Application Note Discrete IGBT Datasheet Explanation

Dis crete I GBT
Expl a na ti o n o f d is cr e te I GB Ts' d at ash e ets
Application Note
About this document
Scope and purpose
This Application Note is intended to provide an explanation of the parameters and diagrams given in the
datasheet of Infineon discrete IGBTs. The designer of power electronic systems requiring an IGBT will be
provided with background information to be able to use the datasheet in the proper way.
The following information is given as a hint for the utilization of the IGBT device and shall not be regarded as
a description or warranty of a certain functionality, condition or quality of the device.
Table of Contents
1
1.1
1.2
Introduction ............................................................................................................... 2
Status of datasheets............................................................................................................................ 2
Type designation ................................................................................................................................. 3
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
IGBT datasheet parameters.......................................................................................... 5
Maximum ratings ................................................................................................................................. 5
Static characteristics ........................................................................................................................... 9
Dynamic characteristics .................................................................................................................... 13
Switching characteristics .................................................................................................................. 16
Other parameters and figures........................................................................................................... 19
3
Symbols and terms.................................................................................................... 25
4
References ............................................................................................................... 27
Application Note
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
Introduction
1
Introduction
Datasheets provide information about products and their parameters, which characterize the products.
With this information designers could compare devices from different suppliers. Furthermore, the
information indicates the device’s limits.
Datasheet values describe the device’s behavior at different junction temperatures and testing conditions.
The dynamic characterization tests, from which the switching losses are extracted, are related to a specific
test setup with its individual characteristics. Therefore, these values can deviate from a final user
application and between datasheets of older and newer products.
The attached diagrams, tables and explanations refer to the IKW40N65H5 rev. 2.1 datasheet published in
2015-05-06 as an example. For the latest version of datasheets please refer to Infineon’s website
www.infineon.com.
Infineon’s IGBT datasheets are normally arranged to contain:

A cover page with a short description of part number, IGBT technology and diode in case of DuoPack

Summarized features, key parameters, applications as well as basic package information

Maximum rated electrical values and IGBT thermal resistance as well as diodes in case of DuoPack

Electrical characteristics at room temperature, both static and dynamic parameters

