Dis crete I GBT Expl a na ti o n o f d is cr e te I GB Ts' d at ash e ets Application Note About this document Scope and purpose This Application Note is intended to provide an explanation of the parameters and diagrams given in the datasheet of Infineon discrete IGBTs. The designer of power electronic systems requiring an IGBT will be provided with background information to be able to use the datasheet in the proper way. The following information is given as a hint for the utilization of the IGBT device and shall not be regarded as a description or warranty of a certain functionality, condition or quality of the device. Table of Contents 1 1.1 1.2 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 2 Status of datasheets............................................................................................................................ 2 Type designation ................................................................................................................................. 3 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 IGBT datasheet parameters.......................................................................................... 5 Maximum ratings ................................................................................................................................. 5 Static characteristics ........................................................................................................................... 9 Dynamic characteristics .................................................................................................................... 13 Switching characteristics .................................................................................................................. 16 Other parameters and figures........................................................................................................... 19 3 Symbols and terms.................................................................................................... 25 4 References ............................................................................................................... 27 Application Note 1 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets Introduction 1 Introduction Datasheets provide information about products and their parameters, which characterize the products. With this information designers could compare devices from different suppliers. Furthermore, the information indicates the device’s limits. Datasheet values describe the device’s behavior at different junction temperatures and testing conditions. The dynamic characterization tests, from which the switching losses are extracted, are related to a specific test setup with its individual characteristics. Therefore, these values can deviate from a final user application and between datasheets of older and newer products. The attached diagrams, tables and explanations refer to the IKW40N65H5 rev. 2.1 datasheet published in 2015-05-06 as an example. For the latest version of datasheets please refer to Infineon’s website www.infineon.com. Infineon’s IGBT datasheets are normally arranged to contain: A cover page with a short description of part number, IGBT technology and diode in case of DuoPack Summarized features, key parameters, applications as well as basic package information Maximum rated electrical values and IGBT thermal resistance as well as diodes in case of DuoPack Electrical characteristics at room temperature, both static and dynamic parameters Switching characteristics at 25°C and 150 or 175°C Electrical characteristics diagrams Package drawings Figures of definition for key parameters Revision history 1.1 Status of datasheets There are three different document types available. They correlate to the status of the product development. The datasheet types used are: Target datasheet, a document that contains values that are expected to be achieved. Values from these datasheets are commonly used for initial calculations and approximations. Nevertheless those information and values cannot be guaranteed for the final product; thus the design of a power system should only rely on values from the final datasheet. Preliminary datasheet differentiating from a final datasheet in a way that certain data values are still missing, for example the maximum values. These missing values in the preliminary data sheet are marked to be defined (t.b.d). The preliminary datasheet is based on engineering samples, which are very close to final products. Normally the watermark of ‘Draft’ exists on preliminary datasheets. Final datasheet including all the values, which are missing in the preliminary datasheet. Major changes of IGBT and diode characteristics or changes in datasheet values after the release of the final datasheet are accompanied by a Product Change Note (PCN). Application Note 2 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets Introduction 1.2 Type designation IGBTs are marked with a part number. This label contains main information related to the part, please refer to Figure 1 for product families launched before December 2014 Figure 7: Figure 1 Designation of IGBT part number Thus, the part number indicates the manufacturer to be Infineon