COMPUTING IC TEMPERATURE RISE IC temperature TJ is determined by ambient temperature TA, heat dissipated PD, and total thermal resistance Rθ . This total thermal resistance is comprised of three individual component resistances: chip RC, lead frame RL, and heat sink RS. WHY IC TEMPERATURES RISE Heat is the enemy of integrated circuits—particularly power devices. Here’s how to use thermal ratings to determine safe IC operation. Excessive heat shortens the life of an IC and reduces its operating capability. Until recently, ICs were capable of operating only in lowpower applications requiring perhaps a few milliwatts of power. But now, ICs handle several amperes and drive devices such as relays, solenoids, stepping motors, and incandescent lamps. These high power levels may increase IC temperatures substantially and are capable of destroying devices unless appropriate precautions are taken. THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS The thermal characteristics of any IC are determined by four parameters. Maximum allowable IC chip junction temperature TJ and thermal resistance Rθ are specified by the IC manufacturer. Ambient temperature TA and the power dissipation PD are determined by the Reprinted by permission from the June 9, 1977 issue of MACHINE DESIGN, Copyright © 1977 by Penton/IPC Inc., Cleveland, Ohio. Application Note 29501.4 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION COMPUTING IC TEMPERATURE RISE user. Equation 1 expresses the relation of these parameters. TJ = T A + PDRθ (1) Junction temperature TJ usually is limited to +150°C for silicon ICs. Devices may operate momentarily at slightly higher temperatures, but device life expectancy decreases exponentially for extended hightemperature operation. Usually, the lower the junction operating temperature, the greater the anticipated life of the IC. Ambient temperature TA is traditionally limited either to 70°C or 85°C for plastic dual in-line packages (DIPs) or 125°C for hermetic devices. Again, the objective is to operate at as low a junction temperature as practical. Thermal resistance Rθ is the basic thermal characteristic for ICs. It is usually expressed in terms of °C/W and represents the rise in junction temperature with a unit of power applied in still air. The reciprocal of thermal resistance is thermal conductance, or derating factor, Gθ expressed as W/°C. Thermal resistance of an IC consists of several distinct components, the sum of which is the specified thermal resistance. For a typical IC, these components of thermal resistance are 0.5°C/W per unit thickness of the silicon chip, 0.1 to 3°C/W per unit length of the lead frame, and up to 2,000°C/W per unit thickness of still air surrounding the IC. DIPs are used more than any other type of packaging for ICs and copper-alloy lead frames provide a superior thermal rating over the standard iron-nickel-cobalt alloy (Kovar) lead frames. However, power ICs are also available in other packages such as PLCCs, SOICs, and power-tabs. Total IC power to be dissipated depends on input current, output current, voltage drop, and duty cycle. Thus, for many industrial digitalcontrol ICs, logic-gate power Pl (typically less than 0.1 W) and output power P0 must be determined to find the total power to be dissipated. Total power dissipation for these logic devices is the sum of Pl and P 0. Pl = n(VCCICC) (2) P0 = n(V CE (SAT)IC) (3) where VCC = logic-gate supply voltage, ICC = logic-gate supply ON current, VCE(SAT) = output saturation voltage, IC = output load current, and n = number of logic gates. Manufacturers usually list typical and maximum values for these voltages and currents. For thermal considerations it is best to use the maximum values so that worst-case power dissipation is determined. If the duty cycle of the device is longer than 0.5 s, the peak power dissipation is the sum of the logic-gate power Pl and output power P0 for the logic ON state alone. If the ON time is less than 0.5 s, however, average power dissipation must be calculated from instantaneous ON and OFF power PON and POFF from PD = DPON + (1-D) POFF (4) CORRECTIVE ACTIONS If the junction temperature or the required power dissipation of the IC is calculated to be greater than the maximum values specified by the manufacturer, device reliability and operating characteristics possibly will be reduced. Possible solutions are: 1. Modify or partition the circuit design so the IC is not required to dissipate as much power. 