage for 100 ns pulse length;
3) Dynamic resistance (ON-resistance) evaluated with TLP measurement (100 ns pulse length);
4) Maximum peak pulse current according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
5) Clamping Voltage at IPP,max according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
6) Typical capacitance at 1 MHz (unless specified), 0 V, I/O vs. GND;
7) Please visit www.infineon.com/protection/low-cap.esd-diodes for alternative devices.
64
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
ESD and ESD/EMI Interface Protection
7
ESD and ESD/EMI Interface Protection
In today’s electronics, being faster, smaller and smarter creates profitability by enabling new and better
applications. The race to pack more and more high-speed functions in a smaller space accelerates
miniaturization roadmaps. However, the downscale of semiconductor chips together with the increase of
doping levels results in a dramatic reduction of the thin gate oxide layer and the width of the pn-junction in
semiconductor chips. This, in combination with greater circuit population, increases the susceptibility of the
semiconductor chips to Electro-Static Discharge (ESD).
Subsequent failures of electronic equipment can be noticed as hard failures, latent damage, or temporary
malfunctions. Hard failures are easier to spot, and in general require the failed device to be replaced. In the
best case, the failure will be detected before the equipment leaves the factory and customers will never
receive it. Failures leading to temporary malfunctions of equipment or latent failures are quite common and
very difficult to detect or trace in the field. Temporary malfunctions may go unreported but can result in
negative customer impressions as the user may need to reset the equipment. A product recall for swapping
or repairing parts due to ESD failures may cause the company a cost several times higher than the cost of
the device itself.
The only way to ensure stable operation and maximum reliability at the system level is to ensure that
equipment is properly protected by an external protection device against electrostatic discharge and
transients.
Infineon’s Value Proposition
Improve ESD immunity at the system level by providing first-class protection beyond the IEC61000-4-2 level4 standard, and offering:
- Superior multi-strike absorption capability
- Safe and stable clamping voltages to protect even the most sensitive electronic equipment
- Protection devices that fully comply with high-speed signal quality requirements
- Array solutions that save space on the board and reduce part count
- Easy-to-use single devices for space-constrained applications
- Discrete components that drain extremely low leakage currents and help to extend battery duration
- Packages enabling easy Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layout
For detailed information about our Transient Voltage Suppression (TVS) diode portfolio and their
applications, please refer to our Application Guide – Part 3: Protection. You can also visit our website for
protection devices: www.infineon.com/protection.
65
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
ESD and ESD/EMI Interface Protection
7.1
Interface Protection with TVS Protection Diodes
Infineon offers various high-performance types of discrete TVS protection devices to protect our customers’
mobile phones from ESD attacks. Below is a short overview of the available TVS protection devices from
Infineon for various RF and digital interfaces of mobile phones. For detailed information about our TVS
diode portfolio and applications, please refer to our Application Guide – Part 3: Protection. You can also visit
our website for protection devices: www.infineon.com/protection.
Interface protection with discrete ESD TVS diodes
In a modern mobile phone there are a lot of open access points that could permit ESD strikes to reach the
inner PCB, such as the charging port, audio ports (line out, headset jack), and data interfaces (USB).
Other very risky paths for ESD strikes are the case bottom, and air gaps in the enclosure or the
microphone/speaker. Often the point of entrance for the ESD strike is not obvious.
To provide proper ESD protection for the inner PCB, it is mandatory to place fast-responding TVS protection
diodes at specific locations. Depending on the position to be protected (e.g. where the signal frequency is
low and therefore device capacitance does not matter), general-purpose TVS diodes can be used. They are
listed in the table below, “TVS ESD Diodes for general-purpose interfaces."
66
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
ESD and ESD/EMI Interface Protection
Dedicated low-capacitance TVS diodes must be used for high-speed data lines to avoid any impact on signal
integrity. As higher the data rate will be as more the device capacitance matters. For the 5 Gb/s USB3.0 data
rate the ESD protection device capacitance should be below 0.5pF. Please refer to the table below, “TVS ESD
Diodes for high-speed digital interface” regarding these low-capacitance TVS diodes.