Technologies, the device configuration single IGBT or DuoPack, the package type, the current class, the channel type, the break down voltage and finally the product generation related to the technology. Table 1 summarizes a detailed description of possible labels for the different products including discrete IGBTs and diodes. It provides a useful tool to interpret each product part number. Group 7 is applicable for products launched after December 2014. It contains the diode’s information for DuoPack devices. Application Note 3 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets Introduction Table 1 I 1 I S Infineon discrete IGBTs and diodes detailed nomenclature rules. K 2 W 3 75 4 N 5 65 6 E 7 S5 8 B C D E M N Explanation Group Infineon Formerly Siemens Single diode Single IGBT Reverse conducting IGBT for soft switching applications IGBT + anti-parallel diode TO-220 FullPAK TO-263 D²PAK TO-252 DPAK TO-220 real-2-pin TO-262 I²PAK TO-220 TO-247 PLUS TO-251 IPAK TO-220 real-2-pin FullPAK TO-247 Current in A at 100°C case temperature EmCon diode N-channel Trenchstop™ (1200V only) 600V 650V 900V 1000V 1100V 1200V 1350V 1600V EmCon half rated diode EmCon full rated diode Rapid1 half rated diode Rapid1 full rated diode Rapid2 half rated diode Rapid2 full rated diode R SiC 5 Gen half rated D G H K A B D H I P Q U V W 75 E N T 60 65 90 100 110 120 135 160 S th th SiC 5 Gen full rated _ Trenchstop™ (1200V) F5 Fastest IGBT based on Trenchstop™ 5 technology H3 High speed 3 based on Trenchstop™ technology H5 High speed IGBT based on Trenchstop™ 5 technology HS High speed (600V) L5 Low VCE(sat) technology based on Trenchstop™ 5 technology R Reverse conducting IGBT R2 Reverse conducting IGBT Gen2 R3 Reverse conducting IGBT Gen3 R5 S5 T T2 th RC 5 Gen5 Soft switching technology based on Trenchstop™ 5 technology Trenchstop™ (600V) Trenchstop™ Gen2 (IGBT4), 1200V only th WR5 RC 5 Gen5 optimized for welding applications Application Note 4 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters 2 IGBT datasheet parameters This section is dedicated to the IGBTs´ electrical features. For a better understanding it is helpful to read this part along with a datasheet. 2.1 Maximum ratings In this paragraph, the maximum ratings parameters for the IGBT are listed. Exceeding one of the device´s maximum ratings may lead to a device fail, even if simultaneously other parameters do not exceed the limits. Collector-emitter voltage VCE The value defines the lowest breakdown voltage limit based on statistical distribution out of IGBT mass production. Furthermore, it defines the maximum permissible voltage between collector and emitter at a junction temperature of 25°C. Exceeding this limit leads to a reduction of the device’s lifetime or to the device failure. This value is validated by the parameter V(BR)CES specified in the static characteristics section of the datasheet. Please refer to paragraph 2.2. DC collector current IC IC is defined as the DC collector-emitter current value, which leads to an IGBT junction temperature Tvjmax with a starting temperature of TC (usually 25°C or 100°C). IC is obtained by the equation: T Tvj max TC Rth( j c ) I C VCEsat@ Tvj max  Furthermore, the figure section in the datasheets depicts IC as a function of the case temperature TC as given in Figure 2. Application Note 5 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Figure 2 Collector current as function of the case temperature The value at 100°C is typically used as current rating of the device and the device’s name. Please note that based on this formula, an IGBT with low VCEsat results in higher current rating for the same chip size compared to a fast IGBT, which has normally a higher VCEsat. However, since the IGBT is used as a switch, not only conduction losses but also switching losses contribute to the total power losses. To determine, whether or not the product fulfills the application’s requirements, calculations and verifications are mandatory to be performed. They are based on design parameters like topology, switching frequency, voltage, temperature, cooling capabilities, external RG and others. Pulse collector current ICpuls ICpulse is defined as the maximum transient current at both turn-on and turn-off. In theory it is limited by the power dissipation within a specific period of time, which allows the device to be operated within the maximum junction temperature limit of Tjmax ≤ 175°C. However, there are some other limitations, for instance bonding wire configuration, reliability consideration as well as a margin to avoid IGBT latching. With state-of-the-art IGBTs it is usually rated at 3~4 times nominal current to keep a high level of reliability as well as life time. Moreover, this value also defines the current limitation given in the SOA. Current rating of DuoPack diode IF and IFpuls The same definition as used for the pulse collector current ICpuls is used to define the diode forward continuous current IF and the diode pulse current Ipuls in case of DuoPack device. Application Note 6 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Gate-emitter voltage VGE This parameter specifies the maximum gate voltage. Therefore, it defines a gate driver or gate clamp limitation. Two conditions