46xu26v100.pdf

HT46RU26/HT46CU26
A/D Type 8-Bit MCU with UART
Technical Document
· Tools Information
· FAQs
· Application Note
- HA0003E Communicating between the HT48 & HT46 Series MCUs and the HT93LC46 EEPROM
- HA0049E Read and Write Control of the HT1380
- HA0052E Microcontroller Application - Battery Charger
- HA0075E MCU Reset and Oscillator Circuits Application Note
Features
· Operating voltage:
· 16-level subroutine nesting
fSYS=4MHz: 2.2V~5.5V
fSYS=8MHz: 3.3V~5.5V
· 8-channel 12-bit resolution A/D converter
· 4-channel 8-bit PWM outputs shared with
· 48 bidirectional I/O lines
I/O lines
· External interrupt input shared with I/O line
· Real Time Clock with 8-bit prescaler
· Single 8-bit Timer/Event Counter
· Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter -
· Two 16-bit Programmable Timer/Event Counters
UART
· 32K ´16 Program Memory in 4 banks
· I2C Bus slave function
· 768 ´ 8 byte Data Memory in 4 banks
· SPI Bus
· Integrated Crystal and RC oscillators
· Bit manipulation instructions
· Watchdog Timer function
· Table read instructions
· PFD for audio frequency generation
· 63 powerful instructions
· Power down and wake-up functions to reduce power
· All instructions executed in one or two machine
consumption
cycles
· Low voltage reset function
· Up to 0.5ms instruction cycle with 8MHz system clock
· 48/56-pin SSOP package types
at VDD=5V
General Description
I2C interfaces, a convenient means is provided for easy
and efficient interfacing to external personal computers
or other external hardware.
The HT46RU26/HT46CU26 is an 8-bit high performance RISC architecture microcontrollers, designed
especially for applications that interface directly to analog signals, such as those from sensors.
The benefits of these combined integrated functions, in
addition to low power consumption, high performance,
I/O flexibility and low-cost, provide these devices with
the versatility to suit a wide range of application possibilities such as sensor signal processing, motor driving, industrial control, consumer products, subsystem
controllers, etc.
The device includes an integrated multi-channel Analog
to Digital Converter in addition to four Pulse Width Modulator outputs. The usual Holtek MCU features such as
power down and wake-up functions, oscillator options,
programmable frequency divider, etc. combine to ensure user applications require a minimum of external
components.
The HT46CU26 is under development and will be available soon.
With a fully integrated UART function and both SPI and
Rev. 1.00
1
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Device Types
Devices which have the letter ²R² within their part number, indicate that they are OTP devices offering the advantages
of easy and effective program updates, using the Holtek range of development and programming tools. These devices
provide the designer with the means for fast and low-cost product development cycles. Devices which have the letter
²C² within their part number indicate that they are mask version devices. These devices offer a complementary device
for applications that are at a mature state in their design process and have high volume and low cost demands.
Fully pin and functionally compatible with their OTP sister devices, the mask version devices provide the ideal substitute for products which have gone beyond their development cycle and are facing cost-down demands.
In this datasheet, for convenience, when describing device functions, only the OTP types are mentioned by name,
however the same described functions also apply to the Mask type devices.
Block Diagram
W a tc h d o g
T im e r
O T P
P r o g r a m m in g
C ir c u itr y
8 - b it
R IS C
M C U
C o re
O T P
P ro g ra m
M e m o ry
I/O
P o rts
Note:
I2C
D a ta
M e m o ry
S P I
U A R T
S ta c k
L o w
V o lta g e
R e s e t
P r o g r a m m a b le
F re q u e n c y
G e n e ra to r
T im e r s
W a tc h d o g
T im e r O s c illa to r
R e s e t
C ir c u it
In te rru p t
C o n tr o lle r
R C /C ry s ta l
S y s te m
O s c illa to r
A /D
C o n v e rte r
P W M
G e n e ra to r
This block diagram represents the OTP devices, for the mask devices there is no Device Programming
Circuitry.
Rev. 1.00
2
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Pin Assignment
P B 5 /A N 5
1
5 6
P B 6 /A N 6
P B 4 /A N 4
2
5 5
P B 7 /A N 7
P A 3 /P F D
3
5 4
P A 4
P A 2
4
5 3
P A 5 /IN T
P B 5 /A N 5
1
4 8
P B 6 /A N 6
P A 1
5
5 2
P A 6 /S D A
P B 4 /A N 4
2
4 7
P B 7 /A N 7
P A 0
6
5 1
P A 7 /S C L
P A 3 /P F D
3
4 6
P A 4
P B 3 /A N 3
7
5 0
P F 4
P A 2
4
4 5
P A 5 /IN T
P B 2 /A N 2
8
4 9
P F 5
P A 1
5
4 4
P A 6 /S D A
P B 1 /A N 1
9
4 8
P F 6
P A 0
6
4 3
P A 7 /S C L
P B 0 /A N 0
1 0
4 7
P F 7
P B 3 /A N 3
7
4 2
P F 4
T M R 2
1 1
4 6
O S C 2
P B 2 /A N 2
8
4 1
P F 5
P F 3 /S D O
1 2
4 5
O S C 1
P B 1 /A N 1
9
4 0
P F 6
1 3
4 4
V D D
P B 0 /A N 0
1 0
3 9
P F 7
P F 1 /S C K
1 4
4 3
R E S
T M R 2
1 1
3 8
O S C 2
P D 7
1 5
4 2
T M R 1
P F 3 /S D O
1 2
3 7
O S C 1
P D 6
1 6
4 1
P D 3 /P W M 3
1 3
3 6
V D D
P D 5
1 7
4 0
P D 2 /P W M 2
P F 1 /S C K
1 4
3 5
R E S
P D 4
1 8
3 9
P D 1 /P W M 1
P D 7
1 5
3 4
T M R 1
V S S
1 9
3 8
P D 0 /P W M 0
P F 2 /S D I
P F 2 /S D I
P D 6
1 6
3 3
P D 3 /P W M 3
P F 0 /S C S
2 0
3 7
P C 7 /O S C 4
P D 5
1 7
3 2
P D 2 /P W M 2
T M R 0
2 1
3 6
P C 6 /O S C 3
P D 4
1 8
3 1
P D 1 /P W M 1
P C 0 /T X
2 2
3 5
P C 5
V S S
1 9
3 0
P D 0 /P W M 0
P C 1 /R X
2 3
3 4
P C 4
P F 0 /S C S
2 0
2 9
P C 7 /O S C 4
P C 2
2 4
3 3
P C 3
T M R 0
2 1
2 8
P C 6 /O S C 3
P G 0
2 5
3 2
P G 7
P C 0 /T X
2 2
2 7
P C 5
P G 1
2 6
3 1
P G 6
P C 1 /R X
2 3
2 6
P C 4
P G 2
2 7
3 0
P G 5
P C 2
2 4
2 5
P C 3
P G 3
2 8
2 9
P G 4
H T 4 6 R U 2 6 /H T 4 6 C U 2 6
5 6 S S O P -A
H T 4 6 R U 2 6 /H T 4 6 C U 2 6
4 8 S S O P -A
Pin Description
Pin Name
PA0~PA2
PA3/PFD
PA4
PA5/INT
PA6/SDA
PA7/SCL
PB0/AN0~
PB7/AN7
PC0/TX
PC1/RX
PC2~PC5
PC6/OSC3
PC7/OSC4
Rev. 1.00
I/O
Configuration
Options
Description
I/O
Pull-high
Wake-up
PFD
I2C Bus
Bidirectional 8-bit input/output port. Each bit can be configured as a wake-up input using configuration options. Software instructions determine if the pin is a
CMOS output or Schmitt Trigger input. Configuration options determine if the
pins have pull-high resistors. Pins PA3 and PA5 are shared with PFD and INT.
Pins PA6 and PA7 are shared with I2C Bus pins SDA and SCL.
Pull-high
Bidirectional 8-bit input/output port. Software instructions determine if the pin is
a CMOS output or Schmitt Trigger input. Configuration options determine if the
pins have pull-high resistors. The A/D inputs are selected via software instructions. Once selected as an A/D input, the I/O function and pull-high resistor options are disabled automatically.
Pull-high
OSC3/OSC4
Bidirectional 8-bit input/output port. Software instructions determine if the pin is
a CMOS output or Schmitt Trigger input. Configuration options determine if the
pins have pull-high resistors. Pins PC0 and PC1 are pin-shared with UART pins
TX and RX. Pins PC6 and PC7 are pin-shared with RTC oscillator pins OSC3
and OSC4. The RTC oscillator function is selected via a configuration option. If
the RTC oscillator option is selected then a 32768Hz crystal is connected to
these two pins.
I/O
I/O
3
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
I/O
Configuration
Options
Description
I/O
Pull-high
PWM
Bidirectional 8-bit input/output port. Software instructions determine if the pin is
a CMOS output or Schmitt Trigger input. Configuration options determine if the
pins have pull-high resistors. PD0~PD3 are pin-shared with PWM0~PWM3, the
function of each pin is selected via configuration option.
PF0/SCS
PF1/SCK
PF2/SDI
PF3/SDO
PF4~PF7
I/O
Pull-high
SIO
Bidirectional 8-bit input/output port. Software instructions determine if the pin is
a CMOS output or Schmitt Trigger input. Configuration options determine if the
pins have pull-high resistors. Pins PF0~PF3 are pin-shared with SPI interface
pins SCS, SCK, SDO and SDI.
PG0~PG7
I/O
Pull-high
Bidirectional 8-bit input/output port. Software instructions determine if the pin is
a CMOS output or Schmitt Trigger input. Configuration options determine if the
pins have pull-high resistors.
TMR0
I
¾
Timer/Event Counter 0 Schmitt trigger input. No pull-high resistor
TMR1
I
¾
Timer/Event Counter 1 Schmitt trigger input. No pull-high resistor
TMR2
I
¾
Timer/Event Counter 2 Schmitt trigger input. No pull-high resistor
RES
I
¾
Schmitt trigger reset input. Active low
OSC1
OSC2
I
O
Crystal
or RC
VSS
¾
¾
Negative power supply, ground
VDD
¾
¾
Positive power supply
Pin Name
PD0/PWM0
PD1/PWM1
PD2/PWM2
PD3/PWM3
PD4~PD7
Note:
OSC1, OSC2 are connected to an external RC network or external crystal, determined by configuration option, for the internal system clock. If the RC system
clock option is selected, pin OSC2 can be used to measure the system clock at
1/4 frequency.
Individual pins can be selected to have a pull-high resistor.
Port PG does not exist on the 48-pin package
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Supply Voltage ...........................VSS-0.3V to VSS+6.0V
Storage Temperature ............................-50°C to 125°C
Input Voltage..............................VSS-0.3V to VDD+0.3V
IOL Total ..............................................................150mA
Total Power Dissipation .....................................500mW
Operating Temperature...........................-40°C to 85°C
IOH Total............................................................-100mA
Note: These are stress ratings only. Stresses exceeding the range specified under ²Absolute Maximum Ratings² may
cause substantial damage to the device. Functional operation of this device at other conditions beyond those listed
in the specification is not implied and prolonged exposure to extreme conditions may affect device reliability.
Rev. 1.00
4
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
D.C. Characteristics
Ta=25°C
Test Conditions
Symbol
Parameter
VDD
VDD
IDD1
IDD2
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Conditions
¾
fSYS=4MHz
2.2
¾
5.5
V
¾
fSYS=8MHz
3.3
¾
5.5
V
Operating Current
(Crystal OSC, RC OSC)
3V
No load, fSYS=4MHz,
ADC Off, UART Off
¾
1
2
mA
¾
2.5
5
mA
Operating Current
(Crystal OSC, RC OSC)
3V
¾
1.5
3
mA
¾
3
6
mA
Operating Voltage
5V
5V
No load, fSYS=4MHz,
ADC Off, UART On
IDD3
Operating Current
(Crystal OSC, RC OSC)
5V
No load, fSYS=8MHz,
ADC Off, UART Off
¾
4
8
mA
IDD4
Operating Current
(Crystal OSC, RC OSC)
5V
No load, fSYS=8MHz,
ADC Off, UART On
¾
5
10
mA
IDD5
Operating Current
(fSYS=RTC OSC)
3V
¾
0.3
0.6
mA
¾
0.6
1
mA
Standby Current (WDT
Enabled, fS=WDT OSC)
3V
¾
2
5
mA
¾
6
10
mA
¾
2.5
5
mA
¾
10
20
mA
¾
¾
1
mA
¾
¾
2
mA
ISTB1
ISTB2
Standby Current (WDT
Enabled, fS=RTC OSC)
5V
5V
No load, ADC Off,
UART Off
No load, system HALT,
UART Off
3V
No load, system HALT
5V
Standby Current
(WDT Disabled)
3V
VIL1
Input Low Voltage for I/O Ports,
TMR and INT
¾
¾
0
¾
0.3VDD
V
VIH1
Input High Voltage for I/O Ports,
TMR and INT
¾
¾
0.7VDD
¾
VDD
V
VIL2
Input Low Voltage (RES)
¾
¾
0
¾
0.4VDD
V
VIH2
Input High Voltage (RES)
¾
¾
0.9VDD
¾
VDD
V
Configuration option:2.1V
1.98
2.10
2.22
V
VLVR
Low Voltage Reset
Configuration option:3.15V
2.98
3.15
3.32
V
Configuration option:4.2V
3.98
4.20
4.42
V
ISTB3
5V
¾
IOL
IOH
RPH
No load, system HALT,
UART Off
3V
VOL=0.1VDD
4
8
¾
mA
5V
VOL=0.1VDD
10
20
¾
mA
3V
VOH=0.9VDD
-2
-4
¾
mA
5V
VOH=0.9VDD
-5
-10
¾
mA
I/O Port Sink Current
I/O Port Source Current
3V
¾
20
60
100
kW
5V
¾
10
30
50
kW
¾
0.5
1
mA
¾
1.5
3
mA
Pull-high Resistance
3V
Additional Power Consumption
if A/D Converter is Used
5V
DNL
ADC Differential Non-Linear
5V
tAD=1ms
¾
¾
±2
LSB
INL
ADC Integral Non-Linear
5V
tAD=1ms
¾
±2.5
±4
LSB
IADC
Rev. 1.00
¾
5
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
A.C. Characteristics
Ta=25°C
Test Conditions
Symbol
Parameter
fSYS
fTIMER
tWDTOSC
System Clock
Timer I/P Frequency
(TMR)
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Conditions
VDD
¾
2.2V~5.5V
400
¾
4000
kHz
¾
3.3V~5.5V
400
¾
8000
kHz
¾
2.2V~5.5V
0
¾
4000
kHz
¾
3.3V~5.5V
0
¾
8000
kHz
3V
¾
45
90
180
ms
5V
¾
32
65
130
ms
Watchdog Oscillator Period
tRES
External Reset Low Pulse Width
¾
¾
1
¾
¾
ms
tSST
System Start-up Timer Period
¾
Wake-up from Power
Down
¾
1024
¾
*tSYS
tLVR
Low Voltage Reset Time
¾
¾
0.25
1
2
ms
tINT
Interrupt Pulse Width
¾
¾
1
¾
¾
ms
tAD
A/D Clock Period
¾
¾
1
¾
¾
ms
tADC
A/D Conversion Time
¾
¾
¾
80
¾
tAD
tADCS
A/D Sampling Time
¾
¾
¾
32
¾
tAD
¾
¾
64
¾
¾
*tSYS
tIIC
2
I C Bus Clock Period
Note: *tSYS=1/fSYS
Rev. 1.00
6
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
System Architecture
A key factor in the high-performance features of the
Holtek range of microcontrollers is attributed to the internal system architecture. The range of devices take advantage of the usual features found within RISC
microcontrollers providing increased speed of operation
and enhanced performance. The pipelining scheme is
implemented in such a way that instruction fetching and
instruction execution are overlapped, hence instructions
are effectively executed in one cycle, with the exception
of branch or call instructions. An 8-bit wide ALU is used
in practically all operations of the instruction set. It carries out arithmetic operations, logic operations, rotation,
increment, decrement, branch decisions, etc. The internal data path is simplified by moving data through the
Accumulator and the ALU. Certain internal registers are
implemented in the Data Memory and can be directly or
indirectly addressed. The simple addressing methods of
these registers along with additional architectural features ensure that a minimum of external components is
required to provide a functional I/O and A/D control system with maximum reliability and flexibility. This makes
these devices suitable for low-cost, high-volume production for controller applications that have to interface
to external analog inputs such as those from sensors.
Clocking and Pipelining
The main system clock, derived from either a Crystal/Resonator or RC oscillator is subdivided into four internally generated non-overlapping clocks, T1~T4. The
Program Counter is incremented at the beginning of the
T1 clock during which time a new instruction is fetched.
The remaining T2~T4 clocks carry out the decoding and
execution functions. In this way, one T1~T4 clock cycle
forms one instruction cycle. Although the fetching and
execution of instructions takes place in consecutive instruction cycles, the pipelining structure of the
microcontroller ensures that instructions are effectively
executed in one instruction cycle. The exception to this
are instructions where the contents of the Program
Counter are changed, such as subroutine calls or
jumps, in which case the instruction will take one more
instruction cycle to execute.
When the RC oscillator is used, OSC2 is freed for use as
a T1 phase clock synchronizing pin. This T1 phase clock
has a frequency of fSYS/4 with a 1:3 high/low duty cycle.
For instructions involving branches, such as jump or call
instructions, two machine cycles are required to complete instruction execution. An extra cycle is required as
the program takes one cycle to first obtain the actual
jump or call address and then another cycle to actually
execute the branch. The requirement for this extra cycle
should be taken into account by programmers in timing
sensitive applications
O s c illa to r C lo c k
( S y s te m C lo c k )
P h a s e C lo c k T 1
P h a s e C lo c k T 2
P h a s e C lo c k T 3
P h a s e C lo c k T 4
P ro g ra m
C o u n te r
P ip e lin in g
P C
P C + 1
F e tc h In s t. (P C )
E x e c u te In s t. (P C -1 )
P C + 2
F e tc h In s t. (P C + 1 )
E x e c u te In s t. (P C )
F e tc h In s t. (P C + 2 )
E x e c u te In s t. (P C + 1 )
System Clocking and Pipelining
1
M O V A ,[1 2 H ]
2
C A L L D E L A Y
3
C P L [1 2 H ]
:
5
:
D E L A Y :
E x e c u te In s t. 1
F e tc h In s t. 2
E x e c u te In s t. 2
F e tc h In s t. 3
F lu s h P ip e lin e
F e tc h In s t. 6
4
6
F e tc h In s t. 1
E x e c u te In s t. 6
F e tc h In s t. 7
N O P
Instruction Fetching
Rev. 1.00
7
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Program Counter
The lower byte of the Program Counter, known as the
Program Counter Low register or PCL, is available for
program control and is a readable and writeable register. By transferring data directly into this register, a short
program jump can be executed directly, however, as
only this low byte is available for manipulation, the
jumps are limited to the present page of memory, that is
256 locations. When such program jumps are executed
it should also be noted that a dummy cycle will be inserted.
During program execution, the Program Counter is used
to keep track of the address of the next instruction to be
executed. It is automatically incremented by one each
time an instruction is executed except for instructions,
such as ²JMP² or ²CALL² that demand a jump to a
non-consecutive Program Memory address. However, it
must be noted that only the lower 8 bits, known as the
Program Counter Low Register, are directly addressable by user.
As the Program Memory is stored in four banks, note
that the Bank Selection is under the control of bits 5 and
6 of the Bank Pointer. It is these two Bank Pointer bits
that control the highest address bits of the Program
Counter as shown in the diagram.
When executing instructions requiring jumps to
non-consecutive addresses such as a jump instruction,
a subroutine call, interrupt or reset, etc., the
microcontroller manages program control by loading the
required address into the Program Counter. For conditional skip instructions, once the condition has been
met, the next instruction, which has already been
fetched during the present instruction execution, is discarded and a dummy cycle takes its place while the correct instruction is obtained.
Program Counter
Mode
b14
b13
b12
b11
b10
b9
b8
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Initial Reset
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
External, A/D Converter or SPI
Interrupt - configuration option select
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
Timer/Event Counter 0 Overflow
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
Timer/Event Counter 1 Overflow
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
UART Bus Interrupt
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
I C Bus or SPI Interrupt
- configuration option select
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
Multi-function Interrupt
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
2
Skip
Program Counter + 2 (within the current bank)
Loading PCL
PC14 PC13 PC12 PC11 PC10 PC9 PC8 @7
@6
@5
@4
@3
@2
@1
@0
Jump, Call Branch
BP.6 BP.5 #12
#11
#10
#9
#8
#7
#6
#5
#4
#3
#2
#1
#0
Return from Subroutine
S14
S11
S10
S9
S8
S7
S6
S5
S4
S3
S2
S1
S0
S13
S12
Program Counter
Note:
Configuration Options select the function of some interrupt vectors
PC14~PC8: Current Program Counter bits
@[email protected]: PCL bits
1 4 1 3 1 2
BP.5, PB.6: Bank Pointer bit.
#12~#0: Instruction code address bits
S14~S0: Stack register bits
B P
.6
8 7
P ro g ra m
0
C o u n te r
B P
.5
B a n k P o in te r (B P )
Rev. 1.00
8
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
· Branch decision, JMP, SZ, SZA, SNZ, SIZ, SDZ,
Stack
SIZA, SDZA, CALL, RET, RETI
This is a special part of the memory which is used to
save the contents of the Program Counter only. The
stack has 16 levels and is neither part of the data nor
part of the program space, and is neither readable nor
writeable. The activated level is indexed by the Stack
Pointer, SP, and is neither readable nor writeable. At a
subroutine call or interrupt acknowledge signal, the contents of the Program Counter are pushed onto the stack.
At the end of a subroutine or an interrupt routine, signaled by a return instruction, RET or RETI, the Program
Counter is restored to its previous value from the stack.
After a device reset, the Stack Pointer will point to the
top of the stack.
Program Memory
The Program Memory is the location where the user
code or program is stored. The device contains
One-Time Programmable, OTP, memory where users
can program their application code into the device. By
using the appropriate programming tools, OTP devices
offer users the flexibility to freely develop their applications which may be useful during debug or for products
requiring frequent upgrades or program changes. OTP
devices are also applicable for use in applications that
require low or medium volume production runs.
If the stack is full and an enabled interrupt takes place,
the interrupt request flag will be recorded but the acknowledge signal will be inhibited. When the Stack
Pointer is decremented, by RET or RETI, the interrupt
will be serviced. This feature prevents stack overflow allowing the programmer to use the structure more easily.
However, when the stack is full, a CALL subroutine instruction can still be executed which will result in a stack
overflow. Precautions should be taken to avoid such
cases which might cause unpredictable program
branching.
P ro g ra m
T o p o f S ta c k
Structure
The Program Memory has a capacity of 32K by 16 bits.
The Program Memory is addressed by the Program
Counter and also contains data, table information and
interrupt entries. Table data, which can be setup in any
location within the Program Memory, is addressed by
separate table pointer registers. The Program Memory
is subdivided into four individual banks each of 8K capacity. The Program Memory Bank is selected using the
Bank Pointer. Care must exercised when manipulating
the Bank Pointer Register as it is also used to control the
Data Memory Bank Pointer.
C o u n te r
Special Vectors
S ta c k L e v e l 1
Within the Program Memory, certain locations are reserved for special usage such as reset and interrupts.
S ta c k L e v e l 2
S ta c k
P o in te r
B o tto m
S ta c k L e v e l 3
o f S ta c k
P ro g ra m
M e m o ry
· Location 000H
This vector is reserved for use by the device reset for
program initialisation. After a device reset is initiated, the
program will jump to this location and begin execution.
S ta c k L e v e l 1 6
Arithmetic and Logic Unit - ALU
· Location 004H
This vector is used by the external interrupt, the AD
converter interrupt and the SPI interrupt. One of these
three interrupt sources must be chosen to use this
vector location using a configuration option. If the external interrupt pin on the device goes low, an A/D
conversion finishes or 8-bits of data have been transferred on the SPI bus, the program will jump to this location and begin execution if the corresponding
interrupt is enabled and the stack is not full.
The arithmetic-logic unit or ALU is a critical area of the
microcontroller that carries out arithmetic and logic operations of the instruction set. Connected to the main
microcontroller data bus, the ALU receives related instruction codes and performs the required arithmetic or
logical operations after which the result will be placed in
the specified register. As these ALU calculation or operations may result in carry, borrow or other status
changes, the status register will be correspondingly updated to reflect these changes. The ALU supports the
following functions:
· Location 008H
This internal vector is used by Timer/Event Counter 0.
If a Timer/Event Counter 0 overflow occurs, the program will jump to this location and begin execution if
the Timer/Event Counter 0 interrupt is enabled and
the stack is not full.
· Arithmetic operations: ADD, ADDM, ADC, ADCM,
SUB, SUBM, SBC, SBCM, DAA
· Logic operations: AND, OR, XOR, ANDM, ORM,
· Location 00CH
XORM, CPL, CPLA
This internal vector is used by Timer/Event Counter 1.
If a Timer/Event Counter 1 overflow occurs, the program will jump to this location and begin execution if
the Timer/Event Counter 1 interrupt is enabled and
the stack is not full.
· Rotation RRA, RR, RRCA, RRC, RLA, RL, RLCA,
RLC
· Increment and Decrement INCA, INC, DECA, DEC
Rev. 1.00
9
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
· Location 010H
Managing Multiple Banks
This internal vector is used by the UART. If a UART interrupt occurs, resulting from a transmit data register
empty, received data available, transmission idle,
overrun error or address detected, the program will
jump to this location and begin execution if the UART
interrupt is enabled and the stack is not full.
As the Program Memory is divided up into several
Memory banks, there are some special considerations
that have to be taken into account. First, the sections of
program which are to be located into different banks are
placed using the ROMBANK directive. When using the
CALL instruction to call routines located in a different
bank, or when using the JMP instructions to directly
jump to a location in a different bank, the target bank
must be first selected by correctly setting up the Bank
Pointer prior to executing the CALL or JMP instruction.
This of course can be achieved by directly controlling Bit
5 of the Bank Pointer, BP, but can also be done by using
the BANK directive as shown in the example. Then,
when a CALL or JMP instruction is executed, the Bank
Pointer value stored in the BP register will be automatically loaded into the Program Counter. When the RET
instruction is encountered in a subroutine called from a
different bank, the program will automatically return to
the original bank, however, the BP value will not be
changed and will remain at the value where the subroutine is located. For this reason the BP must be carefully
managed when moving between banks. The following
example illustrates how to use the CALL and JMP instructions between different banks:
· Location 014H
This internal vector is used by the I2C interrupt and the
SPI interrupt. One of these two interrupt sources must
be chosen to use this vector location using a configuration option. If an I2C or SPI interrupt occurs, resulting from an I2C slave address match or when 8-bits of
data have been transferred on the I2C/SPI bus, the
program will jump to this location and begin execution
if the corresponding interrupt is enabled and the stack
is not full.
· Location 018H
This area is reserved for the Multi-function interrupt. If
a Multi-function interrupt occurs, resulting from a
Timer/Event Counter 2 overflow, a real time clock
time-out, or a Time base time-out, the program will
jump to this location and begin execution if the corresponding interrupt is enabled and the stack is not full.
0 0 0 H
0 0 4 H
0 0 8 H
0 0 C H
0 1 0 H
0 1 4 H
0 1 8 H
In itia liz a tio n
V e c to r
E x te
In te rru
A /D C
In te rru p
S P I In te
rn a l IN T
p t V e c to r,
o n v e rte r
t V e c to r o r
rru p t V e c to r
T im e r /C o u n te r 0
In te rru p t V e c to r
T im e r /C o u n te r 1
In te rru p t V e c to r
U A R T B u s
In te rru p t V e c to r
I2C B u s
In te rru p t V e c to r o r
S P I In te rru p t V e c to r
M u lti- F u n c tio n
In te rru p t V e c to r
n 0 0 H
n F F H
1 F 0 0 H
1 F F F H
B a n k 0
B a n k 1
B a n k 2
B a n k 3
1 6 b its
Program Memory Structure
Rev. 1.00
10
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
include HT46RU26.inc
:
:
rombank 0 codesec0
rombank 1 codesec1
:
:
codesec0 .section at 000h ¢code¢
clr bp
jmp start
:
:
start:
:
:
lab0:
:
:
mov a, BANK routb1
mov bp,a
call routb1
clr bp
:
:
codesec1 .section at 000h ¢code¢
:
:
routb1 proc
:
:
ret
; define rombank 0
; define rombank 1
; locates the following program section into Bank 0
; re-initializing the BP
; routine ²routb1² is located in Bank 1
; load bank number for routb1 into BP
; call subroutine located in Bank 1
; program will return to this location
; after RET in Bank 1
; but BP will retain Bank 1 value
; so clear the BP
; locates following program section into Bank 1
; return program to Bank 0 but BP will
; retain Bank 1 value
routb1 endp
:
:
accumulator and status register, it is important to
backup its original value immediately and also clear the
Bank Pointer to indicate Bank 0 especially if other calls
or jumps are encountered within Bank 0. Before the
RETI instruction in the interrupt subroutine is executed,
the Bank Pointer, along with the accumulator and status
register, must be restored to ensure the program returns
to the correct Bank and point from where the subroutine
was called. The following example illustrates how interrupts can be managed:
When managing interrupts, care has to be exercised in
supervising the Bank Pointer. Irrespective of what Bank
the program is presently running in, when an interrupt
occurs, whether it be an external interrupt or internal interrupt, the program will immediately jump to its respective interrupt vector located in Bank 0. Note however
that, although in all cases the program will jump to Bank
0, the Bank Pointer will retain its original value and not
indicate Bank 0. For this reason, after entering the interrupt subroutine, in addition to the usual backup of the
include HT46RU26.inc
:
:
rombank 0 codesec0
rombank 1 codesec1
:
:
codesec0 .section at 000h ¢code¢
clr bp
:
:
org 004h
mov accbuf0,a
mov a,bp
clr bp
jmp ext0_int
:
:
org 008h
mov accbuf1,a
mov a,bp
clr bp
Rev. 1.00
; define rombank 0
; define rombank 1
; locates the following program section into Bank 0
; clear bank pointer after power-on reset
; jump here from any bank when ext0 int.