TVS ESD Diodes for General-Purpose Interfaces
Product
Application
VRWM
[V]
ESD1)
[kV]
VCL2)
[VCL]@[A]
Rdyn3)
[Ω]
IPP4)
[A]
VCL5)
[V]
CT6)
[pF]
Protected
Lines
Package
ESD200-B1-CSP0201
ESD202-B1-01005
General
purpose
±5.5
±16
+13/-13@±16
0.2
3
12.5
6.5
1
WLL-2-1
WLL-2-2
ESD231-B1-W0201
General
purpose
±5.5
±30
±12@±16
±16@±30
0.3
2
9
8
10
3.4
1
WLL-2-1
ESD204-B1
02EL/02ELS
General
purpose
+14/-8
±18
+28/-27@±16
+35/-35@±30
0.5/0.6
1
-1
17
-23
4
1
TSLP-2-19
TSSLP-2-3
ESD207-B1
02EL/02ELS
General
purpose
±3.3
±30
±7@±16
±9@±30
0.13
1
8
4.5
6.8
14
1
TSLP-2-19
TSSLP-2-3
ESD206-B1
02EL/02ELS
ESD206-B1-02V
General
purpose
±5.5
±30
±9@±16
±12@±30
0.13
0.16
1
6
7.5
9.6
12
1
TSLP-2-19
TSSLP-2-3
SC79
ESD5V0S5US
General
purpose
+5.0
±30
±10@±16
±14@±30
0.25
10
10.5
70
5
SOT363
Notes:
1) Electrostatic discharge as per IEC61000-4-2, contact discharge;
2) TLP clamping voltage for 100 ns pulse length;
3) Dynamic resistance (ON-resistance) evaluated with TLP measurement (100 ns pulse length);
4) Maximum peak pulse current according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
5) Clamping Voltage at IPP,max according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
6) Typical capacitance at 1 MHz (unless specified), 0 V, I/O vs. GND;
7) Please visit www.infineon.com/protection/low-cap.esd-diodes for alternative devices.
TVS ESD Diodes for High Speed Interfaces
Product
Application
VRWM
[V]
ESD1)
[kV]
VCL2)
[VCL]@[A]
Rdyn3)
[Ω]
IPP4)
[A]
VCL5)
[V]
CT6)
[pF]
Protected
Lines
Package
ESD108-B1-CSP0201
ESD119-B1-W01005
MIPI, HDMI,
USB2.0-HS
±5.5
±25
±20@±16
±31@±30
0.76
1
2.5
8.5
11
0.25
1
WLL-2-1
WLL-2-2
ESD102-U4-05L
USB3.0-SS
MIPI, HDMI
+3.3
±20
[email protected]
[email protected]
0.2
1
3
4.8
6.2
0.35
4
TSLP-5-2
ESD102-U1-02ELS
USB3.0-SS
MIPI, HDMI
+3.3
±20
[email protected]
[email protected]
0.2
1
3
4.8
6.2
0.35
1
TSSLP-2-3
ESD105-B102EL/02ELS
USB3.0-SS
±5.5
±25
±14@±16
±20@±30
0.35
2
5
8.5
11
0.3
1
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
ESD200-B1-CSP0201
ESD202-B1-01005
General
purpose
±5.5
±16
+13/-13@±16
0.2
3
12.5
6.5
1
WLL-2-1
WLL-2-2
ESD5V5U5ULC
USB2.0-HS,
VCC
+5.5
±25
[email protected]
[email protected]
0.2
6
10
0.45
4
SC74
Notes:
1) Electrostatic discharge as per IEC61000-4-2, contact discharge;
2) TLP clamping voltage for 100 ns pulse length;
3) Dynamic resistance (ON-resistance) evaluated with TLP measurement (100 ns pulse length);
4) Maximum peak pulse current according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
5) Clamping Voltage at IPP,max according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
6) Typical capacitance at 1 MHz (unless specified), 0 V, I/O vs. GND;
7) Please visit our webpage www.infineon.com/protection/low-cap.esd-diodes for alternative devices.