can be specified. The first one labeled as static and corresponds to the gate voltage maximum values in case of continuous operation without damaging the device itself. The second one is labeled transient and corresponds to the maximum values during transient operation. In this case, it defines the maximum transient voltage, which could be applied to the gate without causing damages or degradations. If the voltage stress on the gate is accidentally higher than specified, an immediate failure may occur or it might cause an oxide degradation, which could lead to a later failure. Power dissipation Ptot Ptot describes the maximum power dissipation allowed, correlated to the IGBT’s junction to case thermal resistance. It can be calculated as Ptot T  Rth ( j c ) In the datasheet’s figure section, the total power dissipation is given as a function of the case temperature as it can be seen in Figure 3. Figure 3 Total power dissipation as a function of the case temperature Application Note 7 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Operating junction temperature Tvj This parameter is extremely important for the design. Although the device will not fail immediately once the limit is exceeded, the maximum junction temperature should never exceed its maximum rating. This will lead to device degradation and reduced lifetime. Infineon Technologies IGBTs achieved Tjmax = 175°C with the first generation of TrenchstopTM technology. It is indeed 25°C higher than conventional ones like PT- and NPT-technologies. In an application with a given thermal setup, a device with higher specified maximum junction temperatures could achieve longer life times in comparison to conventional IGBTs with lower specified temperature rating. In other words, customers are able to drive higher current out of the same power system, corresponding to higher power density. Thermal resistance Rth(j-c) The thermal resistance characterizes the thermal behavior of power semiconductors at steady state. Correspondingly, the thermal impedance Zth(j-c) describes the device’s thermal behavior during transient pulses. The IGBT/diode case should be considered as the leadframe of device. In case of a FullPAK, the central pin should be considered as the case. The maximum value stated in the datasheet takes the tolerance during mass production into consideration. It is the value to be used for the product design-in. The thermal resistance junction to case Rth(j-c) is a key parameter to determine the thermal behavior of semiconductor devices. However in any design, it is not enough to compare this value directly from one product to another. In the thermal dissipation path of a power system, as illustrated in Figure 4, the thermal resistance junction to ambient Rth(j-a) plays the most important role, as it dictates the thermal limits in operating conditions. It consists of a resistance case to ambient Rth(c-h) + Rth(h-a) and the resistance from junction to case Rth(j-c). In most cases, the Rth of the thermal interface material, isolation - if applicable - and heatsink is dominating the Rth(j-a). For the IKW40N65H5, the Rth(j-c)max is 0.6K/W. The thermal resistance value of typical thermal interface material (TIM) and isolation like isolation foil could be as low as 1K/W and the thermal resistance heatsink to ambient could range anywhere from 1K/W with forced ventilation to tens of K/W without ventilation. Therefore, the Rth(j-c) impact is only in the order of some single digit percent to some tens of percent compared to the total Rth(j-a). Application Note 8 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Mold compound Chip Junction temp. Tj Solder Rth(j-c) Copper leadframe Rth(c-h) Thermal interface material Heatsink Rth(h-a) Rth(j-a) = Rth(j-c) + Rth(c-h) + Rth(h-a) Figure 4 2.2 Case temp. Tc Heatsink temp. Th Ambient temp. Ta Thermal resistance chain of IGBT in application Static characteristics Collector-emitter breakdown voltage V(BR)CES This parameter specifies the minimum breakdown voltage at a specific leakage current. The current is for this example Ic = 0.2mA, which corresponds to different chip sizes as well as different IGBT technologies. The collector-emitter breakdown voltage varies with junction temperature. Usually it has a positive temperature coefficient for most Infineon IGBT products. Application Note 9 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Collector-emitter saturation voltage VCEsat VCEsat represents the voltage drop between collector and emitter, when the nominal current is flowing through the IGBT. It is specified typically at a gate voltage of 15V and at several junction temperatures. In the datasheet’s figure chapter, the chart of typical VCEsat values as a function of the junction temperature is given, represented in Figure 5. With the latest TrenchstopTM 5 technology, a 40A IGBT shows positive temperature coefficient starting from 10A. Such characteristics facilitate paralleling of IGBT for high power applications, because the current is shared among the devices automatically. IGBT devices of traditional PT technologies show a negative temperature coefficient even at nominal currents. This results in high reliability risks in parallel operation. Therefore, it