; occurs - BP retains original value
; backup accumulator
; backup bank pointer
; clear bp to indicate Bank 0 otherwise
; original BP value will remain and give
; rise to false jmp or call addresses
; jump to external 0 interrupt subroutine
; jump here from any bank when ext1_int.
; occurs - BP retains original value
; backup accumulator
; backup bank pointer
; clear bp to indicate Bank 0 otherwise
; original BP value will remain and give rise to false jmp or
11
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
; call addresses
; jump to timer 0 interrupt subroutine
jmp ext1_int
:
:
org 00Ch
; jump here from any bank when timer 0 int.
; occurs - BP retains original value
:
:
ext0_int:
mov bp_exti,a
mov a,status
mov statusbuf0,a
:
:
mov a,statusbuf0
mov status,a
mov a,bp_exti
mov bp,a
mov a,accbuf0
; external interrupt subroutine
; backup bank pointer
; backup status register
; backup status register
; restore status register
; restore bank pointer
; restore accumulator
; return to main program and original calling bank
:
:
ext1_int:
mov bp_tmr0,a
mov a,status
mov statusbuf1,a
:
:
mov a,statusbuf1
mov status,a
mov a,bp_tmr0
mov bp,a
mov a,accbuf1
reti
:
:
; ext1_int interrupt subroutine
; backup bank pointer
; backup status register
; restore status register
; restore bank pointer
; restore accumulator
; return to main program and original calling bank
Look-up Table
Table Program Example
Any location within the Program Memory can be defined
as a look-up table where programmers can store fixed
data. To use the look-up table, the table pointers must
first be setup by placing the lower order address of the
look up data to be retrieved in the table low pointer register, TBLP, and the higher order address in the table high
pointer register, TBHP. These registers define the full
address of the look-up table in any bank.
The following example shows how the table pointer and
table data is defined and retrieved from the
microcontroller. This example uses raw table data located in the last page which is stored there using the
ORG statement. The value at this ORG statement is
000H, however, this only indicates the offset value from
the start address of Bank 1 which in this case is 2000H.
The table pointer high byte is setup to have a value of
20H while the value of the table pointer low byte is setup
here to have an initial value of 05H. This will ensure that
the data byte read from the data table will be located at
the Program Memory address 2005H, or 5 locations after the first address defined by the ORG statement.
When the TABRDC [m] instruction is executed, the table
data low byte which has a value of FFH, will be transferred to the user defined temp register, while the table
data high byte, which has a value of 55H, will be transferred to the TBLH register.
After setting up the table pointers, the table data can be
retrieved from the current Program Memory page or last
Program Memory page using the ²TABRDC[m]² or
²TABRDL [m]² instructions, respectively. When these instructions are executed, the lower order table byte from
the Program Memory will be transferred to the user defined Data Memory register [m] as specified in the instruction. The higher order table data byte from the
Program Memory will be transferred to the TBLH special
register. Any unused bits in this transferred higher order
byte will be read as ²0².
The following diagram illustrates the addressing/data
flow of the look-up table:
T B H P
P ro g ra m
M e m o ry
T B L P
T B L H
T a b le C o n te n ts H ig h B y te
Rev. 1.00
S p e c ifie d b y [m ]
T a b le C o n te n ts L o w
B y te
12
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
include HT46RU26.inc
:
:
data .section ¢data¢
temp db ?
:
:
rombank 0 codesec0
rombank 1 codesec1
:
:
codesec0 .section at 0 code
jmp start
:
org 010h
start:
:
:
mov
a,020h
mov
tbhp,a
:
:
mov
a,005h
mov
tblp,a
tabrdc
temp
nop
; Bank 0 definition
; Bank 1 definition
; setup table high byte address
; setup table low byte address
; table pointer address is now 2005H
; read table data from PC address 2005H
; FFH will be placed in the temp
; register and 55H will be placed in the TBLH register
codesec1 .section at 000h code
; Bank 1 code located here
org 0000h
; this defines the offset from the start address of Bank 1
; which is 2000H
dc 000AAh, 011BBh, 022CCh, 033DDh, 044EEh, 055FFh
:
:
Because the TBLH register is a read-only register and
cannot be restored, care should be taken to ensure its
protection if both the main routine and Interrupt Service
Routine use table read instructions. If using the table
read instructions, the Interrupt Service Routines may
change the value of the TBLH and subsequently cause
errors if used again by the main routine. As a rule it is
recommended that simultaneous use of the table read
instructions should be avoided. However, in situations
where simultaneous use cannot be avoided, the interrupts should be disabled prior to the execution of any
main routine table-read instructions. Note that all table
related instructions require two instruction cycles to
complete their operation.
Data Memory
The Data Memory is a volatile area of 8-bit wide RAM
internal memory and is the location where temporary information is stored. Divided into two sections, the first of
these is an area of RAM where special function registers
are located. These registers have fixed locations and
are necessary for correct operation of the device. Many
of these registers can be read from and written to directly under program control, however, some remain
protected from user manipulation. The second area of
Data Memory is reserved for general purpose use. All
locations within this area are read and write accessible
under program control. This General Purpose area of
the Data Memory is divided into four separate banks,
known as Bank 0~Bank 3. Switching between banks is
accomplished by setting the Bank Pointer to the correct
value.
Table Location Bits
Instruction
b14~b8
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
TABRDC [m]
TBHP
@7
@6
@5
@4
@3
@2
@1
@0
TABRDL [m]
1111111
@7
@6
@5
@4
@3
@2
@1
@0
Table Location
Note:
PC14~PC8: Current Program Counter bits
@[email protected]: Table Pointer TBLP bits
Rev. 1.00
13
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
0 0
0 1
0 2
0 3
0 4
0 5
0 6
0 7
0 8
0 9
0 A
0 B
0 C
0 D
0 E
0 F
1 0
1 1
1 2
1 3
1 4
1 5
1 6
1 7
1 8
1 9
1 A
1 B
1 C
1 D
1 E
1 F
2 0
2 1
2 2
2 3
2 4
2 5
2 6
2 7
2 8
2 9
2 A
2 B
2 C
2 D
2 E
2 F
3 0
3 1
3 2
3 3
3 4
3 5
3 6
3 7
3 8
3 9
3 A
3 B
3 C
3 D
3 E
3 F
Structure
The two sections of Data Memory, the Special Purpose
and General Purpose Data Memory are located at consecutive locations. All are implemented in RAM and are
8 bits wide. The start address of the Data Memory is the
address ²00H². The Special Purpose Data Memory is
mapped into each bank and can therefore be read from
within any bank.
0 0 H
S p e c
P u rp o
D a
M e m o
ia l
s e
ta
ry
3 F H
4 0 H
B a n k 0 ~ 3
G e n e ra l
P u rp o s e
D a ta
M e m o ry
F F H
B a n k 0
B a n k 1
B a n k 2
B a n k 3
Data Memory Structure
Note:
Most of the Data Memory bits can be directly
manipulated using the ²SET [m].i² and ²CLR
[m].i² with the exception of a few dedicated bits.
The Data Memory can also be accessed
through the memory pointers MP0 and MP1.
General Purpose Data Memory
All microcontroller programs require an area of
read/write memory where temporary data can be stored
and retrieved for use later. It is this area of RAM memory
that is known as General Purpose Data Memory. This
area of Data Memory is fully accessible by the user program for both read and write operations. By using the
²SET [m].i² and ²CLR [m].i² instructions individual bits
can be set or reset under program control giving the
user a large range of flexibility for bit manipulation in the
Data Memory. As the General Purpose Data Memory is
divided into four banks it is necessary to first setup the
Bank Pointer with the correct value before accessing the
General Purpose Data Memory.
Special Purpose Data Memory
This area of Data Memory is where registers, necessary
for the correct operation of the microcontroller, are
stored. Most of the registers are both readable and
writeable but some are protected and are readable only,
the details of which are located under the relevant Special Function Register section. Note that for locations
that are unused, any read instruction to these addresses
will return the value ²00H².
Rev. 1.00
H
H
H
H
H
H
IA
M
IA
M
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
T M R
T M R 2
M F IC
U S R
U C R
U C R
T X R /R
B R G
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
R 0
P 0
R 1
P 1
B P
A C C
P C L
T B L P
T B L H
R T C C
S T A T U S
IN T C 0
T M R 0 H
T M R 0 L
T M R 0 C
T M R 1 H
T M R 1 L
T M R 1 C
P A
P A C
P B
P B C
P C
P C C
P D
P D C
P W M 0
P W M 1
P W M 2
P W M 3
IN T C 1
T B H P
H A D R
H C R
H S R
H D R
A D R L
A D R H
A D C R
A C S R
P F
P F C
P G
P G C
H
H
H
H
H
2
2
C
1
X R
S B C R
S B D R
H
H
H
H
: U n u s e d , re a d a s "0 0 "
Special Purpose Data Memory
14
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Special Function Registers
To ensure successful operation of the microcontroller,
certain internal registers are implemented in the Data
Memory area. These registers ensure correct operation
of internal functions such as timers, interrupts, etc., as
well as external functions such as I/O data control and
A/D converter operation. The location of these registers
within the Data Memory begins at the address 00H. Any
unused Data Memory locations between these special
function registers and the point where the General Purpose Memory begins is reserved, attempting to read
data from these locations will return a value of 00H.
a pair, IAR0 and MP0 can together only access data
from Bank 0, while the IAR1 and MP1 register pair can
access data from any bank. As the Indirect Addressing
Registers are not physically implemented, reading the
Indirect Addressing Registers indirectly will return a result of 00H and writing to the registers indirectly will result in no operation.
Memory Pointer - MP0, MP1
Two 8-bit Memory Pointers, known as MP0 and MP1 are
provided. These Memory Pointers are physically implemented in the Data Memory and can be manipulated in
the same way as normal registers providing a convenient way with which to address and track data. When
any operation to the relevant Indirect Addressing Registers is carried out, the actual address that the
microcontroller is directed to, is the address specified by
the related Memory Pointer. MP0, together with Indirect
Addressing Register, IAR0, are used to access data
from Bank 0 only, while MP1 and IAR1 are used to access data from any bank.
Indirect Addressing Registers - IAR0, IAR1
The Indirect Addressing Registers, IAR0 and IAR1, although having their locations in normal Data Memory
register space, do not actually physically exist as normal
registers. The method of indirect addressing for Data
Memory manipulation uses these Indirect Addressing
Registers and Memory Pointers, in contrast to direct
memory addressing, where the actual memory address
is specified. Actions on the IAR0 and IAR1 registers will
result in no actual read or write operation to these registers but rather to the memory location specified by their
corresponding Memory Pointer, MP0 or MP1. Acting as
The following example shows how to clear a section of
four RAM locations already defined as locations adres1
to adres4.
data .section ¢data¢
adres1
db ?
adres2
db ?
adres3
db ?
adres4
db ?
block
db ?
code .section at 0 ¢code¢
org 00h
start:
mov
mov
mov
mov
a,04h
block,a
a,offset adres1
mp0,a
; setup size of block
loop:
clr
inc
sdz
jmp
IAR0
mp0
block
loop
; clear the data at address defined by MP0
; increment memory pointer
; check if last memory location has been cleared
; Accumulator loaded with first RAM address
; setup memory pointer with first RAM address
continue:
The important point to note here is that in the example shown above, no reference is made to specific Data Memory addresses.
Rev. 1.00
15
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
b 7
B P 6
B P 5
B P 1
b 0
B P 0
B P R e g is te r
B P 1
0
0
1
1
B P 0
0
1
0
1
D a ta
B a
B a
B a
B a
M
n k
n k
n k
n k
e m o ry
0
1
2
3
N o t u s e d , m u s t b e re s e t to "0 "
B P 6
0
0
1
1
B P 5
0
1
0
1
D a ta
B a
B a
B a
B a
M
n k
n k
n k
n k
e m o ry
0
1
2
3
N o t u s e d , m u s t b e re s e t to "0 "
Bank Pointer Register
Bank Pointer
mitted. When such operations are used, note that a
dummy cycle will be inserted.
The Program Memory and Data Memory are each divided into four separate banks. To select which bank is
to be accessed a Bank Pointer register is used. Bits 5
and 6 of the Bank Pointer register select the Program
Memory bank while bits 0 and 1 select the Data Memory
bank. The Program and Data Memory are initialised to
Bank 0 after a reset, except for the WDT time-out reset
in the Power Down Mode, in which case, the bank remains unchanged. It should be noted that the Special
Function Data Memory is not affected by the bank selection, which means that the Special Function Registers
can be accessed from within any Data Memory bank.
Look-up Table Registers - TBLP, TBHP, TBLH
These three special function registers are used to control operation of the look-up table which is stored in the
Program Memory. TBLP and TBHP are the table low
and high byte pointers that are used to indicate the full
address where the table data is located. Their values
must be setup before any table read commands are executed. Their values can be changed, for example using
the ²INC² or ²DEC² instructions, allowing for easy table
data pointing and reading. TBLH is the location where
the high order byte of the table data is stored after a table read data instruction has been executed. Note that
the lower order table data byte is transferred to a user
defined location.
Accumulator - ACC
The Accumulator is central to the operation of any
microcontroller and is closely related with operations
carried out by the ALU. The Accumulator is the place
where all intermediate results from the ALU are stored.
Without the Accumulator it would be necessary to write
the result of each calculation or logical operation such
as addition, subtraction, shift, etc., to the Data Memory
resulting in higher programming and timing overheads.
Data transfer operations usually involve the temporary
storage function of the Accumulator; for example, when
transferring data between one user defined register and
another, it is necessary to do this by passing the data
through the Accumulator as no direct transfer between
two registers is permitted.
Status Register - STATUS
This 8-bit register contains the zero flag (Z), carry flag
(C), auxiliary carry flag (AC), overflow flag (OV), power
down flag (PDF), and watchdog time-out flag (TO).
These arithmetic/logical operation and system management flags are used to record the status and operation of
the microcontroller.
With the exception of the TO and PDF flags, bits in the
status register can be altered by instructions like most
other registers. Any data written into the status register
will not change the TO or PDF flag. In addition, operations related to the status register may give different results due to the different instruction operations. The TO
flag can be affected only by a system power-up, a WDT
time-out or by executing the ²CLR WDT² or ²HALT² instruction. The PDF flag is affected only by executing the
²HALT² or ²CLR WDT² instruction or during a system
power-up.
Program Counter Low Register - PCL
To provide additional program control functions, the low
byte of the Program Counter is made accessible to programmers by locating it within the Special Purpose area
of the Data Memory. By manipulating this register, direct
jumps to other program locations are easily implemented. Loading a value directly into this PCL register
will cause a jump to the specified Program Memory location, however, as the register is only 8-bit wide, only
jumps within the current Program Memory page are per-
Rev. 1.00
The Z, OV, AC and C flags generally reflect the status of
the latest operations.
¨
16
C is set if an operation results in a carry during an
addition operation or if a borrow does not take place
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
b 7
b 0
T O
P D F
O V
Z
A C
C
S T A T U S R e g is te r
A r
C a
A u
Z e
O v
ith m e
r r y fla
x ilia r y
r o fla g
e r flo w
g
tic /L o g ic O p e r a tio n F la g s
c a r r y fla g
fla g
S y s te m M
P o w e r d o w
W a tc h d o g
N o t im p le m
a n
n
tim
e
a g e m e n t F la g s
fla g
e - o u t fla g
n te d , re a d a s "0 "
Status Register
during a subtraction operation; otherwise C is
cleared. C is also affected by a rotate through carry
instruction.
¨
AC is set if an operation results in a carry out of the
low nibbles in addition, or no borrow from the high
nibble into the low nibble in subtraction; otherwise
AC is cleared.
¨
Z is set if the result of an arithmetic or logical operation is zero; otherwise Z is cleared.
¨
OV is set if an operation results in a carry into the
highest-order bit but not a carry out of the highest-order bit, or vice versa; otherwise OV is cleared.
¨
PDF is cleared by a system power-up or executing
the ²CLR WDT² instruction. PDF is set by executing
the ²HALT² instruction.
¨
TO is cleared by a system power-up or executing
the ²CLR WDT² or ²HALT² instruction. TO is set by
a WDT time-out.
function is to provide an internal interrupt signal at regular fixed intervals. The driving clock for the RTC interrupt
comes from the internal clock source, known as fS,
which is then further divided to give longer time values,
which in turn generates the interrupt signal. The value of
this division ratio is determined by the value programmed into bits 2~0, known as RT2~RT0, of the
RTCC register. By writing a value directly into these
RTCC register bits, time-out values from 28/fS to 215/fS
can be generated. The RTCC register also controls the
quick start up function of the RTC oscillator. This oscillator, which has a fixed frequency of 32768Hz, can be
made to start up at a quicker rate by setting bit 4, known
as the QOSC bit to ²0². This bit will be set to a ²0² value
when the device is powered on, however, as some extra
power is consumed, the QOSC bit should be set to ²1²
after about 2 seconds to reduce power consumption.
Interrupt Control Register - INTC0, INTC1
In addition, on entering an interrupt sequence or executing a subroutine call, the status register will not be
pushed onto the stack automatically. If the contents of
the status registers are important and if the subroutine
can corrupt the status register, precautions must be
taken to correctly save it.
These 8-bit registers control the operation of both external and internal timer interrupts. By setting various bits
within this register using standard bit manipulation instructions, the enable/disable function of each interrupt
can be independently controlled. A master interrupt bit
within this register, the EMI bit, acts like a global enable/disable and is used to set all of the interrupt enable
bits on or off. This bit is cleared when an interrupt routine
is entered to disable further interrupt and is set by executing the ²RETI² instruction.
Real Time Clock Control Register - RTCC
The RTCC register controls two internal functions one of
which is the Real Time Clock (RTC) interrupt, whose
b 7
Q O S C
R T 2
R T 1
b 0
R T 0
R e a l T im e C lo c k C o n tr o l R e g is te r
R T C In te r r u p t P e r io d
R T 0
R T 1
R T 2
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
P e r io d
2 8/fS
2 9/fS
2 10/fS
2 11/fS
2 12/fS
2 13/fS
2 14/fS
2 15/fS
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
R T C O s c illa to r Q u ic k - s ta r t
1 : d is a b le
0 : e n a b le
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
RTCC Register
Rev. 1.00
17
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Timer/Event Counter Registers
register ADCR while the A/D clock frequency is defined
by the clock source register, ACSR.
The device contains a single 8-bit and two 16-bit
Timer/Event Counters. Each Timer/Event Counter has
an associated register or register pair where the timer¢s
8 or 16-bit value is located. Timer/Event Counter 2 is
8-bits wide whose register is TMR2. Timer/Event Counter 0 and 1 are 16-bits wide and have register pairs
TMR0L/TMR0H and TMR1H/TMR1H. Three control
registers, known as TMR0C, TMR1C and TMR2C, contains the setup information for the Timer/Event Counters, and determine in what mode the Timer/Event
Counter is to be used as well as containing the timer
on/off control function.
Input/Output Ports
Holtek microcontrollers offer considerable flexibility on
their I/O ports. With the input or output designation of every pin fully under user program control, pull-high options for all ports and wake-up options on certain pins,
the user is provided with an I/O structure to meet the
needs of a wide range of application possibilities.
The microcontroller provides 48 bidirectional input/output lines labeled with port names PA, PB, PC, PD, PF
and PG. These I/O ports are mapped to the RAM Data
Memory with specific addresses as shown in the Special
Purpose Data Memory table. All of these I/O ports can
be used for input and output operations. For input operation, these ports are non-latching, which means the inputs must be ready at the T2 rising edge of instruction
²MOV A,[m]², where m denotes the port address. For
output operation, all the data is latched and remains unchanged until the output latch is rewritten.
Input/Output Ports and Control Registers
Within the area of Special Function Registers, the I/O
registers and their associated control registers play a
prominent role. All I/O ports have a designated register
correspondingly labeled as PA, PB, PC, PD, PF and PG.
These labeled I/O registers are mapped to specific addresses within the Data Memory as shown in the Data
Memory table, which are used to transfer the appropriate output or input data on that port. With each I/O port
there is an associated control register labeled PAC,
PBC, PCC, PDC, PFC and PGC, also mapped to specific addresses with the Data Memory. The control register specifies which pins of that port are set as inputs and
which are set as outputs. To setup a pin as an input, the
corresponding bit of the control register must be set
high, for an output it must be set low. During program initialisation, it is important to first setup the control registers to specify which pins are outputs and which are
inputs before reading data from or writing data to the I/O
ports. One flexible feature of these registers is the ability
to directly program single bits using the ²SET [m].i² and
²CLR [m].i² instructions. The ability to change I/O pins
from output to input and vice versa by manipulating specific bits of the I/O control registers during normal program operation is a useful feature of these devices.
Pull-high Resistors
Many product applications require pull-high resistors for
their switch inputs usually requiring the use of an external resistor. To eliminate the need for these external resistors, all I/O pins, when configured as an input have
the capability of being connected to an internal pull-high
resistor. These pull-high resistors are selectable via
configuration options and are implemented using a
weak PMOS transistor.
Port A Wake-up
The instruction set includes a HALT instruction which if
executed forces the microcontroller to enter a
Power-down Mode and preserve power, a feature that is
important for battery and other low-power applications.
Various methods exist to wake-up the microcontroller,
one of which is to change the logic condition on one of the
Port A pins from high to low. After a HALT instruction
forces the microcontroller into the Power-down Mode, a
high to low transition on any of the configuration option
selected wake-up pins on Port A will wake up the device.
This function is especially suitable for applications that
can be woken up via external switches. Note that each
pin on Port A can be selected individually using configuration options to have this wake-up feature.
Pulse Width Modulator Registers PWM0, PWM1, PWM2, PWM3
Each PWM has its own related independent control register. The 8-bit contents of these registers, defines the
duty cycle value for the modulation cycle of the corresponding Pulse Width Modulator.
A/D Converter Registers ADRL, ADRH, ADCR, ACSR
I/O Port Control Registers
The device contains an 8-channel 12-bit A/D converter.
The correct operation of the A/D requires the use of two
data registers, a control register and a clock source register. These are the register locations where the digital
value is placed after the completion of an analog to digital conversion cycle. The channel selection and configuration of the A/D converter is setup via the control
Rev. 1.00
Each I/O port has its own control register PAC, PBC,
PCC, PDC, PFC and PGC, to control the input/output
configuration. With this control register, each CMOS
output or input with or without pull-high resistor structures can be reconfigured dynamically under software
control. Each pin of the I/O ports is directly mapped to a
bit in its associated port control register. For the I/O pin
18
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
D a ta B u s
W r ite C o n tr o l R e g is te r
V
P u ll- H ig h
O p tio n
C o n tr o l B it
Q
D
D D
W e a k
P u ll- u p
Q
C K
S
C h ip R e s e t
R e a d C o n tr o l R e g is te r
W r ite D a ta R e g is te r
I/O
C K
Q
S
M
R e a d D a ta R e g is te r
S y s te m
P in
D a ta B it
Q
D
U
X
W a k e -u p
W a k e - u p O p tio n
P A o n ly
Non-pin-shared Function Input/Output Ports
D a ta B u s
W r ite C o n tr o l R e g is te r
V
P u ll- H ig h
O p tio n
C o n tr o l B it
Q
D
D D
W e a k
P u ll- u p
Q
C K
S
C h ip R e s e t
R e a d C o n tr o l R e g is te r
W r ite D a ta R e g is te r
P A 5 /IN T
D a ta B it
Q
D
C K
S
Q
M
R e a d D a ta R e g is te r
IN T fo r P A 5 o n ly
S y s te m
W a k e -u p
U
X
W a k e - u p O p tio n
PA5 Input/Output Port
· External Interrupt Input
to function as an input, the corresponding bit of the control register must be written as a ²1². This will then allow
the logic state of the input pin to be directly read by instructions. When the corresponding bit of the control
register is written as a ²0², the I/O pin will be setup as a
CMOS output. If the pin is currently setup as an output,
instructions can still be used to read the output register.
However, it should be noted that the program will in fact
only read the status of the output data latch and not the
actual logic status of the output pin.
The external interrupt pin, INT, is pin-shared with the
I/O pin, PA5.To be used as an external interrupt pin
the external interrupt enable bit in the INTC0 register
must be enabled. The corresponding bit of the port
control register, PAC.5, must also setup the pin as an
input for correct external interrupt operation. Any
pull-high configuration options selected for this pin will
remain valid if the pin is used as an external interrupt.
If the PAC port control register has setup the pin as an
output, then the pin will function as a normal logic output, even if the external interrupt enable bit in the
INTC0 register is enabled.
Pin-shared Functions
· PFD Output
The flexibility of the device is greatly enhanced by the
use of pins that have more than one function. Limited
numbers of pins can force serious design constraints on
designers but by supplying pins with multi-functions,
many of these difficulties can be overcome. For some
pins, the chosen function of the multi-function I/O pins is
set by configuration options while for others the function
is set by application program control.
Rev. 1.00
The device contains a Programmable Frequency Divider, PFD, function whose single output is pin-shared
with PA3. The output function of this pin is chosen via
a configuration option and remains fixed after the device is programmed. Note that the corresponding bit of
the port control register, PAC.3, must setup the pin as
an output to enable the PFD output. If the PAC port
control register has setup the pin as an input, then the
19
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
V
C o n tr o l B it
Q
D
D a ta B u s
W r ite C o n tr o l R e g is te r
C K
P A
P A
P A
P C
P C
P D
P D
P F
P G
Q
S
C h ip R e s e t
R e a d C o n tr o l R e g is te r
D a ta B it
Q
D
Q
C K
W r ite D a ta R e g is te r
D D
P u ll- h ig h
O p tio n
0 ~ P A
4 , P A
6 /S D
2 ~ P C
6 /O S
0 /P W
4 ~ P D
0 ~ P F
0 ~ P G
2 , P A
5 /IN T
A , P A
5
C 3 , P
M 0 ~ P
7
7
7
3 /P F D
7 /S C L
C 7 /O S C 4
D 3 /P W M 3
S
M
M
[P A 3 , P F D ]
o r [P D 0 ,P W M 0 ]
o r [P D 1 ,P W M 1 ]
o r [P D 2 ,P W M 2 ]
o r [P D 3 ,P W M 3 ]
R e a d D a ta R e g is te r
U
U
X
E N (P F D o r
P W M 0 ~ P W M 3 )
X
S y s te m W a k e -u p
( P A o n ly )
W a k e - u p O p tio n
IN T fo r P A 5 O n ly
Input/Output Ports
V
D a ta B u s
W r ite C o n tr o l R e g is te r
D D
P u ll- H ig h
O p tio n
C o n tr o l B it
Q
D
W e a k
P u ll- u p
Q
C K
S
C h ip R e s e t
R e a d C o n tr o l R e g is te r
W r ite D a ta R e g is te r
P B 0 /A N 0 ~ P B 7 /A N 7
D a ta B it
Q
D
C K
S
Q
M
R e a d D a ta R e g is te r
P C R 2
P C R 1
P C R 0
T o A /D
U
X
A n a lo g
In p u t
S e le c to r
C o n v e rte r
A C S 2 ~ A C S 0
PB Input/Output Ports
normal logic input with the usual pull-high option, even
if the PWM configuration option has been selected.
pin will function as a normal logic input with the usual
pull-high option, even if the PFD configuration option
has been selected.
· A/D Inputs
The device has 8 A/D converter inputs. All of these analog inputs are pin-shared with I/O pins on Port B. If
these pins are to be used as A/D inputs and not as
normal I/O pins then the corresponding bits in the A/D
Converter Control Register, ADCR, must be properly
set. There are no configuration options associated
with the A/D function. If used as I/O pins, then full
pull-high resistor configuration options remain, however if used as A/D inputs then any pull-high resistor
options associated with these pins will be automatically disconnected.
· PWM Outputs
The device contains four Pulse Width Modulator
outputs PWM0, PWM1, PWM2 and PWM3, shared
with pins PD0, PD1, PD2 and PD3. The PWM output
functions are chosen via configuration options and remain fixed after the device is programmed. Note that
the corresponding bit or bits of the port control register, PDC, must setup the pin as an output to enable
the PWM output. If the PDC port control register has
setup the pin as an input, then the pin will function as a
Rev. 1.00
20
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
V
C o n tr o l B it
Q
D
D a ta B u s
W r ite C o n tr o l R e g is te r
C K
D D
P u ll- h ig h
O p tio n
Q
S
C h ip R e s e t
P C 0 /T X
R e a d C o n tr o l R e g is te r
D a ta B it
Q
D
W r ite D a ta R e g is te r
C K
Q
S
M
F ro m
U A R T T X
M
R e a d D a ta R e g is te r
U
U
X
U A R T E N
X
& T X E N
PC0/TX Input/Output Ports
V
C o n tr o l B it
D a ta B u s
W r ite C o n tr o l R e g is te r
Q
D
C K
D D
P u ll- h ig h
O p tio n
Q
S
C h ip R e s e t
R e a d C o n tr o l R e g is te r
W r ite D a ta R e g is te r
P C 1 /R X
D a ta B it
Q
D
C K
S
Q
M
R e a d D a ta R e g is te r
U
X
T o U A R T R X
PC1/RX Input/Output Ports
I/O Pin Structures
PD, PF and PG, are first programmed. Selecting which
pins are inputs and which are outputs can be achieved
byte-wide by loading the correct values into the appropriate port control register or by programming individual
bits in the port control register using the ²SET [m].i² and
²CLR [m].i² instructions. Note that when using these bit
control instructions, a read-modify-write operation takes
place. The microcontroller must first read in the data on
the entire port, modify it to the required new bit values
and then rewrite this data back to the output ports.
The accompanying diagrams illustrate the I/O pin internal structures. As the exact logical construction of the
I/O pin may differ from these drawings, they are supplied
as a guide only to assist with the functional understanding of the I/O pins.
Programming Considerations
Within the user program, one of the first things to consider is port initialization. After a reset, all of the I/O data
and port control registers will be set high. This means
that all I/O pins will default to an input state, the level of
which depends on the other connected circuitry and
whether pull-high options have been selected. If the port
control registers, PAC, PBC, PCC, PDC, PFC and PGC,
are then programmed to setup some pins as outputs,
these output pins will have an initial high output value
unless the associated port data registers, PA, PB, PC,
Rev. 1.00
T 1
S y s te m
T 2
T 3
T 4
T 1
T 2
T 3
T 4
C lo c k
P o rt D a ta
W r ite to P o r t
R e a d fro m
P o rt
Read/Write Timing
21
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
out time related functions. The device contains two
16-bit and one 8-bit count-up Timer/Event Counters.