67
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
ESD and ESD/EMI Interface Protection
7.2
Interface Protection with Integrated ESD/EMI Devices
Due to the increasing number of wireless functions integrated into mobile phones, it's essential to provide
both immunity against ESD and robustness against Electromagnetic Interference (EMI).
For applications where a high number of input/outputs (I/Os) must be protected from ESD and EMI, a smart
integration of the required protection features will reduce necessary space on the PCB and make the layout
easier.
Secure Digital Card (SD) and Micro Secure Digital Memory (µSD) card provide six high-speed lines and one
Vcc line. In a lot of applications, these lines are exposed to ESD events during mobile phone use, and
especially during insertion or removal of the SD / µSD card.
State-of-the art SD / µSD cards work in UHS-I Mode, with a 208-MHz clock rate. To avoid any impact on signal
integrity (SI) or rise/fall time, the device capacitance must be minimized. The required EMI protection is
provided by the EMI resistor in conjunction with the load capacitance present in the SD / µSD link.
Infineon's BGF148 is based on a “PI” structure with a 20-Ohm EMI resistor. Line capacitance is about 1 pF. In
combination with the load capacitance of 10 pF (meeting the µSD-card specification), the EMI filter response
is guaranteed.
BGF148
DAT2
µSD Card Connector
µSD Card
Vcc
DAT3
DAT2
DAT3
CMD
CMD
Vcc
Vcc
CLK
CLK
15kV
CLK
2kV
CMD
DAT0
DAT1
LPF
GND
GND
DAT2
DAT0
DAT0
DAT3
DAT1
DAT1
Flash
Controller IC
Integrated ESD/EMI devices dedicated for HS and UHS I SIM Card
Integrated ESD/EMI Protection Device
Notes:
Product
Application
VRWM
[V]
ESD1)
[kV]
VCL2)
[VCL]@[A]
RESD3)
[Ω]
IPP4)
[A]
VCL5)
[V]
CT6)
[pF]
Protected
Lines
Package
BGF148
(µ)SD Card
Interface
±5.5
±15
[email protected]
[email protected]
20
-
-
1.2
7
TSNP-14-2
1) Electrostatic discharge as per IEC61000-4-2, contact discharge;
2) TLP clamping voltage @ output, for input 100 ns pulse length;
3) ESD resistor between input and output TVS diode;
4) Maximum peak pulse current according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
5) Clamping Voltage at IPP,max according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
6) Typical line capacitance at 1 MHz (unless specified), 0 V, I/O vs. GND;
7) Please visit our webpage www.infineon.com/protection/low-cap.esd-diodes for alternative devices.
68
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
ESD and ESD/EMI Interface Protection
7.3
Near-Field Communication
Near-Field Communication (NFC) is a short-range high-frequency wireless communication technology that
enables the exchange of data between devices over about a 10-20 cm distance. The technology is a simple
extension of the ISO/IEC 14443 proximity-card standard (proximity card, radio-frequency identification
(RFID) that combines the interface of a smartcard and a reader into a single device. An NFC device can
communicate with both existing ISO/IEC 14443 smartcards and readers, as well as with other NFC devices,
and is thereby compatible with existing contactless infrastructure already in use for public transportation
and payment. It operates within the globally available and unlicensed 13.56 MHz radio frequency ISM band
(Industrial, Scientific and Medical). Plenty of applications are present in the market already, and more will
enter the market soon.
 Mobile Commerce:
- Mobile ticketing - for airplanes, for public transport, for concerts/events
- Mobile payment - the device acts as a debit/ credit payment card
- Electronic money - such as a stored value card
 Proof of Identity:
- Access control for buildings, or IT equipment
- Electronic keys - car keys, house/office keys and hotel room keys, etc.
NFC can be used to configure and initiate other wireless network connections such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi.
The time-consuming configuration procedure for identification to a Bluetooth or Wi-Fi system is reduced by
a “one touch” step for two mobiles equipped with NFC devices. To provide the required security level for all
these applications, the NFC modem is combined with a secure controller (NFC module). In a mobile phone,
the NFC module is also linked to the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card.