limits the maximum power capability. Figure 5 VCEsat as a function of the junction temperature Application Note 10 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Diode forward voltage VF The diode forward voltage (VF ) refers to the voltage across the diode during conduction mode. In the datasheet’s figure chapter, the typical VF values as function of temperature are given as shown in Figure 6. Note that it is usually characterized by a slightly negative temperature coefficient at nominal diode current. Figure 6 Diode forward voltage as a function of the junction temperature Application Note 11 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Gate-emitter threshold voltage VGE(th) This parameter represents the gate voltage, which initiates a current flow from collector to emitter. Figure 7 depicts the detailed temperature behavior of the gate threshold voltage. Figure 7 Gate –emitter threshold voltage as a function of the junction temperature Leakage currents ICES and IGES These parameters indicate the upper limit of leakage current between collector and emitter (ICES) or gate and emitter (IGES). They are normally determined by the technology as well as the manufacturing and process tolerances. Note that ICES correlates to the breakdown voltage. When the device is in off-mode with voltage applied between collector and emitter, ICES flows in the IGBT and it introduces some quiescent losses. In order to reduce the impact of these losses, ICES has to be kept as low as possible during the development phase. A low leakage value would contribute to higher quality and reliability of the final product as well. The leakage current specification at Tvj = 175°C is not relevant in typical applications, because the device’s junction temperature cannot reach 175°C in off-state. Therefore, datasheets of new products do not include the maximum value at Tvj = 175°C anymore. A typical value is specified instead. Application Note 12 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Transconductance gfs The transconductance gfs stands for the current flow variation according to a gate voltage change. As presented in Figure 8, the curve’s slope at every single point is exactly the transconductance value for a specific collector current, gate voltage and temperature condition. Figure 8 also indicates the gate voltage threshold dependency of the temperature. VGE(th) is the voltage to be applied to the gate to activate a current flow in the IGBT. It is lower at higher temperatures, approximately 4.5V at 150°C and 5.4V at 25°C, that means a negative temperature coefficient of VGE(th). This should be carefully considered in parallel operations. The transconductance gfs and Figure 8 are instrumements to describe the controllability of the IGBT, they should not be understood as operating conditions. Figure 8 Typical transfer characteristic 2.3 Dynamic characteristics The dynamic characteristics refer to the device parameters, which are related to gate driving as well as switching characteristics. Input, output and reverse transfer capacitance Cies, Coes and Cres Application Note 13 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Figure 9 shows an equivalent circuit diagram for the IGBT and provides an electrical visualization of above mentioned parameters. Figure 9 IGBT simplified equivalent circuit The input capacitance Cies, given by the sum of Cres and CGE, is a key parameter to design the driver stage. It has to be charged and discharged within every switching cycle. Therefore, it defines the gate charge losses. On the other hand CGE reduced the risks of parasitic turn-on due to the current through the capacitor Cres during switching events in half bridge configurations. The reverse transfer capacitance Cres, also known as miller capacitance, determines the time constant, which dictates the crossing time between current and voltage during switching. As a result, it is influencing the switching losses. The factor Cres/CGE has a high influence on the coupling effect between collector-emitter’s dV/dt and VGE. Reducing the ratio enables fast switching capability as well as avoiding unwanted parasitic turn-on of the device. Coss is the output capacitance. It is the sum of CCE and Cres. It has a high influence on the EMI behavior, because it impacts the collector-emitter dV/dt. As given in Figure 10, all these capacitances have a non-linear behavior as a function of the collector-emitter voltage. Figure 10 Typical capacitance values as function of collector-emitter voltage Application Note 14 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Gate charge QG This parameter describes the charge required to drive the gate voltage VGE to a certain value, which is typically 15V. It constitutes a main factor for the driving losses. Consequently, it affects the whole drive circuit design and dimensioning. The driving losses can be derived by the equation:  PGdr QG (VGE (on) VGE (off ) ) f sw Figure 11 shows the typical gate charge diagram, where it is possible to read the QG values needed to drive VGE to a certain value. QG is a function of the load current and the collector-emitter voltage. Usually it is plotted for the nominal value of IC and for different VCE values, like 130V and 