2. Reduce the thermal resistance of the IC by using a heat sink or forced-air cooling. 3. Reduce the ambient temperature by moving heat-producing components such as transformers and resistors away from the IC. 4. Specify a different IC with improved thermal or electrical characteristics (if available). The power PD that an IC can safely dissipate usually depends on the size of the IC chip and the type of packaging. Most common copper-frame DIPs can dissipate about 1.5 W, although some special-purpose types have ratings as high as 5 W. 115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036 Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000 COMPUTING IC TEMPERATURE RISE SETTING UP THE CIRCUIT MEASURING IC TEMPERATURE Sometimes IC junction temperature cannot be calculated readily and instead must be measured. Measurement should be made when there is insufficient data with which to calculate, when the effects of external variables such as forced-air cooling or enclosure size must be determined, or as a check on the manufacturer’s specifications regarding package thermal resistance. The most popular technique of measuring IC temperature uses the characteristic of a diode to reduce its forward voltage with temperature. Many IC chips have some sort of accessible diode—parasitic, input protection, base-emitter junction, or output clamp. With this technique, a “sense’’ diode is calibrated so that forward voltage is a direct indicator of diode junction temperature. Then, current is applied to some other component on the chip to simulate operating conditions and to produce a temperature rise. Because the thermal resistance of the silicon chip is low, the temperature of the sense diode is assumed to be the same as the rest of the monolithic chip. CALIBRATING THE SENSE DIODE The sense diode should be calibrated over at least the expected junction operating temperature. Apply an accurately measured, low current of about 1 mA through the sense diode and measure the forward voltage in 25°C increments after stabilization at each temperature. This calibration provides enough data for at least six points to construct a diode-forwardvoltage versus junction-temperature graph at the specified forward current. A typical 25°C forward voltage is between 600 and 750 mV and decreases 1.6 to 2.0 mV/°C. For power levels above 2 W, it may be necessary to use more than a single transistor if only the device saturation voltage and sink current are used. If higher power is desired, keep the output out of saturation. Measuring the sense-diode forward voltage may require a considerable waiting period (10 to 15 minutes) for thermal equilibrium. In any event, at the instant of measurement, the heating power may have to be disconnected because erroneous readings may result from IR drop in circuit common leads. Various circuit connections (such as four-point Kelvin) may be arranged to reduce or eliminate this source of error. The IC junction temperature can be determined by comparing the voltage measurement with the internal power source against the voltage measurement with the temperature chamber. COMPUTING IC TEMPERATURE RISE FINDING SAFE OPERATING LIMITS Here’s how to calculate the safe operating limits for an IC. The first two examples are simple calculations involving maximum allowable power and are straightforward. The third and fourth examples are more complex and involve logic power, output power, and duty cycle. Problem: Determine the maximum allowable power dissipation that can be handled safely by a 16-lead Kovar DIP with an Rθ of 125°C/W in an ambient temperature of 70°C. Solution: From Equation 1, the maximum allowable power dissipation PD for this lC is PD = 150°C - 70°C TJ = 70°C + (1.225 W) x (16.67 mW/°C) = 143.5°C Problem: Determine the acceptable duty cycle for a power driver with a thermal resistance of 100°C/W in an ambient of 85°C and which is controlling load currents of 250 mA on each of four outputs. Solution: From Equation 1, the allowable average power dissipation PD for this IC is PD = 125°C/W = 0.64 W 150°C - 85°C 100°C/W = 0.65 W Problem: Determine the