In a mobile phone the NFC Front-End (FE) is often separated into the Transmitter (TX) driver with the
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) filter and Receiver (RX) signal decoupling, and the high impedance
13.56-MHz resonator. The 13.56 MHz resonator includes the loop antenna (resonator’s inductance) and a
parallel capacitor (resonator’s capacitance).
Because of the loop antenna size, the 13.56 MHZ resonance circuit is often installed in the bottom shell of
the mobile phone, which can be removed by the user. An interface is generated inside the NFC FE which then
becomes ESD-critical. Proper ESD protection is mandatory to protect the EMI filter and the NFC FE driver,
which is located on the main mobile phone PCB.
69
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
ESD and ESD/EMI Interface Protection
Buffer Amp
NFC
Transceiver IC
13.56 MHz
EMI-LP
filter
antenna
matching
ESD
Diode
LNA
loop antenna
Main PCB / Top shell
NFC with single-line LNA and RF driver
ESD
Diode
Base
band
Tx+
Tx+
GND
antenna
matching
loop antenna
Rx
Security
Controller
EMI-LP
filter
NFC
Transceiver IC
RF = 13.56 MHz
Vsignal vs. |GND| < 18 Vp
SIM
SWP
Main PCB / Top shell
ESD protection for a single-ended NFC antenna system
EMI-LP
filter
Tx-
GND
antenna
matching
loop antenna
Base
band
Tx+
Rx
Security
Controller
ESD
Diode
NFC
Transceiver IC
RF = 13.56 MHz
Vsignal vs. |GND| < 18 Vp
+Vsignal vs. –Vsignal < 36V
SIM
SWP
Main PCB / Top shell
ESD protection for a differential NFC antenna system
RF MMIC Buffer Amplifier
Product
BGA616
Notes:
1) On request;
Application
Note
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
OP-1dB
[dBm]
OIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
Package
TR10651)
17.5
2.9
16.5
28
3.3
62
SOT343
2) Please visit http://www.infineon.com/rftransistors for alternative devices.
RF MMIC LNA
Product
BGA420
Notes:
1) On request;
Application
Note
Gain
[dB]
NF
[dB]
IP-1dB
[dBm]
IIP3
[dBm]
Supply
[V]
Current
[mA]
Package
TR10651)
17.7
1.9
-19.5
-3
3.3
8.1
SOT343
Package
2) Please visit http://www.infineon.com/rfmmics for alternative devices.
TVS Diodes for Antenna ESD Protection
Product
App.
Note
VRWM
[V]
ESD1)
[kV]
VCL2)
[VCL]@[A]
Rdyn3)
[Ω]
IPP4)
[A]
VCL5)
[V]
CT6)
[pF]
Protected
Lines
ESD128-B1-W0201
ESD129-B1-W01005
ESD110-B1-02EL/02ELS
NFC-RF
AN244
1
17
0,3
1
±15
±[email protected]
±[email protected]
±[email protected]
0,85
±18
0.65
1
17-
0.3
1
ESD108-B1-CSP0201
ESD119-B1-W01005
SWP
AN392
±5.5
0.76
1
2.5
8.5
11
0.25
1
Notes:
±25
±20@±16
±31@±30
1) Electrostatic discharge as per IEC61000-4-2, contact discharge;
2) TLP clamping voltage for 100 ns pulse length;
3) Dynamic resistance (ON-resistance) evaluated with TLP measurement (100 ns pulse length);
4) Maximum peak pulse current according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
5) Clamping Voltage at IPP,max according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
6) Typical capacitance at 1 MHz (unless specified), 0 V, I/O vs. GND;
7) Please visit www.infineon.com/protection/low-cap.esd-diodes for alternative devices.
70
WLL-2-1
WLL-2-2
TSLP-2-20
TSSLP-2-4
WLL-2-1
WLL-2-2
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
ESD and ESD/EMI Interface Protection
7.4
Surge protection for the battery charger port
To protect the mobile device regarding overvoltage at the battery charger port an overvoltage protection
(OVP) functionality is designed in. This overvoltage functionality can be located inside the PMU (Power
Management Unit) or in a dedicated IC in front the battery charger (BC) and the PMUs. The job of the OVP is
to control the path between the external charger interface and BC / PMUs. In case of an undesired high
voltage the link is switched off. The maximum protection voltage of the OVP is restricted to 20…40V based
on the IC technology. Higher voltage will destroy the OVP.