520V in Figure 11. Notice that VCE has not a significant impact on this parameter. Figure 11 Typical gate charge as function of Gate-Emitter voltage Internal emitter inductance LE LE contributes to the total commutation loop inductance value, which normally defines both the voltage overshoot as well as parts of the switching losses. Therefore, the value needs to be minimized especially for IGBTs operated at high switching frequencies. Note: The voltage drop across the internal emitter inductance cannot be measured externally, but needs to be considered for the maximum VCE-voltage during switching off. Application Note 15 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters 2.4 Switching characteristics The switching characteristics indicate the basic switching performance of the device. The switching characteristics are normally specified at several conditions. It should be considered that switching performances are highly dependent on several factors, for instance: collector current, Collector-Emitter-voltage, temperature, external gate resistance as well as board design and parasitic parameters especially inductances and capacitances. Therefore, a direct comparison between parts from different manufactures based on datasheet values might not be a fair comparison. Thus, it is highly recommended to evaluate the devices by means of application tests and proper characterization. Table 2 Switching characteristics of the IGBT As given in Table 2, this section provides switching times as well as switching losses for a certain measurement setup in well-defined and specified conditions. Usually, the switching characteristics are specified at one or two collector current values, at room temperature 25°C and high temperature 150°C or 175°C. Those entities are usually measured and evaluated according to the definitions of international standards, like JEDEC or IEC60747-9 (2007) as depicted in Figure 12. Referring to Figure 12 switching timings are: t(d)on : time interval from 10% of VGE to 10% of ICM (left side) tr : time interval from 10% of ICM to 90% of ICM (left side) t(d)off : time interval from 90% of VGE to 90% of ICM (right side) tf : time interval from 90% of ICM to 10% of ICM (right side) Where VGE is the gate voltage and ICM is the collector current. Application Note 16 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Figure 12 Definition of switching time according to IEC60747-9 (2007) standard left: turn-on; right: turn-off The switching losses Eon and Eoff are calculated as the integral of the power loss over the switching period. The power loss is the product of VCE and IC. In this case, the timing definition takes the IGBT tail current effect into account. Following the IEC standard: For Eon: tsw starts at 10% of VGE and lasts until 2% of VCE For Eoff: tsw starts at 90% of VGE and lasts until 2% of ICM. Ets, total switching losses, is the sum of Eon and Eoff. The test setup used for deriving the switching characteristics is shown in Figure 13. Usually the IGBTs used as high side switch and low side switch are identical. The low side IGBT is the device under test, called DUT IGBT. The gate of the high side IGBT is directly connected to or even negatively biased against the emitter to allow conducting of the anti-parallel diode only. The high side anti-parallel diode is called DUT diode. The load current could be easily adjusted by controlling the conduction time of the low side IGBT but it is also defined by the DC-link voltage and the loop inductance. When the current reaches the desired value, the low side IGBT would be switched off. Based on waveforms during this process, the switching time as well as energy at turn-off could be easily obtained. After the IGBT is fully turned off, the whole current freewheels through the high side diode. Since the value of the load inductance L is relatively high, the load current does not decay during the short freewheeling phase. Then the IGBT is switched on again to measure the switching time and energy during turn-on. However, due to recovery characteristics of the diode, the IGBT’s Eon also includes the recovery energy from the high side diode. Therefore, the anti-parallel diode has to be selected carefully to achieve the best match with the IGBT technology. Application Note 17 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Figure 13 Setup to conductc the IGBT’s dynamic characterization Due to accuracy limitations of the equipment as well as existence of parasitic capacitance, which might cause oscillations on the tail current, it is difficult to determine the time, at which ICM is exactly 2%. This implies that there might be some discrepancies concerning the switching time definitions used by different manufacturers and the ones provided by standards. Based on previous considerations, Infineon Technologies typically calculates Eon in the interval between 10% of VGE until 3% of VCE, and Eoff in the interval from 90% of VGE to 1% of ICM. The slightly lower turn-on time is compensated by the higher turn-off time. In any case the adapted definition should be published in official documents like datasheets and application notes. Moreover, in order to provide a complete overview of the part’s switching