With three operating modes, the timers can be configured to operate as a general timer, external event counter or as a pulse width measurement device. The
provision of an internal prescaler on some of the timer
clock circuitry provides additional timer range.
Port A has the additional capability of providing wake-up
functions. When the device is in the Power Down Mode,
various methods are available to wake the device up.
One of these is a high to low transition of any of the Port
A pins. Single or multiple pins on Port A can be setup to
have this function.
The smaller package types will have some internal chip
pins which are not connected to external pins. If these pins
are setup as inputs they may oscillate and increase power
consumption, especially notable if the device is in the
Power Down Mode. It is therefore recommended that
these pins should be setup as outputs, or if setup as inputs, then they should be connected to pull-high resistors.
Each Timer/Event Counter has an associated register or
register pair where its 8 or 16-bit value is located.
Timer/Event Counter 2 is 8-bits wide whose register is
TMR2. Timer/Event Counter 0 and 1 are 16-bits wide
and have register pairs TMR0L/TMR0H and
TMR1H/TMR1H. Three control registers, known as
TMR0C, TMR1C and TMR2C, contains the setup information for the Timer/Event Counters, and determine in
what mode the Timer/Event Counter is to be used as
well as containing the timer on/off control function.
Timer/Event Counters
The provision of timers form an important part of any
microcontroller giving the designer a means of carrying
D a ta B u s
L o w B y te
B u ffe r
T 0 P S C 2 ~ T 0 P S C 0
(1 /1 ~ 1 /1 2 8 )
fS
7 - s ta g e P r e s c a le r
Y S
T 0 M 1
1 6 - B it
P r e lo a d R e g is te r
T 0 M 0
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r
M o d e C o n tro l
T M R 0
H ig h B y te
T 0 O N
L o w
R e lo a d
O v e r flo w
to In te rru p t
B y te
1 6 - B it T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r
¸ 2
T 0 E
P F D
16-bit Timer/Event Counter 0 Structure
D a ta B u s
L o w B y te
B u ffe r
T 1 M 1
fS
Y S
/4
1 6 - B it T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r
P r e lo a d R e g is te r
T 1 M 0
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r
M o d e C o n tro l
T M R 1
H ig h B y te
L o w
R e lo a d
O v e r flo w
to In te rru p t
B y te
1 6 - B it T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r
T 1 O N
¸ 2
T 1 E
P F D
16-bit Timer/Event Counter 1 Structure
D a ta B u s
P r e lo a d R e g is te r
T 2 P S C 2 ~ T 2 P S C 0
(1 /1 ~ 1 /1 2 8 )
fS
Y S
7 - s ta g e P r e s c a le r
T M R 2
T 2 E
T 2 M 1
R e lo a d
T 2 M 0
T im e r /E v e n t
C o u n te r
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r
M o d e C o n tro l
T 2 O N
O v e r flo w
to In te rru p t
8 - B it T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r
8-bit Timer/Event Counter 2 Structure
Rev. 1.00
22
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Configuring the Timer/Event Counter Input Clock
Source
namely TMR0H or TMR1H, is executed. On the other
hand, using instructions to preload data into the high
byte timer register will result in the data being directly
written to the high byte timer register. At the same time
the data in the low byte buffer will be transferred into its
associated low byte timer register. For this reason, the
low byte timer register should be written first when
preloading data into the 16-bit timer registers. It must
also be noted that to read the contents of the low byte
timer register, a read to the high byte timer register must
be executed first to latch the contents of the low byte
timer register into its associated low byte buffer. After
this has been done, the low byte timer register can be
read in the normal way. Note that reading the low byte
timer register will result in reading the previously latched
contents of the low byte buffer and not the actual contents of the low byte timer register.
The Timer/Event Counter clock source can originate
from either the system clock or from an external clock
source. The system clock input source is used when the
Timer/Event Counter is in the timer mode or in the pulse
width measurement mode.
An external clock source is used when the Timer/Event
Counter is in the event counting mode, the clock source
being provided on the external timer pin TMR0, TMR1 or
TMR2. Depending upon the condition of the T0E, T1E or
T2E bit, each high to low, or low to high transition on the
external timer pin will increment the Timer/Event Counter by one.
Timer Register - TMR0L/TMR0H, TMR1L/TMR1H,
TMR2
The timer registers are special function registers located
in the Special Purpose Data Memory and is the place
where the actual Timer/Event Counter value is stored.
For Timer/Event Counter 0 and 1, which are 16-bits
wide, a pair of 8-bit registers is required to store the
16-bit value. These register pairs are known as
TMR0L/TMR0H and TMR1L/TMR1H. For Timer/Event
Counter 2, which is an 8-bit timer, a register known as
TMR2 is provided.
Timer Control Register - TMR0C, TMR1C, TMR2C
The flexible features of the Holtek microcontroller
Timer/Event Counters enable them to operate in three
different modes, the options of which are determined by
the contents of the Timer Control Registers TMR0C,
TMR1C and TMR2C. It is the Timer Control Register together with its corresponding timer register that control
the full operation of the Timer/Event Counter. Before the
Timer/Event Counter can be used, it is essential that the
Timer Control Register is fully programmed with the
right data to ensure its correct operation, a process that
is normally carried out during program initialisation.
The value in the timer registers increases by one each
time an internal clock pulse is received or an external
transition occurs on the external timer pin. The timer will
count from the initial value loaded by the preload register
to the full count value of FFH for the 8-bit Timer/Event
Counter or FFFFH for the 16-bit Timer/Event Counters, at
which point the timer overflows and an internal interrupt
signal generated. The timer value will then be reset with
the initial preload register value and continue counting.
To choose which of the three modes the timer is to operate in, the timer mode, the event counting mode or the
pulse width measurement mode, bits 7 and 6 of the
Timer Control Register, which are known as the bit pair
T0M0/T0M1, T1M0/T1M1 and T2M0/T2M1 must be set
to the required logic levels. The Timer/Event Counter
on/off bit, which is bit 4 of the Timer Control Register and
known as T0ON, T1ON or T2ON, provides the basic
on/off control of the Timer/Event Counter. Setting the bit
high allows the Timer/Event Counter to run, clearing the
bit stops it running. Bits 0~2 of the TMR0C and TMR2C
register determine the division ratio of the input clock
prescaler for the respective Timer/Event Counter. The
prescaler bit settings have no effect if an external clock
source is used. If the Timer/Event Counter is in the
event count or pulse width measurement mode, the active transition edge level type is selected by the logic
level of bit 3 of the Timer Control Register which is
known as T0E, T1E or T2E.
For a maximum full range count of 00H to FFH or
FFFFH, the preload registers must first be cleared to all
zeros. It should be noted that after power-on the preload
register will be in an unknown condition. Note that if the
Timer/Event Counter is not running and data is written to
its preload registers, this data will be immediately written
into the actual counter. However, if the counter is enabled and counting, any new data written into the
preload registers during this period will remain in the
preload registers and will only be written into the actual
counter the next time an overflow occurs.
For the 16-bit Timer/Event Counters which hve both low
byte and high byte timer registers, accessing these registers is carried out in a specific way. It must be noted
when using instructions to preload data into the low byte
timer registers, namely TMR0L or TMR1L, the data will
only be placed in a low byte buffer and not directly into
the low byte timer register. The actual transfer of the
data into the low byte timer register is only carried out
when a write to its associated high byte timer register,
Rev. 1.00
Configuring the Timer Mode
In this mode, the Timer/Event Counter can be utilised to
measure fixed time intervals, providing an internal interrupt signal each time the Timer/Event Counter overflows. To operate in this mode, the Operating Mode
S e l e c t b i t p a i r, T 0 M 1 / T 0 M 0 , T 1 M 1 / T 1 M 0 o r
23
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
T im e r C lo c k o r
P r e s c a le r O u tp u t
In c re m e n t
T im e r C o n tr o lle r
T im e r + 1
T im e r + 2
T im e r + N
T im e r + N
+ 1
Timer Mode Timing Chart
b 7
T 0 M 1
b 0
T 0 M 0
T 0 O N
T 0 E
T 0 P S C 2
T 0 P S C 1
T 0 P S C 0
T M R 0 C
R e g is te r
T im e r p r e s c a le r r a te s e le c t
T 0 P S C 2 T 0 P S C 1 T 0 P S C 0 T im e r R a te
0
1 :1
0
0
0
1 :2
0
1
0
1 :4
1
0
0
1 :8
1
1
1
1 :1 6
0
0
1
1 :3 2
0
1
1
1 :6 4
1
0
1
1 :1 2 8
1
1
E v
1 :
0 :
P u
1 :
0 :
e n t C
c o u n
c o u n
ls e W
s ta rt
s ta rt
o u n te r a c tiv e e d g
t o n fa llin g e d g e
t o n r is in g e d g e
id th M e a s u r e m e n
c o u n tin g o n r is in g
c o u n tin g o n fa llin g
e s e le c t
t a c tiv e e d g e s e le c t
e d g e , s to p o n fa llin g e d g e
e d g e , s to p o n r is in g e d g e
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r c o u n tin g e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
O p e r a tin g
T 0 M 1
T
0
0
1
1
m o d e s e le
0 M 0
0
n o
1
e v
0
tim
1
p u
c t
m o d
e n t c
e r m
ls e w
e a v a ila b le
o u n te r m o d e
o d e
id th m e a s u r e m e n t m o d e
Timer/Event Counter 0 Control Register
b 7
T 1 M 1
b 0
T 1 M 0
T 1 O N
T 1 E
T M R 1 C
R e g is te r
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
E v
1 :
0 :
P u
1 :
0 :
e n t C
c o u n
c o u n
ls e W
s ta rt
s ta rt
o u n te r a c tiv e e d g
t o n fa llin g e d g e
t o n r is in g e d g e
id th M e a s u r e m e n
c o u n tin g o n r is in g
c o u n tin g o n fa llin g
e s e le c t
t a c tiv e e d g e s e le c t
e d g e , s to p o n fa llin g e d g e
e d g e , s to p o n r is in g e d g e
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r c o u n tin g e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
O p e r a tin g
T 1 M 1
T
0
0
1
1
m o d e s e le
1 M 0
0
n o
1
e v
0
tim
1
p u
c t
m o d
e n t c
e r m
ls e w
e a v a ila b le
o u n te r m o d e
o d e
id th m e a s u r e m e n t m o d e
Timer/Event Counter 1 Control Register
Rev. 1.00
24
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
b 7
b 0
T 2 M 1
T 2 M 0
T 2 O N
T 2 E
T 2 P S C 2
T 2 P S C 1
T 2 P S C 0
T M R 2 C
R e g is te r
T im e r p r e s c a le r r a te s e le c t
T 2 P S C 2 T 2 P S C 1 T 2 P S C 0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
E v
1 :
0 :
P u
1 :
0 :
e n t C
c o u n
c o u n
ls e W
s ta rt
s ta rt
o u n te r a c tiv e e d g
t o n fa llin g e d g e
t o n r is in g e d g e
id th M e a s u r e m e n
c o u n tin g o n r is in g
c o u n tin g o n fa llin g
T im e r
1 :1
1 :2
1 :4
1 :8
1 :1
1 :3
1 :6
1 :1
R a te
2
6
4
2 8
e s e le c t
t a c tiv e e d g e s e le c t
e d g e , s to p o n fa llin g e d g e
e d g e , s to p o n r is in g e d g e
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r c o u n tin g e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
O p e r a tin g
T 2 M 1
T
0
0
1
1
m o d e s e le
2 M 0
0
n o
1
e v
0
tim
1
p u
c t
m o d
e n t c
e r m
ls e w
e a v a ila b le
o u n te r m o d e
o d e
id th m e a s u r e m e n t m o d e
Timer/Event Counter 2 Control Register
T2M1/T2M0, in the Timer Control Register must be set
to the correct value as shown.
Bit7 Bit6
Control Register Operating Mode
Select Bits for the Timer Mode
1
0
T2M1/T2M0, in the Timer Control Register must be set
to the correct value as shown.
Bit7 Bit6
Control Register Operating Mode
Select Bits for the Event Counter Mode
0
1
In this mode the internal clock, fSYS or fSYS/4 is used as
the internal clock for the Timer/Event Counters. After the
other bits in the Timer Control Register have been
setup, the enable bit T0ON, T1ON or T2ON, which is bit
4 of the Timer Control Register, can be set high to enable the Timer/Event Counter to run. Each time an internal clock cycle occurs, the Timer/Event Counter
increments by one. When it is full and overflows, an interrupt signal is generated and the Timer/Event Counter
will reload the value already loaded into the preload register and continue counting. The interrupt can be disabled by ensuring that the Timer/Event Counter
Interrupt Enable bit in the Interrupt Control Register,
INTC, is reset to zero.
In this mode, the external timer pin, TMR0, TMR1 or
TMR2 is used as the Timer/Event Counter clock source,
however it is not divided by the internal prescaler. After
the other bits in the Timer Control Register have been
setup, the enable bit T0ON, T1ON or T2ON, which is bit
4 of the Timer Control Register, can be set high to enable the Timer/Event Counter to run. If the Active Edge
Select bit T0E, T1E or T2E, which is bit 3 of the Timer
Control Register, is low, the Timer/Event Counter will increment each time the external timer pin receives a low
to high transition. If the Active Edge Select bit is high,
the counter will increment each time the external timer
pin receives a high to low transition. When it is full and
overflows, an interrupt signal is generated and the
Timer/Event Counter will reload the value already
loaded into the preload register and continue counting.
The interrupt can be disabled by ensuring that the
Timer/Event Counter Interrupt Enable bit in the Interrupt
Control Register, is reset to zero.
Configuring the Event Counter Mode
In this mode, a number of externally changing logic
events, occurring on the external timer pin, can be recorded by the Timer/Event Counter. the Operating Mode
S e l e c t b i t p a i r, T 0 M 1 / T 0 M 0 , T 1 M 1 / T 1 M 0 o r
E x te rn a l E v e n t
In c re m e n t
T im e r C o u n te r
T im e r + 1
T im e r + 2
T im e r + 3
Event Counter Mode Timing Chart
Rev. 1.00
25
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
The residual value in the Timer/Event Counter, which
can now be read by the program, therefore represents
the length of the pulse received on the external timer
pin. As the enable bit has now been reset, any further
transitions on the external timer pin will be ignored. Not
until the enable bit is again set high by the program can
the timer begin further pulse width measurements. In
this way, single shot pulse measurements can be easily
made.
It should be noted that in the event counting mode, even
if the microcontroller is in the Power Down Mode, the
Timer/Event Counter will continue to record externally
changing logic events on the timer input pin. As a result
when the timer overflows it will generate a timer interrupt
and corresponding wake-up source.
Configuring the Pulse Width Measurement Mode
In this mode, the Timer/Event Counter can be utilised to
measure the width of external pulses applied to the external timer pin. To operate in this mode, the Operating
Mode Select bit pair, T0M1/T0M0 or T1M1/T1M0, in the
Timer Control Register must be set to the correct value
as shown.
Control Register Operating Mode
Select Bits for the Pulse Width
Measurement Mode
It should be noted that in this mode the Timer/Event
Counter is controlled by logical transitions on the external timer pin and not by the logic level. When the
Timer/Event Counter is full and overflows, an interrupt
signal is generated and the Timer/Event Counter will reload the value already loaded into the preload register
and continue counting. The interrupt can be disabled by
ensuring that the Timer/Event Counter Interrupt Enable
bit in the Interrupt Control Register, is reset to zero.
Bit7 Bit6
1
1
In this mode the internal clock, fSYS or fSYS/4 is used as
the internal clock for the Timer/Event Counters. After the
other bits in the Timer Control Register have been
setup, the enable bit T0ON, T1ON or T2ON, which is bit
4 of the Timer Control Register, can be set high to enable the Timer/Event Counter, however it will not actually start counting until an active edge is received on the
external timer pin.
Programmable Frequency Divider - PFD
The PFD output is pin-shared with the I/O pin PA3. The
PFD function is selected via configuration option, however, if not selected, the pin can operate as a normal I/O
pin. The timer overflow signal is the clock source for the
PFD circuit. The output frequency is controlled by loading the required values into the timer prescaler registers
to give the required division ratio. The counter will begin
to count-up from this preload register value until full, at
which point an overflow signal is generated, causing the
PFD output to change state. The counter will then be automatically reloaded with the preload register value and
continue counting-up.
If the Active Edge Select bit T0E, T1E or T2E, which is
bit 3 of the Timer Control Register, is low, once a high to
low transition has been received on the external timer
pin, TMR0, TMR1 or TMR2, the Timer/Event Counter
will start counting until the external timer pin returns to
its original high level. At this point the enable bit will be
automatically reset to zero and the Timer/Event Counter
will stop counting. If the Active Edge Select bit is high,
the Timer/Event Counter will begin counting once a low
to high transition has been received on the external
timer pin and stop counting when the external timer pin
returns to its original low level. As before, the enable bit
will be automatically reset to zero and the Timer/Event
Counter will stop counting. It is important to note that in
the Pulse Width Measurement Mode, the enable bit is
automatically reset to zero when the external control
signal on the external timer pin returns to its original
level, whereas in the other two modes the enable bit can
only be reset to zero under program control.
For the PFD output to function, it is essential that the
corresponding bit of the Port A control register PAC bit 3
is setup as an output. If setup as an input the PFD output
will not function, however, the pin can still be used as a
normal input pin. The PFD output will only be activated if
bit PA3 is set to ²1². This output data bit is used as the
on/off control bit for the PFD output. Note that the PFD
output will be low if the PA3 output data bit is cleared to
²0².
E x te rn a l T M R 0 /T M R 1 /T M R 2
P in In p u t
T O N ( w ith T E = 0 )
P r e s c a le r O u tp u t
In c re m e n t
T im e r C o u n te r
+ 1
T im e r
+ 2
+ 3
+ 4
P r e s c a le r O u tp u t is s a m p le d a t e v e r y fa llin g e d g e o f T 1 .
Pulse Width Measure Mode Timing Chart
Rev. 1.00
26
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
T im e r O v e r flo w
P F D
C lo c k
P A 3 D a ta
P F D
O u tp u t a t P A 3
PFD Output Control
grammers to take this into account during programming.
The same applies if the timer is configured to be in the
event counting mode, which again is an external event
and not synchronized with the internal system or timer
clock.
Using this method of frequency generation, and if a
crystal oscillator is used for the system clock, very precise values of frequency can be generated.
Prescaler
Timer/Event Counter 0 and 2 each possess a prescaler
which divides the input clock source to give the
Timer/Event counter a higher range. Bits 0~2 of their associated timer control register, defines the division ratio
of the internal clock source. Note that the prescaler has
no effect when the Timer/Event Counter is in the Event
Counter Mode.
When the Timer/Event Counter is read, or if data is written to the preload register, the clock is inhibited to avoid
errors, however as this may result in a counting error,
this should be taken into account by the programmer.
Care must be taken to ensure that the timers are properly initialised before using them for the first time. The
associated timer enable bits in the interrupt control register must be properly set otherwise the internal interrupt
associated with the timer will remain inactive. The edge
select, timer mode and clock source control bits in timer
control register must also be correctly set to ensure the
timer is properly configured for the required application.
It is also important to ensure that an initial value is first
loaded into the timer registers before the timer is
switched on; this is because after power-on the initial
values of the timer registers are unknown. After the
timer has been initialised the timer can be turned on and
off by controlling the enable bit in the timer control register. Note that setting the timer enable bit high to turn the
timer on, should only be executed after the timer mode
bits have been properly setup. Setting the timer enable
bit high together with a mode bit modification, may lead
to improper timer operation if executed as a single timer
control register byte write instruction.
I/O Interfacing
The Timer/Event Counter, when configured to run in the
event counter or pulse width measurement mode, require the use of the external pins for correct operation.
As these pins are shared pins they must be configured
correctly to ensure they are setup for use as a
Timer/Event Counter inputs and not as normal I/O pins.
This is implemented by ensuring that the mode select
bits in the Timer/Event Counter control register, select
either the event counter or pulse width measurement
mode. Additionally the Port Control Register bits must
be set high to ensure that the pins are setup as inputs.
Any pull-high resistor configuration option on these pins
will remain valid even if the pins are used as
Timer/Event Counter inputs.
Programming Considerations
When the Timer/Event counter overflows, its corresponding interrupt request flag in the interrupt control
register will be set. If the timer interrupt is enabled this
will in turn generate an interrupt signal. However irrespective of whether the interrupts are enabled or not, a
Timer/Event counter overflow will also generate a
wake-up signal if the device is in a Power-down condition. This situation may occur if the Timer/Event Counter
is in the Event Counting Mode and if the external signal
continues to change state. In such a case, the
Timer/Event Counter will continue to count these external events and if an overflow occurs the device will be
woken up from its Power-down condition. To prevent
such a wake-up from occurring, the timer interrupt request flag should first be set high before issuing the
HALT instruction to enter the Power Down Mode.
When configured to run in the timer mode, the internal
system clock is used as the timer clock source and is
therefore synchronized with the overall operation of the
microcontroller. In this mode when the appropriate timer
register is full, the microcontroller will generate an internal interrupt signal directing the program flow to the respective internal interrupt vector. For the pulse width
measurement mode, the internal system clock is also
used as the timer clock source but the timer will only run
when the correct logic condition appears on the external
timer input pin. As this is an external event and not synchronised with the internal timer clock, the
microcontroller will only see this external event when the
next timer clock pulse arrives. As a result, there may be
small differences in measured values requiring proRev. 1.00
27
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Pulse Width Modulator
The device contains four Pulse Width Modulation,
PWM, outputs. Useful for such applications such as motor speed control, the PWM function provides outputs
with a fixed frequency but with a duty cycle that can be
varied by setting particular values into the corresponding PWM register.
PWM
Cycle
Freq.
PWM
Modulation
Frequency
fSYS/64 for (6+2) bits mode
fSYS/128 for (7+1) bits mode
For devices with one PWM output, a single register, located in the Data Memory is assigned to the Pulse Width
Modulator and is known as the PWM register. It is in
these registers, that the 8-bit value, which represents
the overall duty cycle of one modulation cycle of the output waveform, should be placed. To increase the PWM
modulation frequency, each modulation cycle is modulated into four/two individual modulation sub-sections,
known as the 6+2/7+1 mode. Note that it is only necessary to write the required modulation value into the corresponding PWM register as the subdivision of the
waveform into its sub-modulation cycles is implemented
automatically within the microcontroller hardware. For
all devices, the PWM clock source is the system clock
fSYS.
PWM
Cycle
Duty
fSYS/256 [PWM]/256
6+2 PWM Mode
Each full PWM cycle, as it is controlled by an 8-bit PWM
register, has 256 clock periods. However, in the 6+2
PWM Mode, each PWM cycle is subdivided into four individual sub-cycles known as modulation cycle 0~modulation cycle 3, denoted as ²i² in the table. Each one of
these four sub-cycles contains 64 clock cycles. In this
mode, a modulation frequency increase by a factor of
four is achieved. The 8-bit PWM, PWM0 or PWM1 register value, which represents the overall duty cycle of the
PWM waveform, is divided into two groups. The first
group which consists of bit2~bit7 is denoted here as the
DC value. The second group which consists of bit0~bit1
is known as the AC value. In the 6+2 PWM mode, the
duty cycle value of each of the four modulation sub-cycles is shown in the following table.
This method of dividing the original modulation cycle
into a further 2/4 sub-cycles enables the generation of
higher PWM frequencies, which allow a wider range of
applications to be served. As long as the periods of the
generated PWM pulses are less than the time constants
of the load, the PWM output will be suitable as such long
time constant loads will average out the pulses of the
PWM output. The difference between what is known as
the PWM cycle frequency and the PWM modulation frequency as following table.
Parameter
AC (0~3)
DC
(Duty Cycle)
i<AC
DC+ 1
64
i³AC
DC
64
Modulation cycle i
(i=0~3)
6+2 Mode Modulation Cycle Values
fS
Y S
/2
[P W M ] = 1 0 0
P W M
2 5 /6 4
2 5 /6 4
2 5 /6 4
2 5 /6 4
2 5 /6 4
2 6 /6 4
2 5 /6 4
2 5 /6 4
2 5 /6 4
2 6 /6 4
2 6 /6 4
2 6 /6 4
2 5 /6 4
2 5 /6 4
2 6 /6 4
2 6 /6 4
2 6 /6 4
2 5 /6 4
2 6 /6 4
[P W M ] = 1 0 1
P W M
[P W M ] = 1 0 2
P W M
[P W M ] = 1 0 3
P W M
2 6 /6 4
P W M
m o d u la tio n p e r io d : 6 4 /fS
M o d u la tio n c y c le 0
Y S
M o d u la tio n c y c le 1
P W M
M o d u la tio n c y c le 2
c y c le : 2 5 6 /fS
M o d u la tio n c y c le 3
M o d u la tio n c y c le 0
Y S
6+2 PWM Mode
b 7
b 0
P W M
R e g is te r
A C
v a lu e
D C
v a lu e
(6 + 2 ) M o d e
PWM Registers for 6+2 Mode
Rev. 1.00
28
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
fS
Y S
/2
[P W M ] = 1 0 0
P W M
5 0 /1 2 8
5 0 /1 2 8
5 0 /1 2 8
5 1 /1 2 8
5 0 /1 2 8
5 1 /1 2 8
5 1 /1 2 8
5 1 /1 2 8
5 1 /1 2 8
5 1 /1 2 8
5 2 /1 2 8
[P W M ] = 1 0 1
P W M
[P W M ] = 1 0 2
P W M
[P W M ] = 1 0 3
P W M
5 2 /1 2 8
P W M
m o d u la tio n p e r io d : 1 2 8 /fS
Y S
M o d u la tio n c y c le 0
M o d u la tio n c y c le 1
P W M
c y c le : 2 5 6 /fS
M o d u la tio n c y c le 0
Y S
7+1 PWM Mode
b 7
b 0
P W M
R e g is te r
A C
v a lu e
D C
v a lu e
(7 + 1 ) M o d e
PWM Registers for 7+1 Mode
The following diagram illustrates the waveforms associated with the 6+2 mode of PWM operation. It is important to note how the single PWM cycle is subdivided into
4 individual modulation cycles, numbered from 0~3 and
how the AC value is related to the PWM value.
The following diagram illustrates the waveforms associated with the 7+1 mode of PWM operation. It is important to note how the single PWM cycle is subdivided into
2 individual modulation cycles, numbered 0 and 1 and
how the AC value is related to the PWM value.
7+1 PWM Mode
PWM Output Control
Each full PWM cycle, as it is controlled by an 8-bit PWM
register, has 256 clock periods. However, in the 7+1
PWM mode, each PWM cycle is subdivided into two individual sub-cycles known as modulation cycle 0 ~ modulation cycle 1, denoted as ²i² in the table. Each one of these
two sub-cycles contains 128 clock cycles. In this mode, a
modulation frequency increase of two is achieved. The
8-bit PWM register value, which represents the overall
duty cycle of the PWM waveform, is divided into two
groups. The first group which consists of bit1~bit7 is denoted here as the DC value. The second group which
consists of bit0 is known as the AC value. In the 7+1
PWM mode, the duty cycle value of each of the two modulation sub-cycles is shown in the following table.
On all devices, the PWM outputs are pin-shared with
pins PD0~PD3. To operate as PWM outputs and not as
I/O pins, the correct PWM configuration options must be
selected. A ²0² must also be written to the corresponding bits in the I/O port control register PDC to ensure that
the required PWM output pin is setup as an output. After
these two initial steps have been carried out, and of
course after the required PWM value has been written
into the PWM register, writing a ²1² to the corresponding
bit in the PD output data register will enable the PWM
data to appear on the pin. Writing a ²0² to the corresponding bit in the PD output data register will disable
the PWM output function and force the output low. In this
way, the Port D data output register can be used as an
on/off control for the PWM function. Note that if the configuration options have selected the PWM function, but
a ²1² has been written to its corresponding bit in the
PDC control register to configure the pin as an input,
then the pin can still function as a normal input line, with
pull-high resistor options.
Parameter
Modulation cycle i
(i=0~1)
AC (0~1)
DC (Duty Cycle)
i<AC
DC+1
128
i³AC
DC
128
7+1 Mode Modulation Cycle Values
Rev. 1.00
29
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
PWM Programming Example
The following sample program shows how the PWM outputs are setup and controlled. Before use the corresponding
PWM output configuration options must first be selected.
mov
mov
clr
set
:
:
clr
a,64h
pwm0,a
pdc.0
pd.0
:
:
pd.0
; setup PWM value of 100 decimal which is 64H
; setup pin PD0 as an output
; PD.0=1; enable the PWM output
; disable the PWM output - PD0 will remain low
Analog to Digital Converter
The low byte register utilises only 4 bit of its 8-bit contents as it contains only the lowest bit of the 9-bit converted value.
The need to interface to real world analog signals is a
common requirement for many electronic systems.
However, to properly process these signals by a
microcontroller, they must first be converted into digital
signals by A/D converters. By integrating the A/D conversion electronic circuitry into the microcontroller, the
need for external components is reduced significantly
with the corresponding follow-on benefits of lower costs
and reduced component space requirements.
A/D Converter Control Register - ADCR
To control the function and operation of the A/D converter, a control register known as ADCR is provided.
This 8-bit register defines functions such as the selection of which analog channel is connected to the internal
A/D converter, which pins are used as analog inputs and
which are used as normal I/Os as well as controlling the
start function and monitoring the A/D converter end of
conversion status.
A/D Overview
Each of the devices contains a 8-channel analog to digital converter which can directly interface to external analog signals, such as that from sensors or other control
signals and convert these signals directly into 12-bit digital value.
One section of this register contains the bits
ACS2~ACS0 which define the channel number. As each
of the devices contains only one actual analog to digital
converter circuit, each of the individual 4 analog inputs
must be routed to the converter. It is the function of the
ACS2~ACS0 bits in the ADCR register to determine
which analog channel is actually connected to the internal A/D converter. Note that the ACS2 bit must always
be assigned a zero value.