A certain countermeasure is required to handle higher voltage peaks like ESD or surge events, injected direct
into the charger interface pins. Another threat are glitches coming from the power main passing the wall
plug charger unit, or start up glitches generated in the wall plug charger itself. These energy rich single
events have to be shunted to GND in the mobile device by a surge robust TVS diode in front of the OVP
without exceeding the maximum voltage of the OVP.
Battery Charger
PMU
Battery
Charger
PMU outputs
OVP
surge TVS
PMU1
control
PMU2
Battery
5V surge TVS
optional
USB Vbus
Battery Charger
(BC) interface
Mobile Device charging interface (Quick Charge, USB-PD)
Surge TVS Diodes
Product
Application
VRWM
[V]
ESD1)
[kV]
VCL2)
[VCL]@[A]
Rdyn3)
[Ω]
IPP4)
[A]
VCL5)
[V]
CT6)
[pF]
Protected
Lines
Package
ESD307-U1-02N
ESD/Surge
AN372
10
±30
17@±16
18@±30
0.05
1
34
16
24
270
1
TSNP-2-2
ESD311-U1-02N
ESD/Surge
AN372
15
±30
22@±16
23@±30
0.07
1
28
21
29
210
1
TSNP-2-2
ESD231-B1-W0201
General
purpose
±5.5
±30
±12@±16
±16@±30
0.3
2
9
8
10
3.4
1
WLL-2-1
ESD5V0S1U-03W
ESD/Surge
protection
5.0
±30
7.9@±16
8.8@±30
0.065
5
40
7.5
11
430
1
SOD323
Notes:
1) Electrostatic discharge as per IEC61000-4-2, contact discharge;
2) TLP clamping voltage for 100 ns pulse length;
3) Dynamic resistance (ON-resistance) evaluated with TLP measurement (100 ns pulse length);
4) Maximum peak pulse current according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
5) Clamping Voltage at IPP,max according to IEC61000-4-5 (8/20 µs);
6) Typical capacitance at 1 MHz (unless specified), 0 V, I/O vs. GND;
7) Please visit www.infineon.com/protection/low-cap.esd-diodes for alternative devices.
71
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Abbreviations
Abbreviations
Abbr.
Terms
Abbr.
Terms
ATSLP
Advanced Thin Small Leadless Package
NF
Noise Figure
ASM
Antenna Switch Module
BAW
Bulk Acoustic Wave
NFC
Near-Field Communication
CA
Carrier Aggregation
OFDM
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
CDMA
Code Division Multiple Access
PCS
Personal Communications Services
COMS
Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor
PCB
Printed Circuit Board
CSP
Chip Scale Package
PDA
Personal Digital Assistant
DC
Direct Current
PIFA
Planar Inverted F antenna
DCS
Digital Cellular Service
PIN-Diode
Positive-Intrinsic-Negative diode
DL
Downlink
PND
Personal Navigation Devices
DPDT
Double Pole Double Throw
QAM
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
DP
Display Port
RF
Radio Frequency
DSSS
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
RFFE
RF Front-End Control Interface
DVI
Digital Visual Interface
RFID
radio-frequency identification
ECU
Electronic Control Unit
EDGE
Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution
RFS
RF and Sensors
EM
Electro-Magnetic
RoHS
Restriction of Hazardous Substances
EMI
Electromagnetic Interference
RPP
Reverse Polarity Protection
ESD
Electro-Static Discharge
RX
Receiver
E-UTRA
Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
SAR
Search and Rescue
FDD