Switching characteristics at 25°C and 150 or 175°C

Electrical characteristics diagrams

Package drawings

Figures of definition for key parameters

Revision history
1.1
Status of datasheets
There are three different document types available. They correlate to the status of the product
development. The datasheet types used are:
Target datasheet, a document that contains values that are expected to be achieved. Values from these
datasheets are commonly used for initial calculations and approximations. Nevertheless those information
and values cannot be guaranteed for the final product; thus the design of a power system should only rely
on values from the final datasheet.
Preliminary datasheet differentiating from a final datasheet in a way that certain data values are still
missing, for example the maximum values. These missing values in the preliminary data sheet are marked to
be defined (t.b.d). The preliminary datasheet is based on engineering samples, which are very close to final
products.
Normally the watermark of ‘Draft’ exists on preliminary datasheets.
Final datasheet including all the values, which are missing in the preliminary datasheet. Major changes of
IGBT and diode characteristics or changes in datasheet values after the release of the final datasheet are
accompanied by a Product Change Note (PCN).
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
Introduction
1.2
Type designation
IGBTs are marked with a part number. This label contains main information related to the part, please refer
to Figure 1 for product families launched before December 2014 Figure 7:
Figure 1
Designation of IGBT part number
Thus, the part number indicates the manufacturer to be Infineon Technologies, the device configuration
single IGBT or DuoPack, the package type, the current class, the channel type, the break down voltage and
finally the product generation related to the technology.
Table 1 summarizes a detailed description of possible labels for the different products including discrete
IGBTs and diodes. It provides a useful tool to interpret each product part number. Group 7 is applicable for
products launched after December 2014. It contains the diode’s information for DuoPack devices.
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
Introduction
Table 1
I
1
I
S
Infineon discrete IGBTs and diodes detailed nomenclature rules.
K
2
W
3
75
4
N
5
65
6
E
7
S5
8
B
C
D
E
M
N
Explanation
Group
Infineon
Formerly Siemens
Single diode
Single IGBT
Reverse conducting IGBT for soft switching applications
IGBT + anti-parallel diode
TO-220 FullPAK
TO-263 D²PAK
TO-252 DPAK
TO-220 real-2-pin
TO-262 I²PAK
TO-220
TO-247 PLUS
TO-251 IPAK
TO-220 real-2-pin FullPAK
TO-247
Current in A at 100°C case temperature
EmCon diode
N-channel
Trenchstop™ (1200V only)
600V
650V
900V
1000V
1100V
1200V
1350V
1600V
EmCon half rated diode
EmCon full rated diode
Rapid1 half rated diode
Rapid1 full rated diode
Rapid2 half rated diode
Rapid2 full rated diode
R
SiC 5 Gen half rated
D
G
H
K
A
B
D
H
I
P
Q
U
V
W
75
E
N
T
60
65
90
100
110
120
135
160
S
th
th
SiC 5 Gen full rated
_ Trenchstop™ (1200V)
F5 Fastest IGBT based on Trenchstop™ 5 technology
H3 High speed 3 based on Trenchstop™ technology
H5 High speed IGBT based on Trenchstop™ 5 technology
HS High speed (600V)
L5 Low VCE(sat) technology based on Trenchstop™ 5 technology
R Reverse conducting IGBT
R2 Reverse conducting IGBT Gen2
R3 Reverse conducting IGBT Gen3
R5
S5
T
T2
th
RC 5 Gen5
Soft switching technology based on Trenchstop™ 5 technology
Trenchstop™ (600V)
Trenchstop™ Gen2 (IGBT4), 1200V only
th
WR5 RC 5 Gen5 optimized for welding applications
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
2
IGBT datasheet parameters
This section is dedicated to the IGBTs´ electrical features. For a better understanding it is helpful to read
this part along with a datasheet.
2.1
Maximum ratings
In this paragraph, the maximum ratings parameters for the IGBT are listed.
Exceeding one of the device´s maximum ratings may lead to a device fail, even if simultaneously other
parameters do not exceed the limits.
Collector-emitter voltage VCE
The value defines the lowest breakdown voltage limit based on statistical distribution out of IGBT mass
production. Furthermore, it defines the maximum permissible voltage between collector and emitter at a
junction temperature of 25°C. Exceeding this limit leads to a reduction of the device’s lifetime or to the
device failure.
This value is validated by the parameter V(BR)CES specified in the static characteristics section of the
datasheet. Please refer to paragraph 2.2.
DC collector current IC
IC is defined as the DC collector-emitter current value, which leads to an IGBT junction temperature Tvjmax
with a starting temperature of TC (usually 25°C or 100°C).
IC is obtained by the equation:
T  Tvj max  TC  Rth( j  c )  I C VCEsat@ Tvj max
[1]
Furthermore, the figure section in the datasheets depicts IC as a function of the case temperature TC as given
in Figure 2.
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Figure 2
Collector current as function of the case temperature
The value at 100°C is typically used as current rating of the device and the device’s name. Please note that
based on this formula, an IGBT with low VCEsat results in higher current rating for the same chip size
compared to a fast IGBT, which has normally a higher VCEsat. However, since the IGBT is used as a switch, not
only conduction losses but also switching losses contribute to the total power losses.
To determine, whether or not the product fulfills the application’s requirements, calculations and
verifications are mandatory to be performed. They are based on design parameters like topology, switching
frequency, voltage, temperature, cooling capabilities, external RG and others.
Pulse collector current ICpuls
ICpulse is defined as the maximum transient current at both turn-on and turn-off. In theory it is limited by the
power dissipation within a specific period of time, which allows the device to be operated within the
maximum junction temperature limit of Tjmax ≤ 175°C. However, there are some other limitations, for
instance bonding wire configuration, reliability consideration as well as a margin to avoid IGBT latching.
With state-of-the-art IGBTs it is usually rated at 3~4 times nominal current to keep a high level of reliability
as well as life time.