behavior, several charts are plotted in the datasheet. Those are: 1. Switching time tsw as a function of the collector current IC. 2. Switching time tsw as a function of the external gate resistor RG. 3. Switching time tsw as a function of the junction temperature Tj. 4. Switching energies Eon, Eoff and Ets as a function of the collector current IC. 5. Switching energies Eon, Eoff and Ets as a function of the gate resistor RG. 6. Switching energies Eon, Eoff and Ets as a function of the junction temperature Tj. 7. Switching energies Eon, Eoff and Ets as a function of the collector-emitter voltage VCE. Table 3 Switching characteristics of the anti-parallel diode For DuoPack IGBTs, the electrical features for the anti-parallel diode are specified in the datasheet as well. The main parameters that define the diode’s switching behavior can be listed as: Reverse recovery time and charge Peak reverse recovery current Peak rate of fall of reverse recovery current during a defined pulse length. These values are usually provided at one or two diode forward current values as well as at room temperature 25°C and high temperature, like 150°C or 175°C. Application Note 18 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Since the anti-parallel diode often acts as freewheeling diode in applications, its recovery behavior is very important, especially at high switching frequency operation. Its performance is strongly influenced by the diode forward current IF, by forward current change rate dIF/dt as well as the operating temperature. Furthermore the anti-parallel diode influences the overall performance of the IGBT, especially the turn-on. To provide a complete overview of the anti-parallel diode’s characteristics, several diagrams concerning the switching performance are provided in the datasheet. Those are: 1. Reverse recovery time trr as a function of the diode’s current slope dIF/dt. 2. Reverse recovery charge Qrr as a function of the diode’s current slope dIF/dt. 3. Reverse recovery peak current Irr as a function of the diode’s current slope dIF/dt. 4. Peak rate of fall of recovery current dIrr/dt as a function of the diode’s current slope dIF/dt. 2.5 Other parameters and figures This section is dedicated to the description of additional parameters and figures, which are usually present in IGBT datasheets. Output characteristics The output characteristics represent the voltage VCE as a function of the current IC conducted. To provide a complete overview it is normally given at several gate voltages VGE. Those curves depend on the junction temperature. Therefore two dedicated diagrams are provided in the datasheet, one at room temperature 25°C like Figure 14 and one at high temperature 150°C or 175°C. Referring to Figure 14 it is possible to see, how the load current tends to saturate at a certain value, if the gate voltage VGE is set below 10V. To avoid IGBT’s saturation also called linear mode of operation, it is recommended to drive it with at least VGE = 15V. Fast switching devices usually have higher transconductance values. As a result, lower driving voltage like +12V could also be considered mainly to achieve benefits like: 1. Increasing the short circuit withstand time for higher reliability 2. Reducing the voltage overshoot during switch off 3. Reducing the driving losses for gate drivers operated at high frequency The drawbacks of lower gate voltages should be considered too; higher conduction loss as well as higher switching losses. Application Note 19 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Figure 14 Output characteristics Short circuit withstand time tSC (example of IKW40N60H3) tSC defines the time interval, which the device can withstand in short circuit condition without failing. It is defined at high junction temperatures 150°C or 175°C, at a gate voltage of VGE = +15V and a certain bus voltage VCC. The bus voltage for this parameter is typically below the device breakdown 400V for 600V voltage class device. The typical waveform during short circuit type ǀ is depicted in Figure 15. During a short circuit event, the collector current raises rapidly according to the DC-link’s voltage and loop inductance. Afterwards it stays at a high value corresponding to the saturation current at the specific gate voltage. However, the voltage drop across the IGBT is more or less the same as the DC-link voltage. Therefore, a huge power loss is generated in the chip, leading to a fast increase of the junction temperature. In spite of the fact that the current slightly decreases due to the higher junction temperature, the power losses are extremely high and will destroy the IGBT after a certain period of time. To avoid IGBT destruction in short circuit operation, it is necessary to protect the IGBT accordingly. Application Note 20 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Figure 15 Typical waveform of IGBT short circuit In general, the short circuit withstand time varies from technology to technology and it indicates the level of the IGBT robustness. Note that it is often the outcome from the technology trade-off optimization. Higher short circuit withstand time is obtained by limiting the carrier density as well as the IGBT transconductance. This reduces