The following diagram shows the overall internal structure of the A/D converter, together with its associated
registers.
A/D Converter Data Registers - ADRL, ADRH
After the conversion process takes place, these registers can be directly read by the microcontroller to obtain
the digitised conversion value. For devices which use
two A/D Converter Data Registers, note that only the
high byte register ADRH utilises its full 8-bit contents.
The ADCR control register also contains the
PCR2~PCR0 bits which determine which pins on Port B
are used as analog inputs for the A/D converter and
which pins are to be used as normal I/O pins. Note that if
C lo c k D iv id e
R a tio
A D C
fS
S o u rc e
/2
Y S
A C S R
¸ N
V
P B 0 /A N 0
P B 1 /A N 1
D D
A /D r e fe r e n c e v o lta g e
A D R L
A D C
A D R H
P B 7 /A N 7
P C R 0 ~ P C R 2
P in C o n fig u r a tio n
B its
A D C S 0 ~ A D C S 2
C h a n n e l S e le c t
B its
S T A R T
R e g is te r
E O C B
A /D D a ta
R e g is te r s
A D C R
R e g is te r
S ta r t B it E n d o f
C o n v e r s io n B it
A/D Converter Structure
Rev. 1.00
30
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
b 7
S T A R T E O C B
P C R 2
P C R 1
P C R 0
A C S 2
A C S 1
b 0
A C S 0
A D C R
R e g is te r
S e le c t A /D c h a n n e l
A
A C S 2
A C S 1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
C S 0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
P o rt B A /D c h a n n e l
P C R 2 P C R 1 P
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
c o n fig
C R 0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
: A N
: A N
: A N
: A N
: A N
: A N
: A N
: A N
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
u r a tio n s
: P o
: P B
: P B
: P B
: P B
: P B
: P B
: P B
rt
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
B A
e n a
~ P B
~ P B
~ P B
~ P B
~ P B
~ P B
/D
b
1
2
3
4
5
7
c h a n n
le d a s A
e n a b le
e n a b le
e n a b le
e n a b le
e n a b le
e n a b le
e ls
N 0
d a
d a
d a
d a
d a
d a
- a ll o ff
s A
s A
s A
s A
s A
s A
N 0
N 0
N 0
N 0
N 0
N 0
~ A
~ A
~ A
~ A
~ A
~ A
N 1
N 2
N 3
N 4
N 5
N 7
E n d o f A /D c o n v e r s io n fla g
1 : n o t e n d o f A /D c o n v e r s io n - A /D c o n v e r s io n w a itin g o r in p r o g r e s s
0 : e n d o f A /D c o n v e r s io n - A /D c o n v e r s io n e n d e d
S ta r t th e A /D c o n v e r s io n
0 ® 1 ® 0 : S ta rt
0 ® 1 : R e s e t A /D c o n v e rte r a n d s e t E O C B to "1 "
A/D Converter Control Register
rupts are enabled, an appropriate internal interrupt signal will be generated. This A/D internal interrupt signal
will direct the program flow to the associated A/D internal interrupt address for processing. If the A/D internal
interrupt is disabled, the microcontroller can be used to
poll the EOCB bit in the ADCR register to check whether
it has been cleared as an alternative method of detecting the end of an A/D conversion cycle.
the PCR2~PCR0 bits are all set to zero, then all the Port
B pins will be setup as normal I/Os and the internal A/D
converter circuitry will be powered off to reduce the
power consumption.
The START bit in the ADCR register is used to start and
reset the A/D converter. When the microcontroller sets
this bit from low to high and then low again, an analog to
digital conversion cycle will be initiated. When the
START bit is brought from low to high but not low again,
the EOCB bit in the ADCR register will be set to a ²1²
and the analog to digital converter will be reset. It is the
START bit that is used to control the overall on/off operation of the internal analog to digital converter.
A/D Converter Clock Source Register - ACSR
The clock source for the A/D converter, which originates
from the system clock fSYS, is first divided by a division
ratio, the value of which is determined by the ADCS1
and ADCS0 bits in the ACSR register.
The EOCB bit in the ADCR register is used to indicate
when the analog to digital conversion process is complete. This bit will be automatically set to ²0² by the
microcontroller after a conversion cycle has ended. In
addition, the corresponding A/D interrupt request flag
will be set in the interrupt control register, and if the inter-
Although the A/D clock source is determined by the system clock fSYS, and by bits ADCS1 and ADCS0, there are
some limitations on the maximum A/D clock source speed
that can be selected.
Register
Bit7
Bit6
Bit5
Bit4
Bit3
Bit2
Bit1
Bit0
ADRL
D3
D2
D1
D0
¾
¾
¾
¾
ADRH
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
A/D Data Register
Rev. 1.00
31
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
b 7
T E S T
b 0
A D C S 1 A D C S 0
A C S R
R e g is te r
S e le c t A /D c o n v e r te r
A D C S 1
A D C S 0
0
0
:
:
0
1
1
0
:
1
1
:
c lo c k s o u r c e
s y
s y
s y
u n
s te
s te
s te
d e
m
c lo c k /2
c lo c k /8
m c lo c k /3 2
fin e d
m
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
F o r te s t m o d e u s e o n ly
A/D Converter Clock Source Register
A/D Clock Period (tAD)
fSYS
ADCS1, ADCS0=00
(fSYS/2)
ADCS1, ADCS0=01
(fSYS/8)
ADCS1, ADCS0=10
(fSYS/32)
ADCS1, ADCS0=11
1MHz
2ms
8ms
32ms
Undefined
2MHz
1ms
4ms
16ms
Undefined
4MHz
500ns*
2ms
8ms
Undefined
8MHz
250ns*
1ms
4ms
Undefined
A/D Clock Period Examples
A/D Input Pins
The VDD power supply pin is used as the A/D converter
reference voltage, and as such analog inputs must not be
allowed to exceed this value. Appropriate measures
should also be taken to ensure that the VDD pin remains
as stable and noise free as possible.
All of the A/D analog input pins are pin-shared with the
I/O pins on Port B. Bits PCR2~PCR0 in the ADCR register, not configuration options, determine whether the input pins are setup as normal Port B input/output pins or
whether they are setup as analog inputs. In this way, pins
can be changed under program control to change their
function from normal I/O operation to analog inputs and
vice versa. Pull-high resistors, which are setup through
configuration options, apply to the input pins only when
they are used as normal I/O pins, if setup as A/D inputs
the pull-high resistors will be automatically disconnected.
Note that it is not necessary to first setup the A/D pin as
an input in the PBC port control register to enable the A/D
input, when the PCR2~PCR0 bits enable an A/D input,
the status of the port control register will be overridden.
Initialising the A/D Converter
The internal A/D converter must be in a special way.
Each time the Port B A/D channel selection bits are modified by the program, the A/D converter must be
re-initialised. If the A/D converter is not initialised after the
channel selection bits are changed, the EOCB flag may
have an undefined value, which may produce a false end
of conversion signal. To initialise the A/D converter after
the channel selection bits have changed, then, within a
time frame of one to ten instruction cycles, the START bit
S T A R T b it s e t h ig h w ith in o n e to te n in s tr u c tio n c y c le s a fte r th e P C R 0 ~ P C R 2 b its c h a n g e s ta te
S T A R T
A /D
E O C B
s a m p lin g tim e
3 2 tA
P C R 2 ~
P C R 0
A /D
s a m p lin g tim e
3 2 tA
D
0 0 0 B
A /D
s a m p lin g tim e
3 2 tA
D
0 1 1 B
D
1 0 0 B
0 0 0 B
1 . P B p o rt s e tu p a s I/O s
2 . A /D c o n v e r te r is p o w e r e d o ff
to r e d u c e p o w e r c o n s u m p tio n
A C S 2 ~
A C S 0
0 0 0 B
P o w e r-o n
R e s e t
0 1 0 B
0 0 0 B
0 0 1 B
S ta rt o f A /D
c o n v e r s io n
S ta rt o f A /D
c o n v e r s io n
S ta rt o f A /D
c o n v e r s io n
R e s e t A /D
c o n v e rte r
R e s e t A /D
c o n v e rte r
E n d o f A /D
c o n v e r s io n
1 : D e fin e P B c o n fig u r a tio n
2 : S e le c t a n a lo g c h a n n e l
tA
N o te :
A /D
c lo c k m u s t b e fS
Y S
/2 , fS
Y S
R e s e t A /D
c o n v e rte r
E n d o f A /D
c o n v e r s io n
tA
D C
A /D c o n v e r s io n tim e
/8 o r fS
Y S
D o n 't c a r e
A /D
E n d o f A /D
c o n v e r s io n
tA
D C
c o n v e r s io n tim e
A /D
D C
c o n v e r s io n tim e
/3 2
A/D Conversion Timing
Rev. 1.00
32
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
in the ADCR register must first be set high and then immediately cleared to zero. This will ensure that the EOCB
flag is correctly set to a high condition.
The following timing diagram shows graphically the various stages involved in an analog to digital conversion
process and its associated timing.
The setting up and operation of the A/D converter function is fully under the control of the application program as
there are no configuration options associated with the
A/D converter. After an A/D conversion process has been
initiated by the application program, the microcontroller
internal hardware will begin to carry out the conversion,
during which time the program can continue with other
functions.
Summary of A/D Conversion Steps
The following summarizes the individual steps that
should be executed in order to implement an A/D conversion process.
· Step 1
Select the required A/D conversion clock by correctly
programming bits ADCS1 and ADCS0 in the ACSR
register.
Programming Considerations
· Step 2
When programming, special attention must be given to
the A/D channel selection bits in the ADCR register. If
these bits are all cleared to zero no external pins will be
selected for use as A/D input pins allowing the pins to be
used as normal I/O pins. When this happens the power
supplied to the internal A/D circuitry will be reduced resulting in a reduction of supply current. This ability to reduce power by turning off the internal A/D function by
clearing the A/D channel selection bits may be an important consideration in battery powered applications.
Select which channel is to be connected to the internal
A/D converter by correctly programming the
ACS2~ACS0 bits which are also contained in the
ADCR register.
· Step 3
Select which pins on Port B are to be used as A/D inputs and configure them as A/D input pins by correctly
programming the PCR2~PCR0 bits in the ADCR register. Note that this step can be combined with Step 2
into a single ADCR register programming operation.
Another important programming consideration is that
when the A/D channel selection bits change value the
A/D converter must be re-initialised. This is achieved by
pulsing the START bit in the ADCR register immediately
after the channel selection bits have changed state. The
exception to this is where the channel selection bits are
all cleared, in which case the A/D converter is not required to be re-initialised.
· Step 4
If the interrupts are to be used, the interrupt control
registers must be correctly configured to ensure the
A/D converter interrupt function is active. The master
interrupt control bit, EMI, in the INTC interrupt control
register must be set to ²1² and the A/D converter interrupt bit, EADI, in the INTC register must also be set to
²1².
· Step 5
A/D Programming Example
The analog to digital conversion process can now be
initialised by setting the START bit in the ADCR register from ²0² to ²1² and then to ²0² again. Note that this
bit should have been originally set to ²0².
The following two programming examples illustrate how
to setup and implement an A/D conversion. In the first
example, the method of polling the EOCB bit in the
ADCR register is used to detect when the conversion
cycle is complete, whereas in the second example, the
A/D interrupt is used to determine when the conversion
is complete.
· Step 6
To check when the analog to digital conversion process is complete, the EOCB bit in the ADCR register
can be polled. The conversion process is complete
when this bit goes low. When this occurs the A/D data
registers ADRL and ADRH can be read to obtain the
conversion value. As an alternative method if the interrupts are enabled and the stack is not full, the program can wait for an A/D interrupt to occur.
Note:
When checking for the end of the conversion
process, if the method of polling the EOCB bit in
the ADCR register is used, the interrupt enable
step above can be omitted.
Rev. 1.00
33
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Example: using an EOCB polling method to detect the end of conversion
clr EADI
; disable ADC interrupt
mov a,00000001B
mov ACSR,a
; setup the ACSR register to select fSYS/8 as the A/D clock
mov a,00100000B
; setup ADCR register to configure Port as A/D inputs
mov ADCR,a
; and select AN0 to be connected to the A/D converter
:
:
; As the Port B channel bits have changed the following START
; signal (0-1-0) must be issued within 10 instruction cycles
:
Start_conversion:
clr START
set START
; reset A/D
clr START
; start A/D
Polling_EOC:
sz
EOCB
; poll the ADCR register EOCB bit to detect end
; of A/D conversion
jmp polling_EOC
; continue polling
mov a,ADRL
; read conversion result value from the ADRL register
mov adrl_buffer,a
; save result to user defined memory
mov a,ADRH
; read conversion result value from the ADRH register
Mov adrh_buffer,a
; save result to user defined memory
:
:
jmp start_conversion
; start next A/D conversion
A/D Transfer Function
Note that to reduce the quantisation error, a 0.5 LSB offset is added to the A/D Converter input. Except for the
digitised zero value, the subsequent digitised values will
change at a point 0.5 LSB below where they would
change without the offset, and the last full scale digitised
value will change at a point 1.5 LSB below the VDD level.
As the device contain an 12-bit A/D converter, their
full-scale converted digitized value is equal to FFFH.
Since the full-scale analog input value is equal to the
voltage, this gives a single bit analog input value of
VDD/4096. The following graphs show the ideal transfer
function between the analog input value and the digitised output value for the A/D converters.
1 .5 L S B
F F H
F E H
F D H
A /D C o n v e r s io n
R e s u lt
0 .5 L S B
0 3 H
0 2 H
0 1 H
0
1
2
3
4 0 9 3 4 0 9 4
4 0 9 5 4 0 9 6
(
V D D
4 0 9 6
)
A n a lo g In p u t V o lta g e
Ideal A/D Transfer Function
Rev. 1.00
34
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
I2C Bus Serial Interface
The I2C bus is a bidirectional 2-wire communication interface originally developed by Philips Semiconductors.
The possibility of transmitting and receiving data on only
2 lines offers many new application possibilities for
microcontroller based applications and for this reason,
an I2C bus is implemented in this device. The I2C bus
function is selectable via a configuration option.
I2C Bus Slave Address Register - HADR
The HADR register is the location where the slave address of the microcontroller is stored. Bits 1~7 of the
HADR register define the microcontroller slave address.
Bit 0 is not implemented. When a master device, which
is connected to the I2C bus, sends out an address,
which matches the slave address in the HADR register,
the microcontroller slave device will be selected.
There are two lines associated with the I2C bus, the first
is known as SDA and is the Serial Data line, the second
is known as SCL line and is the Serial Clock line. As
many devices may be connected together on the same
bus, their outputs are both open drain types. For this
reason it is necessary that external pull-high resistors
are connected to these outputs. Note that no chip select
line exists, as each device on the I2C bus is identified by
a unique address, which will be transmitted and received on the I2C bus.
I2C Bus Input/Output Data Register - HDR
The HDR register is the I2C bus input/output data register. Before the microcontroller writes data to the I2C bus,
the actual data to be transmitted must be placed in the
HDR register. After the data is received from the I2C bus,
the microcontroller can read it from the HDR register. Any
transmission of data to the I2C bus or reception of data
from the I2C bus must be made via the HDR register.
When two devices communicate with each other on the
bidirectional I2C bus, one is known as the master device
and one as the slave device. Both master and slave can
transmit and receive data, however, it is the master device that has overall control of the bus. For this device,
which only operates in slave mode, there are two methods of transferring data on the I2C bus, the slave transmit mode and the slave receive mode. Four registers
exist to control the I2C bus and its associated data transfer, HADR, HCR, HSR and HDR. Communication on the
I2C bus requires four steps, a START signal, a slave address transmission, a data transmission and finally a
STOP signal.
I2C Bus Control Register - HCR
The I2C bus control register HCR contains three bits. Bit
7, known as the HEN bit, determines if the I2C bus function is enabled or disabled, this bit must be set if the I2C
bus requires data transfer. Bit 4, known as the HTX bit,
determines whether the device is in the transmit mode
or receive mode, and must be set high if the device is to
be setup as a transmitter. Bit 3, known as the TXAK bit,
is the transmit acknowledge bit. After the receipt of 8 bits
of data, this bit will be transmitted to the I2C bus on the
9th clock. To continue receiving more data, this bit has
to be reset to ²0² before more data is received.
D a ta B u s
I2C
D a ta R e g is te r
(H D R )
S la v e A d d r e s s R e g is te r
(H A D R )
A d d re s s
C o m p a ra to r
H T X
D ir e c tio n C o n tr o l
S C L
S D A
M
U
D a ta In (T o L S B )
D a ta O u t (F ro m M S B )
X
S h ift R e g is te r
A d d re s s M a tc h
(H A A S )
I2C
In te rru p t
S R W , R e a d /w r ite S la v e
T X A K , E n a b le /D is a b le A c k n o w le d g e
T r a n s m it/R e c e iv e
C o n tr o l U n it
H C F , 8 - b it D a ta C o m p le te
H B B , D e te c t S ta rt o r S to p
I2C Bus Serial Interface Block Diagram
b 7
b 0
H A D R
R e g is te r
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
S la v e a d d r e s s
2
I C Bus Slave Address Register
Rev. 1.00
35
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
b 7
b 0
H T X
H E N
T X A K
H C R
R e g is te r
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
T r
1 :
0 :
T r
1 :
0 :
a n s m it a c k n o w le d g e fla g
d o n 't a c k n o w le d g e
a c k n o w le d g e
a n s m it/r e c e iv e m o d e
tr a n s m it m o d e
r e c e iv e m o d e
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
I2 C B u s fu n c tio n
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
I2C Bus Control Register
b 7
H C F
b 0
H A A S
H B B
S R W
R X A K
H S R
R e g is te r
R e c e iv e a c k n o w
1 : n o t a c k n o w le
0 : a c k n o w le d g e
N o t im p le m e n te
M a s te r d a ta re a
1 : re q u e s t d a ta
0 : re q u e s t d a ta
d
le d g e fla g
d g e d
d , re a d a s "0 "
d /w r ite r e q u e s t fla g
re a d
w r ite
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
I2 C B u s b u s y fla g
1 : b u s y
0 : n o t b u s y
C a llin g a d d r e s s m a tc h e d fla g
1 : m a tc h e d
0 : n o t m a tc h e d
D a ta tr a n s fe r fla g
1 : tr a n s fe r c o m p le te
0 : tr a n s fe r n o t c o m p le te
I2C Bus Status Register
I2C Bus Status Register - HSR
If the SRW bit is equal to ²1² the master is requesting to
read data from the bus, so the device should be in transmit mode. When the SRW bit is equal to ²0², the master
will write data to the bus, therefore the device should be
in receive mode to read this data.
2
The I C bus register HSR is an 8-bit status register in
which five bits are utilised. Bit 7, known as HCF, is set to
²0² when a data byte is being transferred, after completion of the data transfer the bit will be set to ²1². The
HAAS bit, which is bit 6, will be set to ²1² if the transmitted address and the slave address of the device match
and if the I2C interrupt request flag is set to ²1². If the interrupts are enabled and the stack is not full, a subroutine call to 14H will occur. Writing data to the I2C bus will
clear the HAAS bit. Also, if the transmitted address on
the bus and the slave address of the device do not
match, then the HAAS bit will be reset to ²0².
Bit 0, is the Receive Acknowledge bit and known as
RXAK. When the RXAK bit has been reset to ²0² it
means that a correct acknowledge signal has been received at the 9th clock, after 8 bits of data have been
transmitted. When in the transmit mode, the transmitter
checks the RXAK bit to determine if the receiver wishes
to receive the next byte. The transmitter will therefore
continue sending out data until the RXAK bit is set to
²1². When this occurs, the transmitter will release the
SDA line to allow the master to send a STOP signal to
release the bus.
Bit 5, known as HBB, will be set to ²1² if the I2C bus is
busy, which will occur when a START signal is detected.
The HBB bit will be cleared to ²0² if the bus is free which
will occur when a STOP signal is detected. Bit 2, which
is the SRW or Slave Read/Write bit, determines whether
the master device wishes to transmit or receive data
from the I2C bus. When the transmitted address and
slave address match, that is when the HAAS bit is set to
²1², the device will check the SRW bit to determine
whether it should be in transmit mode or receive mode.
Rev. 1.00
I2C Bus Communication
Communication on the I2C bus requires four separate
steps, a START signal, a slave device address transmission, a data transmission and finally a STOP signal.
When a START signal is placed on the I2C bus, all devices on the bus will receive this signal and be notified of
36
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
S T A R T s ig n a l
fro m M a s te r
S e n d s la v e a d d r e s s
a n d R /W b it fr o m M a s te r
A c k n o w le d g e
fr o m s la v e
S e n d d a ta b y te
fro m M a s te r
A c k n o w le d g e
fr o m s la v e
S T O P s ig n a l
fro m M a s te r
· Slave Address
the imminent arrival of data on the bus. The first seven
bits of the data will be the slave address with the first bit
being the MSB. If the address of the microcontroller
matches that of the transmitted address, the HAAS bit in
the HSR register will be set and an I2C interrupt will be
generated. After entering the interrupt service routine,
the microcontroller slave device must first check the
condition of the HAAS bit to determine whether the interrupt source originates from an address match or from
the completion of an 8-bit data transfer. During a data
transfer, note that after the 7-bit slave address has been
transmitted, the following bit, which is the 8th bit, is the
read/write bit whose value will be placed in the SRW bit.
This bit will be checked by the microcontroller to determine whether to go into transmit or receive mode. Before any transfer of data to or from the I2C bus, the
microcontroller must initialise the bus, the following are
steps to achieve this:
The transmission of a START signal by the master will
be detected by all devices on the I2C bus. To determine which slave device the master wishes to communicate with, the address of the slave device will be
sent out immediately following the START signal. All
slave devices, after receiving this 7-bit address data,
will compare it with their own 7-bit slave address. If the
address sent out by the master matches the internal
address of the microcontroller slave device, then an
internal I2C bus interrupt signal will be generated. The
next bit following the address, which is the 8th bit, defines the read/write status and will be saved to the
SRW bit of the HSR register. The device will then
transmit an acknowledge bit, which is a low level, as
the 9th bit. The microcontroller slave device will also
set the status flag HAAS when the addresses match.
As an I2C bus interrupt can come from two sources,
when the program enters the interrupt subroutine, the
HAAS bit should be examined to see whether the interrupt source has come from a matching slave address or from the completion of a data byte transfer.
When a slave address is matched, the device must be
placed in either the transmit mode and then write data
to the HDR register, or in the receive mode where it
must implement a dummy read from the HDR register
to release the SCL line.
· Step 1
Write the slave address of the microcontroller to the
I2C bus address register HADR.
· Step 2
Set the HEN bit in the I2C bus control register to ²1² to
enable the I2C bus.
· SRW Bit
· Step 3
The SRW bit in the HSR register defines whether the
microcontroller slave device wishes to read data from
the I 2 C bus or write data to the I 2 C bus. The
microcontroller should examine this bit to determine if
it is to be a transmitter or a receiver. If the SRW bit is
set to ²1² then this indicates that the master wishes to
read data from the I2C bus, therefore the
microcontroller slave device must be setup to send
data to the I2C bus as a transmitter. If the SRW bit is
²0² then this indicates that the master wishes to send
data to the I2C bus, therefore the microcontroller slave
device must be setup to read data from the I2C bus as
a receiver.
Set the EHI bit of the interrupt control register to
enable the I2C bus interrupt.
· Start Signal
The START signal can only be generated by the master device connected to the I2C bus and not by the
microcontroller, which is only a slave device. This
START signal will be detected by all devices connected to the I2C bus. When detected, this indicates
that the I2C bus is busy and therefore the HBB bit will
be set. A START condition occurs when a high to low
transition on the SDA line takes place when the SCL
line remains high.
Rev. 1.00
37
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
S C L
S ta rt
S R W
S la v e A d d r e s s
0
1
S D A
1
1
0
1
0
1
D a ta
S C L
1
0
0
1
A C K
0
A C K
0
1
0
S to p
0
S D A
S =
S A
S R
M =
D =
A =
P =
S ta rt (1
= S la v e
= S R W
S la v e d
D a ta (8
A C K (R
S to p (1
S
S A
b it)
A d d r e s s ( 7 b its )
b it ( 1 b it)
e v ic e s e n d a c k n o w le d g e b it ( 1 b it)
b its )
X A K b it fo r tr a n s m itte r , T X A K b it fo r r e c e iv e r 1 b it)
b it)
S R
M
D
A
D
A
S
S A
S R
M
D
A
D
A
P
I2C Communication Timing Diagram
· Acknowledge Bit
line and the master will send out a STOP signal to release control of the I2C bus. The corresponding data
will be stored in the HDR register. If setup as a transmitter, the microcontroller slave device must first write
the data to be transmitted into the HDR register. If
setup as a receiver, the microcontroller slave device
must read the transmitted data from the HDR register.
After the master has transmitted a calling address,
any slave device on the I2C bus, whose own internal
address matches the calling address, must generate
an acknowledge signal. This acknowledge signal will
inform the master that a slave device has accepted its
calling address. If no acknowledge signal is received
by the master then a STOP signal must be transmitted
by the master to end the communication. When the
HAAS bit is high, the addresses have matched and
the microcontroller slave device must check the SRW
bit to determine if it is to be a transmitter or a receiver.
If the SRW bit is high, the microcontroller slave device
should be setup to be a transmitter so the HTX bit in
the HCR register should be set to ²1², if the SRW bit is
low then the microcontroller slave device should be
setup as a receiver and the HTX bit in the HCR register should be set to ²0².
S C L
S D A
S ta r t b it
D a ta
a llo w
c h a n g e
S to p b it
Data Timing Diagram
· Receive Acknowledge Bit
When the receiver wishes to continue to receive the
next data byte, it must generate an acknowledge bit,
known as TXAK, on the 9th clock. The microcontroller
slave device, which is setup as a transmitter will check
the RXAK bit in the HSR register to determine if it is to
send another data byte, if not then it will release the
SDA line and await the receipt of a STOP signal from
the master.
· Data Byte
The transmitted data is 8-bits wide and is transmitted
after the slave device has acknowledged receipt of its
slave address. The order of serial bit transmission is
the MSB first and the LSB last. After receipt of 8-bits of
data, the receiver must transmit an acknowledge signal, level ²0², before it can receive the next data byte.
If the transmitter does not receive an acknowledge bit
signal from the receiver, then it will release the SDA
Rev. 1.00
D a ta
s ta b le
38
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
S ta rt
W r ite S la v e
A d d re s s to H A D R
S E T H E N
D is a b le
I2C B u s
In te rru p t= ?
E n a b le
C L R E H I
P o ll H IF to d e c id e
w h e n to g o to I2C B u s IS R
S E T E H I
W a it fo r In te r r u p t
G o to M a in P r o g r a m
G o to M a in P r o g r a m
I2C Bus Initialization Flow Chart
S ta rt
N o
N o
R e a d fro m
Y e s
Y e s
H T X = 1
?
H D R
R E T I
Y e s
Y e s
H A A S = 1
?
R X A K = 1
?
N o
C L R H T X
C L R T X A K
W r ite to H D R
D u m m y R e a d
fro m H D R
R E T I
S R W = 1
?
N o
S E T H T X
C L R H T X
C L R T X A K
W r ite to H D R
D u m m y R e a d
F ro m H D R
R E T I
R E T I
R E T I
I2C Bus ISR Flow Chart
Rev. 1.00
39
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
SPI Serial Interface
rameters for the SPI bus and also used to store associated operating flags, while the SBDR register is used for
data storage.
The device includes a single SPI Serial Interface. The
SPI interface is a full duplex serial data link, originally
designed by Motorola, which allows multiple devices
connected to the same SPI bus to communicate with
each other. The devices communicate using a master/slave technique where only the single master device
can initiate a data transfer. A simple four line signal bus
is used for all communication and these pins are shared
with normal I/O pins. The SPI function is selected via a
configuration option.
After Power on, the contents of the SBDR register will
be in an unknown condition while the SBCR register will
default to the condition below:
CKS M1 M0 SBEN MLS CSEN WCOL TRF
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
Note that data written to the SBDR register will only be
written to the TXRX buffer, whereas data read from the
SBDR register will actual be read from the register.
SPI Interface Communication
Four lines are used for SPI communication known as
SDI - Serial Data Input, SDO - Serial Data Output, SCK Serial Clock and SCS - Slave Select. Note that the condition of the Slave Select line is conditioned by the
CSEN bit in the SBCR control register. If the CSEN bit is
high then the SCS line is active while if the bit is low then
the SCS line will be in a floating condition. The following
timing diagram depicts the basic timing protocol of the
SPI bus.
SPI Bus Enable/Disable
To enable the SPI bus, CSEN = 1, SCS=0, then wait for
data to be written to the SBDR (TXRX bufffer) register.
For the Master Mode, after data has been written to the
SBDR (TXRX buffer) register, then transmission or reception will start automatically. When all the data has
been transferred the TRF bit should be set. For the
Slave Mode, when clock pulses are received on SCK,
data in the TXRX buffer will be shifted out or data on SDI
will be shifted in.
SPI Registers
There are two registers associated with the SPI Interface. These are the SBCR register which is the control
register and the SBDR which is the data register. The
SBCR register is used to setup the required setup pa-
To Disable the SPI bus SCK, SDI, SDO, SCS should be
in a floating condition.