maximum allowable power dissipation that can be handled by a 14-lead copper DIP with a derating factor Gθ of 16.67 mW/°C in an ambient of 70°C. Solution: Because the derating factor Gθ is the reciprocal of thermal resistance Rθ the maximum allowable power dissipation PD, from Equation 1 is PD = (150°C - 70°C) x (16.67 mW/°C) = 1.33 W Problem: Calculate the maximum junction temperature for a quad power driver wlth a thermal resistance of 60°C/W in an ambient of 70°C and which is controlling a 250 mA load on each of the four outputs. Solution: To determine the maximum (worst case) junction temperature for this IC, the maximum total power dissipation must be determined from the data listed on the IC data sheet. The specifications are usually listed as typical and minimum or maximum values. It is important to use maximum voltage and current limits to ensure an adequate design. Common maximum values for an industrial power driver are VCC = 5.25 V, ICC = 25 mA, and VCE(SAT) = 0.7 V, and IC = 250 mA. From Equations 2 and 3, worst case logic and output power dissipation are Pl = 4 (5.25 V x 25 mA) = 525 mW Thus, the total worst case power dissipation PD is 525 mW plus 700 mW, or 1.225 W. From Equation 1, maximum junction temperature TJ is This means that there is 0.65 W limit on average power, but, not instantaneous power. If the duty cycle is low enough, and the ON time is not more than about 0.5 s, the average power dissipation can be considerably lower than the peak power. The ON, or peak power, is determined from the data sheet maximum values of VCC, ICC, and VCE(SAT) at the specified load current of 250 mA. From Equations 2 and 3, logic-gate power Pl and output power P0 for the ON state are Pl = 4 (5.5 V x 26.5 mA) = 583 mW P0 = 4 (0.7 V x 250 mA) = 700 mW Instantaneous ON power PON is the sum of Pl and P 0 for the ON state, or 1.283 W. The OFF power is primarily the power dissipated by the logic in the OFF state, and is found by using the ICC maximum rated current listed on the specification sheet. The power dissipated in the output stage can be calculated from the leakage current IC and supply voltage VCE. From Equations 2 and 3, Iogicgate power Pl and output power P0 for the OFF state are Pl = 4 (5.5 V x 7.5 mA) = 165 mW P0 = 4 (100 V x 0.1 mA) = 40 mW P0 = 4 (0.7 V x 250 mA) = 700 mW 115 Northeast Cutoff, Box 15036 Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 (508) 853-5000 COMPUTING IC TEMPERATURE RISE Instantaneous OFF power POFF is the sum of Pl and P 0 for the off state, or 205 mW. From equation 4, acceptable duty cycle D is PD - P OFF D= P ON - POFF = 0.65 W - 0.205 W 1.283 W - 0.205 W = 41% WHAT THE CURVES SHOW The junction temperature of an IC depends on several factors, including the thermal resistance of the IC and the operating duty cycle. Graphs showing the relationship of these factors are often useful in specifying an IC. Typical thermal-resistance ratings for ICs in still air range from 60°C/W to 140°C/W. The slope of each curve on this graph is equal to the derating factor Gθ, which is the reciprocal of thermal resistance Rθ. For an ambient temperature of 50°C, a typical 14-lead flatpack with an Rq of 140°C/W can dissipate about 0.7 W. A typical DIP, however, with 14 copper-alloy leads can dissipate almost 1.7 W at 50°C. The highest allowable package power dissipation shown here is 2.5 W. Other special-purpose DIP packages are available with power dissipation ratings as high as 3.3 W at 0°C (R θ = 45°C/W). If not for package limitations, IC chip dissipation might be greater than 9 W at an ambient temperature of up to 70°C. Although the curve for plastic DlPs goes all the way to +150°C, they ordinarily are not used in ambients above +85°C because of traditional package limitations. Duty cycle is important in calculating IC junction temperature because average power—not instantaneous power—is responsible for heating the IC. To convert from peak power to average power, multiply the peak power dissipation by the duty cycle. The averagepower rating is then used with the thermal-resistance rating to calculate the IC junction temperature. Thus, low duty cycles allow peak power to be high without exceeding the 150°C junctiontemperature limit. However, this consideration applies only to ON times of less than 0.5 second.