switching and conduction performances. Short circuit collector current IC(SC) (example of IKW40N60H3) The typical value of short circuit current is specified for short circuit rated IGBTs. In the datasheet, two charts are available as presented in Figure 16. It shows the tSC and IC(SC) behavior as a function of the gate voltage VGE. Note that tSC decreases and IC(SC) instead increases for higher VGE values, which is correlated to the output characteristics. Application Note 21 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Figure 16 Typical short circuit collector current (left) and withstand time (right) as a function of the gate voltage Safe operating area (SOA) Two different kinds of safe operating areas can be defined: Forward bias SOA (FBSOA) Reverse bias SOA (RBSOA) The forward bias SOA (FBSOA) defines the IGBT’s safe operating conditions during forward biasing operation. It is represented in the Cartesian space VCE vs. IC with an area limited by four parameters. The upper current limit is defined by the device pulse current capability ICpulse, the maximum voltage limitation is defined by the device breakdown voltage V(BR)CES, and the minimum one by the output characteristics in linear mode. At last, the device safe operation area is limited by thermals, represented with dashed lines in the charts, corresponding to the device’s transient power dissipation capability. Application Note 22 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters Figure 17 Forward bias SOA It is possible to derive values for the thermal limitation in the SOA curve based on the IGBT transient thermal impedance given in Figure 18 and equation : equation: Ptransient Figure 18 T j max Tc Z th ( j c ) VCE I C  IGBT transient thermal resistance as a function of pulse length Application Note 23 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets IGBT datasheet parameters The second safe operating area is the Reverse Bias SOA or RBSOA, which is defined by: The parameter provides the safe operating conditions for IGBTs during turn-off and it usually refers to an inductive load. With state-of-the-art IGBT technologies the RBSOA is a square shaped area defined by the device breakdown voltage V(BR)CES and the maximum pulse current ICpulse. Application Note 24 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets Symbols and terms 3 Symbols and terms A Anode C Collector, capacitance Cies, Ciss Input capacitance Coes, Coss Output capacitance Cres, Crss Reverse transfer capacitance CCE Collector-Emitter capacitance CGC Gate-Collector capacitance CGE Gate-Emitter capacitance Cσ Stray capacitance D Duty cycle diF/dt Rate of diode current raise dirr/dt Peak rate of diode current fall during recovery process dv/dt Rate of voltage rise E Emitter, energy Eoff Turn-off loss energy Eon Turn-on loss energy f Frequency G Gate gfs Transconductance I Current IC Collector current ICES Leakage current collector-emitter ICpuls Pulsed collector current IF Diode forward current IFSM Maximum non-repetitive half-sine wave surge current 50Hz IGES Leakage current gate-emitter Irrm Diode peak recovery current K Cathode Lσ Parasitic inductance LE Internal emitter inductance Psw Switching power loss Ptot Total power dissipation QG, QGate Gate charge Application Note 25 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets Symbols and terms Qrr Reverse recovery charge RG Gate resistance Rth(j-a), Rthja Thermal resistance junction to ambient Rth(j-c), Rthjc Thermal resistance junction to case Ta Ambient temperature Tc Case temperature t Time td(off) Turn-off delay time td(on) Turn-on delay time tf Fall time Tj Junction temperature tp Pulse duration time toff Turn-off time ton Turn-on time tr Rise time trr Reverse recovery time Tstg Storage temperature Tvj Operation junction temperature V Voltage Vbus Bus voltage V(br)ces Breakdown voltage Vcc Supply voltage VCEsat Collector-emitter saturation voltage VF Diode forward voltage VGE Gate-Emitter voltage VGE(th) Gate-Emitter threshold voltage VSD Inverse diode forward voltage Vplateau Gate plateau voltage Zth(j-a), Zthja Transient thermal resistance junction to ambient Zth(j-c), Zthjc Transient thermal resistance junction to case Application Note 26 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Explanation of discrete IGBTs' datasheets References 4 References  Infineon Application note AN2011-05 V1.1 ‘Industrial IGBT Modules – Explanation of Technical Information’, May 2013, Warstein, Germany Revision History Major changes since the last revision Page or Reference Application Note Description of change 27 V1.0, 2015-09-18 Trademarks of Infineon Technologies AG AURIX™, C166™, CanPAK™, CIPOS™, CIPURSE™, CoolGaN™, CoolMOS™, CoolSET™, CoolSiC™, CORECONTROL™, CROSSAVE™, DAVE™, DI-POL™, DrBLADE™, EasyPIM™, EconoBRIDGE™, EconoDUAL™, EconoPACK™, EconoPIM™, EiceDRIVER™, eupec™, FCOS™, HITFET™, HybridPACK™, ISOFACE™, IsoPACK™, iWafer™, MIPAQ™, ModSTACK™, my-d™, NovalithIC™, OmniTune™, OPTIGA™, OptiMOS™, ORIGA™, POWERCODE™, PRIMARION™, PrimePACK™, PrimeSTACK™, PROFET™, PRO-SIL™, RASIC™, REAL3™, ReverSave™, SatRIC™, SIEGET™, SIPMOS™, SmartLEWIS™, SOLID FLASH™, SPOC™, TEMPFET™, thinQ!™, TRENCHSTOP™, TriCore™. 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