D a ta B u s
S B D R
( R e c e iv e d D a ta R e g is te r )
D 7 D 6 D 5 D 4 D 3 D 2 D 1 D 0
M
S D O
U
X
M
S C K
a n d , s ta rt
E N
a n d , s ta rt
C lo c k P o la r ity
U
X
M
S D O
S B E N
M L S
In te r n a l B a u d R a te C lo c k
B u ffe r
S D I
U
X
T R F
C 0 C 1 C 2
M a s te r o r S la v e
A N D
In te r n a l B u s y F la g
S B E N
a n d , s ta rt
E N
W C O L F la g
W r ite S B D R
W r ite S B D R E n a b le /D is a b le
S B E N
W r ite S B D R
S C S
M a s te r o r S la v e
S B E N
C S E N
SPI Block Diagram
Rev. 1.00
40
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
b 7
b 0
M 1
C K S
M 0
S B E N
M L S
C S E N W C O L T R F
S B C R
R e g is te r
T r a n s m itt/R e c e iv e F la g
0 : N o t c o m p le te
1 : T r a n s m is s io n /r e c e p tio n c o m p le te
W r ite C o llis io n B it
0 : C o llis io n fr e e
1 : C o llis io n d e te c te d
S e le c tio n S ig n a l E n a b le /D is a b le B it
0 : S C S flo a tin g
1 : E n a b le
M S B /L S B F ir s t B it
0 : L S B s h ift fir s t
1 : M S B s h ift fir s t
S e r ia l B
0 : D is a b
1 : E n a b
D e p e
u s E n a b le /D is a b le B it
le
le
n d e n t u p o n C S E N b it
M a s te r /S la
M 1
M 0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
v e /B a u d R a te B its
M a s
M a s
M a s
S la v
te r,
te r,
te r,
e m
b a u d ra te : fS
b a u d ra te : fS
b a u d ra te : fS
o d e
IO
IO
IO
/4
/1 6
C lo c k S o u r c e S e le c t B it
0 : f S IO = f S Y S / 4
1 : f S IO = f S Y S
Note:
SPI Interface Control Register
The TRF flag will also generate an SPI interrupt signal, for more information refer to the Interrupt section.
w r ite to S B D R
S C S
(m a s te r)
S B E N = 1 , C S E N = 0 ( if p u ll- h ig h e d )
S B E N = C S E N = 1
S C K
S D I
S D O
D 7 /D 0 D 6 /D 1 D 5 /D 2 D 4 /D 3 D 3 /D 4 D 2 /D 5 D 1 /D 6 D 0 /D 7
D 7 /D 0 D 6 /D 1 D 5 /D 2 D 4 /D 3 D 3 /D 4 D 2 /D 5 D 1 /D 6 D 0 /D 7
S C K
SPI Bus Timing
SPI Operation
In the Master Mode the Master will always generate the
clock signal. The clock and data transmission will be initiated after data has been written to the SBDR register.
In the Slave Mode, the clock signal will be received from
an external master device for both data transmission or
reception. The following sequences show the order to
be followed for data transfer in both Master and Slave
Mode:
All communication is carried out using the 4-line interface for both Master or Slave Mode. The timing diagram
shows the basic operation of the bus.
The CSEN bit in the SBCR register controls the overall
function of the SPI interface. Setting this bit high, will enable the SPI interface by allowing the SCS line to be active, which can then be used to control the SPI interface.
If the CSEN bit is low, the SPI interface will be disabled
and the SCS line will be in a floating condition and can
therefore not be used for control of the SPI interface.
The SBEN bit in the SBCR register must also be high
which will place the SDI line in a floating condition and
the SDO line high. If in Master Mode the SCK line will be
either high or low depending upon the clock polarity configuration option. If in Slave Mode the SCK line will be in
a floating condition. If SBEN is low then the bus will be
disabled and SCS, SDI, SDO and SCK will all be in a
floating condition.
Rev. 1.00
· Master Mode:
41
¨
Step 1
Select the clock source using the CKS bit in the
SBCR control register
¨
Step 2
Setup the M0 and M1 bits in the SBCR control register to select the Master Mode and the required Baud
rate. Values of 00, 01 or 10 can be selected.
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
¨
Step 3
Setup the CSEN bit and setup the MLS bit to
choose if the data is MSB or LSB first, this must be
same as the Slave device.
¨
Step 6
Check the WCOL bit, if set high then a collision error
has occurred so return to step5.
If equal to zero then go to the following step.
¨
Step 4
Setup the SBEN bit in the SBCR control register to
enable the SPI interface.
¨
Step 7
Check the TRF bit or wait for an SBI serial bus
interrupt.
¨
Step 5
For write operations: write the data to the SBDR
register, which will actually place the data into the
TXRX buffer. Then use the SCK and SCS lines to
output the data.
Goto to step 6.For read operations: the data transferred in on the SDI line will be stored in the TXRX
buffer until all the data has been received at which
point it will be latched into the SBDR register.
¨
Step 8
Read data from the SBDR register.
¨
Step 9
Clear TRF
¨
Step10
Goto step 5
¨
Step 6
Check the WCOL bit, if set high then a collision error
has occurred so return to step5.
If equal to zero then go to the following step.
¨
Step 7
Check the TRF bit or wait for an SBI serial bus
interrupt.
¨
Step 8
Read data from the SBDR register.
¨
Step 9
Clear TRF.
¨
Step10
Goto step 5.
SPI Configuration Options
Several configuration options exist for the SPI Interface
function which must be setup during device programming. One option is to enable the operation of the
WCOL, write collision bit, in the SBCR register. Another
option exists to select the clock polarity of the SCK line.
A configuration option also exists to disable or enable
the operation of the CSEN bit in the SBCR register. If the
configuration option disables the CSEN bit then this bit
cannot be used to affect overall control of the SPI Interface.
Error Detection
The WCOL bit in the SBCR register is provided to indicate errors during data transfer. The bit is set by the Serial Interface but must be cleared by the application
program. This bit indicates a data collision has occurred
which happens if a write to the SBDR register takes
place during a data transfer operation and will prevent
the write operation from continuing. The bit will be set
high by the Serial Interface but has to be cleared by the
user application program. The overall function of the
WCOL bit can be disabled or enabled by a configuration
option.
· Slave Mode:
¨
Step 1
The CKS bit has a don¢t care value in the slave
mode.
¨
Step 2
Setup the M0 and M1 bits to 00 to select the Slave
Mode. The CKS bit is don¢t care.
¨
Step 3
Setup the CSEN bit and setup the MLS bit to
choose if the data is MSB or LSB first, this must be
same as the Master device.
¨
Step 4
Setup the SBEN bit in the SBCR control register to
enable the SPI interface.
¨
Step 5
For write operations: write data to the SBCR register, which will actually place the data into the TXRX
register, then wait for the master clock and SCS signal. After this goto step 6.
For read operations: the data transferred in on the
SDI line will be stored in the TXRX buffer until all the
data has been received at which point it will be
latched into the SBDR register.
Rev. 1.00
Programming Considerations
When the device is placed into the Power Down Mode
note that data reception and transmission will continue.
The TRF bit is used to generate an interrupt when the
data has been transferred or received.
42
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
UART Bus Serial Interface
which can also be used as a general purpose I/O pin,
if the pin is not configured as a receiver, which occurs
if the RXEN bit in the UCR2 register is equal to zero.
Along with the UARTEN bit, the TXEN and RXEN bits,
if set, will automatically setup these I/O pins to their respective TX output and RX input conditions and disable any pull-high resistor option which may exist on
the RX pin.
The device contain an integrated full-duplex asynchronous serial communications UART interface that enables
communication with external devices that contain a serial interface. The UART function has many features and
can transmit and receive data serially by transferring a
frame of data with eight or nine data bits per transmission as well as being able to detect errors when the data
is overwritten or incorrectly framed. The UART function
possesses its own internal interrupt which can be used
to indicate when a reception occurs or when a transmission terminates.
· UART data transfer scheme
The block diagram shows the overall data transfer
structure arrangement for the UART. The actual data
to be transmitted from the MCU is first transferred to
the TXR register by the application program. The data
will then be transferred to the Transmit Shift Register
from where it will be shifted out, LSB first, onto the TX
pin at a rate controlled by the Baud Rate Generator.
Only the TXR register is mapped onto the MCU Data
Memory, the Transmit Shift Register is not mapped
and is therefore inaccessible to the application program.
Data to be received by the UART is accepted on the
external RX pin, from where it is shifted in, LSB first, to
the Receiver Shift Register at a rate controlled by the
Baud Rate Generator. When the shift register is full,
the data will then be transferred from the shift register
to the internal RXR register, where it is buffered and
can be manipulated by the application program. Only
the RXR register is mapped onto the MCU Data Memory, the Receiver Shift Register is not mapped and is
therefore inaccessible to the application program.
It should be noted that the actual register for data
transmission and reception, although referred to in the
text, and in application programs, as separate TXR
and RXR registers, only exists as a single shared register in the Data Memory. This shared register known
as the TXR/RXR register is used for both data transmission and data reception.
· UART features
The integrated UART function contains the following
features:
¨
Full-duplex, asynchronous communication
¨
8 or 9 bits character length
¨
Even, odd or no parity options
¨
One or two stop bits
¨
Baud rate generator with 8-bit prescaler
¨
Parity, framing, noise and overrun error detection
¨
Support for interrupt on address detect
(last character bit=1)
¨
Separately enabled transmitter and receiver
¨
2-byte Deep Fifo Receive Data Buffer
¨
Transmit and receive interrupts
¨
Interrupts can be initialized by the following
conditions:
-
Transmitter Empty
-
Transmitter Idle
-
Receiver Full
-
Receiver Overrun
-
Address Mode Detect
· UART status and control registers
· UART external pin interfacing
There are five control registers associated with the
UART function. The USR, UCR1 and UCR2 registers
control the overall function of the UART, while the
BRG register controls the Baud rate. The actual data
to be transmitted and received on the serial interface
is managed through the TXR/RXR data registers.
To communicate with an external serial interface, the
internal UART has two external pins known as TX and
RX. The TX pin is the UART transmitter pin, which can
be used as a general purpose I/O pin if the pin is not
configured as a UART transmitter, which occurs when
the TXEN bit in the UCR2 control register is equal to
zero. Similarly, the RX pin is the UART receiver pin,
T r a n s m itte r S h ift R e g is te r
M S B
R e c e iv e r S h ift R e g is te r
L S B
T X P in
C L K
T X R
R e g is te r
M S B
R X P in
L S B
C L K
B a u d R a te
G e n e ra to r
M C U
R X R
R e g is te r
B u ffe r
D a ta B u s
UART Data Transfer Scheme
Rev. 1.00
43
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
· USR register
RXIF flag is cleared when the USR register is read
with RXIF set, followed by a read from the RXR register, and if the RXR register has no data available.
The USR register is the status register for the UART,
which can be read by the program to determine the
present status of the UART. All flags within the USR
register are read only.
Further explanation on each of the flags is given below:
¨
¨
¨
TXIF
The TXIF flag is the transmit data register empty
flag. When this read only flag is ²0² it indicates that
the character is not transferred to the transmit shift
registers. When the flag is ²1² it indicates that the
transmit shift register has received a character from
the TXR data register. The TXIF flag is cleared by
reading the UART status register (USR) with TXIF
set and then writing to the TXR data register. Note
that when the TXEN bit is set, the TXIF flag bit will
also be set since the transmit buffer is not yet full.
TIDLE
The TIDLE flag is known as the transmission complete flag. When this read only flag is ²0² it indicates
that a transmission is in progress. This flag will be
set to ²1² when the TXIF flag is ²1² and when there
is no transmit data, or break character being transmitted. When TIDLE is ²1² the TX pin becomes idle.
The TIDLE flag is cleared by reading the USR register with TIDLE set and then writing to the TXR register. The flag is not generated when a data character,
or a break is queued and ready to be sent.
RXIF
The RXIF flag is the receive register status flag.
When this read only flag is ²0² it indicates that the
RXR read data register is empty. When the flag is
²1² it indicates that the RXR read data register contains new data. When the contents of the shift register are transferred to the RXR register, an interrupt
is generated if RIE=1 in the UCR2 register. If one or
more errors are detected in the received word, the
appropriate receive-related flags NF, FERR, and/or
PERR are set within the same clock cycle. The
b 7
P E R R
¨
RIDLE
The RIDLE flag is the receiver status flag. When
this read only flag is ²0² it indicates that the receiver
is between the initial detection of the start bit and
the completion of the stop bit. When the flag is ²1² it
indicates that the receiver is idle. Between the completion of the stop bit and the detection of the next
start bit, the RIDLE bit is ²1² indicating that the
UART is idle.
¨
OERR
The OERR flag is the overrun error flag, which indicates when the receiver buffer has overflowed.
When this read only flag is ²0² there is no overrun error. When the flag is ²1² an overrun error occurs
which will inhibit further transfers to the RXR receive
data register. The flag is cleared by a software sequence, which is a read to the status register USR
followed by an access to the RXR data register.
¨
FERR
The FERR flag is the framing error flag. When this
read only flag is ²0² it indicates no framing error.
When the flag is ²1² it indicates that a framing error
has been detected for the current character. The
flag can also be cleared by a software sequence
which will involve a read to the USR status register
followed by an access to the RXR data register.
¨
NF
The NF flag is the noise flag. When this read only
flag is ²0² it indicates a no noise condition. When
the flag is ²1² it indicates that the UART has detected noise on the receiver input. The NF flag is set
during the same cycle as the RXIF flag but will not
be set in the case of an overrun. The NF flag can be
cleared by a software sequence which will involve a
read to the USR status register, followed by an access to the RXR data register.
b 0
N F
F E R R
O E R R
R ID L E
R X IF
T ID L E
T X IF
U S R
R e g is te r
T r a n s m it d a ta r e g is te r e m p ty
1 : c h a r a c te r tr a n s fe r r e d to tr a n s m it s h ift r e g is te r
0 : c h a r a c te r n o t tr a n s fe r r e d to tr a n s m it s h ift r e g is te r
T r a n s m is s io n id le
1 : n o tr a n s m is s io n in p r o g r e s s
0 : tr a n s m is s io n in p r o g r e s s
R e c e iv e R X R r e g is te r s ta tu s
1 : R X R r e g is te r h a s a v a ila b le d a ta
0 : R X R r e g is te r is e m p ty
R e c e iv e r s ta tu s
1 : r e c e iv e r is id le
0 : d a ta b e in g r e c e iv e d
O v e rru n e rro r
1 : o v e rru n e rro r d e te c te d
0 : n o o v e rru n e rro r d e te c te d
F r a m in g e r r o r fla g
1 : fr a m in g e r r o r d e te c te d
0 : n o fr a m in g e r r o r
N o is e fla g
1 : n o is e d e te c te d
0 : n o n o is e d e te c te d
P a r ity e r r o r fla g
1 : p a r ity e r r o r d e te c te d
0 : n o p a r ity e r r o r d e te c te d
Rev. 1.00
44
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
¨
used, if the bit is equal to ²0² then only one stop bit
is used.
PERR
The PERR flag is the parity error flag. When this
read only flag is ²0² it indicates that a parity error
has not been detected. When the flag is ²1² it indicates that the parity of the received word is incorrect. This error flag is applicable only if Parity mode
(odd or even) is selected. The flag can also be
cleared by a software sequence which involves a
read to the USR status register, followed by an access to the RXR data register.
· UCR1 register
The UCR1 register together with the UCR2 register
are the two UART control registers that are used to set
the various options for the UART function, such as
overall on/off control, parity control, data transfer bit
length etc.
Further explanation on each of the bits is given below:
¨
TX8
This bit is only used if 9-bit data transfers are used,
in which case this bit location will store the 9th bit of
the transmitted data, known as TX8. The BNO bit is
used to determine whether data transfers are in
8-bit or 9-bit format.
¨
RX8
This bit is only used if 9-bit data transfers are used,
in which case this bit location will store the 9th bit of
the received data, known as RX8. The BNO bit is
used to determine whether data transfers are in
8-bit or 9-bit format.
¨
TXBRK
The TXBRK bit is the Transmit Break Character bit.
When this bit is ²0² there are no break characters
and the TX pin operates normally. When the bit is
²1² there are transmit break characters and the
transmitter will send logic zeros. When equal to ²1²
after the buffered data has been transmitted, the
transmitter output is held low for a minimum of a
13-bit length and until the TXBRK bit is reset.
¨
STOPS
This bit determines if one or two stop bits are to be
used. When this bit is equal to ²1² two stop bits are
b 7
U A R T E N
¨
PRT
This is the parity type selection bit. When this bit is
equal to ²1² odd parity will be selected, if the bit is
equal to ²0² then even parity will be selected.
¨
PREN
This is parity enable bit. When this bit is equal to ²1²
the parity function will be enabled, if the bit is equal
to ²0² then the parity function will be disabled.
¨
BNO
This bit is used to select the data length format,
which can have a choice of either 8-bits or 9-bits. If
this bit is equal to ²1² then a 9-bit data length will be
selected, if the bit is equal to ²0² then an 8-bit data
length will be selected. If 9-bit data length is selected then bits RX8 and TX8 will be used to store
the 9th bit of the received and transmitted data respectively.
¨
UARTEN
The UARTEN bit is the UART enable bit. When the
bit is ²0² the UART will be disabled and the RX and
TX pins will function as General Purpose I/O pins.
When the bit is ²1² the UART will be enabled and
the TX and RX pins will function as defined by the
TXEN and RXEN control bits. When the UART is
disabled it will empty the buffer so any character remaining in the buffer will be discarded. In addition,
the baud rate counter value will be reset. When the
UART is disabled, all error and status flags will be
reset. The TXEN, RXEN, TXBRK, RXIF, OERR,
FERR, PERR, and NF bits will be cleared, while the
TIDLE, TXIF and RIDLE bits will be set. Other control bits in UCR1, UCR2, and BRG registers will remain unaffected. If the UART is active and the
UARTEN bit is cleared, all pending transmissions
and receptions will be terminated and the module
will be reset as defined above. When the UART is
re-enabled it will restart in the same configuration.
b 0
B N O
P R E N
P R T
S T O P S
T X B R K
R X 8
T X 8
U C R 1 R e g is te r
T r a n s m it d a ta b it 8 ( w r ite o n ly )
R e c e iv e d a ta b it 8 ( r e a d o n ly )
T r a n s m it b r e a k c h a r a c te r
1 : tr a n s m it b r e a k c h a r a c te r s
0 : n o b re a k c h a ra c te rs
D e fin e s th e n u m b e r o f s to p b its
1 : tw o s to p b its
0 : o n e s to p b it
P a r ity ty p e b it
1 : o d d p a r ity fo r p a r ity g e n e r a to r
0 : e v e n p a r ity fo r p a r ity g e n e r a to r
P a r ity e n a b le b it
1 : p a r ity fu n c tio n e n a b le d
0 : p a r ity fu n c tio n d is a b le d
N u m b e r o f d a ta tr a n s fe r b its
1 : 9 - b it d a ta tr a n s fe r
0 : 8 - b it d a ta tr a n s fe r
U A R T e n a b le b it
1 : e n a b le U A R T , T X & R X p in s a s U A R T p in s
0 : d is a b le U A R T , T X & R X p in s a s I/O p o r t p in s
Rev. 1.00
45
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
· UCR2 register
to ²0² and if the MCU is in the Power Down Mode,
any edge transitions on the RX pin will not wake-up
the device.
The UCR2 register is the second of the two UART
control registers and serves several purposes. One of
its main functions is to control the basic enable/disable operation of the UART Transmitter and Receiver
as well as enabling the various UART interrupt
sources. The register also serves to control the baud
rate speed, receiver wake-up enable and the address
detect enable.
Further explanation on each of the bits is given below:
¨
ADDEN
The ADDEN bit is the address detect mode bit.
When this bit is ²1² the address detect mode is enabled. When this occurs, if the 8th bit, which corresponds to RX7 if BNO=0, or the 9th bit, which
corresponds to RX8 if BNO=1, has a value of ²1²
then the received word will be identified as an address, rather than data. If the corresponding interrupt is enabled, an interrupt request will be
generated each time the received word has the address bit set, which is the 8 or 9 bit depending on the
value of BNO. If the address bit is ²0² an interrupt
will not be generated, and the received data will be
discarded.
¨
TEIE
This bit enables or disables the transmitter empty
interrupt. If this bit is equal to ²1² when the transmitter empty TXIF flag is set, due to a transmitter
empty condition, the UART interrupt request flag
will be set. If this bit is equal to ²0² the UART interrupt request flag will not be influenced by the condition of the TXIF flag.
¨
¨
TIIE
This bit enables or disables the transmitter idle interrupt. If this bit is equal to ²1² when the transmitter
idle TIDLE flag is set, the UART interrupt request
flag will be set. If this bit is equal to ²0² the UART interrupt request flag will not be influenced by the
condition of the TIDLE flag.
BRGH
The BRGH bit selects the high or low speed mode
of the Baud Rate Generator. This bit, together with
the value placed in the BRG register, controls the
Baud Rate of the UART. If this bit is equal to ²1² the
high speed mode is selected. If the bit is equal to ²0²
the low speed mode is selected.
¨
¨
RIE
This bit enables or disables the receiver interrupt. If
this bit is equal to ²1² when the receiver overrun
OERR flag or receive data available RXIF flag is
set, the UART interrupt request flag will be set. If
this bit is equal to ²0² the UART interrupt will not be
influenced by the condition of the OERR or RXIF
flags.
¨
WAKE
This bit enables or disables the receiver wake-up
function. If this bit is equal to ²1² and if the MCU is in
the Power Down Mode, a low going edge on the RX
input pin will wake-up the device. If this bit is equal
RXEN
The RXEN bit is the Receiver Enable Bit. When this
bit is equal to ²0² the receiver will be disabled with
any pending data receptions being aborted. In addition the buffer will be reset. In this situation the RX
pin can be used as a general purpose I/O pin. If the
RXEN bit is equal to ²1² the receiver will be enabled
and if the UARTEN bit is equal to ²1² the RX pin will
be controlled by the UART. Clearing the RXEN bit
during a transmission will cause the data reception
to be aborted and will reset the receiver. If this occurs, the RX pin can be used as a general purpose
I/O pin.
b 7
T X E N
b 0
R X E N
B R G H
A D D E N
W A K E
R IE
T IIE
T E IE
U C R 2 R e g is te r
T r a n s m itte r e m p ty in te r r u p t e n a b le
1 : T X IF in te r r u p t r e q u e s t e n a b le
0 : T X IF in te r r u p t r e q u e s t d is a b le
T r a n s m itte r id le in te r r u p t e n a b le
1 : T ID L E in te r r u p t r e q u e s t e n a b le
0 : T ID L E in te r r u p t r e q u e s t d is a b le
R e c e iv e r in te r r u p t e n a b le
1 : R X IF in te r r u p t r e q u e s t e n a b le
0 : R X IF in te r r u p t r e q u e s t d is a b le
D e fin e s th e R X w a k e u p e n a b le
1 : R X w a k e u p e n a b le ( fa llin g e d g e )
0 : R X w a k e u p d is a b le
A d d re s s d e te c t m o d e
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
H ig h b a u d r a te s e le c t b it
1 : h ig h s p e e d
0 : lo w s p e e d
R e c e iv e r e n a b le b it
1 : r e c e iv e r e n a b le
0 : r e c e iv e r d is a b le
T r a n s m itte r e n a b le b it
1 : tr a n s m itte r e n a b le
0 : tr a n s m itte r d is a b le
Rev. 1.00
46
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
¨
TXEN
The TXEN bit is the Transmitter Enable Bit. When
this bit is equal to ²0² the transmitter will be disabled
with any pending transmissions being aborted. In
addition the buffer will be reset. In this situation the
TX pin can be used as a general purpose I/O pin. If
the TXEN bit is equal to ²1² the transmitter will be
enabled and if the UARTEN bit is equal to ²1² the
TX pin will be controlled by the UART. Clearing the
TXEN bit during a transmission will cause the transmission to be aborted and will reset the transmitter.
If this occurs, the TX pin can be used as a general
purpose I/O pin.
By programming the BRGH bit which allows selection
of the related formula and programming the required
value in the BRG register, the required baud rate can
be setup. Note that because the actual baud rate is
determined using a discrete value, N, placed in the
BRG register, there will be an error associated between the actual and requested value. The following
example shows how the BRG register value N and the
error value can be calculated.
Calculating the Register and Error Values
For a clock frequency of 8MHz, and with BRGH set to
²0² determine the BRG register value N, the actual
baud rate and the error value for a desired baud rate
of 9600.
From the above table the desired baud rate BR
fSYS
=
[64 (N+1)]
fSYS
Re-arranging this equation gives N =
-1
(BRx64)
8000000
- 1 = 12.0208
Giving a value for N =
(9600x 64)
· Baud rate generator
To setup the speed of the serial data communication,
the UART function contains its own dedicated baud
rate generator. The baud rate is controlled by its own
internal free running 8-bit timer, the period of which is
determined by two factors. The first of these is the
value placed in the BRG register and the second is the
value of the BRGH bit within the UCR2 control register. The BRGH bit decides, if the baud rate generator
is to be used in a high speed mode or low speed
mode, which in turn determines the formula that is
used to calculate the baud rate. The value in the BRG
register determines the division factor, N, which is
used in the following baud rate calculation formula.
Note that N is the decimal value placed in the BRG
register and has a range of between 0 and 255.
UCR2 BRGH Bit
Baud Rate
0
1
fSYS
[64 (N+1)]
fSYS
[16 (N+1)]
To obtain the closest value, a decimal value of 12
should be placed into the BRG register. This gives an
actual or calculated baud rate value of
8000000
BR =
= 9615
[64(12+1)]
Therefore the error is equal to = 0.16%
The following tables show actual values of baud rate and error values for the two values of BRGH.
Baud
Rate
K/BPS
Baud Rates for BRGH=0
fSYS=8MHz
fSYS=7.159MHz
fSYS=4MHz
fSYS=3.579545MHz
BRG
Kbaud
Error
BRG
Kbaud
Error
BRG
Kbaud
Error
BRG
Kbaud
Error
0.3
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
207
0.300
0.00
185
0.300
0.00
1.2
103
1.202
0.16
92
1.203
0.23
51
1.202
0.16
46
1.19
-0.83
2.4
51
2.404
0.16
46
2.38
-0.83
25
2.404
0.16
22
2.432
1.32
4.8
25
4.807
0.16
22
4.863
1.32
12
4.808
0.16
11
4.661
-2.9
9.6
12
9.615
0.16
11
9.322
-2.9
6
8.929
-6.99
5
9.321
-2.9
19.2
6
17.857
-6.99
5
18.64
-2.9
2
20.83
8.51
2
18.643
-2.9
38.4
2
41.667
8.51
2
37.29
-2.9
1
¾
¾
1
¾
¾
57.6
1
62.5
8.51
1
55.93
-2.9
0
62.5
8.51
0
55.93
-2.9
115.2
0
125
8.51
0
111.86
-2.9
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
Baud Rates and Error Values for BRGH = 0
Rev. 1.00
47
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Baud
Rate
K/BPS
Baud Rates for BRGH=1
fSYS=8MHz
fSYS=7.159MHz
fSYS=4MHz
fSYS=3.579545MHz
BRG
Kbaud
Error
BRG
Kbaud
Error
BRG
Kbaud
Error
BRG
Kbaud
Error
0.3
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
1.2
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
207
1.202
0.16
185
1.203
0.23
2.4
207
2.404
0.16
185
2.405
0.23
103
2.404
0.16
92
2.406
0.23
4.8
103
4.808
0.16
92
4.811
0.23
51
4.808
0.16
46
4.76
-0.83
9.6
51
9.615
0.16
46
9.520
-0.832
25
9.615
0.16
22
9.727
1.32
19.2
25
19.231
0.16
22
19.454
1.32
12
19.231
0.16
11
18.643
-2.9
38.4
12
38.462
0.16
11
37.287
-2.9
6
35.714
-6.99
5
37.286
-2.9
57.6
8
55.556
-3.55
7
55.93
-2.9
3
62.5
8.51
3
55.930
-2.9
115.2
3
125
8.51
3
111.86
-2.9
1
125
8.51
1
111.86
-2.9
250
1
250
0
¾
¾
¾
0
250
0
¾
¾
¾
Baud Rates and Error Values for BRGH = 1
· Setting up and controlling the UART
¨
¨
Clearing the UARTEN bit will disable the TX and RX
pins and allow these two pins to be used as normal
I/O pins. When the UART function is disabled the
buffer will be reset to an empty condition, at the
same time discarding any remaining residual data.
Disabling the UART will also reset the error and status flags with bits TXEN, RXEN, TXBRK, RXIF,
OERR, FERR, PERR and NF being cleared while
bits TIDLE, TXIF and RIDLE will be set. The remaining control bits in the UCR1, UCR2 and BRG
registers will remain unaffected. If the UARTEN bit
in the UCR1 register is cleared while the UART is
active, then all pending transmissions and receptions will be immediately suspended and the UART
will be reset to a condition as defined above. If the
UART is then subsequently re-enabled, it will restart
again in the same configuration.
Introduction
For data transfer, the UART function utilizes a
non-return-to-zero, more commonly known as
NRZ, format. This is composed of one start bit, eight
or nine data bits, and one or two stop bits. Parity is
supported by the UART hardware, and can be
setup to be even, odd or no parity. For the most
common data format, 8 data bits along with no parity and one stop bit, denoted as 8, N, 1, is used as
the default setting, which is the setting at power-on.
The number of data bits and stop bits, along with the
parity, are setup by programming the corresponding
BNO, PRT, PREN, and STOPS bits in the UCR1
register. The baud rate used to transmit and receive
data is setup using the internal 8-bit baud rate generator, while the data is transmitted and received
LSB first. Although the UART¢s transmitter and receiver are functionally independent, they both use
the same data format and baud rate. In all cases
stop bits will be used for data transmission.
¨
Enabling/disabling the UART
The basic on/off function of the internal UART function is controlled using the UARTEN bit in the UCR1
register. As the UART transmit and receive pins, TX
and RX respectively, are pin-shared with normal I/O
pins, one of the basic functions of the UARTEN control bit is to control the UART function of these two
pins. If the UARTEN, TXEN and RXEN bits are set,
then these two I/O pins will be setup as a TX output
pin and an RX input pin respectively, in effect disabling the normal I/O pin function. If no data is being
transmitted on the TX pin then it will default to a
logic high value.
Rev. 1.00
48
Data, parity and stop bit selection
The format of the data to be transferred, is composed of various factors such as data bit length,
parity on/off, parity type, address bits and the number of stop bits. These factors are determined by
the setup of various bits within the UCR1 register.
The BNO bit controls the number of data bits which
can be set to either 8 or 9, the PRT bit controls the
choice of odd or even parity, the PREN bit controls
the parity on/off function and the STOPS bit decides
whether one or two stop bits are to be used. The following table shows various formats for data transmission. The address bit identifies the frame as an
address character. The number of stop bits, which
can be either one or two, is independent of the data
length.