Moreover, this value also defines the current limitation given in the SOA.
Current rating of DuoPack diode IF and IFpuls
The same definition as used for the pulse collector current ICpuls is used to define the diode forward
continuous current IF and the diode pulse current Ipuls in case of DuoPack device.
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Gate-emitter voltage VGE
This parameter specifies the maximum gate voltage. Therefore, it defines a gate driver or gate clamp
limitation. Two conditions can be specified. The first one labeled as static and corresponds to the gate
voltage maximum values in case of continuous operation without damaging the device itself. The second
one is labeled transient and corresponds to the maximum values during transient operation. In this case, it
defines the maximum transient voltage, which could be applied to the gate without causing damages or
degradations. If the voltage stress on the gate is accidentally higher than specified, an immediate failure
may occur or it might cause an oxide degradation, which could lead to a later failure.
Power dissipation Ptot
Ptot describes the maximum power dissipation allowed, correlated to the IGBT’s junction to case thermal
resistance. It can be calculated as
Ptot 
T
[2]
Rth ( j  c )
In the datasheet’s figure section, the total power dissipation is given as a function of the case temperature
as it can be seen in Figure 3.
Figure 3
Total power dissipation as a function of the case temperature
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Operating junction temperature Tvj
This parameter is extremely important for the design. Although the device will not fail immediately once the
limit is exceeded, the maximum junction temperature should never exceed its maximum rating. This will
lead to device degradation and reduced lifetime.
Infineon Technologies IGBTs achieved Tjmax = 175°C with the first generation of TrenchstopTM technology. It is
indeed 25°C higher than conventional ones like PT- and NPT-technologies. In an application with a given
thermal setup, a device with higher specified maximum junction temperatures could achieve longer life
times in comparison to conventional IGBTs with lower specified temperature rating. In other words,
customers are able to drive higher current out of the same power system, corresponding to higher power
density.
Thermal resistance Rth(j-c)
The thermal resistance characterizes the thermal behavior of power semiconductors at steady state.
Correspondingly, the thermal impedance Zth(j-c) describes the device’s thermal behavior during transient
pulses.
The IGBT/diode case should be considered as the leadframe of device. In case of a FullPAK, the central pin
should be considered as the case.
The maximum value stated in the datasheet takes the tolerance during mass production into consideration.
It is the value to be used for the product design-in.
The thermal resistance junction to case Rth(j-c) is a key parameter to determine the thermal behavior of
semiconductor devices. However in any design, it is not enough to compare this value directly from one
product to another. In the thermal dissipation path of a power system, as illustrated in Figure 4, the thermal
resistance junction to ambient Rth(j-a) plays the most important role, as it dictates the thermal limits in
operating conditions. It consists of a resistance case to ambient Rth(c-h) + Rth(h-a) and the resistance from
junction to case Rth(j-c). In most cases, the Rth of the thermal interface material, isolation - if applicable - and
heatsink is dominating the Rth(j-a). For the IKW40N65H5, the Rth(j-c)max is 0.6K/W. The thermal resistance value of
typical thermal interface material (TIM) and isolation like isolation foil could be as low as 1K/W and the
thermal resistance heatsink to ambient could range anywhere from 1K/W with forced ventilation to tens of
K/W without ventilation. Therefore, the Rth(j-c) impact is only in the order of some single digit percent to some
tens of percent compared to the total Rth(j-a).
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Mold
compound
Chip
Junction temp. Tj
Solder
Rth(j-c)
Copper leadframe
Rth(c-h)
Thermal interface material
Heatsink
Rth(h-a)
Rth(j-a) = Rth(j-c) + Rth(c-h) + Rth(h-a)
Figure 4
2.2
Case temp. Tc
Heatsink temp. Th
Ambient temp. Ta
Thermal resistance chain of IGBT in application
Static characteristics
Collector-emitter breakdown voltage V(BR)CES
This parameter specifies the minimum breakdown voltage at a specific leakage current. The current is for
this example Ic = 0.2mA, which corresponds to different chip sizes as well as different IGBT technologies. The
collector-emitter breakdown voltage varies with junction temperature. Usually it has a positive temperature
coefficient for most Infineon IGBT products.
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Collector-emitter saturation voltage VCEsat
VCEsat represents the voltage drop between collector and emitter, when the nominal current is flowing
through the IGBT. It is specified typically at a gate voltage of 15V and at several junction temperatures.
In the datasheet’s figure chapter, the chart of typical VCEsat values as a function of the junction temperature is
given, represented in Figure 5. With the latest TrenchstopTM 5 technology, a 40A IGBT shows positive
temperature coefficient starting from 10A. Such characteristics facilitate paralleling of IGBT for high power
applications, because the current is shared among the devices automatically. IGBT devices of traditional PT
technologies show a negative temperature coefficient even at nominal currents. This results in high
reliability risks in parallel operation. Therefore, it limits the maximum power capability.
Figure 5
VCEsat as a function of the junction temperature
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Diode forward voltage VF
The diode forward voltage (VF ) refers to the voltage across the diode during conduction mode. In the
datasheet’s figure chapter, the typical VF values as function of temperature are given as shown in Figure 6.
Note that it is usually characterized by a slightly negative temperature coefficient at nominal diode current.
Figure 6
Diode forward voltage as a function of the junction temperature
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Gate-emitter threshold voltage VGE(th)