Frequency-Division Duplexing
SAW
Surface Acoustic Wave
FEM
Front-End Module
SD
Secure Digital Card
FHSS
Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum
SI
Signal Integrity
FM
Frequency Modulation
SIM
Subscriber Identity Module
GLONASS
Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System
SPI
Serial Peripheral Interface
GNSS
Global Navigation Satellite System
SPxT
Single Pole x Throw (Switch)
GPIO
General Purpose Input/Output
SV-LTE
Simultaneous Voice and LTE
GPS
Global Positioning System
GSM
Global System for Mobile Communication
TDD
HBM
Human Body Model
HDMI
High-Definition Multimedia Interface
TD-LTE
Time-division duplexing
Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple
Access
Time Division Long-Term Evolution
HSPA
High-Speed Packet Access
T(S)SLP
Thin (Super) Small Leadless Package
HSPA+
Evolved High-Speed Packet Access
TRP
Total Radiated Power
IC
integrated circuit
IL
Insertion Loss
TSNP
Thin Small Non Leaded Package
IMD
Intermodulation Distortion
TTFF
Time to First fix
IPD
Integrated Passive Device
TT
Truth Table
IMT
International Mobile Telecommunications
TVS
Transient Voltage Suppression
ISM
Industrial, Scientific and Medical
TX
Transmitter
LNA
Low Noise Amplifier
UE
User Equipment
LMM
LNA multiplexer modules
UHS-I
Ultra High Speed SD card in Version 3.01
LTE
Long-Term Evolution
UMTS
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
LTE-A
LTE-Advanced
UL
Uplink
MHL
Mobile High-Definition Link
USB
Universal Serial Bus
MIPI
Mobile Industry Processor Interface
VoIP
Voice over IP
MMIC
Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit
W-CDMA
Wideband-Code Division Multiple Access
MIMO
Multiple Input Multiple Output
WLAN
Wireless Local Area Network
MU
Multi-User
µSD
Micro Secure Digital Memory
3GPP
3rd Generation Partnership Project
TD-SCDMA
72
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Alphanumerical List of Symbols
Alphanumerical List of Symbols
Symbol
Term
Unit
CT
Total Diode capacitance
[pF]
ESD
Voltage of ESD pulse
[kV]
IF
Forward current
[mA]
IR
Reserve current
[µA]
IPP
Maximum peak pulse current
[A]
rd
IIP3
Input 3 intercept point
[dBm]
IL
Insertion loss
[dB]
nd
IMD2
2 order intermodulation distortion
[dBm]
IP-1dB
Input 1dB compression point
[dBm]
LDO
Low drop out
[V]
NF
Noise figure
[dB]
rd
OIP3
Output 3 intercept point
[dBm]
OP-1dB
Output 1dB compression point
[dBm]
P-0.1dB
0.1dB compression point
[dBm]
Pin,max
Maximum input power
[dBm]
Rdyn
Dynamic resistance
[Ω]
rF
Differential forward resistance
[Ω]
VCL
Clamping voltage
[V]
Vctrl
Digital control voltage
[V]
Vdd
DC supply voltage
[V]
VF
Forward voltage
[mV]
VR
Reverse voltage
[V]
VRWM
Reverse working voltage
[V]
τL
Storage time
[ns]
73
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Package Information
Package Information
Package (JEITA-code)
X
L×W×H
PIN-Count
Scale 1:1
All Dimensions in mm
All products are available in green (RoHS compliant)
ATSLP-12-4 ( - )
ATSLP-12-1 ( - )
13
13
1.9 × 1.1 × 0.65
15
2
1.9 × 1.5 × 0.65
3:1
3:1
SC79 ( - )
ATSLP-14( - )
1.9 × 1.1 × 0.65
SOT23 ( - )