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Start
Bit
Data
Bits
Address
Bits
Parity
Bits
Stop
Bit
¨
Example of 8-bit Data Formats
1
8
0
0
1
1
7
0
1
1
7
1
0
1
1
1
Example of 9-bit Data Formats
1
9
0
0
1
1
8
0
1
1
1
8
11
0
1
Transmitting data
When the UART is transmitting data, the data is
shifted on the TX pin from the shift register, with the
least significant bit first. In the transmit mode, the
TXR register forms a buffer between the internal
bus and the transmitter shift register. It should be
noted that if 9-bit data format has been selected,
then the MSB will be taken from the TX8 bit in the
UCR1 register. The steps to initiate a data transfer
can be summarized as follows:
-
Make the correct selection of the BNO, PRT,
PREN and STOPS bits to define the required
word length, parity type and number of stop bits.
-
Setup the BRG register to select the desired baud
rate.
-
Set the TXEN bit to ensure that the TX pin is used
as a UART transmitter pin and not as an I/O pin.
-
Access the USR register and write the data that is
to be transmitted into the TXR register. Note that
this step will clear the TXIF bit.
-
This sequence of events can now be repeated to
send additional data.
Transmitter Receiver Data Format
The following diagram shows the transmit and receive
waveforms for both 8-bit and 9-bit data formats.
· UART transmitter
Data word lengths of either 8 or 9 bits, can be selected
by programming the BNO bit in the UCR1 register.
When BNO bit is set, the word length will be set to 9
bits. In this case the 9th bit, which is the MSB, needs
to be stored in the TX8 bit in the UCR1 register. At the
transmitter core lies the Transmitter Shift Register,
more commonly known as the TSR, whose data is obtained from the transmit data register, which is known
as the TXR register. The data to be transmitted is
loaded into this TXR register by the application program. The TSR register is not written to with new data
until the stop bit from the previous transmission has
been sent out. As soon as this stop bit has been transmitted, the TSR can then be loaded with new data
from the TXR register, if it is available. It should be
noted that the TSR register, unlike many other registers, is not directly mapped into the Data Memory area
and as such is not available to the application program
for direct read/write operations. An actual transmission of data will normally be enabled when the TXEN
bit is set, but the data will not be transmitted until the
TXR register has been loaded with data and the baud
rate generator has defined a shift clock source. However, the transmission can also be initiated by first
loading data into the TXR register, after which the
TXEN bit can be set. When a transmission of data begins, the TSR is normally empty, in which case a
transfer to the TXR register will result in an immediate
transfer to the TSR. If during a transmission the TXEN
bit is cleared, the transmission will immediately cease
and the transmitter will be reset. The TX output pin will
then return to having a normal general purpose I/O pin
function.
It should be noted that when TXIF=0, data will be inhibited from being written to the TXR register. Clearing the TXIF flag is always achieved using the
following software sequence:
1. A USR register access
2. A TXR register write execution
The read-only TXIF flag is set by the UART hardware and if set indicates that the TXR register is
empty and that other data can now be written into
the TXR register without overwriting the previous
data. If the TEIE bit is set then the TXIF flag will generate an interrupt.
During a data transmission, a write instruction to the
TXR register will place the data into the TXR register, which will be copied to the shift register at the
end of the present transmission. When there is no
data transmission in progress, a write instruction to
the TXR register will place the data directly into the
shift register, resulting in the commencement of
data transmission, and the TXIF bit being immediately set. When a frame transmission is complete,
which happens after stop bits are sent or after the
break frame, the TIDLE bit will be set. To clear the
TIDLE bit the following software sequence is used:
1. A USR register access
2. A TXR register write execution
Note that both the TXIF and TIDLE bits are cleared
by the same software sequence.
P a r ity B it
S ta r t B it
B it 0
B it 1
B it 2
B it 3
B it 4
B it 5
B it 6
B it 7
S to p B it
N e x t
S ta rt
B it
8 -B it D a ta F o r m a t
P a r ity B it
S ta r t B it
B it 0
B it 1
B it 2
B it 3
B it 4
B it 5
B it 6
B it 7
B it 8
S to p B it
N e x t
S ta rt
B it
9 -B it D a ta F o r m a t
Rev. 1.00
49
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
¨
-
Transmit break
If the TXBRK bit is set then break characters will be
sent on the next transmission. Break character
transmission consists of a start bit, followed by 13´
N ¢0¢ bits and stop bits, where N=1, 2, etc. If a break
character is to be transmitted then the TXBRK bit
must be first set by the application program, then
cleared to generate the stop bits. Transmitting a
break character will not generate a transmit interrupt. Note that a break condition length is at least 13
bits long. If the TXBRK bit is continually kept at a
logic high level then the transmitter circuitry will
transmit continuous break characters. After the application program has cleared the TXBRK bit, the
transmitter will finish transmitting the last break
character and subsequently send out one or two
stop bits. The automatic logic highs at the end of the
last break character will ensure that the start bit of
the next frame is recognized.
At this point the receiver will be enabled which will
begin to look for a start bit.
When a character is received the following sequence of events will occur:
Introduction
The UART is capable of receiving word lengths of either 8 or 9 bits. If the BNO bit is set, the word length
will be set to 9 bits with the MSB being stored in the
RX8 bit of the UCR1 register. At the receiver core lies
the Receive Serial Shift Register, commonly known
as the RSR. The data which is received on the RX
external input pin, is sent to the data recovery block.
The data recovery block operating speed is 16 times
that of the baud rate, while the main receive serial
shifter operates at the baud rate. After the RX pin is
sampled for the stop bit, the received data in RSR is
transferred to the receive data register, if the register
is empty. The data which is received on the external
RX input pin is sampled three times by a majority detect circuit to determine the logic level that has been
placed onto the RX pin. It should be noted that the
RSR register, unlike many other registers, is not directly mapped into the Data Memory area and as
such is not available to the application program for
direct read/write operations.
¨
Receiving data
When the UART receiver is receiving data, the data
is serially shifted in on the external RX input pin,
LSB first. In the read mode, the RXR register forms
a buffer between the internal bus and the receiver
shift register. The RXR register is a two byte deep
FIFO data buffer, where two bytes can be held in the
FIFO while a third byte can continue to be received.
Note that the application program must ensure that
the data is read from RXR before the third byte has
been completely shifted in, otherwise this third byte
will be discarded and an overrun error OERR will be
subsequently indicated. The steps to initiate a data
transfer can be summarized as follows:
-
Make the correct selection of BNO, PRT, PREN
and STOPS bits to define the word length, parity
type and number of stop bits.
-
Setup the BRG register to select the desired baud
rate.
Rev. 1.00
-
The RXIF bit in the USR register will be set when
RXR register has data available, at least one
more character can be read.
-
When the contents of the shift register have been
transferred to the RXR register, then if the RIE bit
is set, an interrupt will be generated.
-
If during reception, a frame error, noise error, parity error, or an overrun error has been detected,
then the error flags can be set.
The RXIF bit can be cleared using the following
software sequence:
1. A USR register access
2. An RXR register read execution
· UART receiver
¨
Set the RXEN bit to ensure that the RX pin is used
as a UART receiver pin and not as an I/O pin.
¨
¨
50
Receive break
Any break character received by the UART will be
managed as a framing error. The receiver will count
and expect a certain number of bit times as specified by the values programmed into the BNO and
STOPS bits. If the break is much longer than 13 bit
times, the reception will be considered as complete
after the number of bit times specified by BNO and
STOPS. The RXIF bit is set, FERR is set, zeros are
loaded into the receive data register, interrupts are
generated if appropriate and the RIDLE bit is set. If
a long break signal has been detected and the receiver has received a start bit, the data bits and the
invalid stop bit, which sets the FERR flag, the receiver must wait for a valid stop bit before looking
for the next start bit. The receiver will not make the
assumption that the break condition on the line is
the next start bit. A break is regarded as a character
that contains only zeros with the FERR flag set. The
break character will be loaded into the buffer and no
further data will be received until stop bits are received. It should be noted that the RIDLE read only
flag will go high when the stop bits have not yet
been received. The reception of a break character
on the UART registers will result in the following:
-
The framing error flag, FERR, will be set.
-
The receive data register, RXR, will be cleared.
-
The OERR, NF, PERR, RIDLE or RXIF flags will
possibly be set.
Idle status
When the receiver is reading data, which means it
will be in between the detection of a start bit and the
reading of a stop bit, the receiver status flag in the
USR register, otherwise known as the RIDLE flag,
will have a zero value. In between the reception of a
stop bit and the detection of the next start bit, the
RIDLE flag will have a high value, which indicates
the receiver is in an idle condition.
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
¨
-
Receiver interrupt
The read only receive interrupt flag RXIF in the USR
register is set by an edge generated by the receiver.
An interrupt is generated if RIE=1, when a word is
transferred from the Receive Shift Register, RSR, to
the Receive Data Register, RXR. An overrun error
can also generate an interrupt if RIE=1.
No interrupt will be generated. However this bit
rises at the same time as the RXIF bit which itself
generates an interrupt.
Note that the NF flag is reset by a USR register read
operation followed by an RXR register read
operation.
¨
Framing Error - FERR Flag
The read only framing error flag, FERR, in the USR
register, is set if a zero is detected instead of stop
bits. If two stop bits are selected, both stop bits must
be high, otherwise the FERR flag will be set. The
FERR flag is buffered along with the received data
and is cleared on any reset.
¨
Parity Error - PERR Flag
The read only parity error flag, PERR, in the USR
register, is set if the parity of the received word is incorrect. This error flag is only applicable if the parity
is enabled, PREN = 1, and if the parity type, odd or
even is selected. The read only PERR flag is buffered along with the received data bytes. It is
cleared on any reset. It should be noted that the
FERR and PERR flags are buffered along with the
corresponding word and should be read before
reading the data word.
· Managing receiver errors
Several types of reception errors can occur within the
UART module, the following section describes the
various types and how they are managed by the
UART.
¨
Overrun Error - OERR flag
The RXR register is composed of a two byte deep
FIFO data buffer, where two bytes can be held in the
FIFO register, while a third byte can continue to be
received. Before this third byte has been entirely
shifted in, the data should be read from the RXR
register. If this is not done, the overrun error flag
OERR will be consequently indicated.
In the event of an overrun error occurring, the following will happen:
-
The OERR flag in the USR register will be set.
-
The RXR contents will not be lost.
-
The shift register will be overwritten.
· UART interrupt scheme
The UART internal function possesses its own internal interrupt and independent interrupt vector. Several
individual UART conditions can generate an internal
UART interrupt. These conditions are, a transmitter
data register empty, transmitter idle, receiver data
available, receiver overrun, address detect and an RX
pin wake-up. When any of these conditions are created, if the UART interrupt is enabled and the stack is
not full, the program will jump to the UART interrupt
vector where it can be serviced before returning to the
main program. Four of these conditions, have a corresponding USR register flag, which will generate a
UART interrupt if its associated interrupt enable flag in
-
An interrupt will be generated if the RIE bit is set.
The OERR flag can be cleared by an access to the
USR register followed by a read to the RXR register.
¨
Noise Error - NF Flag
Over-sampling is used for data recovery to identify
valid incoming data and noise. If noise is detected
within a frame the following will occur:
-
The read only noise flag, NF, in the USR register
will be set on the rising edge of the RXIF bit.
-
Data will be transferred from the Shift register to
the RXR register.
U S R R e g is te r
U C R 2 R e g is te r
0
T E IE
T r a n s m itte r E m p ty
F la g T X IF
1
IN T C 1
R e g is te r
U A R T In te rru p t
R e q u e s t F la g
U R F
0
T IIE
T r a n s m itte r Id le
F la g T ID L E
1
R e c e iv e r O v e r r u n
F la g O E R R
R e c e iv e r D a ta
A v a ila b le R X IF
E M I
0
R IE
O R
E U R I
IN T C 0
R e g is te r
1
0
A D D E N
1
0
1
R X P in
W a k e -u p
0
W A K E
R X 7 if B N O = 0
R X 8 if B N O = 1
1
U C R 2 R e g is te r
UART Interrupt Scheme
Rev. 1.00
51
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
the UCR2 register is set. The two transmitter interrupt
conditions have their own corresponding enable bits,
while the two receiver interrupt conditions have a
shared enable bit. These enable bits can be used to
mask out individual UART interrupt sources.
The address detect condition, which is also a UART
interrupt source, does not have an associated flag,
but will generate a UART interrupt when an address
detect condition occurs if its function is enabled by
setting the ADDEN bit in the UCR2 register. An RX pin
wake-up, which is also a UART interrupt source, does
not have an associated flag, but will generate a UART
interrupt if the microcontroller is woken up by a low going edge on the RX pin, if the WAKE and RIE bits in
the UCR2 register are set. Note that in the event of an
RX wake-up interrupt occurring, there will be a delay
of 1024 system clock cycles before the system resumes normal operation.
Note that the USR register flags are read only and
cannot be cleared or set by the application program,
neither will they be cleared when the program jumps
to the corresponding interrupt servicing routine, as is
the case for some of the other interrupts. The flags will
be cleared automatically when certain actions are
taken by the UART, the details of which are given in
the UART register section. The overall UART interrupt
can be disabled or enabled by the EURI bit in the
INTC1 interrupt control register to prevent a UART interrupt from occurring.
ADDEN
0
0
1
Ö
1
Ö
0
X
1
Ö
ADDEN Bit Function
· UART operation in power down mode
When the MCU is in the Power Down Mode the UART
will cease to function. When the device enters the
Power Down Mode, all clock sources to the module
are shutdown. If the MCU enters the Power Down
Mode while a transmission is still in progress, then the
transmission will be terminated and the external TX
transmit pin will be forced to a logic high level. In a
similar way, if the MCU enters the Power Down Mode
while receiving data, then the reception of data will
likewise be terminated. When the MCU enters the
Power Down Mode, note that the USR, UCR1, UCR2,
transmit and receive registers, as well as the BRG
register will not be affected.
The UART function contains a receiver RX pin
wake-up function, which is enabled or disabled by the
WAKE bit in the UCR2 register. If this bit, along with
the UART enable bit, UARTEN, the receiver enable
bit, RXEN and the receiver interrupt bit, RIE, are all
set before the MCU enters the Power Down Mode,
then a falling edge on the RX pin will wake-up the
MCU from the Power Down Mode. Note that as it
takes 1024 system clock cycles after a wake-up, before normal microcontroller operation resumes, any
data received during this time on the RX pin will be ignored.
For a UART wake-up interrupt to occur, in addition to
the bits for the wake-up being set, the global interrupt
enable bit, EMI, and the UART interrupt enable bit,
EURI must also be set. If these two bits are not set
then only a wake up event will occur and no interrupt
will be generated. Note also that as it takes 1024 system clock cycles after a wake-up before normal
microcontroller resumes, the UART interrupt will not
be generated until after this time has elapsed.
· Address detect mode
Setting the Address Detect Mode bit, ADDEN, in the
UCR2 register, enables this special mode. If this bit is
enabled then an additional qualifier will be placed on
the generation of a Receiver Data Available interrupt,
which is requested by the RXIF flag. If the ADDEN bit
is enabled, then when data is available, an interrupt
will only be generated, if the highest received bit has a
high value. Note that the EURI and EMI interrupt enable bits must also be enabled for correct interrupt
generation. This highest address bit is the 9th bit if
BNO=1 or the 8th bit if BNO=0. If this bit is high, then
the received word will be defined as an address rather
than data. A Data Available interrupt will be generated
every time the last bit of the received word is set. If the
ADDEN bit is not enabled, then a Receiver Data Available interrupt will be generated each time the RXIF
flag is set, irrespective of the data last bit status. The
address detect mode and parity enable are mutually
exclusive functions. Therefore if the address detect
mode is enabled, then to ensure correct operation, the
parity function should be disabled by resetting the parity enable bit to zero.
Rev. 1.00
Bit 9 if BNO=1, UART Interrupt
Bit 8 if BNO=0
Generated
52
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Interrupts
Program Counter will then be loaded with a new address which will be the value of the corresponding interrupt vector. The microcontroller will then fetch its next
instruction from this interrupt vector. The instruction at
this vector will usually be a JMP statement which will
jump to another section of program which is known as
the interrupt service routine. Here is located the code to
control the appropriate interrupt. The interrupt service
routine must be terminated with a RETI statement,
which retrieves the original Program Counter address
from the stack and allows the microcontroller to continue
with normal execution at the point where the interrupt
occurred.
Interrupts are an important part of any microcontroller
system. When an external event or an internal function
such as a Timer/Event Counter, UART, I2C, SPI Bus,
Time-base, real-time clock or an A/D converter requires
microcontroller attention, their corresponding interrupt
will enforce a temporary suspension of the main program allowing the microcontroller to direct attention to
their respective needs. The external interrupt is controlled by the action of the external INT pin.
Interrupt Registers
Overall interrupt control, which means interrupt enabling
and request flag setting, is controlled by the INTC0,
INTC1 and MFIC registers, which are located in the
Data Memory. By controlling the appropriate enable bits
in these registers each individual interrupt can be enabled or disabled. Also when an interrupt occurs, the
corresponding request flag will be set by the
microcontroller. The global enable flag if cleared to zero
will disable all interrupts.
The various interrupt enable bits, together with their associated request flags, are shown in the following diagram with their order of priority.
Once an interrupt subroutine is serviced, all the other interrupts will be blocked, as the EMI bit will be cleared automatically. This will prevent any further interrupt nesting
from occurring. However, if other interrupt requests occur during this interval, although the interrupt will not be
immediately serviced, the request flag will still be recorded. If an interrupt requires immediate servicing
while the program is already in another interrupt service
routine, the EMI bit should be set after entering the routine, to allow interrupt nesting. If the stack is full, the interrupt request will not be acknowledged, even if the
related interrupt is enabled, until the Stack Pointer is
decremented. If immediate service is desired, the stack
must be prevented from becoming full.
Interrupt Operation
A Timer/Event Counter overflow, an end of A/D conversion, the external interrupt line being pulled low, a
UART, SPI, I2C Bus or multi-function interrupt will all
generate an interrupt request by setting their corresponding request flag, if their appropriate interrupt enable bit is set. When this happens, the Program
Counter, which stores the address of the next instruction
to be executed, will be transferred onto the stack. The
b 7
T 1 F
T 0 F
E IF ,
A D F , E T 1 I
S IF
E E I,
E T 0 I E A D I
E S II
b 0
E M I
IN T C 0 R e g is te r
M a s te r In te r r u p t G lo b a l E n a b le
1 : g lo b a l e n a b le
0 : g lo b a l d is a b le
E x te r n a l In te r r u p t E n a b le , A /D
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
C o n v e r te r In te r r u p t, S P I In te r r u p t E n a b le
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 0 In te r r u p t E n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 1 In te r r u p t E n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
E x te rn a l In te rru p t, A /D
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
C o n v e r te r In te r r u p t, S P I In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 0 In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 1 In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
F o r te s t m o d e u s e o n ly .
M u s t b e w r itte n a s " 0 " o th e r w is e m a y
r e s u lt in u n p r e d ic ta b le o p e r a tio n
Interrupt Control 0 Register
Rev. 1.00
53
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
b 7
b 0
M F F
H IF ,
S IF
U R F
E M F I
E H I,
E U R I
E S II
IN T C 1 R e g is te r
U A R T B u s in te r r u p t e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
I2 C o r S P I in te r r u p t e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
M u lti- fu n c tio n in te r r u p t e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
U A R T B u s in te r r u p t r e q u e s t fla g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
I2 C o r S P I in te r r u p t r e q u e s t fla g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
M u lti- fu n c tio n in te r r u p t r e q u e s t fla g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
Interrupt Control 1 Register
b 7
b 0
R T F
T B F
T 2 F
E R T I E T B I E T 2 I
M F IC
R e g is te r
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 2 in te r r u p t e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
T im e B a s e in te r r u p t e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
R e a l T im e C lo c k in te r r u p t e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 2 in te r r u p t r e q u e s t fla g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
T im e B a s e in te r r u p t r e q u e s t fla g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
R e a l T im e C lo c k in te r r u p t r e q u e s t fla g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
Multifunction Interrupt Control Register
Rev. 1.00
54
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
A u to m a tic a lly C le a r e d b y IS R
e x c e p t
fo r T B F , R T F a n d T 2 F
M a n u a lly C le a r e d b y S o ftw a r e
A u to m a tic a lly D is a b le d b y IS R
C a n b e E n a b le d M a n u a lly
P r io r ity
E x te rn a l In te rru p t
R e q u e s t F la g E IF
A /D C o n v e rte r In te rru p t
R e q u e s t F la g A D F
S P I In te rru p t
R e q u e s t F la g S IF
H ig h
E E I
E A D I
E S II
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 0
In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g T 0 F
E T 0 I
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 1
In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g T 1 F
E T 1 I
U A R T B u s
In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g U R F
E U R I
I2C
In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g H IF
S P I
In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g S IF
E H I
E S II
M u lti- fu n c tio n
In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g M F F
E M F I
T im e B a s e
In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g T B F
E T B I
R e a l T im e C lo c k
In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g R T F
E R T I
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 2
In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g T 2 F
E T 2 I
E M I
In te rru p t
P o llin g
L o w
Interrupt Scheme
Rev. 1.00
55
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Interrupt Priority
Timer/Event Counter Interrupt
Interrupts, occurring in the interval between the rising
edges of two consecutive T2 pulses, will be serviced on
the latter of the two T2 pulses, if the corresponding interrupts are enabled. In case of simultaneous requests, the
following table shows the priority that is applied. These
can be masked by resetting the EMI bit. In the table, for
vector locations 04H and 14H, where more than one interrupt share the same vector, the effective interrupt is
chosen via configuration option.
For a Timer/Event Counter generated internal interrupt
to occur, the global interrupt enable bit, EMI, and the
corresponding internal interrupt enable bit must be first
set. For Timer/Event Counter 0 the interrupt enable is bit
2 of the INTC0 register and known as ET0I, for
Timer/Event Counter 1 the interrupt enable is bit 3 of the
INTC0 register and known as ET1I, while for the
Timer/Event Counter 2 the interrupt enable is bit 0 of the
MFIC register and is known as ET2I. An actual
Timer/Event Counter interrupt will be generated when
the Timer/Event Counter interrupt request flag is set,
caused by a timer overflow. For Timer/Event Counter 0
this is bit 5 of the INTC0 register and known as T0F, for
Timer/Event Counter 1 this is bit 6 of the INTC0 register
and is known as T1F, while for Timer/Event Counter 2
this is bit 4 of the MFIC register and is known as T2F. Because the interrupt vector for Timer/Event Counter 2 is
contained with the Multi-function interrupt, for an interrupt to be generated by Timer/Event Counter 2, the
Multi-function interrupt must also be enabled by setting
the EMFI bit in the INTC1 register. When this is done, a
Timer/Event Counter 2 overflow will also cause the
Multi-function request flag, known as MFF, which is bit 6
of the INTC1 register to be set and in turn generate the
interrupt.
Interrupt Source
Priority Vector
External Interrupt
A/D converter interrupt
SPI Interrupt
1
04H
Timer/Event Counter 0 Overflow
2
08H
Timer/Event Counter 1 Overflow
3
0CH
UART Bus Interrupt
4
10H
I2C Bus Interrupt
SPI Interrupt
5
14H
Multi-function Interrupt:
- Timer/Event Counter 2 Overflow
- Real Time Clock Overflow
- Time Base Overflow
6
18H
In cases where both external and internal interrupts are
enabled and where an external and internal interrupt occurs simultaneously, the external interrupt will always
have priority and will therefore be serviced first. Suitable
masking of the individual interrupts using the interrupt
registers can prevent simultaneous occurrences.
When the master interrupt global enable bit is set, the
stack is not full and the corresponding internal interrupt
enable bit is set, an internal interrupt will be generated
when the corresponding timer overflows. This will create
a subroutine call to location 008H, 00CH and 018H for
Timer/Event Counter 0, 1 and 2 respectively. It should
be noted that the Timer/Event Counter 2 interrupt vector
is included within the Multi-function interrupt as it is
shared with other interrupts. After entering the timer interrupt execution routine, the corresponding interrupt request flags, T0F or T1F will be reset and the EMI bit will
be cleared to disable other interrupts. For Timer/Event
Counter 2, when its interrupt occurs, the EMI bit will be
cleared to disable other interrupts, however only the
MFF interrupt request flag will be reset. As the T2F flag
will not be automatically reset, it has to be cleared by the
application program.
External Interrupt
For an external interrupt to occur, the global interrupt enable bit, EMI, and external interrupt enable bit, EEI, must
first be set. An actual external interrupt will take place
when the external interrupt request flag, EIF, is set, a situation that will occur when a high to low transition appears
on the INT line. The external interrupt pin is pin-shared
with the I/O pin PA5 and can only be configured as an external interrupt pin if the corresponding external interrupt
enable bit in the INTC register has been set. The pin must
also be setup as an input by setting the corresponding
PAC.5 bit in the port control register. When the interrupt is
enabled, the stack is not full and a high to low transition
appears on the external interrupt pin, a subroutine call to
the external interrupt vector at location 04H, will take
place. When the interrupt is serviced, the external interrupt request flag, EIF, will be automatically reset and the
EMI bit will be automatically cleared to disable other interrupts. Note that any pull-high resistor configuration options on this pin will remain valid even if the pin is used as
an external interrupt input. As this interrupt vector location is shared with other interrupts, to be effective it must
be selected via configuration option.
Rev. 1.00
Time Base Interrupt
For a Time Base interrupt to occur the the global interrupt enable bit, EMI, and the corresponding internal interrupt enable bit, which is bit 1 of the MFIC register,
known as ETBI, must be first set. An actual Time Base
interrupt will be generated when the Time Base interrupt
request flag is set which is bit 5 of the MFIC register and
known as TBF. This will occur when when a time-out signal is generated from the Time Base. Because the interrupt vector for the Time Base is contained with the
Multi-function interrupt, for an interrupt to be generated
by the Time Base, the Multi-function interrupt must also
56
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
be enabled by setting the EMFI bit in the INTC1 register.
When this is done, a Time Base overflow will also cause
the Multi-function request flag, known as MFF, which is
bit 6 of the INTC1 register to be set and in turn generate
the interrupt. When the master interrupt global enable
bit is set, the stack is not full and the corresponding Time
Base interrupt enable bit is set, an internal Time Base interrupt will be generated when a time-out signal is generated from the Time Base. This will create a subroutine
call to location 018H. It should be noted that the Time
Base interrupt vector is included within the
Multi-function interrupt as it is shared with other interrupts. When a Time Base interrupt occurs, the EMI bit
will be cleared to disable other interrupts, however only
the MFF interrupt request flag will be reset. As the TBF
flag will not be automatically reset, it has to be cleared
by the application program. The purpose of the Time
Base interrupt is to provide an interrupt signal at fixed
time periods. The Time Base interrupt clock source originates from the internal clock source fS. This fS input
clock first passes through a divider, the division ratio of
which is selected by configuration options to provide
longer Time Base interrupt periods. The Time Base interrupt time-out period ranges from 212/fS~215/fS. The
clock source that generates fS, which in turn controls the
Time Base interrupt period, can originate from three different sources, the RTC oscillator, Watchdog Timer oscillator or the System oscillator/4, the choice of which is
determine by the fS clock source configuration option.
Note that if the RTC oscillator is selected as the system
clock, then fS, and correspondingly the Time Base interrupt, will also have the RTC oscillator as its clock
source.
the corresponding Real Time Clock interrupt enable bit
is set, an internal Real Time Clock interrupt will be generated when a time-out signal occurs, a subroutine call
to location 018H will be created. Because the interrupt
vector for the Real Time Clock is contained with the
Multi-function interrupt, for an interrupt to be generated
by the Real Time Clock, the Multi-function interrupt must
also be enabled by setting the EMFI bit in the INTC1
register. When this is done, a Real Time Clock overflow
will also cause the Multi-function request flag, known as
MFF, which is bit 6 of the INTC1 register to be set and in
turn generate the interrupt. When a Real Time interrupt
occurs, the EMI bit will be cleared to disable other interrupts, however only the MFF interrupt request flag will
be reset. As the RTF flag will not be automatically reset,
it has to be cleared by the application program. It is important not to confuse the RTC interrupt with the RTC
oscillator.
Similar in operation to the Time Base interrupt, the purpose of the RTC interrupt is also to provide an interrupt
signal at fixed time periods. The RTC interrupt clock
source originates from the internal clock source fS. This
fS input clock first passes through a divider, the division
ratio of which is selected by programming the appropriate bits in the RTCC register to obtain longer RTC interrupt periods whose value ranges from 28/fS~215/fS. The
clock source that generates fS, which in turn controls the
RTC interrupt period, can originate from three different
sources, the RTC oscillator, Watchdog Timer oscillator
or the System oscillator/4, the choice of which is determine by the fS clock source configuration option. Note
that if the RTC oscillator is selected as the system clock,
then fS, and correspondingly the RTC interrupt, will also
have the RTC oscillator as its clock source.
Real Time Clock Interrupt
Note that the RTC interrupt period is controlled by both
configuration options and an internal register RTCC. A
configuration option selects the source clock for the internal clock fS, and the RTCC register bits RT2, RT1 and
RT0 select the division ratio. Note that the actual division ratio can be programmed from 28 to 215. For details
of the actual RTC interrupt periods, consult the RTCC
register section.
For a Real Time Clock interrupt to occur the global interrupt enable bit, EMI, and the corresponding internal interrupt enable bit, which is bit 2 of the MFIC register,
known as ERTI, must be first set. An actual Real Time
Clock interrupt will be generated when the Real Time
Clock interrupt request flag is set which is bit 6 of the
MFIC register and known as RTF. When the master interrupt global enable bit is set, the stack is not full and
fS
Y S
/4
W D T O s c illa to r
R T C
O s c illa to r
fS S o u rc e
C o n fig u r a tio n
O p tio n
fS
C o n fig u r a tio n O p tio n
D iv id e b y 2 1 2 ~ 2 1 5
T im e B a s e In te r r u p t
2 12/fS ~ 2 15/fS
Time Base Interrupt
fS
Y S
/4
W D T O s c illa to r
R T C O s c illa to r
fS S o u rc e
C o n fig u r a tio n
O p tio n
D iv id e b y 2 8 ~ 2
(S e t b y R T C C
R e g is te r s )
fS
1 5
R T C In te rru p t
2 8/fS ~ 2 15/fS
R T 2 ~ R T 0
RTC Interrupt
Rev. 1.00
57
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
actual I2C interrupt will be generated when the I2C interrupt request flag, which is bit 5 of the INTC1 register,
and known as HIF. When the master interrupt global enable bit is set, the stack is not full and the corresponding
I2C interrupt enable bit is set, an internal interrupt will be
generated when a matching I2C slave address is received or from the completion of an I2C data byte transfer. This will create a subroutine call to location 14H.