This parameter represents the gate voltage, which initiates a current flow from collector to emitter. Figure 7
depicts the detailed temperature behavior of the gate threshold voltage.
Figure 7
Gate –emitter threshold voltage as a function of the junction temperature
Leakage currents ICES and IGES
These parameters indicate the upper limit of leakage current between collector and emitter (ICES) or gate and
emitter (IGES). They are normally determined by the technology as well as the manufacturing and process
tolerances. Note that ICES correlates to the breakdown voltage. When the device is in off-mode with voltage
applied between collector and emitter, ICES flows in the IGBT and it introduces some quiescent losses. In
order to reduce the impact of these losses, ICES has to be kept as low as possible during the development
phase. A low leakage value would contribute to higher quality and reliability of the final product as well.
The leakage current specification at Tvj = 175°C is not relevant in typical applications, because the device’s
junction temperature cannot reach 175°C in off-state. Therefore, datasheets of new products do not include
the maximum value at Tvj = 175°C anymore. A typical value is specified instead.
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Transconductance gfs
The transconductance gfs stands for the current flow variation according to a gate voltage change. As
presented in Figure 8, the curve’s slope at every single point is exactly the transconductance value for a
specific collector current, gate voltage and temperature condition.
Figure 8 also indicates the gate voltage threshold dependency of the temperature. VGE(th) is the voltage to be
applied to the gate to activate a current flow in the IGBT. It is lower at higher temperatures, approximately
4.5V at 150°C and 5.4V at 25°C, that means a negative temperature coefficient of VGE(th). This should be
carefully considered in parallel operations.
The transconductance gfs and Figure 8 are instrumements to describe the controllability of the IGBT, they
should not be understood as operating conditions.
Figure 8
Typical transfer characteristic
2.3
Dynamic characteristics
The dynamic characteristics refer to the device parameters, which are related to gate driving as well as
switching characteristics.
Input, output and reverse transfer capacitance Cies, Coes and Cres
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Figure 9 shows an equivalent circuit diagram for the IGBT and provides an electrical visualization of above
mentioned parameters.
Figure 9
IGBT simplified equivalent circuit
The input capacitance Cies, given by the sum of Cres and CGE, is a key parameter to design the driver stage. It
has to be charged and discharged within every switching cycle. Therefore, it defines the gate charge losses.
On the other hand CGE reduced the risks of parasitic turn-on due to the current through the capacitor Cres
during switching events in half bridge configurations.
The reverse transfer capacitance Cres, also known as miller capacitance, determines the time constant, which
dictates the crossing time between current and voltage during switching. As a result, it is influencing the
switching losses. The factor Cres/CGE has a high influence on the coupling effect between collector-emitter’s
dV/dt and VGE. Reducing the ratio enables fast switching capability as well as avoiding unwanted parasitic
turn-on of the device.
Coss is the output capacitance. It is the sum of CCE and Cres. It has a high influence on the EMI behavior,
because it impacts the collector-emitter dV/dt.
As given in Figure 10, all these capacitances have a non-linear behavior as a function of the collector-emitter
voltage.
Figure 10
Typical capacitance values as function of collector-emitter voltage
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Gate charge QG
This parameter describes the charge required to drive the gate voltage VGE to a certain value, which is
typically 15V. It constitutes a main factor for the driving losses. Consequently, it affects the whole drive
circuit design and dimensioning. The driving losses can be derived by the equation:
[3]
PGdr  QG  (VGE (on)  VGE (off ) )  f sw
Figure 11 shows the typical gate charge diagram, where it is possible to read the QG values needed to drive
VGE to a certain value.
QG is a function of the load current and the collector-emitter voltage. Usually it is plotted for the nominal
value of IC and for different VCE values, like 130V and 520V in Figure 11.
Notice that VCE has not a significant impact on this parameter.
Figure 11
Typical gate charge as function of Gate-Emitter voltage
Internal emitter inductance LE
LE contributes to the total commutation loop inductance value, which normally defines both the voltage
overshoot as well as parts of the switching losses. Therefore, the value needs to be minimized especially for
IGBTs operated at high switching frequencies.
Note: The voltage drop across the internal emitter inductance cannot be measured externally, but needs to
be considered for the maximum VCE-voltage during switching off.
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
2.4
Switching characteristics
The switching characteristics indicate the basic switching performance of the device. The switching
characteristics are normally specified at several conditions.
It should be considered that switching performances are highly dependent on several factors, for instance:
collector current, Collector-Emitter-voltage, temperature, external gate resistance as well as board design
and parasitic parameters especially inductances and capacitances. Therefore, a direct comparison between
parts from different manufactures based on datasheet values might not be a fair comparison. Thus, it is
highly recommended to evaluate the devices by means of application tests and proper characterization.
Table 2
Switching characteristics of the IGBT
As given in Table 2, this section provides switching times as well as switching losses for a certain
measurement setup in well-defined and specified conditions. Usually, the switching characteristics are
specified at one or two collector current values, at room temperature 25°C and high temperature 150°C or
175°C.
Those entities are usually measured and evaluated according to the definitions of international standards,
like JEDEC or IEC60747-9 (2007) as depicted in Figure 12.
Referring to Figure 12 switching timings are:

t(d)on
: time interval from 10% of VGE to 10% of ICM (left side)

tr
: time interval from 10% of ICM to 90% of ICM (left side)

t(d)off
: time interval from 90% of VGE to 90% of ICM (right side)

tf
: time interval from 90% of ICM to 10% of ICM (right side)
Where VGE is the gate voltage and ICM is the collector current.
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Figure 12 Definition of switching time according to IEC60747-9 (2007) standard
left: turn-on; right: turn-off
The switching losses Eon and Eoff are calculated as the integral of the power loss over the switching period.
The power loss is the product of VCE and IC. In this case, the timing definition takes the IGBT tail current effect
into account.
Following the IEC standard:

For Eon: tsw starts at 10% of VGE and lasts until 2% of VCE

For Eoff: tsw starts at 90% of VGE and lasts until 2% of ICM.

Ets, total switching losses, is the sum of Eon and Eoff.
The test setup used for deriving the switching characteristics is shown in Figure 13.
Usually the IGBTs used as high side switch and low side switch are identical. The low side IGBT is the device
under test, called DUT IGBT. The gate of the high side IGBT is directly connected to or even negatively biased
against the emitter to allow conducting of the anti-parallel diode only. The high side anti-parallel diode is
called DUT diode.
The load current could be easily adjusted by controlling the conduction time of the low side IGBT but it is
also defined by the DC-link voltage and the loop inductance. When the current reaches the desired value,
the low side IGBT would be switched off. Based on waveforms during this process, the switching time as well
as energy at turn-off could be easily obtained.
After the IGBT is fully turned off, the whole current freewheels through the high side diode. Since the value
of the load inductance L is relatively high, the load current does not decay during the short freewheeling
phase.
Then the IGBT is switched on again to measure the switching time and energy during turn-on. However, due
to recovery characteristics of the diode, the IGBT’s Eon also includes the recovery energy from the high side
diode. Therefore, the anti-parallel diode has to be selected carefully to achieve the best match with the IGBT
technology.
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Figure 13
Setup to conductc the IGBT’s dynamic characterization
Due to accuracy limitations of the equipment as well as existence of parasitic capacitance, which might
cause oscillations on the tail current, it is difficult to determine the time, at which ICM is exactly 2%.
This implies that there might be some discrepancies concerning the switching time definitions used by
different manufacturers and the ones provided by standards.
Based on previous considerations, Infineon Technologies typically calculates Eon in the interval between
10% of VGE until 3% of VCE, and Eoff in the interval from 90% of VGE to 1% of ICM. The slightly lower turn-on time
is compensated by the higher turn-off time. In any case the adapted definition should be published in official
documents like datasheets and application notes.
Moreover, in order to provide a complete overview of the part’s switching behavior, several charts are
plotted in the datasheet. Those are:
1. Switching time tsw as a function of the collector current IC.
2. Switching time tsw as a function of the external gate resistor RG.
3. Switching time tsw as a function of the junction temperature Tj.
4. Switching energies Eon, Eoff and Ets as a function of the collector current IC.
5. Switching energies Eon, Eoff and Ets as a function of the gate resistor RG.
6. Switching energies Eon, Eoff and Ets as a function of the junction temperature Tj.
7. Switching energies Eon, Eoff and Ets as a function of the collector-emitter voltage VCE.
Table 3
Switching characteristics of the anti-parallel diode
For DuoPack IGBTs, the electrical features for the anti-parallel diode are specified in the datasheet as well.
The main parameters that define the diode’s switching behavior can be listed as:

Reverse recovery time and charge

Peak reverse recovery current

Peak rate of fall of reverse recovery current during a defined pulse length.
These values are usually provided at one or two diode forward current values as well as at room
temperature 25°C and high temperature, like 150°C or 175°C.
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Since the anti-parallel diode often acts as freewheeling diode in applications, its recovery behavior is very
important, especially at high switching frequency operation. Its performance is strongly influenced by the
diode forward current IF, by forward current change rate dIF/dt as well as the operating temperature.
Furthermore the anti-parallel diode influences the overall performance of the IGBT, especially the turn-on.
To provide a complete overview of the anti-parallel diode’s characteristics, several diagrams concerning the
switching performance are provided in the datasheet. Those are:
1. Reverse recovery time trr as a function of the diode’s current slope dIF/dt.
2. Reverse recovery charge Qrr as a function of the diode’s current slope dIF/dt.
3. Reverse recovery peak current Irr as a function of the diode’s current slope dIF/dt.
4. Peak rate of fall of recovery current dIrr/dt as a function of the diode’s current slope dIF/dt.
2.5
Other parameters and figures
This section is dedicated to the description of additional parameters and figures, which are usually present
in IGBT datasheets.
Output characteristics
The output characteristics represent the voltage VCE as a function of the current IC conducted. To provide a
complete overview it is normally given at several gate voltages VGE. Those curves depend on the junction
temperature. Therefore two dedicated diagrams are provided in the datasheet, one at room temperature
25°C like Figure 14 and one at high temperature 150°C or 175°C.
Referring to Figure 14 it is possible to see, how the load current tends to saturate at a certain value, if the
gate voltage VGE is set below 10V.
To avoid IGBT’s saturation also called linear mode of operation, it is recommended to drive it with at least
VGE = 15V.
Fast switching devices usually have higher transconductance values. As a result, lower driving voltage like
+12V could also be considered mainly to achieve benefits like:
1. Increasing the short circuit withstand time for higher reliability
2. Reducing the voltage overshoot during switch off
3. Reducing the driving losses for gate drivers operated at high frequency
The drawbacks of lower gate voltages should be considered too; higher conduction loss as well as higher
switching losses.
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Figure 14
Output characteristics
Short circuit withstand time tSC (example of IKW40N60H3)
tSC defines the time interval, which the device can withstand in short circuit condition without failing. It is
defined at high junction temperatures 150°C or 175°C, at a gate voltage of VGE = +15V and a certain bus
voltage VCC. The bus voltage for this parameter is typically below the device breakdown 400V for 600V
voltage class device.
The typical waveform during short circuit type ǀ is depicted in Figure 15.
During a short circuit event, the collector current raises rapidly according to the DC-link’s voltage and loop
inductance. Afterwards it stays at a high value corresponding to the saturation current at the specific gate
voltage. However, the voltage drop across the IGBT is more or less the same as the DC-link voltage.
Therefore, a huge power loss is generated in the chip, leading to a fast increase of the junction temperature.
In spite of the fact that the current slightly decreases due to the higher junction temperature, the power
losses are extremely high and will destroy the IGBT after a certain period of time. To avoid IGBT destruction
in short circuit operation, it is necessary to protect the IGBT accordingly.
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Figure 15
Typical waveform of IGBT short circuit
In general, the short circuit withstand time varies from technology to technology and it indicates the level of
the IGBT robustness. Note that it is often the outcome from the technology trade-off optimization. Higher
short circuit withstand time is obtained by limiting the carrier density as well as the IGBT transconductance.
This reduces switching and conduction performances.
Short circuit collector current IC(SC) (example of IKW40N60H3)
The typical value of short circuit current is specified for short circuit rated IGBTs.
In the datasheet, two charts are available as presented in Figure 16. It shows the tSC and IC(SC) behavior as a
function of the gate voltage VGE.
Note that tSC decreases and IC(SC) instead increases for higher VGE values, which is correlated to the output
characteristics.
Application Note
21
V1.0, 2015-09-18
Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Figure 16 Typical short circuit collector current (left) and withstand time (right) as a function of the
gate voltage
Safe operating area (SOA)
Two different kinds of safe operating areas can be defined:

Forward bias SOA (FBSOA)

Reverse bias SOA (RBSOA)
The forward bias SOA (FBSOA) defines the IGBT’s safe operating conditions during forward biasing
operation. It is represented in the Cartesian space VCE vs. IC with an area limited by four parameters. The
upper current limit is defined by the device pulse current capability ICpulse, the maximum voltage limitation is
defined by the device breakdown voltage V(BR)CES, and the minimum one by the output characteristics in
linear mode. At last, the device safe operation area is limited by thermals, represented with dashed lines in
the charts, corresponding to the device’s transient power dissipation capability.
Application Note
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Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
Figure 17
Forward bias SOA
It is possible to derive values for the thermal limitation in the SOA curve based on the IGBT transient thermal
impedance given in Figure 18 and equation [4]:
equation:
Ptransient 
Figure 18
T j max  Tc
Z th ( j  c )
 VCE  I C
[4]
IGBT transient thermal resistance as a function of pulse length
Application Note
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V1.0, 2015-09-18
Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
IGBT datasheet parameters
The second safe operating area is the Reverse Bias SOA or RBSOA, which is defined by:
The parameter provides the safe operating conditions for IGBTs during turn-off and it usually refers to an
inductive load. With state-of-the-art IGBT technologies the RBSOA is a square shaped area defined by the
device breakdown voltage V(BR)CES and the maximum pulse current ICpulse.
Application Note
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V1.0, 2015-09-18
Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
Symbols and terms
3
Symbols and terms
A
Anode
C
Collector, capacitance
Cies, Ciss
Input capacitance
Coes, Coss
Output capacitance
Cres, Crss
Reverse transfer capacitance
CCE
Collector-Emitter capacitance
CGC
Gate-Collector capacitance
CGE
Gate-Emitter capacitance
Cσ
Stray capacitance
D
Duty cycle
diF/dt
Rate of diode current raise
dirr/dt
Peak rate of diode current fall during recovery process
dv/dt
Rate of voltage rise
E
Emitter, energy
Eoff
Turn-off loss energy
Eon
Turn-on loss energy
f
Frequency
G
Gate
gfs
Transconductance
I
Current
IC
Collector current
ICES
Leakage current collector-emitter
ICpuls
Pulsed collector current
IF
Diode forward current
IFSM
Maximum non-repetitive half-sine wave surge current 50Hz
IGES
Leakage current gate-emitter
Irrm
Diode peak recovery current
K
Cathode
Lσ
Parasitic inductance
LE
Internal emitter inductance
Psw
Switching power loss
Ptot
Total power dissipation
QG, QGate
Gate charge
Application Note
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V1.0, 2015-09-18
Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
Symbols and terms
Qrr
Reverse recovery charge
RG
Gate resistance
Rth(j-a), Rthja
Thermal resistance junction to ambient
Rth(j-c), Rthjc
Thermal resistance junction to case
Ta
Ambient temperature
Tc
Case temperature
t
Time
td(off)
Turn-off delay time
td(on)
Turn-on delay time
tf
Fall time
Tj
Junction temperature
tp
Pulse duration time
toff
Turn-off time
ton
Turn-on time
tr
Rise time
trr
Reverse recovery time
Tstg
Storage temperature
Tvj
Operation junction temperature
V
Voltage
Vbus
Bus voltage
V(br)ces
Breakdown voltage
Vcc
Supply voltage
VCEsat
Collector-emitter saturation voltage
VF
Diode forward voltage
VGE
Gate-Emitter voltage
VGE(th)
Gate-Emitter threshold voltage
VSD
Inverse diode forward voltage
Vplateau
Gate plateau voltage
Zth(j-a), Zthja
Transient thermal resistance junction to ambient
Zth(j-c), Zthjc
Transient thermal resistance junction to case
Application Note
26
V1.0, 2015-09-18
Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets
References
4
References
[1] Infineon Application note AN2011-05 V1.1 ‘Industrial IGBT Modules – Explanation of Technical
Information’, May 2013, Warstein, Germany
Revision History
Major changes since the last revision
Page or Reference
Application Note
Description of change
27
V1.0, 2015-09-18
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