1.6 × 0.8 × 0.55
3
2.9 × 2.4 × 1.1
5:1
4:1
2:1
WLL-2-1
SOT323 (SC-70)
3
SOT343 (SC-82)
2.0 × 2.1 × 0.9
4
3:1
1.0 × 0.6 × 0.39
2
2
1.0 × 0.6 × 0.31
4
5:1
2
4
TSLP-3-1 ( - )
1.0 × 0.6 × 0.31
3
1.0 × 0.6 × 0.4
5:1
TSLP-6-2 ( - )
TSLP-5-2 ( - )
1.2 × 0.8 × 0.39
4:1
5:1
5:1
TSLP-4-7 ( - )
1.2 × 0.8 × 0.4
1.0 × 0.6 × 0.4
5:1
5:1
TSLP-4-4 ( - )
2
1.4 × 1.2 × 0.55
TSLP-2-20 ( - )
1.0 × 0.6 × 0.31
5:1
TSLP-3-9 ( - )
4
TSLP-2-19 ( - )
1.0 × 0.6 × 0.39
TSLP-2-1 ( - )
TSFP-4 ( - )
0.778×0.528×0.34
6:1
TSLP-2-17 ( - )
5:1
3
6
3:1
TSLP-2-7 ( - )
2
FWLP-6-1 ( - )
2.0 × 2.1 × 0.9
5
6
1.3 × 0.8 × 0.39
4:1
1.1 × 0.7 × 0.39
4:1
4:1
WLL-2-1
TSLP-6-4 ( - )
TSLP-6-3 ( - )
6
6
1.1 × 0.9 × 0.39
1.1 × 0.7 × 0.31
7
1.15 × 1.15 × 0.31
5:1
10
7
6
4:1
4:1
74
3:1
TSNP-7-6 ( - )
TSNP-7-1 ( - )
1.1 × 0.7 × 0.375
1.4 × 1.26 × 0.39
3:1
TSNP-6-2 ( - )
1.55 × 1.15 × 0.31
7
2.3 × 1.5 × 0.4
3:1
TSLP-10-1 ( - )
TSLP-9-3 ( - )
TSLP-7-6 ( - )
TSLP-7-4 ( - )
2.0 × 1.3 × 0.4
4:1
4:1
9
TSLP-7-1 ( - )
7
2.0 × 1.3 × 0.375
3:1
7
1.4 × 1.26 × 0.375
3:1
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Package Information
TSNP-7-10 ( - )
7
TSNP-9-1 ( - )
TSNP-8-1 ( - )
2.3 × 1.7 × 0.73
8
1.1 × 1.1 × 0.375
3:1
16
2
WLL-2-2 ( - )
0.58 × 0.28 × 0.15
2
0.43 × 0.23 × 0.15
10:1
WLL-2-1
7:1
12:1
WLL-2-1
75
1.95 × 1.8 × 0.375
2:1
TSNP-26-2 ( - )
27
2.3 × 2.3 × 0.73
3.4 × 2.6 × 0.73
2:1
TSSLP-2-4 ( - )
TSSLP-2-3 ( - )
0.62 × 0.32 × 0.31
7:1
WLL-2-1 ( - )
2
2
15
2:1
TSSLP-2-2 ( - )
0.62 × 0.32 × 0.31
2:1
21
2:1
TSSLP-2-1 ( - )
3.2 × 2.8 × 0.77
1.5 ×1.1 × 0.375
TSNP-20-1( - )
2.3 × 2.3 × 0.73
2:1
TSNP-26-3 ( - )
17
17
TSNP-14-2 ( - )
3:1
TSNP-16-6 ( - )
2.3 × 2.3 × 0.38
2:1
10
3:1
TSNP-16-1 ( - )
1.95 × 1.8 × 0.375
1.1 × 1.1 × 0.375
3:1
TSNP-14-3 ( - )
15
8
TSNP-10-1 ( - )
2
0.62 × 0.32 × 0.31
5:1
2
0.62 × 0.32 × 0.31
5:1
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Support Material
Support Material
Data Sheets / Application Notes / Technical Reports
http://www.infineon.com/rfandprotectiondevices
Products
-
RF CMOS Switches & Antenna Tuning Solutions
LTE MMIC LNAs
RF MMICs
RF Transistors
RF Diodes
PIN Diodes
Schottky Diodes
Varactor Diodes
www.infineon.com/rfswitches
www.infineon.com/ltelna
www.infineon.com/rfmmics
www.infineon.com/rftransistors
www.infineon.com/rfdiodes
www.infineon.com/pindiodes
www.infineon.com/schottkydiodes
www.infineon.com/varactordiodes
www.infineon.com/ESDdiodes
- ESD/EMI Protection Devices
Brochures:
-
Product Selection Guide
Application Guide for Mobile Communication
Application Guide for Industrial Applications
Application Guide for Protection
- GPS Front-End Components for Mobile and Wireless Applications
www.infineon.com/RFS_Selectionguide
www.infineon.com/appguide_rf_mobile
www.infineon.com/appguide_rf_industrial
www.infineon.com/appguide_esd_protection
www.infineon.com/gps
Sample Kits
www.infineon.com/rpdkits
Evaluation Boards,
Simulation Models and Libraries
Footprint Drawings
Application Examples
Please check the product web pages for details or for more
information please contact your sales counterpart at
Infineon.