When an I2C interrupt occurs, the interrupt request flag
HIF will be reset and the EMI bit will be cleared to disable other interrupts. As this interrupt vector location is
shared with other interrupts, to be effective it must be
selected via configuration option.
Note after a wake-up the system requires 1024 clock cycles to resume normal operation. If the 32768Hz RTC
oscillator is also selected as the system clock source,
then for RTC interrupt applications that are timing sensitive after a wake-up, precautions should be taken when
selecting the 28, 29 and 210 RTC interrupt division. For
these division ratios, after a wake-up, some following
RTC interrupt events will be missed during this 1024
clock cycle period.
A/D Interrupt
For an A/D interrupt to occur, the global interrupt enable
bit, EMI, and the corresponding interrupt enable bit,
EADI, must be first set. An actual A/D interrupt will take
place when the A/D converter request flag, ADF, is set, a
situation that will occur when an A/D conversion process
has completed. When the interrupt is enabled, the stack
is not full and an A/D conversion process finishes execution, a subroutine call to the A/D interrupt vector at location 04H, will take place. When the interrupt is
serviced, the A/D interrupt request flag, ADF, will be automatically reset and the EMI bit will be automatically
cleared to disable other interrupts. As this interrupt vector location is shared with other interrupts, to be effective it must be selected via configuration option.
SPI Interrupt
For an SPI interrut to occur, the global interrupt enable
bit, EMI, and the corresponding interrupt enable bit ESII,
which is bit 1 of the INTC0/INTC1 register, must be first
set. An actual SPI interrupt will be generated when the
SPI interrupt request flag, which is bit 4/bit 5 of the
INTC0/ INTC1 register, and known as SIF. When the
master interrupt global enable bit is set, the stack is not
full and the corresponding SPI interrupt enable bit is set,
an internal interrupt will be generated. This will create a
subroutine call to location 04H or 14H. When an SPI interrupt occurs, the interrupt request flag SIF will be reset
and the EMI bit will be cleared to disable other interrupts. As this interrupt vector location is shared with
other interrupts, to be effective it must be selected via
configuration option.
UART Interrupt
For a UART interrupt to occur, the global interrupt enable bit, EMI, and its corresponding UART interrupt enable bit, EURI, which is bit 0 of the INTC1 register, must
first be set. An actual UART interrupt will be generated
when the UART interrupt request flag URF is set, which
is bit 4 of the INTC1 register. When the master interrupt
global bit is set, the stack is not full and the corresponding EURI interrupt enable bit is set, a UART internal interrupt will be generated when a UART interrupt request
occurs. This will create a subroutine call to its corresponding vector location 010H. When a UART internal
interrupt occurs, the interrupt request flag URF will be
reset and the EMI bit cleared to disable other interrupts.
Multi-Function Interrupt
An additional interrupt known as the Multi-function interrupt is provided. Unlike the other interrupts, this interrupt
has no independent source, but rather is formed from
three other existing interrupt sources, namely the Time
Base interrupt, the Real Time Clock interrupt and the
Timer/Event Counter 2 interrupt. The Multi-function interrupt is enabled by setting the EMFI bit, which is bit 2
of the INTC1 register. An actual Multi-function interrupt
will be generated when the Multi-function interrupt request flag MFF is set, this is bit 6 of the INTC1 register.
When the master interrupt global bit is set, the stack is
not full and the corresponding EMFI interrupt enable bit
is set, a Multi-Function internal interrupt will be generated when either a Time Base overflow, a Real Time
Clock overflow or a Timer/Event Counter 2 overflow occurs. This will create a subroutine call to its corresponding vector location 018H. When a Multi-function internal
interrupt occurs, the Multi-Function request flag MFF
will be reset and the EMI bit will be cleared to disable
other interrupts. However, it must be noted that the request flags from the original source of the Multi-function
interrupt, namely the Time-Base, Real Time Clock or
Timer/Event Counter 2, will not be automatically reset
and must be manually reset by the user.
There are various UART conditions, which can generate
a UART interrupt, such as transmit data register empty
(TXIF), received data available (RXIF), transmission
idle (TIDLE), overrun error (OERR) as well as address
detected These conditions are reflected by various flags
within the UART status register, known as the USR register. Various bits in the UART setup register, UCR2, determine if these flags can generate a UART interrupt
signal. More details on these two registers and how they
influence the operation of the UART interrupt can be
found in the UART section.
I2C Bus interrupt
For an I2C interrupt to occur, the global interrupt enable
bit, EMI, and the corresponding interrupt enable bit EHI,
which is bit 1 of the INTC1 register, must be first set. An
Rev. 1.00
58
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
set operations result in different register conditions being setup.
It should also be noted that there is no independent interrupt vectors for the Time Base interrupt, the Real
Time Clock interrupt or the Timer/Event Counter 2 interrupt because all three interrupts use the common
Multi-function interrupt Vector.
Another reset exists in the form of a Low Voltage Reset,
LVR, where a full reset, similar to the RES reset is implemented in situations where the power supply voltage
falls below a certain threshold.
Programming Considerations
By disabling the interrupt enable bits, a requested interrupt can be prevented from being serviced, however,
once an interrupt request flag is set, it will remain in this
condition in the INTC register until the corresponding interrupt is serviced or until the request flag is cleared by a
software instruction.
Reset Functions
There are five ways in which a microcontroller reset can
occur, through events occurring both internally and externally:
· Power-on Reset
The most fundamental and unavoidable reset is the
one that occurs after power is first applied to the
microcontroller. As well as ensuring that the Program
Memory begins execution from the first memory address, a power-on reset also ensures that certain
other registers are preset to known conditions. All the
I/O port and port control registers will power up in a
high condition ensuring that all pins will be first set to
inputs.
Although the microcontroller has an internal RC reset
function, if the VDD power supply rise time is not fast
enough or does not stabilise quickly at power-on, the
internal reset function may be incapable of providing
proper reset operation. For this reason it is recommended that an external RC network is connected to
the RES pin, whose additional time delay will ensure
that the RES pin remains low for an extended period
to allow the power supply to stabilise. During this time
delay, normal operation of the microcontroller will be
inhibited. After the RES line reaches a certain voltage
value, the reset delay time tRSTD is invoked to provide
an extra delay time after which the microcontroller will
begin normal operation. The abbreviation SST in the
figures stands for System Start-up Timer.
It is recommended that programs do not use the ²CALL
subroutine² instruction within the interrupt subroutine.
Interrupts often occur in an unpredictable manner or
need to be serviced immediately in some applications. If
only one stack is left and the interrupt is not well controlled, the original control sequence will be damaged
once a ²CALL subroutine² is executed in the interrupt
subroutine.
All of these interrupts have the capability of waking up
the processor when in the Power Down Mode.
Only the Program Counter is pushed onto the stack. If
the contents of the register or status register are altered
by the interrupt service program, which may corrupt the
desired control sequence, then the contents should be
saved in advance.
Reset and Initialisation
A reset function is a fundamental part of any
microcontroller ensuring that the device can be set to
some predetermined condition irrespective of outside
parameters. The most important reset condition is after
power is first applied to the microcontroller. In this case,
internal circuitry will ensure that the microcontroller, after a short delay, will be in a well defined state and ready
to execute the first program instruction. After this
power-on reset, certain important internal registers will
be set to defined states before the program commences. One of these registers is the Program Counter,
which will be reset to zero forcing the microcontroller to
begin program execution from the lowest Program
Memory address.
V D D
tR
D D
S T D
S S T T im e - o u t
In te rn a l R e s e t
Power-On Reset Timing Chart
For most applications a resistor connected between
VDD and the RES pin and a capacitor connected between VSS and the RES pin will provide a suitable external reset circuit. Any wiring connected to the RES
pin should be kept as short as possible to minimise
any stray noise interference.
In addition to the power-on reset, situations may arise
where it is necessary to forcefully apply a reset condition
when the microcontroller is running. One example of this
is where after power has been applied and the
microcontroller is already running, the RES line is forcefully pulled low. In such a case, known as a normal operation reset, some of the microcontroller registers remain
unchanged allowing the microcontroller to proceed with
normal operation after the reset line is allowed to return
high. Another type of reset is when the Watchdog Timer
overflows and resets the microcontroller. All types of reRev. 1.00
0 .9 V
R E S
V D D
1 0 0 k W
R E S
0 .1 m F
V S S
Basic Reset Circuit
59
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
For applications that operate within an environment
where more noise is present the Enhanced Reset Circuit shown is recommended.
0 .0 1 m F
· Watchdog Time-out Reset during Normal Operation
The Watchdog time-out Reset during normal operation is the same as a hardware RES pin reset except
that the Watchdog time-out flag TO will be set to ²1².
V D D
1 0 0 k W
W D T T im e - o u t
R E S
tS
0 .1 m F
WDT Time-out Reset during Power Down
Timing Chart
V S S
Enhanced Reset Circuit
· Watchdog Time-out Reset during Power Down
The Watchdog time-out Reset during Power Down is
a little different from other kinds of reset. Most of the
conditions remain unchanged except that the Program Counter and the Stack Pointer will be cleared to
²0² and the TO flag will be set to ²1². Refer to the A.C.
Characteristics for tSST details.
More information regarding external reset circuits is
located in Application Note HA0075E on the Holtek
website.
· RES Pin Reset
This type of reset occurs when the microcontroller is
already running and the RES pin is forcefully pulled
low by external hardware such as an external switch.
In this case as in the case of other reset, the Program
Counter will reset to zero and program execution initiated from this point.
R E S
S T
S S T T im e - o u t
1 0 k W
0 .4 V
0 .9 V
W D T T im e - o u t
tR
In te rn a l R e s e t
D D
WDT Time-out Reset during Normal Operation
Timing Chart
D D
tR
S T D
S S T T im e - o u t
S T D
S S T T im e - o u t
Reset Initial Conditions
In te rn a l R e s e t
The different types of reset described affect the reset
flags in different ways. These flags, known as PDF and
TO are located in the status register and are controlled
by various microcontroller operations, such as the
Power Down function or Watchdog Timer. The reset
flags are shown in the table:
RES Reset Timing Chart
· Low Voltage Reset - LVR
The microcontroller contains a low voltage reset circuit
in order to monitor the supply voltage of the device,
which is selected via a configuration option. If the supply
voltage of the device drops to within a range of
0.9V~VLVR such as might occur when changing the battery, the LVR will automatically reset the device internally. The LVR includes the following specifications: For
a valid LVR signal, a low voltage, i.e., a voltage in the
range between 0.9V~VLVR must exist for greater than the
value tLVR specified in the A.C. characteristics. If the low
voltage state does not exceed 1ms, the LVR will ignore it
and will not perform a reset function.
TO PDF
RESET Conditions
0
0
RES reset during power-on
u
u
RES or LVR reset during normal operation
1
u
WDT time-out reset during normal operation
1
1
WDT time-out reset during Power Down
Note: ²u² stands for unchanged
L V R
tR
S T D
S S T T im e - o u t
In te rn a l R e s e t
Low Voltage Reset Timing Chart
Rev. 1.00
60
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
The following table indicates the way in which the various components of the microcontroller are affected after a
power-on reset occurs.
Item
Condition After RESET
Program Counter
Reset to zero
Interrupts
All interrupts will be disabled
WDT
Clear after reset, WDT begins counting
Timer/Event Counter
Timer Counter will be turned off
Prescaler
The Timer Counter Prescaler will be cleared
Input/Output Ports
I/O ports will be setup as inputs
Stack Pointer
Stack Pointer will point to the top of the stack
The different kinds of resets all affect the internal registers of the microcontroller in different ways. To ensure reliable
continuation of normal program execution after a reset occurs, it is important to know what condition the microcontroller
is in after a particular reset occurs. The following table describes how each type of reset affects each of the
microcontroller internal registers. Note that where more than one package type exists the table will reflect the situation
for the larger package type.
Reset
(Power On)
RES or LVR
Reset
WDT Time-out
(Normal Operation)
WDT Time-out
(HALT)*
MP0
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
MP1
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
BP
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
00u0 00uu
ACC
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TBLP
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TBLH
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
RTCC
---0 -111
---0 -111
---0 -111
--uu uuuu
STATUS
--00 xxxx
--uu uuuu
--1u uuuu
--11 uuuu
INTC0
-000 0000
-000 0000
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu
TMR0H
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
TMR0L
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
TMR0C
00-0 1000
00-0 1000
00-0 1000
uuuu uuuu
TMR1H
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
TMR1L
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
TMR1C
00-0 1---
00-0 1---
00-0 1---
uu-u u---
PA
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PAC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PB
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PBC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PCC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PD
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PDC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PWM0
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
PWM1
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
Register
Rev. 1.00
61
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Reset
(Power On)
RES or LVR
Reset
WDT Time-out
(Normal Operation)
WDT Time-out
(HALT)*
PWM2
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
PWM3
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
INTC1
-000 -000
-000 -000
-000 -000
-uuu -uuu
TBHP
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
HADR
xxxx xxx-
xxxx xxx-
xxxx xxx-
uuuu uuu-
HCR
0--0 0---
0--0 0---
0--0 0---
u--u u---
HSR
100- -0-1
100- -0-1
100- -0-1
uuuu uuuu
HDR
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
Register
ADRL
xxxx ----
xxxx ----
xxxx ----
uuuu ----
ADRH
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
ADCR
0100 0000
0100 0000
0100 0000
uuuu uuuu
ACSR
1--- --00
1--- --00
1--- --00
u--- --uu
PF
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PFC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PG
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PGC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TMR2
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
TMR2C
00-0 1000
00-0 1000
00-0 1000
uu-u uuuu
MFIC
-000 -000
-000 -000
-000 -000
-uuu -uuu
USR
0000 1011
0000 1011
0000 1011
uuuu uuuu
UCR1
0000 00x0
0000 00x0
0000 00x0
uuuu uuuu
UCR2
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
TXR/RXR
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
BRG
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu xxxx
SBCR
0110 0000
0110 0000
0110 0000
uuuu uuuu
SBDR
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
²u² stands for unchanged
²x² stands for unknown
²-² stands for unimplemented
Rev. 1.00
62
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Oscillator
Various oscillator options offer the user a wide range of
functions according to their various application requirements. Two types of system clocks can be selected
while various clock source options for the Watchdog
Timer are provided for maximum flexibility. All oscillator
options are selected through the configuration options.
Crystal Frequency
The two methods of generating the system clock are:
Crystal Oscillator C1 and C2 Values
· External crystal/resonator oscillator
C1
C2
CL
8MHz
TBD
TBD
TBD
4MHz
TBD
TBD
TBD
1MHz
TBD
TBD
TBD
Note:
· External RC oscillator
One of these two methods must be selected using the
configuration options.
1. C1 and C2 values are for guidance only.
2. CL is the crystal manufacturer specified
load capacitor value.
Crystal Recommended Capacitor Values
More information regarding the oscillator is located in
Application Note HA0075E on the Holtek website.
Resonator C1 and C2 Values
External Crystal/Resonator Oscillator
Resonator Frequency
C1
C2
The simple connection of a crystal across OSC1 and
OSC2 will create the necessary phase shift and feedback for oscillation, and will normally not require external capacitors. However, for some crystals and most
resonator types, to ensure oscillation and accurate frequency generation, it may be necessary to add two
small value external capacitors, C1 and C2. The exact
3.58MHz
TBD
TBD
1MHz
TBD
TBD
455kHz
TBD
TBD
Note:
C1 and C2 values are for guidance only.
Resonator Recommended Capacitor Values
External RC Oscillator
C 1
In te r n a l
O s c illa to r
C ir c u it
O S C 1
R f
R p
C a
C b
T o in te r n a l
c ir c u its
O S C 2
C 2
Using the external system RC oscillator requires that a
resistor, with a value between 24kW and 1MW, is connected between OSC1 and ground, and a capacitor is
connected to VDD. The generated system clock divided
by 4 will be provided on OSC2 as an output which can be
used for external synchronization purposes. Note that as
the OSC2 output is an NMOS open-drain type, a pull high
resistor should be connected if it to be used to monitor the
internal frequency. Although this is a cost effective oscillator configuration, the oscillation frequency can vary with
VDD, temperature and process variations and is therefore not suitable for applications where timing is critical or
where accurate oscillator frequencies are required.For
the value of the external resistor ROSC refer to the Holtek
website for typical RC Oscillator vs. Temperature and
VDD characteristics graphics. Note that it is the only
microcontroller internal circuitry together with the external
resistor, that determine the frequency of the oscillator.
The external capacitor shown on the diagram does not
influence the frequency of oscillation.
N o te : 1 . R p is n o r m a lly n o t r e q u ir e d .
2 . A lth o u g h n o t s h o w n O S C 1 /O S C 2 p in s h a v e a p a r a s itic
c a p a c ita n c e o f a r o u n d 7 p F .
Crystal/Resonator Oscillator
values of C1 and C2 should be selected in consultation
with the crystal or resonator manufacturer¢s specification. The external parallel feedback resistor, Rp, is normally not required but in some cases may be needed to
assist with oscillation start up.
Internal Ca, Cb, Rf Typical Values @ 5V, 25°C
Ca
Cb
Rf
11~13pF
13~15pF
470kW
V
D D
Oscillator Internal Component Values
4 7 0 p F
O S C 1
R
fS
Y S
O S C
/4 N M O S O p e n D r a in
O S C 2
RC Oscillator
Rev. 1.00
63
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
External RTC Oscillator
RTC Oscillator C1 and C2 Values
When the microcontroller enters the Power Down Mode,
the system clock is switched off to stop microcontroller
activity and to conserve power. However, in many
microcontroller applications it may be necessary to keep
some internal functions such as timers operational even
when the microcontroller is in the Power Down Mode. To
do this, a 32768Hz oscillator, also known as the Real
Time Clock or RTC oscillator, is provided. To implement
this clock, the OSC3 and OSC4 pins should be connected to a 32768Hz crystal. However, for some crystals, to ensure oscillation and accurate frequency
C 1
3 2 7 6 8 H z
32768Hz
Note:
R p
R f
O S C 4
N o te : 1 . R p is n o r m a lly n o t r e q u ir e d .
2 . A lth o u g h n o t s h o w n O S C 3 /O S C 4 p in s h a v e a p a r a s itic
c a p a c ita n c e o f a r o u n d 7 p F .
Internal RC Oscillator + External RTC Oscillator
generation, it may be necessary to add two small value
external capacitors, C1 and C2. The exact values of C1
and C2 should be selected in consultation with the crystal or resonator manufacturer¢s specification. The external parallel feedback resistor, Rp, is normally not
required but in some cases may be needed to assist
with oscillation start up. Using the slower 32768Hz oscillator as the system oscillator will of course use less
power and is known as the Slow Mode.
TBD
TBD
TBD
TBD
TBD
TBD
1. C1 and C2 values are for guidance only.
2. CL is the crystal manufacturer specified
load capacitor value.
Watchdog Timer Oscillator
The WDT oscillator is a fully self-contained free running
on-chip RC oscillator with a typical period of 65ms at 5V
requiring no external components. When the device enters the Power Down Mode, the system clock will stop
running but the WDT oscillator continues to free-run and
to keep the watchdog active. However, to preserve
power in certain applications the WDT oscillator can be
disabled via a configuration option.
Internal Ca, Cb, Rf Typical Values @ 5V, 25°C
Rf
CL
During power up there is a time delay associated with
the RTC oscillator, waiting for it to start up. The QOSC
bit in the RTCC register, is provided to give a quick
start-up function and can be used to minimise this delay.
During a power up condition, this bit will be cleared to 0
which will initiate the RTC oscillator quick start-up function. However, as there is additional power consumption
associated with this quick start-up function, to reduce
power consumption after start up takes place, it is recommended that the application program should set the
QOSC bit high about 2 seconds after power on. It should
be noted that, no matter what condition the QOSC bit is
set to, the RTC oscillator will always function normally,
only there is more power consumption associated with
the quick start-up function.
T o in te r n a l
c ir c u its
Cb
C2
When the system enters the Power Down Mode, the
32768Hz oscillator will keep running and if it is selected
as the Timer and Watchdog Timer source clock, will also
keep these functions operational.
C a
Ca
C1
32768 Hz Crystal Recommended Capacitor Values
O S C 3
C b
C 2
Crystal Frequency
RTC Oscillator Internal Component Values
Rev. 1.00
64
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Power Down Mode and Wake-up
inputs. Also note that additional standby current will also
be required if the configuration options have enabled the
Watchdog Timer internal oscillator.
Power Down Mode
All of the Holtek microcontrollers have the ability to enter
a Power Down Mode, also known as the HALT Mode or
Sleep Mode. When the device enters this mode, the normal operating current, will be reduced to an extremely
low standby current level. This occurs because when
the device enters the Power Down Mode, the system
oscillator is stopped which reduces the power consumption to extremely low levels, however, as the device
maintains its present internal condition, it can be woken
up at a later stage and continue running, without requiring a full reset. This feature is extremely important in application areas where the MCU must have its power
supply constantly maintained to keep the device in a
known condition but where the power supply capacity is
limited such as in battery applications.
Wake-up
After the system enters the Power Down Mode, it can be
woken up from one of various sources listed as follows:
· An external reset
· An external falling edge on Port A
· A system interrupt
· A WDT overflow
If the system is woken up by an external reset, the device will experience a full system reset, however, if the
device is woken up by a WDT overflow, a Watchdog
Timer reset will be initiated. Although both of these
wake-up methods will initiate a reset operation, the actual source of the wake-up can be determined by examining the TO and PDF flags. The PDF flag is cleared by a
system power-up or executing the clear Watchdog
Timer instructions and is set when executing the ²HALT²
instruction. The TO flag is set if a WDT time-out occurs,
and causes a wake-up that only resets the Program
Counter and Stack Pointer, the other flags remain in
their original status.
Entering the Power Down Mode
There is only one way for the device to enter the Power
Down Mode and that is to execute the ²HALT² instruction in the application program. When this instruction is
executed, the following will occur:
· The system oscillator will stop running and the appli-
cation program will stop at the ²HALT² instruction.
· The Data Memory contents and registers will maintain
Each pin on Port A can be setup via an individual configuration option to permit a negative transition on the pin
their present condition.
· The WDT will be cleared and resume counting if the
to wake-up the system. When a Port A pin wake-up occurs, the program will resume execution at the instruction following the ²HALT² instruction.
WDT clock source is selected to come from the WDT
oscillator. The WDT will stop if its clock source originates from the system clock.
· The I/O ports will maintain their present condition.
If the system is woken up by an interrupt, then two possible situations may occur. The first is where the related
interrupt is disabled or the interrupt is enabled but the
stack is full, in which case the program will resume execution at the instruction following the ²HALT² instruction.
In this situation, the interrupt which woke-up the device
will not be immediately serviced, but will rather be serviced later when the related interrupt is finally enabled or
when a stack level becomes free. The other situation is
where the related interrupt is enabled and the stack is
not full, in which case the regular interrupt response
takes place. If an interrupt request flag is set to ²1² before entering the Power Down Mode, the wake-up function of the related interrupt will be disabled.
· In the status register, the Power Down flag, PDF, will
be set and the Watchdog time-out flag, TO, will be
cleared.
Standby Current Considerations
As the main reason for entering the Power Down Mode
is to keep the current consumption of the MCU to as low
a value as possible, perhaps only in the order of several
micro-amps, there are other considerations which must
also be taken into account by the circuit designer if the
power consumption is to be minimized. Special attention must be made to the I/O pins on the device. All
high-impedance input pins must be connected to either
a fixed high or low level as any floating input pins could
create internal oscillations and result in increased current consumption. This also applies to devices which
have different package types, as there may be
undonbed pins, which must either be setup as outputs
or if setup as inputs must have pull-high resistors
connected. Care must also be taken with the loads,
which are connected to I/O pins, which are setup as outputs. These should be placed in a condition in which
minimum current is drawn or connected only to external
circuits that do not draw current, such as other CMOS
Rev. 1.00
No matter what the source of the wake-up event is, once
a wake-up situation occurs, a time period equal to 1024
system clock periods will be required before normal system operation resumes. However, if the wake-up has
originated due to an interrupt, the actual interrupt subroutine execution will be delayed by an additional one or
more cycles. If the wake-up results in the execution of
the next instruction following the ²HALT² instruction, this
will be executed immediately after the 1024 system
clock period delay has ended.
65
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Watchdog Timer
Pointer will be reset. Three methods can be adopted to
clear the contents of the WDT. The first is an external
hardware reset, which means a low level on the RES
pin, the second is using the watchdog software instructions and the third is via a ²HALT² instruction.
The Watchdog Timer is provided to prevent program malfunctions or sequences from jumping to unknown locations, due to certain uncontrollable external events such
as electrical noise. It operates by providing a device reset
when the WDT counter overflows. The WDT clock is supplied by one of two sources selected by configuration option: its own self contained dedicated internal WDT
oscillator or fSYS/4. Note that if the WDT configuration option has been disabled, then any instruction relating to its
operation will result in no operation.
There are two methods of using software instructions to
clear the Watchdog Timer, one of which must be chosen
by configuration option. The first option is to use the single ²CLR WDT² instruction while the second is to use the
two commands ²CLR WDT1² and ²CLR WDT2². For the
first option, a simple execution of ²CLR WDT² will clear
the WDT while for the second option, both ²CLR WDT1²
and ²CLR WDT2² must both be executed to successfully
clear the WDT. Note that for this second option, if ²CLR
WDT1² is used to clear the WDT, successive executions
of this instruction will have no effect, only the execution of
a ²CLR WDT2² instruction will clear the WDT. Similarly
after the ²CLR WDT2² instruction has been executed,
only a successive ²CLR WDT1² instruction can clear the
Watchdog Timer.
In the A/D Type series of microcontrollers, all Watchdog
Timer options, such as enable/disable, WDT clock
source and clear instruction type all selected through
configuration options. There are no internal registers associated with the WDT in the A/D Type MCU series. One
of the WDT clock sources is an internal oscillator which
has an approximate period of 65ms at a supply voltage
of 5V. However, it should be noted that this specified internal clock period can vary with VDD, temperature and
process variations. The other WDT clock source option
is the fSYS/4 clock. Whether the WDT clock source is its
own internal WDT oscillator, RTC oscillator or from
fSYS/4, it is further divided by 16 via an internal 15-bit
counter and a clearable single bit counter to give longer
Watchdog time-outs. As the clear instruction only resets
the last stage of the divider chain, for this reason the actual division ratio and corresponding Watchdog Timer
time-out can vary by a factor of two. The exact division
ratio depends upon the residual value in the Watchdog
Timer counter before the clear instruction is executed. It
is important to realise that as there are no independent
internal registers or configuration options associated
with the length of the Watchdog Timer time-out, it is
completely dependent upon the frequency of fSYS/4,
RTC oscillator or the internal WDT oscillator.
Time Base
The internal time base function provides a periodic
time-out signal which in turn generates an interrupt. Its
time-out period ranges from 212/fS to 215/fS the actual
value is chosen via configuration option. When a time
base time-out occurs, the related interrupt request flags,
MFF in INTC1 and TBF in MFIC, are set. If the time base
interrupt enable bits, EMFI and ETBI, are enabled, and the
stack is not full, a subroutine call to location 18H will occur.
Note that as the TBF flag will not be cleared automatically,
it must be cleared manually by the application program.
Real Time Clock - RTC
If the fSYS/4 clock is used as the WDT clock source, it
should be noted that when the system enters the Power
Down Mode, then the instruction clock is stopped and
the WDT will lose its protecting purposes. For systems
that operate in noisy environments, using the internal
WDT oscillator is strongly recommended.
The real time clock operates in a similar way to the time
base in that it is used to generate a regular interrupt signal. Its time-out period ranges from fS/28 to fS/215 the actual value is chosen by programming the RT0~RT2 bits in
the RTCC register. When an RTC time-out occurs, the related interrupt request flags, MFF in INTC1 and RTF in
MFIC, are set. If the interrupt enable bits, EMFI and ERTI,
are enabled, and the stack is not full, a subroutine call to
location 18H occurs. Note that as the RTF flag will not be
cleared automatically, it must be cleared manually by the
application program.
Under normal program operation, a WDT time-out will
initialise a device reset and set the status bit TO. However, if the system is in the Power Down Mode, when a
WDT time-out occurs, the TO bit in the status register
will be set and only the Program Counter and Stack
S y s te m
R T C
O S C
C lo c k /4
3 2 7 6 8 H z
W D T O S C
1 2 k H z
R O M
C o d e
O p tio n
fs
D iv id e r
fs/2
8
W D T P r e s c a le r
M a s k O p tio n
W D T C le a r
C K
R
T
C K
R
T
T im e
2 1 5/fS
2 1 4/fS
2 1 3/fS
2 1 2/fS
-o
~
~
~
~
u t
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
6
R e s e t
/fS
5
/fS
4
/fS
3
/fS
Watchdog Timer
Rev. 1.00
66
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Configuration Options
Configuration options refer to certain options within the MCU that are programmed into the device during the programming process. During the development process, these options are selected using the HT-IDE software development
tools. As these options are programmed into the device using the hardware programming tools, once they are selected
they cannot be changed later as the application software has no control over the configuration options. All options must
be defined for proper system function, the details of which are shown in the table.
No.