76
Trademarks of Infineon Technologies AG
AURIX™, C166™, CanPAK™, CIPOS™, CIPURSE™, CoolGaN™, CoolMOS™, CoolSET™, CoolSiC™, CORECONTROL™, CROSSAVE™, DAVE™, DI-POL™, DrBLADE™,
EasyPIM™, EconoBRIDGE™, EconoDUAL™, EconoPACK™, EconoPIM™, EiceDRIVER™, eupec™, FCOS™, HITFET™, HybridPACK™, ISOFACE™, IsoPACK™, iWafer™, MIPAQ™, ModSTACK™, my-d™, NovalithIC™, OmniTune™, OPTIGA™, OptiMOS™, ORIGA™, POWERCODE™, PRIMARION™, PrimePACK™,
PrimeSTACK™, PROFET™, PRO-SIL™, RASIC™, REAL3™, ReverSave™, SatRIC™, SIEGET™, SIPMOS™, SmartLEWIS™, SOLID FLASH™, SPOC™, TEMPFET™,
thinQ!™, TRENCHSTOP™, TriCore™.
Other Trademarks
Advance Design System™ (ADS) of Agilent Technologies, AMBA™, ARM™, MULTI-ICE™, KEIL™, PRIMECELL™, REALVIEW™, THUMB™, µVision™ of ARM
Limited, UK. ANSI™ of American National Standards Institute. AUTOSAR™ of AUTOSAR development partnership. Bluetooth™ of Bluetooth SIG Inc. CATiq™ of DECT Forum. COLOSSUS™, FirstGPS™ of Trimble Navigation Ltd. EMV™ of EMVCo, LLC (Visa Holdings Inc.). EPCOS™ of Epcos AG. FLEXGO™ of
Microsoft Corporation. HYPERTERMINAL™ of Hilgraeve Incorporated. MCS™ of Intel Corp. IEC™ of Commission Electrotechnique Internationale. IrDA™ of
Infrared Data Association Corporation. ISO™ of INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION. MATLAB™ of MathWorks, Inc. MAXIM™ of Maxim
Integrated Products, Inc. MICROTEC™, NUCLEUS™ of Mentor Graphics Corporation. MIPI™ of MIPI Alliance, Inc. MIPS™ of MIPS Technologies, Inc., USA.
muRata™ of MURATA MANUFACTURING CO., MICROWAVE OFFICE™ (MWO) of Applied Wave Research Inc., OmniVision™ of OmniVision Technologies, Inc.
Openwave™ of Openwave Systems Inc. RED HAT™ of Red Hat, Inc. RFMD™ of RF Micro Devices, Inc. SIRIUS™ of Sirius Satellite Radio Inc. SOLARIS™ of Sun
Microsystems, Inc. SPANSION™ of Spansion LLC Ltd. Symbian™ of Symbian Software Limited. TAIYO YUDEN™ of Taiyo Yuden Co. TEAKLITE™ of CEVA, Inc.
TEKTRONIX™ of Tektronix Inc. TOKO™ of TOKO KABUSHIKI KAISHA TA. UNIX™ of X/Open Company Limited. VERILOG™, PALLADIUM™ of Cadence Design
Systems, Inc. VLYNQ™ of Texas Instruments Incorporated. VXWORKS™, WIND RIVER™ of WIND RIVER SYSTEMS, INC. ZETEX™ of Diodes Zetex Limited.
Last Trademarks Update 2014-07-17
www.infineon.com
Edition <2015-07-01>
Published by
Infineon Technologies AG
81726 Munich, Germany
© 2015 Infineon Technologies AG.
All Rights Reserved.
Do you have a question about any
aspect of this document?
Email: [email protected]
Document reference
AN_2015_06_PL32_002
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