Options
I/O Options
1
PA0~PA7: wake-up enable or disable - bit option
2
PA0~PA7: pull-high enable or disable
3
PB0~PB7: pull-high enable or disable
4
PC0~PC7: pull-high enable or disable
5
PD0~PD4: pull-high enable or disable
6
PF0~PF4: pull-high enable or disable
7
PG0~PG7: pull-high enable or disable
Oscillator Options
8
OSC type selection: RC or crystal
9
fSYS clock source: OSC or RTC oscillator
10
fS internal clock source: RTC oscillator, WDT oscillator or fSYS/4
Time Base
11
Time base time-out period: 212/fS, 213/fS, 214/fS, 215/fS
PFD Options
12
PA3: normal I/O or PFD output
13
PFD clock selection: Timer/Event Counter 0 or Timer/Event Counter 1
PWM Options
14
PD0~PD3: PWM0~PWM3 function selection
15
PWM mode: 6+2 or 7+1 mode selection
WDT Options
16
WDT: enable or disable
17
CLRWDT instructions: 1 or 2 instructions
18
WDT time-out period selection.
WDT time-out period: 212/fS~213/fS, 213/fS~214/fS, 214/fS~215/fS, 215/fS~216/fS.
Interrupt Options
19
Interrupt vector selection.
04H: INT, 14H: I2C
04H: INT, 14H: SPI
04H: A/D, 14H: I2C
04H: A/D, 14H: SPI
04H: SPI, 14H: I2C
I2C Bus Options
20
Rev. 1.00
I2C Bus function: enable or disable
67
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
No.
Options
SPI Options
21
SPI function: enable or disable
22
SPI WCOL function: enable or disable
23
SPI CSEN function: enable or disable
24
SPI CPOL function: enable or disable
LVR Options
25
LVR function: enable or disable
Application Circuits
V
D D
P A 0 ~ P A 2
P A 3 /P F D
P A 4
V D D
0 .1 m F
P A 5 /IN T
P A 6 /S D A
P A 7 /S C L
R e s e t
C ir c u it
1 0 0 k W
R E S
P B 0 /A N 0
~
0 .1 m F
P B 7 /A N 7
P C
P C
P C 2 ~
P C 6 /O
P C 7 /O
V S S
O S C
C ir c u it
O S C 1
O S C 2
0 /T
1 /R
P C
S C
S C
X
X
5
3
4
~
P D 0 /P W M 0
S e e O s c illa to r
S e c tio n
P D 3 /P W M 3
P D 4 ~ P D 7
P F 0 ~ P F 7
3 2 7 6 8 H z
C ir c u it
O S C 3
P G 0 ~ P G 7
O S C 4
T M R 0
S e e O s c illa to r
S e c tio n
T M R 1
T M R 2
H T 4 6 R U 2 6 /H T 4 6 C U 2 6
Rev. 1.00
68
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Instruction Set
subtract instruction mnemonics to enable the necessary
arithmetic to be carried out. Care must be taken to ensure correct handling of carry and borrow data when results exceed 255 for addition and less than 0 for
subtraction. The increment and decrement instructions
INC, INCA, DEC and DECA provide a simple means of
increasing or decreasing by a value of one of the values
in the destination specified.
Introduction
Central to the successful operation of any
microcontroller is its instruction set, which is a set of program instruction codes that directs the microcontroller to
perform certain operations. In the case of Holtek
microcontrollers, a comprehensive and flexible set of
over 60 instructions is provided to enable programmers
to implement their application with the minimum of programming overheads.
Logical and Rotate Operations
For easier understanding of the various instruction
codes, they have been subdivided into several functional groupings.
The standard logical operations such as AND, OR, XOR
and CPL all have their own instruction within the Holtek
microcontroller instruction set. As with the case of most
instructions involving data manipulation, data must pass
through the Accumulator which may involve additional
programming steps. In all logical data operations, the
zero flag may be set if the result of the operation is zero.
Another form of logical data manipulation comes from
the rotate instructions such as RR, RL, RRC and RLC
which provide a simple means of rotating one bit right or
left. Different rotate instructions exist depending on program requirements. Rotate instructions are useful for
serial port programming applications where data can be
rotated from an internal register into the Carry bit from
where it can be examined and the necessary serial bit
set high or low. Another application where rotate data
operations are used is to implement multiplication and
division calculations.
Instruction Timing
Most instructions are implemented within one instruction cycle. The exceptions to this are branch, call, or table read instructions where two instruction cycles are
required. One instruction cycle is equal to 4 system
clock cycles, therefore in the case of an 8MHz system
oscillator, most instructions would be implemented
within 0.5ms and branch or call instructions would be implemented within 1ms. Although instructions which require one more cycle to implement are generally limited
to the JMP, CALL, RET, RETI and table read instructions, it is important to realize that any other instructions
which involve manipulation of the Program Counter Low
register or PCL will also take one more cycle to implement. As instructions which change the contents of the
PCL will imply a direct jump to that new address, one
more cycle will be required. Examples of such instructions would be ²CLR PCL² or ²MOV PCL, A². For the
case of skip instructions, it must be noted that if the result of the comparison involves a skip operation then
this will also take one more cycle, if no skip is involved
then only one cycle is required.
Branches and Control Transfer
Program branching takes the form of either jumps to
specified locations using the JMP instruction or to a subroutine using the CALL instruction. They differ in the
sense that in the case of a subroutine call, the program
must return to the instruction immediately when the subroutine has been carried out. This is done by placing a
return instruction RET in the subroutine which will cause
the program to jump back to the address right after the
CALL instruction. In the case of a JMP instruction, the
program simply jumps to the desired location. There is
no requirement to jump back to the original jumping off
point as in the case of the CALL instruction. One special
and extremely useful set of branch instructions are the
conditional branches. Here a decision is first made regarding the condition of a certain data memory or individual bits. Depending upon the conditions, the program
will continue with the next instruction or skip over it and
jump to the following instruction. These instructions are
the key to decision making and branching within the program perhaps determined by the condition of certain input switches or by the condition of internal data bits.
Moving and Transferring Data
The transfer of data within the microcontroller program
is one of the most frequently used operations. Making
use of three kinds of MOV instructions, data can be
transferred from registers to the Accumulator and
vice-versa as well as being able to move specific immediate data directly into the Accumulator. One of the most
important data transfer applications is to receive data
from the input ports and transfer data to the output ports.
Arithmetic Operations
The ability to perform certain arithmetic operations and
data manipulation is a necessary feature of most
microcontroller applications. Within the Holtek
microcontroller instruction set are a range of add and
Rev. 1.00
69
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Bit Operations
Other Operations
The ability to provide single bit operations on Data Memory is an extremely flexible feature of all Holtek
microcontrollers. This feature is especially useful for
output port bit programming where individual bits or port
pins can be directly set high or low using either the ²SET
[m].i² or ²CLR [m].i² instructions respectively. The feature removes the need for programmers to first read the
8-bit output port, manipulate the input data to ensure
that other bits are not changed and then output the port
with the correct new data. This read-modify-write process is taken care of automatically when these bit operation instructions are used.
In addition to the above functional instructions, a range
of other instructions also exist such as the ²HALT² instruction for Power-down operations and instructions to
control the operation of the Watchdog Timer for reliable
program operations under extreme electric or electromagnetic environments. For their relevant operations,
refer to the functional related sections.
Instruction Set Summary
The following table depicts a summary of the instruction
set categorised according to function and can be consulted as a basic instruction reference using the following listed conventions.
Table Read Operations
Table conventions:
Data storage is normally implemented by using registers. However, when working with large amounts of
fixed data, the volume involved often makes it inconvenient to store the fixed data in the Data Memory. To overcome this problem, Holtek microcontrollers allow an
area of Program Memory to be setup as a table where
data can be directly stored. A set of easy to use instructions provides the means by which this fixed data can be
referenced and retrieved from the Program Memory.
Mnemonic
x: Bits immediate data
m: Data Memory address
A: Accumulator
i: 0~7 number of bits
addr: Program memory address
Description
Cycles
Flag Affected
1
1Note
1
1
1Note
1
1
1Note
1
1Note
1Note
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
C
1
1
1
1Note
1Note
1Note
1
1
1
1Note
1
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
1
1Note
1
1Note
Z
Z
Z
Z
Arithmetic
ADD A,[m]
ADDM A,[m]
ADD A,x
ADC A,[m]
ADCM A,[m]
SUB A,x
SUB A,[m]
SUBM A,[m]
SBC A,[m]
SBCM A,[m]
DAA [m]
Add Data Memory to ACC
Add ACC to Data Memory
Add immediate data to ACC
Add Data Memory to ACC with Carry
Add ACC to Data memory with Carry
Subtract immediate data from the ACC
Subtract Data Memory from ACC
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with result in Data Memory
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with Carry
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with Carry, result in Data Memory
Decimal adjust ACC for Addition with result in Data Memory
Logic Operation
AND A,[m]
OR A,[m]
XOR A,[m]
ANDM A,[m]
ORM A,[m]
XORM A,[m]
AND A,x
OR A,x
XOR A,x
CPL [m]
CPLA [m]
Logical AND Data Memory to ACC
Logical OR Data Memory to ACC
Logical XOR Data Memory to ACC
Logical AND ACC to Data Memory
Logical OR ACC to Data Memory
Logical XOR ACC to Data Memory
Logical AND immediate Data to ACC
Logical OR immediate Data to ACC
Logical XOR immediate Data to ACC
Complement Data Memory
Complement Data Memory with result in ACC
Increment & Decrement
INCA [m]
INC [m]
DECA [m]
DEC [m]
Rev. 1.00
Increment Data Memory with result in ACC
Increment Data Memory
Decrement Data Memory with result in ACC
Decrement Data Memory
70
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Mnemonic
Description
Cycles
Flag Affected
Rotate Data Memory right with result in ACC
Rotate Data Memory right
Rotate Data Memory right through Carry with result in ACC
Rotate Data Memory right through Carry
Rotate Data Memory left with result in ACC
Rotate Data Memory left
Rotate Data Memory left through Carry with result in ACC
Rotate Data Memory left through Carry
1
1Note
1
1Note
1
1Note
1
1Note
None
None
C
C
None
None
C
C
Move Data Memory to ACC
Move ACC to Data Memory
Move immediate data to ACC
1
1Note
1
None
None
None
Clear bit of Data Memory
Set bit of Data Memory
1Note
1Note
None
None
Jump unconditionally
Skip if Data Memory is zero
Skip if Data Memory is zero with data movement to ACC
Skip if bit i of Data Memory is zero
Skip if bit i of Data Memory is not zero
Skip if increment Data Memory is zero
Skip if decrement Data Memory is zero
Skip if increment Data Memory is zero with result in ACC
Skip if decrement Data Memory is zero with result in ACC
Subroutine call
Return from subroutine
Return from subroutine and load immediate data to ACC
Return from interrupt
2
1Note
1note
1Note
1Note
1Note
1Note
1Note
1Note
2
2
2
2
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Read table (current page) to TBLH and Data Memory
Read table (last page) to TBLH and Data Memory
2Note
2Note
None
None
No operation
Clear Data Memory
Set Data Memory
Clear Watchdog Timer
Pre-clear Watchdog Timer
Pre-clear Watchdog Timer
Swap nibbles of Data Memory
Swap nibbles of Data Memory with result in ACC
Enter power down mode
1
1Note
1Note
1
1
1
1Note
1
1
None
None
None
TO, PDF
TO, PDF
TO, PDF
None
None
TO, PDF
Rotate
RRA [m]
RR [m]
RRCA [m]
RRC [m]
RLA [m]
RL [m]
RLCA [m]
RLC [m]
Data Move
MOV A,[m]
MOV [m],A
MOV A,x
Bit Operation
CLR [m].i
SET [m].i
Branch
JMP addr
SZ [m]
SZA [m]
SZ [m].i
SNZ [m].i
SIZ [m]
SDZ [m]
SIZA [m]
SDZA [m]
CALL addr
RET
RET A,x
RETI
Table Read
TABRDC [m]
TABRDL [m]
Miscellaneous
NOP
CLR [m]
SET [m]
CLR WDT
CLR WDT1
CLR WDT2
SWAP [m]
SWAPA [m]
HALT
Note:
1. For skip instructions, if the result of the comparison involves a skip then two cycles are required,
if no skip takes place only one cycle is required.
2. Any instruction which changes the contents of the PCL will also require 2 cycles for execution.
3. For the ²CLR WDT1² and ²CLR WDT2² instructions the TO and PDF flags may be affected by
the execution status. The TO and PDF flags are cleared after both ²CLR WDT1² and
²CLR WDT2² instructions are consecutively executed. Otherwise the TO and PDF flags
remain unchanged.
Rev. 1.00
71
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Instruction Definition
ADC A,[m]
Add Data Memory to ACC with Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory, Accumulator and the carry flag are added. The
result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC + [m] + C
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
ADCM A,[m]
Add ACC to Data Memory with Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory, Accumulator and the carry flag are added. The
result is stored in the specified Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC + [m] + C
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
ADD A,[m]
Add Data Memory to ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator are added. The result is
stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC + [m]
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
ADD A,x
Add immediate data to ACC
Description
The contents of the Accumulator and the specified immediate data are added. The result is
stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC + x
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
ADDM A,[m]
Add ACC to Data Memory
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator are added. The result is
stored in the specified Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC + [m]
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
AND A,[m]
Logical AND Data Memory to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified Data Memory perform a bitwise logical AND operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²AND² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
AND A,x
Logical AND immediate data to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified immediate data perform a bitwise logical AND
operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²AND² x
Affected flag(s)
Z
ANDM A,[m]
Logical AND ACC to Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator perform a bitwise logical AND operation. The result is stored in the Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC ²AND² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
Rev. 1.00
72
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
CALL addr
Subroutine call
Description
Unconditionally calls a subroutine at the specified address. The Program Counter then increments by 1 to obtain the address of the next instruction which is then pushed onto the
stack. The specified address is then loaded and the program continues execution from this
new address. As this instruction requires an additional operation, it is a two cycle instruction.
Operation
Stack ¬ Program Counter + 1
Program Counter ¬ addr
Affected flag(s)
None
CLR [m]
Clear Data Memory
Description
Each bit of the specified Data Memory is cleared to 0.
Operation
[m] ¬ 00H
Affected flag(s)
None
CLR [m].i
Clear bit of Data Memory
Description
Bit i of the specified Data Memory is cleared to 0.
Operation
[m].i ¬ 0
Affected flag(s)
None
CLR WDT
Clear Watchdog Timer
Description
The TO, PDF flags and the WDT are all cleared.
Operation
WDT cleared
TO ¬ 0
PDF ¬ 0
Affected flag(s)
TO, PDF
CLR WDT1
Pre-clear Watchdog Timer
Description
The TO, PDF flags and the WDT are all cleared. Note that this instruction works in conjunction with CLR WDT2 and must be executed alternately with CLR WDT2 to have effect. Repetitively executing this instruction without alternately executing CLR WDT2 will have no
effect.
Operation
WDT cleared
TO ¬ 0
PDF ¬ 0
Affected flag(s)
TO, PDF
CLR WDT2
Pre-clear Watchdog Timer
Description
The TO, PDF flags and the WDT are all cleared. Note that this instruction works in conjunction with CLR WDT1 and must be executed alternately with CLR WDT1 to have effect. Repetitively executing this instruction without alternately executing CLR WDT1 will have no
effect.
Operation
WDT cleared
TO ¬ 0
PDF ¬ 0
Affected flag(s)
TO, PDF
Rev. 1.00
73
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
CPL [m]
Complement Data Memory
Description
Each bit of the specified Data Memory is logically complemented (1¢s complement). Bits
which previously contained a 1 are changed to 0 and vice versa.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
CPLA [m]
Complement Data Memory with result in ACC
Description
Each bit of the specified Data Memory is logically complemented (1¢s complement). Bits
which previously contained a 1 are changed to 0 and vice versa. The complemented result
is stored in the Accumulator and the contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
DAA [m]
Decimal-Adjust ACC for addition with result in Data Memory
Description
Convert the contents of the Accumulator value to a BCD ( Binary Coded Decimal) value resulting from the previous addition of two BCD variables. If the low nibble is greater than 9 or
if AC flag is set, then a value of 6 will be added to the low nibble. Otherwise the low nibble
remains unchanged. If the high nibble is greater than 9 or if the C flag is set, then a value of
6 will be added to the high nibble. Essentially, the decimal conversion is performed by adding 00H, 06H, 60H or 66H depending on the Accumulator and flag conditions. Only the C
flag may be affected by this instruction which indicates that if the original BCD sum is
greater than 100, it allows multiple precision decimal addition.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC + 00H or
[m] ¬ ACC + 06H or
[m] ¬ ACC + 60H or
[m] ¬ ACC + 66H
Affected flag(s)
C
DEC [m]
Decrement Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory is decremented by 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m] - 1
Affected flag(s)
Z
DECA [m]
Decrement Data Memory with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory is decremented by 1. The result is stored in the Accumulator. The contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m] - 1
Affected flag(s)
Z
HALT
Enter power down mode
Description
This instruction stops the program execution and turns off the system clock. The contents
of the Data Memory and registers are retained. The WDT and prescaler are cleared. The
power down flag PDF is set and the WDT time-out flag TO is cleared.
Operation
TO ¬ 0
PDF ¬ 1
Affected flag(s)
TO, PDF
Rev. 1.00
74
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
INC [m]
Increment Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory is incremented by 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m] + 1
Affected flag(s)
Z
INCA [m]
Increment Data Memory with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory is incremented by 1. The result is stored in the Accumulator. The contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m] + 1
Affected flag(s)
Z
JMP addr
Jump unconditionally
Description
The contents of the Program Counter are replaced with the specified address. Program
execution then continues from this new address. As this requires the insertion of a dummy
instruction while the new address is loaded, it is a two cycle instruction.
Operation
Program Counter ¬ addr
Affected flag(s)
None
MOV A,[m]
Move Data Memory to ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are copied to the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m]
Affected flag(s)
None
MOV A,x
Move immediate data to ACC
Description
The immediate data specified is loaded into the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ x
Affected flag(s)
None
MOV [m],A
Move ACC to Data Memory
Description
The contents of the Accumulator are copied to the specified Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC
Affected flag(s)
None
NOP
No operation
Description
No operation is performed. Execution continues with the next instruction.
Operation
No operation
Affected flag(s)
None
OR A,[m]
Logical OR Data Memory to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified Data Memory perform a bitwise logical OR operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²OR² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
Rev. 1.00
75
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
OR A,x
Logical OR immediate data to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified immediate data perform a bitwise logical OR operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²OR² x
Affected flag(s)
Z
ORM A,[m]
Logical OR ACC to Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator perform a bitwise logical OR operation. The result is stored in the Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC ²OR² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
RET
Return from subroutine
Description
The Program Counter is restored from the stack. Program execution continues at the restored address.
Operation
Program Counter ¬ Stack
Affected flag(s)
None
RET A,x
Return from subroutine and load immediate data to ACC
Description
The Program Counter is restored from the stack and the Accumulator loaded with the
specified immediate data. Program execution continues at the restored address.
Operation
Program Counter ¬ Stack
ACC ¬ x
Affected flag(s)
None
RETI
Return from interrupt
Description
The Program Counter is restored from the stack and the interrupts are re-enabled by setting the EMI bit. EMI is the master interrupt global enable bit. If an interrupt was pending
when the RETI instruction is executed, the pending Interrupt routine will be processed before returning to the main program.
Operation
Program Counter ¬ Stack
EMI ¬ 1
Affected flag(s)
None
RL [m]
Rotate Data Memory left
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are rotated left by 1 bit with bit 7 rotated into bit
0.
Operation
[m].(i+1) ¬ [m].i; (i = 0~6)
[m].0 ¬ [m].7
Affected flag(s)
None
RLA [m]
Rotate Data Memory left with result in ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are rotated left by 1 bit with bit 7 rotated into bit
0. The rotated result is stored in the Accumulator and the contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.(i+1) ¬ [m].i; (i = 0~6)
ACC.0 ¬ [m].7
Affected flag(s)
None
Rev. 1.00
76
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
RLC [m]
Rotate Data Memory left through Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated left by 1 bit. Bit 7
replaces the Carry bit and the original carry flag is rotated into bit 0.
Operation
[m].(i+1) ¬ [m].i; (i = 0~6)
[m].0 ¬ C
C ¬ [m].7
Affected flag(s)
C
RLCA [m]
Rotate Data Memory left through Carry with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated left by 1 bit. Bit 7 replaces
the Carry bit and the original carry flag is rotated into the bit 0. The rotated result is stored in
the Accumulator and the contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.(i+1) ¬ [m].i; (i = 0~6)
ACC.0 ¬ C
C ¬ [m].7
Affected flag(s)
C
RR [m]
Rotate Data Memory right
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are rotated right by 1 bit with bit 0 rotated into
bit 7.
Operation
[m].i ¬ [m].(i+1); (i = 0~6)
[m].7 ¬ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
None
RRA [m]
Rotate Data Memory right with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated right by 1 bit with bit 0 rotated into bit 7. The rotated result is stored in the Accumulator and the contents of the Data
Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.i ¬ [m].(i+1); (i = 0~6)
ACC.7 ¬ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
None
RRC [m]
Rotate Data Memory right through Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated right by 1 bit. Bit 0
replaces the Carry bit and the original carry flag is rotated into bit 7.
Operation
[m].i ¬ [m].(i+1); (i = 0~6)
[m].7 ¬ C
C ¬ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
C
RRCA [m]
Rotate Data Memory right through Carry with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated right by 1 bit. Bit 0 replaces the Carry bit and the original carry flag is rotated into bit 7. The rotated result is
stored in the Accumulator and the contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.i ¬ [m].(i+1); (i = 0~6)
ACC.7 ¬ C
C ¬ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
C
Rev. 1.00
77
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
SBC A,[m]
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the complement of the carry flag are subtracted from the Accumulator. The result is stored in the Accumulator. Note that if the result
of subtraction is negative, the C flag will be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is positive or
zero, the C flag will be set to 1.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC - [m] - C
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
SBCM A,[m]
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with Carry and result in Data Memory
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the complement of the carry flag are subtracted from the Accumulator. The result is stored in the Data Memory. Note that if the result of subtraction is negative, the C flag will be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is
positive or zero, the C flag will be set to 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC - [m] - C
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
SDZ [m]
Skip if decrement Data Memory is 0
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are first decremented by 1. If the result is 0 the
following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while
the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not 0 the program
proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m] - 1
Skip if [m] = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SDZA [m]
Skip if decrement Data Memory is zero with result in ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are first decremented by 1. If the result is 0, the
following instruction is skipped. The result is stored in the Accumulator but the specified
Data Memory contents remain unchanged. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not
0, the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m] - 1
Skip if ACC = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SET [m]
Set Data Memory
Description
Each bit of the specified Data Memory is set to 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ FFH
Affected flag(s)
None
SET [m].i
Set bit of Data Memory
Description
Bit i of the specified Data Memory is set to 1.
Operation
[m].i ¬ 1
Affected flag(s)
None
Rev. 1.00
78
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
SIZ [m]
Skip if increment Data Memory is 0
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are first incremented by 1. If the result is 0, the
following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while
the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not 0 the program
proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m] + 1
Skip if [m] = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SIZA [m]
Skip if increment Data Memory is zero with result in ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are first incremented by 1. If the result is 0, the
following instruction is skipped. The result is stored in the Accumulator but the specified
Data Memory contents remain unchanged. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not
0 the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m] + 1
Skip if ACC = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SNZ [m].i
Skip if bit i of Data Memory is not 0
Description
If bit i of the specified Data Memory is not 0, the following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two
cycle instruction. If the result is 0 the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
Skip if [m].i ¹ 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SUB A,[m]
Subtract Data Memory from ACC
Description
The specified Data Memory is subtracted from the contents of the Accumulator. The result
is stored in the Accumulator. Note that if the result of subtraction is negative, the C flag will
be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is positive or zero, the C flag will be set to 1.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC - [m]
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
SUBM A,[m]
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with result in Data Memory
Description
The specified Data Memory is subtracted from the contents of the Accumulator. The result
is stored in the Data Memory. Note that if the result of subtraction is negative, the C flag will
be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is positive or zero, the C flag will be set to 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC - [m]
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
SUB A,x
Subtract immediate data from ACC
Description
The immediate data specified by the code is subtracted from the contents of the Accumulator. The result is stored in the Accumulator. Note that if the result of subtraction is negative, the C flag will be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is positive or zero, the C flag will
be set to 1.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC - x
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
Rev. 1.00
79
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
SWAP [m]
Swap nibbles of Data Memory
Description
The low-order and high-order nibbles of the specified Data Memory are interchanged.
Operation
[m].3~[m].0 « [m].7 ~ [m].4
Affected flag(s)
None
SWAPA [m]
Swap nibbles of Data Memory with result in ACC
Description
The low-order and high-order nibbles of the specified Data Memory are interchanged. The
result is stored in the Accumulator. The contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.3 ~ ACC.0 ¬ [m].7 ~ [m].4
ACC.7 ~ ACC.4 ¬ [m].3 ~ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
None
SZ [m]
Skip if Data Memory is 0
Description
If the contents of the specified Data Memory is 0, the following instruction is skipped. As
this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a
two cycle instruction. If the result is not 0 the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
Skip if [m] = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SZA [m]
Skip if Data Memory is 0 with data movement to ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are copied to the Accumulator. If the value is
zero, the following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not 0 the
program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m]
Skip if [m] = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SZ [m].i
Skip if bit i of Data Memory is 0
Description
If bit i of the specified Data Memory is 0, the following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two
cycle instruction. If the result is not 0, the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
Skip if [m].i = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
TABRDC [m]
Read table (current page) to TBLH and Data Memory
Description
The low byte of the program code (current page) addressed by the table pointer (TBLP) is
moved to the specified Data Memory and the high byte moved to TBLH.
Operation
[m] ¬ program code (low byte)
TBLH ¬ program code (high byte)
Affected flag(s)
None
TABRDL [m]
Read table (last page) to TBLH and Data Memory
Description
The low byte of the program code (last page) addressed by the table pointer (TBLP) is
moved to the specified Data Memory and the high byte moved to TBLH.
Operation
[m] ¬ program code (low byte)
TBLH ¬ program code (high byte)
Affected flag(s)
None
Rev. 1.00
80
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
XOR A,[m]
Logical XOR Data Memory to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified Data Memory perform a bitwise logical XOR operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²XOR² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
XORM A,[m]
Logical XOR ACC to Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator perform a bitwise logical XOR operation. The result is stored in the Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC ²XOR² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
XOR A,x
Logical XOR immediate data to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified immediate data perform a bitwise logical XOR
operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²XOR² x
Affected flag(s)
Z
Rev. 1.00
81
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Package Information
48-pin SSOP (300mil) Outline Dimensions
4 8
2 5
A
B
2 4
1
C
C '
G
H
D
F
E
Symbol
Rev. 1.00
a
Dimensions in mil
Min.
Nom.
Max.
A
395
¾
420
B
291
¾
299
C
8
¾
12
C¢
613
¾
637
D
85
¾
99
E
¾
25
¾
F
4
¾
10
G
25
¾
35
H
4
¾
12
a
0°
¾
8°
82
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
56-pin SSOP (300mil) Outline Dimensions
2 9
5 6
B
A
2 8
1
C
C '
G
H
D
Symbol
Rev. 1.00
a
F
E
Dimensions in mil
Min.
Nom.
Max.
A
395
¾
420
B
291
¾
299
C
8
¾
12
C¢
720
¾
730
D
89
¾
99
E
¾
25
¾
F
4
¾
10
G
25
¾
35
H
4
¾
12
a
0°
¾
8°
83
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Product Tape and Reel Specifications
Reel Dimensions
D
T 2
A
C
B
T 1
SSOP 48W
Symbol
Description
Dimensions in mm
A
Reel Outer Diameter
330±1
B
Reel Inner Diameter
100±0.1
C
Spindle Hole Diameter
13+0.5
-0.2
D
Key Slit Width
2±0.5
T1
Space Between Flange
32.2+0.3
-0.2
T2
Reel Thickness
38.2±0.2
Rev. 1.00
84
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Carrier Tape Dimensions
P 0
D
P 1
t
E
F
W
C
D 1
B 0
P
K 0
A 0
SSOP 48W
Symbol
Description
Dimensions in mm
W
Carrier Tape Width
32±0.3
P
Cavity Pitch
16±0.1
E
Perforation Position
1.75±0.1
F
Cavity to Perforation (Width Direction)
14.2±0.1
D
Perforation Diameter
2 Min.
D1
Cavity Hole Diameter
1.5+0.25
P0
Perforation Pitch
4±0.1
P1
Cavity to Perforation (Length Direction)
2±0.1
A0
Cavity Length
12±0.1
B0
Cavity Width
16.2±0.1
K1
Cavity Depth
2.4±0.1
K2
Cavity Depth
3.2±0.1
t
Carrier Tape Thickness
C
Cover Tape Width
Rev. 1.00
0.35±0.05
25.5
85
June 12, 2008
HT46RU26/HT46CU26
Holtek Semiconductor Inc. (Headquarters)
No.3, Creation Rd. II, Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan
Tel: 886-3-563-1999
Fax: 886-3-563-1189
http://www.holtek.com.tw
Holtek Semiconductor Inc. (Taipei Sales Office)
4F-2, No. 3-2, YuanQu St., Nankang Software Park, Taipei 115, Taiwan
Tel: 886-2-2655-7070
Fax: 886-2-2655-7373
Fax: 886-2-2655-7383 (International sales hotline)
Holtek Semiconductor (China) Inc. (Dongguan Sales Office)
Building No. 10, Xinzhu Court, (No. 1 Headquarters), 4 Cuizhu Road, Songshan Lake, Dongguan, China 523808
Tel: 86-769-2626-1300
Fax: 86-769-2626-1311
Holtek Semiconductor (USA), Inc. (North America Sales Office)
46729 Fremont Blvd., Fremont, CA 94538, USA
Tel: 1-510-252-9880
Fax: 1-510-252-9885
http://www.holtek.com
Copyright Ó 2008 by HOLTEK SEMICONDUCTOR INC.
The information appearing in this Data Sheet is believed to be accurate at the time of publication. However, Holtek assumes no responsibility arising from the use of the specifications described. The applications mentioned herein are used
solely for the purpose of illustration and Holtek makes no warranty or representation that such applications will be suitable
without further modification, nor recommends the use of its products for application that may present a risk to human life
due to malfunction or otherwise. Holtek¢s products are not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices
or systems. Holtek reserves the right to alter its products without prior notification. For the most up-to-date information,
please visit our web site at http://www.holtek.com.tw.
Rev. 1.00
86
June 12, 2008
Similar pages